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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Clinical research of primary trigeminal neuralgia treated with electroacupuncture at qi streets acupoints combined with spinal regulation therapy].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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To compare the difference in the clinical efficacy on primary trigeminal neuralgia (PTN) between the comprehensive therapy of electroacupuncture (EA) at qi streets acupoints combined with spinal regulation method and medication with carbamazepine (CBZ).
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Finite-Approximation-Error-Based Discrete-Time Iterative Adaptive Dynamic Programming.
IEEE Trans Cybern
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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In this paper, a new iterative adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) algorithm is developed to solve optimal control problems for infinite horizon discrete-time nonlinear systems with finite approximation errors. First, a new generalized value iteration algorithm of ADP is developed to make the iterative performance index function converge to the solution of the Hamilton--Jacobi--Bellman equation. The generalized value iteration algorithm permits an arbitrary positive semi-definite function to initialize it, which overcomes the disadvantage of traditional value iteration algorithms. When the iterative control law and iterative performance index function in each iteration cannot accurately be obtained, for the first time a new ``design method of the convergence criteria'' for the finite-approximation-error-based generalized value iteration algorithm is established. A suitable approximation error can be designed adaptively to make the iterative performance index function converge to a finite neighborhood of the optimal performance index function. Neural networks are used to implement the iterative ADP algorithm. Finally, two simulation examples are given to illustrate the performance of the developed method.
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Neural stem cells preferentially migrate to glioma stem cells and reduce their stemness phenotypes.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Glioma stem cells (GSCs), characterized by self-renewal, multi-potentiality and tumorigenicity, are responsible for the tumor propagation, recurrence and resistance to traditional treatments, representing a critical therapeutic target. Neural stem cells (NSCs) possess inherent tropism to brain tumor cells and inhibit their growth. However, there is a limited understanding of the mechanism underlying NSC tropism and the effect of NSC migration on GSC stemness phenotypes. In the present study, we showed that GSCs exhibited enhanced chemotaxis for NSC tropism compared with their differentiated cells. Chemokines secreted by GSCs contributed to the targeted migration of NSCs. Hypoxia enhanced NSC tropism via the upregulated chemokine expression of GSCs, such as VEGF, EGF and bFGF. In vitro migration of NSCs induced GSC differentiation and reduced stem-like phenotypes. Moreover, in vivo data provided direct evidence that transplanted NSCs could migrate to GSCs from either the homolateral or contralateral brain injection site, which prolonged the survival of grafted mice. Taken together, these findings show that NSCs preferentially migrate to GSCs and reduce their stemness phenotypes, raising the intriguing possibility that the targeted migration of NSCs can be applied as a novel therapeutic strategy to target these intractable brain tumors.
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Genetic architectures of ADME genes in five Eurasian admixed populations and implications for drug safety and efficacy.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) contribute to the high heterogeneity of drug responses in humans. However, the same standard for drug dosage has been applied to all populations in China although genetic differences in ADME genes are expected to exist in different ethnic groups. In particular, the ethnic minorities in northwestern China with substantial ancestry contribution from Western Eurasian people might violate such a single unified standard.
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Poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanotubes with tunable aspect ratios and charge transport properties.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RR-P3HT) nanotubes (200 nm in diameter) with tunable aspect ratios from 25 to 300 were prepared using a polymer melt wetting technique. Aspect-ratio tunability was achieved by controlling the wetting behavior of RR-P3HT melts in a template. The crystallinity and chain orientation of RR-P3HT were studied by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and polarized photoluminescence spectroscopy. Results suggest that RR-P3HT chains in the lamellar structure prefer to be perpendicular to the axis of the RR-P3HT nanotubes, forming a face-on conformation in the RR-P3HT nanotubes that leads to increased carrier mobility of RR-P3HT. Field-effect transistors were fabricated based on a single RR-P3HT nanotube and showed a carrier mobility of 0.14 ± 0.02 cm(2)/V·s.
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Metabolic pathway profiling of the derivative of important herbal component noscapine.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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The present study aims to investigate the influence of metabolic behavior by the introduction of bromo atom into the structure of noscapine. Oral gavage of 50 mg/kg bromo-noscapine for 6- to 8-week-old male mice with C57BL/6 background resulted in the detection of the metabolite undergoing cleavage of methylenedioxy group (II), demethylated bromo-noscapine (III, IV), meconine (V), bromo-cotarnine (VI), bisdemethylated bromo-noscapine (VII), and their corresponding glucuronides (G1-G4) in urine, feces, and serum (24 h). In vitro human liver microsomes or mice liver microsomes incubation system can also give the formation of phase I metabolites. Furthermore, the phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in the metabolism of bromo-noscapine was screened. Many CYP isoforms were involved in the formation of metabolite II, and CYP3A4, CYP1A1, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 were major CYP isoforms. All the determined CYP isoforms showed the catalytic activity towards the formation of metabolites III, V, and VI. The major CYP isoforms involved in the catalytic formation of metabolite IV were CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1. In conclusion, to date, many structural derivatives of noscapine have been synthesized based on the efficiency. However, the metabolic behavior remains to be elucidated, and the present study gave an example through the investigation of metabolic pathway of bromo-noscapine. The introduction of bromo atom into the structure of noscapine did not alter the metabolites profile, but changed the drug-metabolizing enzyme profiles.
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The influence of admixture and consanguinity on population genetic diversity in Middle East.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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The Middle East (ME) is an important crossroad where modern humans migrated 'out of Africa' and spread into Europe and Asia. After the initial peopling and long-term isolation leading to well-differentiated populations, the ME also had a crucial role in subsequent human migrations among Africa, Europe and Asia; thus, recent population admixture has been common in the ME. On the other hand, consanguinity, a well-known practice in the ME, often reduces genetic diversity and works in opposition to admixture. Here, we explored the degree to which admixture and consanguinity jointly affected genetic diversity in ME populations. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism data were generated in two representative ME populations (Arabian and Iranian), with comparisons made with populations worldwide. Our results revealed an overall higher genetic diversity in both ME populations relative to other non-African populations. We identified a much larger number of long runs of homozygosity in ME populations than in any other populations, which was most likely attributed to high levels of consanguineous marriages that significantly decreased both individual and population heterozygosity. Additionally, we were able to distinguish African, European and Asian ancestries in ME populations and quantify the impact of admixture and consanguinity with statistical approaches. Interestingly, genomic regions with significantly excessive ancestry from individual source populations are functionally enriched in olfactory pathways, which were suspected to be under natural selection. Our findings suggest that genetic admixture, consanguinity and natural selection have collectively shaped the genetic diversity of ME populations, which has important implications in both evolutionary studies and medical practices.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 25 September 2014; doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.81.
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Cannabinoid CB1 receptor signaling dichotomously modulates inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in rat inner retina.
Brain Struct Funct
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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In the inner retina, ganglion cells (RGCs) integrate and process excitatory signal from bipolar cells (BCs) and inhibitory signal from amacrine cells (ACs). Using multiple labeling immunohistochemistry, we first revealed the expression of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) at the terminals of ACs and BCs in rat retina. By patch-clamp techniques, we then showed how the activation of this receptor dichotomously regulated miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), mediated by GABAA receptors and glycine receptors, and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), mediated by AMPA receptors, of RGCs in rat retinal slices. WIN55212-2 (WIN), a CB1R agonist, reduced the mIPSC frequency due to an inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels no matter whether AMPA receptors were blocked. In contrast, WIN reduced the mEPSC frequency by suppressing T-type Ca(2+) channels only when inhibitory inputs to RGCs were present, which could be in part due to less T-type Ca(2+) channels of cone BCs, presynaptic to RGCs, being in an inactivation state under such condition. This unique feature of CB1R-mediated retrograde regulation provides a novel mechanism for modulating excitatory synaptic transmission in the inner retina. Moreover, depolarization of RGCs suppressed mIPSCs of these cells, an effect that was eliminated by the CB1R antagonist SR141716, suggesting that endocannabinoid is indeed released from RGCs.
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Ultrasonic assisted preparation of lanthanide-oleate complexes for the synthesis of multifunctional monodisperse upconversion nanoparticles for multimodal imaging.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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The synthesis of multifunctional monodisperse upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) of high quality is highly desired for bioimaging. Lanthanide-oleate complexes are excellent precursors for the synthesis of high quality UCNPs with controllable size and shape. In this work, lanthanide-oleate complexes were prepared by an ultrasonic assisted procedure, and used as precursors for further synthesis of multifunctional monodisperse NaYF4:59%Yb(3+),0.5% Tm(3+)@NaYF?:20%Gd(3+) nanoparticles without the need for further purification. Heavy doping of Yb(3+) in the core and incorporation of Gd(3+) in the shell made the UCNPs promising for upconversion luminescence (UCL), magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) multimodal imaging. The nanoparticles were further functionalized with bombesin peptide for in vivo UCL/MR/CT imaging of prostate tumors.
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A study on the inhibition of VEGF expression in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cells via iNOS gene RNAi in vitro.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). Using RNAi, we transfected chemically synthesised iNOS siRNA into ACC-M cells (a highly metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line) and detected the change in the gene and protein expression levels of iNOS and VEGF by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. A transwell invasiveness assay was used to examine the changes in invasive ability of ACC-M cells. Cell growth was determined using a CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis and cell-cycle phases were detected by flow cytometry. We found that silencing iNOS down-regulated the expression of VEGF and then inhibited cell growth and invasiveness of SACC cells, while it increased apoptosis. Therefore, we concluded that iNOS can regulate VEGF expression and iNOS may be a therapeutic target.
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MMP-14 overexpression correlates with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14) has been demonstrated to play an important role in tumor progression. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between MMP-14 expression and clinicopathologic features and its prognostic significance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Immunohistochemical staining for MMP-14 protein was performed in 104 patients with NSCLC. High levels of MMP-14 protein were positively correlated with the status of clinical stage (I-II vs. III-IV; P?
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Gadolinium complexes functionalized persistent luminescent nanoparticles as a multimodal probe for near-infrared luminescence and magnetic resonance imaging in vivo.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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The development of multimodal nanoprobes that combined properties of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within a single probe is very important for medical diagnosis. The NIR-emitting persistent luminescent nanoparticles (PLNPs) are ideal for optical imaging owing to no need for in situ excitation, the absence of background noise, and deep tissue penetration. However, no PLNP based multimodal nanoprobes have been reported so far. Here, we report a novel multimodal nanoprobe based on the gadolinium complexes functionalized PLNPs (Gd(III)-PLNPs) for in vivo MRI and NIR luminescence imaging. The Gd(III)-PLNPs not only exhibit a relatively higher longitudinal relaxivity over the commercial Gd(III)-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid complexes but also keep the superlong persistent luminescence. The prepared Gd(III)-PLNPs multimodal nanoprobe offers great potential for MRI/optical imaging in vivo.
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Synthesis of N-(?-fluorovinyl)azoles by the reaction of difluoroalkenes with azoles.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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A mild and versatile method for the construction of C-N bonds by the reaction of (2,2-difluorovinyl)arenes with various N-H-containing heterocycles in the presence of K3PO4 has been developed. The reaction proceeded efficiently at room temperature (25 °C) affording the (E)-N-?-fluorovinyl derivatives of azoles 3 in good to excellent yields with relatively high stereoselectivity.
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Metal-organic framework UiO-66 coated stainless steel fiber for solid-phase microextraction of phenols in water samples.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Effective solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of polar phenols from water samples is usually difficult due to the strong interaction between polar phenols and aqueous matrix. Here, we report the fabrication of a metal-organic framework UiO-66 coated stainless steel fiber via physical adhesion for the SPME of polar phenols (phenol, o-cresol, p-cresol, 2,6-dimethylphenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,6-dichlorophenol) in water samples before gas chromatographic separation with flame ionic detection. Headspace SPME of 10mL sample solution with the fabricated UiO-66 coated fiber gave the enhancement factors of 160 (phenol) - 3769 (2,4-dichlorophenol), and the linear ranges of 1-1000?gL(-1) (2,6-dimethylphenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,6-dichlorophenol), 1-500?gL(-1) (o-cresol and p-cresol) and 5-500?gL(-1) (phenol). The detection limits ranged from 0.11?gL(-1) (2,6-dimethylphenol) to 1.23?gL(-1) (phenol). The precision (relative standard deviations, RSDs) for six replicate determinations of the analytes at 100?gL(-1) using a single UiO-66 coated fiber ranged from 2.8% to 6.2%. The fiber-to-fiber reproducibility (RSDs) for three parallel UiO-66 coated fibers varied from 5.9% to 10%. The recoveries obtained by spiking 5?gL(-1) of the phenols in the water samples ranged from 80% to 115%.
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Bio-distribution and pharmacokinetics of nobiliside A-loaded liposome following intravenous administration in rats.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Nobiliside A (Nob) is a new triterpenoid saponin separated from Holothuria noblilis. In this article, a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method was established to quantify Nob, a hemolytic saponin, in rat blood and tissue homogenates. Standard curves were linear (r=0.9988-0.9995) over the range 50-5000ng/mL in blood and 100-10000ng/g in tissues. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 50ng/mL for Nob. The novel method was rapid, accurate, highly sensitive and highly selective. Using this method, the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of Nob liposome and Nob solution in Sprague-Dawley rats after a single intravenous dose of 1mg/kg were then investigated. Nob was cleared slowly from circulation. There was no significant difference of the pharmacokinetic parameters in blood between Nob solution and Nob liposome. The highest AUC of Nob was observed in liver for the two groups, followed by spleen, lungs, kidney and heart. Compared with Nob solution, Nob liposome showed much higher AUC in liver and spleen and much lower AUC in kidney, heart and lung, which might be one important reason for the decreased toxicity of Nob.
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A dual-targeting upconversion nanoplatform for two-color fluorescence imaging-guided photodynamic therapy.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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The targetability of a theranostic probe is one of the keys to assuring its theranostic efficiency. Here we show the design and fabrication of a dual-targeting upconversion nanoplatform for two-color fluorescence imaging-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT). The nanoplatform was prepared from 3-aminophenylboronic acid functionalized upconversion nanocrystals (APBA-UCNPs) and hyaluronated fullerene (HAC60) via a specific diol-borate condensation. The two specific ligands of aminophenylboronic acid and hyaluronic acid provide synergistic targeting effects, high targetability, and hence a dramatically elevated uptake of the nanoplatform by cancer cells. The high generation yield of (1)O2 due to multiplexed Förster resonance energy transfer between APBA-UCNPs (donor) and HAC60 (acceptor) allows effective therapy. The present nanoplatform shows great potential for highly selective tumor-targeted imaging-guided PDT.
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Changes in the microbial community structure of filaments and floc formers in response to various carbon sources and feeding patterns.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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Filamentous bulking is a complicated problem in wastewater treatment plants treating various wastewaters, leading to the deterioration of the settling properties and the effluent quality. This study systematically investigated long-term effects of various carbon sources and feeding patterns on the growth of filamentous bacteria, in order to reveal the mechanism of filamentous bulking. Sludge volume index (SVI), microscopic observations, staining (Gram and Neisser staining), scan electron microscopic, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to monitor the bulking and track the changes of microbial morphology and community structure of activated sludge in six lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed with different carbon sources. Filamentous bulking was not observed in all SBRs under anoxic feeding pattern with a short fill time, in which SVI remained below 150 mL/g. In contrast, serious bulking (SVI?>?500 mL/g) occurred under aerobic feeding pattern when fed with ethanol, propionate, acetate, and glucose, in which Thiothrix and Sphaerotilus natans proliferated as dominant filaments. Compared to glucose-fed reactor, relatively light bulking was caused in starch-fed reactor with the growth of Nostocoida limicola II. In addition, flocs in starch-fed reactor were more open and fluffy than flocs formed on readily biodegradable substrates. Finally, a framework integrating kinetic selection, diffusion selection, storage selection, and protozoa capture mechanism was proposed to explain filamentous bulking.
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RGD and interleukin-13 peptide functionalized nanoparticles for enhanced glioblastoma cells and neovasculature dual targeting delivery and elevated tumor penetration.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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As the most common malignant brain tumors, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was characterized by angiogenesis and tumor cells proliferation. Dual targeting to neovasculature and GBM cells could deliver cargoes to these two kinds of cells, leading to a combination treatment. In this study, polymeric nanoparticles were functionalized with RGD and interleukin-13 peptide (IRNPs) to construct a neovasculature and tumor cell dual targeting delivery system in which RGD could target ?v?3 on neovasculature and interleukin-13 peptide could target IL13R?2 on GBM cells. In vitro, interleukin-13 peptide and RGD could enhance the uptake by corresponding cells (C6 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells). Due to the expression of both receptors on C6 cells, RGD also could enhance the uptake by C6 cells. Through receptor labeling, it clearly showed that ?v?3 could mediate the internalization of RGD modified nanoparticles and IL13R?2 could mediate the internalization of interleukin-13 peptide modified nanoparticles. The ligand functionalization also resulted in a modification on endocytosis pathways, which changed the main endocytosis pathways from macropinocytosis for unmodified nanoparticles to clathrin-mediated endocytosis for IRNPs. IRNPs also displayed the strongest penetration ability according to tumor spheroid analysis. In vivo, IRNPs could effectively deliver cargoes to GBM with higher intensity than monomodified nanoparticles. After CD31-staining, it demonstrated IRNPs could target both neovasculature and GBM cells. In conclusion, IRNPs showed promising ability in dual targeting both neovasculature and GBM cells.
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Discrete-time online learning control for a class of unknown nonaffine nonlinear systems using reinforcement learning.
Neural Netw
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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In this paper, a reinforcement-learning-based direct adaptive control is developed to deliver a desired tracking performance for a class of discrete-time (DT) nonlinear systems with unknown bounded disturbances. We investigate multi-input-multi-output unknown nonaffine nonlinear DT systems and employ two neural networks (NNs). By using Implicit Function Theorem, an action NN is used to generate the control signal and it is also designed to cancel the nonlinearity of unknown DT systems, for purpose of utilizing feedback linearization methods. On the other hand, a critic NN is applied to estimate the cost function, which satisfies the recursive equations derived from heuristic dynamic programming. The weights of both the action NN and the critic NN are directly updated online instead of offline training. By utilizing Lyapunov's direct method, the closed-loop tracking errors and the NN estimated weights are demonstrated to be uniformly ultimately bounded. Two numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the present approach.
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Drug-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposomes: a promising delivery system for hydrophobic drugs.
Expert Opin Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Recently, the entrapment of hydrophobic drugs in the form of water-soluble drug-cyclodextrin (CD) complex in liposomes has been investigated as a new strategy to combine the relative advantages of CDs and liposomes into one system, namely drug-in-CD-in-liposome (DCL) systems.
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Room temperature fabrication of post-modified zeolitic imidazolate framework-90 as stationary phase for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are attractive as porous stationary phase for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) due to their fascinating structures and unusual properties. Here we report a directly covalent bonding approach to prepare uniform and dense MOF film on the inner wall of fused silica capillary at room temperature for OT-CEC. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-90 (ZIF-90) as a model MOF because it not only possesses large surface area and high stability but also provides the free aldehyde groups to bond to the inner surface of capillary via covalent bond. X-ray diffraction, scan electron microscopy, and UV-vis spectrophotometry were used to confirm the bonding of the ZIF-90 to the inner wall of the silica capillary. The ZIF-90 coating not only increased the phase ratio of open-tubular column, but also improved the interactions of tested analytes and the coating. Owing to the porous structure of ZIF-90 and hydrophobic interactions between the analytes and the organic ligands of ZIF-90, three groups of isomers, neutral and basic compounds and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were well separated on the ZIF-90 bonded column. The precisions (relative standard deviation, RSD) of retention time, half peak width and peak area for three consecutive runs were 0.3-1.2%, 1.3-6.0% and 1.5-5.2%, respectively. The run-to-run, day-to-day, and column-to-column precisions (RSDs) for the electroosmotic flow of the ZIF-90 bonded column were 0.2%, 0.4%, and 1.9%, respectively. Moreover, the ZIF-90 bonded column could stand more than 230 runs without observable change in the separation efficiency.
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Fabrication of metal-organic framework MIL-88B films on stainless steel fibers for solid-phase microextraction of polychlorinated biphenyls.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received considerable attention as novel sorbents for sample preparation due to their fascinating structures and functionalities such as large surface area, good thermal stability, and uniform structured nanoscale cavities. Here, we report the application of a thermal and solvent stable MOF MIL-88B with nanosized bipyramidal cages and large surface area for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Novel MIL-88B coated fiber was fabricated via an in situ hydrothermal growth of MIL-88B film on etched stainless steel fiber. The MIL-88B coated fiber gave large enhancement factors (757-2243), low detection limits (0.45-1.32ngL(-1)), and good linearity (5-200ngL(-1)) for PCBs. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for six replicate extractions of PCBs at 100ngL(-1) on MIL-88B coated fiber ranged from 4.2% to 8.7%. The recoveries for spiked PCBs (10ngL(-1)) in water and soil samples were in the range of 79.7-103.2%. Besides, the MIL-88B coated fiber was stable enough for 150 extraction cycles without significant loss of extraction efficiency. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of PCBs in water samples and soil samples.
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Genetic diversity and domestication origin of tea plant Camellia taliensis (Theaceae) as revealed by microsatellite markers.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. Many species in the Thea section of the Camellia genus can be processed for drinking and have been domesticated. However, few investigations have focused on the genetic consequence of domestication and geographic origin of landraces on tea plants using credible wild and planted populations of a single species. Here, C. taliensis provides us with a unique opportunity to explore these issues.
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Aberrant differentiation of urothelial cells in patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the urothelial changes in the pathogenesis of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJ-O).
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Sensitisation of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin by flavonoids from Scutellaria barbata.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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Combination of natural components with anticancer drugs is a new strategy for cancer chemotherapy to increase antitumour responses. In this study, we investigated the sensitisation effects of nine flavonoids from Scutellaria barbata to cisplatin (CDDP) on human ovarian cancer cells. The combinations of three flavonoids with CDDP showed the synergistic effects. The intracellular reactive oxygen species and the antioxidant activity were measured. The data suggest that the synergistic effects of flavonoids with CDDP on ovarian cancer cells did not directly correlate with their redox properties, but could be associated with the positions of hydroxyl group and methoxy group of flavonoids.
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Incorporation of Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Function into NaYF4:Yb/Tm Upconversion Nanoparticles for in Vivo Trimodal Bioimaging.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Rational design and fabrication of multimodal imaging nanoprobes are of great significance for in vivo imaging. Here we report the fabrication of a multishell structured NaYF4:Yb/Tm@NaLuF4@NaYF4@NaGdF4 nanoprobe via a seed-mediated epitaxial growth strategy for upconversion luminescence (UCL), X-ray computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) trimodal imaging. Hexagonal phase NaYF4:Yb/Tm is used as the core to provide UCL, while the shell of NaLuF4 is epitaxially grown on the core not only to provide an optically inert layer for enhancing the UCL but also to serve as a contrast agent for CT. The outermost NaGdF4 shell is fabricated as a thin layer to give the high longitudinal relaxivity (r1) desired for MR imaging. The transition shell layer of NaYF4 not only provides an interface to facilitate the formation of NaGdF4 shell but also inhibits the energy transfer from inner upconversion activator to surface paramagnetic Gd(3+) ions. The fabricated multishell structured nanoprobe shows intense near-infrared UCL, high r1 value of 3.76 mM(-1) s(-1), and in vitro CT contrast effect. The multishell structured nanoprobe offers great potential for in vivo UCL/CT/MR trimodal imaging. Further covalent bonding of folic acid makes the multishell structured nanoprobe promising for in vivo targeted UCL imaging of tumor-bearing mice.
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Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 for fast adsorption and removal of benzotriazoles from aqueous solution.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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1H-benzotriazole (BTri) and 5-tolyltriazole (5-TTri) are emerging pollutants; the development of novel materials for their efficient adsorption and removal is thus of great significance in environmental sciences. Here, we report the application of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) as a novel adsorbent for fast removal of BTri and 5-TTri in aqueous solution in view of adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics, desorption, and adsorbent regeneration. The adsorption of BTri and 5-TTri on ZIF-8 was very fast, and most of BTri and 5-TTri were adsorbed in the first 2 min. The adsorption for BTri and 5-TTri follows a pseudo-second-order kinetics and fits the Langmuir adsorption model with the adsorption capacity of 298.5 and 396.8 mg g(-1) for BTri and 5-TTri at 30 °C, respectively. The adsorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process controlled by positive entropy change. No remarkable effects of pH, ionic strength, and dissolved organic matter on the adsorption of BTri and 5-TTri on ZIF-8 were observed. The used ZIF-8 could be regenerated effectively and recycled at least three times without significant loss of adsorption capacity. In addition, ZIF-8 provided much larger adsorption capacity and faster adsorption kinetics than activated carbon and ZIF-7. The hydrophobic and ?-? interaction between the aromatic rings of the BTri and 5-TTri and the aromatic imizole rings of the ZIF-8, and the coordination of the nitrogen atoms in BTri and 5-TTri molecules to the Zn(2+) ions in the ZIF-8 framework was responsible for the efficient adsorption. The fast adsorption kinetics, large adsorption capacity, excellent reusability as well as the pH, ionic strength, and dissolved organic matter insensitive adsorption create potential for ZIF-8 to be effective at removing benzotriazoles from aqueous solution.
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Tumor cells and neovasculature dual targeting delivery for glioblastoma treatment.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2013
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), one of the most common primary malignant brain tumors, was characterized by angiogenesis and tumor cells proliferation. Antiangiogenesis and antitumor combination treatment gained much attention because of the potency in dual inhibition of both the tumor proliferation and the tumor invasion. In this study, a neovasculature and tumor cell dual targeting delivery system was developed through modification of nanoparticles with interleukin-13 peptide and RGD (IRNPs), in which interleukin-13 peptide was targeting GBM cells and RGD was targeting neovasculature. To evaluate the potency in GBM treatment, docetaxel was loaded into IRNPs. In vitro, interleukin-13 peptide and RGD could enhance the corresponding cells (C6 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells) uptake and cytotoxicity. In combination, IRNPs showed high uptake in both cells and increased the cytotoxicity on both cells. In vivo, IRNPs could effectively deliver cargoes to GBM with higher intensity than mono-modified nanoparticles. Correspondingly, docetaxel-IRNPs displayed best anti-tumor effect with a median survival time of 35 days, which was significantly longer than that of mono-modified and unmodified nanoparticles. Importantly, treatment with docetaxel-IRNPs could avoid the accumulation of HIF1? in GBM site, which was crucial for the tumor invasion. After the treatment, there was no obvious change in normal organs of mice.
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[Treatment of cervical spondylosis by spinal balancing combined with intervention of pathway of qi: a randomized controlled study].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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To compare the difference in the efficacy of cervical spondylosis between the combined therapy of spinal balancing and the intervention of pathway of qi and the conventional acupuncture and massage therapy.
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[Association between single nucleotide polymorphism in Wnt3 and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in Hui and Han population of Ningxia Autonomous Region].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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To investigate the association between rs142167, rs7216231 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Wnt3 and nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (NSCL/P) in Hui and Han population of Ningxia Autonomous Region.
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A Pd(0)-catalyzed direct dehydrative coupling of terminal alkynes with allylic alcohols to access 1,4-enynes.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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A direct dehydrative coupling of terminal alkynes with allylic alcohols catalyzed by Pd(PPh3)4 with an N,P-ligand assisted by Ti(OiPr)4 has been developed. The coupling reaction tolerates various functional groups, providing a valuable synthetic tool to access 1,4-enynes.
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Fluorescent metal-organic framework MIL-53(Al) for highly selective and sensitive detection of Fe3+ in aqueous solution.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Fluorescent metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received great attention in sensing application. Here, we report the exploration of fluorescent MIL-53(Al) for highly selective and sensitive detection of Fe(3+) in aqueous solution. The cation exchange between Fe(3+) and the framework metal ion Al(3+) in MIL-53(Al) led to the quenching of the fluorescence of MIL-53(Al) due to the transformation of strong-fluorescent MIL-53(Al) to weak-fluorescent MIL-53(Fe), allowing highly selective and sensitive detection of Fe(3+) in aqueous solution with a linear range of 3-200 ?M and a detection limit of 0.9 ?M. No interferences from 0.8 M Na(+); 0.35 M K(+); 11 mM Cu(2+); 10 mM Ni(2+); 6 mM Ca(2+), Pb(2+), and Al(3+); 5.5 mM Mn(2+); 5 mM Co(2+) and Cr(3+); 4 mM Hg(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), and Mg(2+); 3 mM Fe(2+); 0.8 M Cl(-); 60 mM NO2(-) and NO3(-); 10 mM HPO4(2-), H2PO4(-), SO3(2-), SO4(2-), and HCOO(-); 8 mM CO3(2-), HCO3(-), and C2O4(2-); and 5 mM CH3COO(-) were found for the detection of 150 ?M Fe(3+). The possible mechanism for the quenching effect of Fe(3+) on the fluorescence of MIL-53(Al) was elucidated by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The specific cation exchange behavior between Fe(3+) and the framework Al(3+) along with the excellent stability of MIL-53(Al) allows highly selective and sensitive detection of Fe(3+) in aqueous solution. The developed method was applied to the determination of Fe(3+) in human urine samples with the quantitative spike recoveries from 98.2% to 106.2%.
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[Study on life quality and influence factors in cleft lip and palate parents].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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To investigate the life quality and their influence factors in cleft lip and palate parents and to provide evidences for improving the life quality of the parents.
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Incorporation of metal-organic framework UiO-66 into porous polymer monoliths to enhance the liquid chromatographic separation of small molecules.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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UiO-66 incorporated monoliths were fabricated to enhance the liquid chromatographic separation of small molecules with high column efficiency and good reproducibility.
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Effectiveness analysis on the physical activity and the health benefit of a community population based program.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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To evaluate the community-based health promotion effect of physical activity.
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Nutrient removal performance and microbial community structure in an EBPR system under the limited filamentous bulking state.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Limited filamentous bulking (LFB) was proposed to be a new method for saving energy and improving effluent quality. In order to validate the stability of LFB in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems, the LFB was further achieved in a lab-scale EBPR. Nutrient removal performance and microbial community structure including dominant filaments and polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) were investigated. Results showed that the enriched PAOs could alleviate the negative effect of low dissolved oxygen concentration on sludge settleability, making the LFB be more easily achieved and maintained in the EBPR for long-term operation. Sludge volume index was kept between 150-200 mL/g during the LFB period. Larger floc size (?400 ?m) was commonly observed under the LFB state, which significantly enhanced the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) efficiency. An average SND efficiency of 36% was observed in the EBPR system when the LFB occurred.
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Upregulation of glutamate-aspartate transporter by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ameliorates cell apoptosis in neural retina in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
CNS Neurosci Ther
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Dysfunction of glutamate uptake, largely mediated by the glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST), may lead to retinal cell apoptosis in diabetic retinopathy. The aim of this study is to examine how cell apoptosis and the expression level of GLAST in neural retina of a diabetic rat model are changed and whether the neuroretinal apoptosis could be ameliorated by the administration of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF).
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Zeolite imidazolate framework-8 as sorbent for on-line solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of tetracyclines in water and milk samples.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Zeolite imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) was used as the novel sorbent for on-line solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the determination of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC) and chlorotetracycline (CTC) in water and milk samples. 390mg of ZIF-8 was packed into a stainless steel column (3cm long×4.6mm i.d.) which was mounted on the HPLC injector valve to replace the sample loop. On-line solid-phase extraction of OTC, TC and CTC was achieved by loading sample solution at a flow rate of 3.0mLmin(-1) for 10min with the aid of a flow-injection system. The extracted analytes were subsequently eluted into a C18 analytical column (25cm long×4.6mm i.d.) for HPLC separation under isocratic condition with a mobile phase (10% MeOH-20% ACN-70% 0.02molL(-1) oxalic acid solution) at a flow rate of 1.0mLmin(-1). Under optimized conditions, the developed method gave the enhancement factors of 35-61, the linearity range of 5-1000?gL(-1), the detection limits of 1.5-8.0?gL(-1), quantification limits of 5.0-26.7?gL(-1), uncertainties of 0.9-1.1?gL(-1), and the sample throughput of 4 samples h(-1). The recoveries of OTC, TC and CTC at 50?gL(-1) in water and milk samples ranged from 70.3% to 107.4%.
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Noncatalytic pyridyl-directed alkylation and arylation carbon-fluorine bond of polyfluoroarenes with Grignard reagents.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Cross-coupling reaction of polyfluoroarenes with Grignard reagents via pyridine-directed cleavage of C-F bond in the absence of metal catalysts was developed. A possible mechanism was suggested.
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Fabrication of ZIF-8@SiO2 core-shell microspheres as the stationary phase for high-performance liquid chromatography.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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The unique features of high porosity, shape selectivity, and multiple active sites make metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) promising as novel stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, the wide particle size distribution and irregular shape of conventional MOFs lead to lower column efficiency of such MOF-packed columns. Herein, the fabrication of monodisperse MOF@SiO2 core-shell microspheres as the stationary phase for HPLC to overcome the above-mentioned problems is reported. Zeolitic imidazolate framework 8 (ZIF-8) was used as an example of MOFs due to its permanent porosity, uniform pore size, and exceptional chemical stability. Unique carboxyl-modified silica spheres were used as the support to grow the ZIF-8 shell. The fabricated monodisperse ZIF-8@SiO2 packed columns (5 cm long × 4.6 mm i.d.) show high column efficiency (23,000 plates m(-1) for bisphenol A) for the HPLC separation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (bisphenol A, ?-estradiol, and p-(tert-octyl)phenol) and pesticides (thiamethoxam, hexaflumuron, chlorantraniliprole, and pymetrozine) within 7 min with good relative standard deviations for 11 replicate separations of the analytes (0.01-0.39, 0.65-1.7, 0.70-1.3, and 0.17-0.91% for retention time, peak area, peak height, and half peak width, respectively). The ZIF-8@SiO2 microspheres combine the advantages of the good column packing properties of the uniform monodisperse silica microspheres and the separation ability of the ZIF-8 crystals.
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Basal physiological parameters in domesticated tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Establishing non-human primate models of human diseases is an efficient way to narrow the large gap between basic studies and translational medicine. Multifold advantages such as simplicity of breeding, low cost of feeding and facility of operating make the tree shrew an ideal non-human primate model proxy. Additional features like vulnerability to stress and spontaneous diabetic characteristics also indicate that the tree shrew could be a potential new animal model of human diseases. However, basal physiological indexes of tree shrew, especially those related to human disease, have not been systematically reported. Accordingly, we established important basal physiological indexes of domesticated tree shrews including several factors: (1) body weight, (2) core body temperature and rhythm, (3) diet metabolism, (4) locomotor rhythm, (5) electroencephalogram, (6) glycometabolism and (7) serum and urinary hormone level and urinary cortisol rhythm. We compared the physiological parameters of domesticated tree shrew with that of rats and macaques. Results showed that (a) the core body temperature of the tree shrew was 39.59±0.05 ?, which was higher than that of rats and macaques; (b) Compared with wild tree shrews, with two activity peaks, domesticated tree shrews had only one activity peak from 17:30 to 19:30; (c) Compared with rats, tree shrews had poor carbohydrate metabolism ability; and (d) Urinary cortisol rhythm indicated there were two peaks at 8:00 and 17:00 in domesticated tree shrews, which matched activity peaks in wild tree shrews. These results provided basal physiological indexes for domesticated tree shrews and laid an important foundation for diabetes and stress-related disease models established on tree shrews.
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Antitumor efficacy, toxicity and pharmacokinetics of 9-nitrocamptothecin: role of lactone ratio.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Since the carboxylate form could be regarded as a possible "source" of lactone form, the optimum ratio of lactone should be determined for the administration of camptothecin (CPT) analogues such as 9-nitrocamptothecin (9-NC).
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Induction of annexin by heavy metals and jasmonic acid in Zea mays.
Funct. Integr. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Plant annexins are Ca(2+)- and phospholipid-binding proteins forming an evolutionary conserved multi-gene family. They are implicated in the regulation of plant growth, development, and stress responses. With the availability of the maize genome sequence information, we identified 12 members of the maize annexin genes. Analysis of protein sequence and gene structure of maize annexins led to their classification into five different orthologous groups. Expression analysis by RT-PCR revealed that these genes are responsive to heavy metals (Ni, Zn, and Cd). The maize annexin genes were also found to be regulated by Ustilago maydis and jasmonic acid. Additionally, the promoter of the maize annexin gene was analyzed for the presence of different stress-responsive cis-elements, such as ABRE, W-box, GCC-box, and G-box. RT-PCR and microarray data show that all 12 maize annexin genes present differential, organ-specific expression patterns in the maize developmental steps. These results indicate that maize annexin genes may play important roles in the adaptation of plants to various environmental stresses.
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Neuropeptide FF attenuates the acquisition and the expression of conditioned place aversion to endomorphin-2 in mice.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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It has been demonstrated that the endogenous mu opioid (MOP) agonist endomorphin-2 (EM-2) produces conditioned place aversion (CPA) and in contrast, morphine exerts opposite action. Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) was reported to act as a functional antagonist of mu opioid receptor and to exert opioid-modulating activities. The present study examined the influence of NPFF on the rewarding action of EM-2, using the unbiased conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. For testing the effect of NPFF on the acquisition of EM-2-induced CPA, NPFF and EM-2 were co-injected on the conditioning days without drug treatment on the followed test day. To explore the effect of NPFF on the expression of EM-2-induced CPA, EM-2 was administered alone on the conditioning days, and NPFF was given 5 min before placement in the CPP apparatus on the test day. The results showed that NPFF (2.5, 5 and 10 nmol, i.c.v.) alone caused little place preference change. However, NPFF dose-dependently reversed the acquisition of CPA induced by 30 nmol EM-2 (i.c.v.). Similarly, the expression of EM-2-induced CPA was also reduced by NPFF. Moreover, the effects of NPFF on the acquisition and the expression of EM-2-induced CPA were completely blocked by the NPFF receptors antagonist RF9 (10 nmol, i.c.v.). However, central injection of NPFF neither changed the locomotor activity nor modified the locomotor action of EM-2. These data provide the first evidence for a functional interaction of the endogenous ligands for NPFF and MOP receptors, and further support an anti-opioid character of NPFF system.
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Combination process of limited filamentous bulking and nitrogen removal via nitrite for enhancing nitrogen removal and reducing aeration requirements.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Limited filamentous bulking (LFB) activated sludge process was proposed by Guo et al. (2010) to increase the removal of tiny suspended particulates in the clarifier and reduce aeration energy consumption. However, when the use of LFB process, ammonium removal efficiency would be compromised due to low dissolved oxygen (DO). In this study, the combination process of nitrogen removal via nitrite and LFB was achieved to enhance nitrogen removal and reduce aeration energy consumption by controlling low DO levels (0.5-1.0 mg L(-1)) in a lab-scale anoxic-oxic reactor (V=66 L) treating real domestic wastewater at room temperature. Above 85% of nitrite accumulation ratio was steadily maintained during continuous operation period. The combined process improved the total nitrogen (TN) removal by about 20% in comparison to the traditional process via the nitrate pathway, and also reduced the specific aeration energy consumption by 35%. COD, ammonium and TN removal efficiencies were up to 86%, 94% and 75%, respectively. The process proved effective in achieving a steady LFB state, whereby sludge volume index between 150 and 250 mL g(-1) was sustained for long-term operation. The microbial community structure was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, which indicated ammonia-oxidizing bacteria out-competed nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. Moreover, the filaments Type 0041 and Microthrix parvicella proliferated with limited abundance. The results indicated the combination process of LFB and nitrogen removal via nitrite under low DO was a feasible solution for saving energy and enhancing nitrogen removal when treating domestic wastewater.
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Hyperactivity of ON-type retinal ganglion cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Impairment of visual function has been detected in the early stage of diabetes but the underlying neural mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Morphological and functional alterations of retinal ganglion cells, the final output neurons of the vertebrate retina, are thought to be the major cause of visual defects in diabetes but direct evidence to support this notion is limited. In this study we investigated functional changes of retinal ganglion cells in a type 1-like diabetic mouse model. Our results demonstrated that the spontaneous spiking activity of ON-type retinal ganglion cells was increased in streptozotocin-diabetic mice after 3 to 4 months of diabetes. At this stage of diabetes, no apoptotic signals or cell loss were detected in the ganglion cell layer of the retina, suggesting that the functional alterations in ganglion cells occur prior to massive ganglion cell apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that the increased activity of ON-type ganglion cells was mainly a result of reduced inhibitory signaling to the cells in diabetes. This novel mechanism provides insight into how visual function is impaired in diabetic retinopathy.
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Comparative chloroplast genomes of camellia species.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Camellia, comprising more than 200 species, is a valuable economic commodity due to its enormously popular commercial products: tea leaves, flowers, and high-quality edible oils. It is the largest and most important genus in the family Theaceae. However, phylogenetic resolution of the species has proven to be difficult. Consequently, the interspecies relationships of the genus Camellia are still hotly debated. Phylogenomics is an attractive avenue that can be used to reconstruct the tree of life, especially at low taxonomic levels.
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Metal-organic frameworks for reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
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Metal-organic framework MIL-53(Al) is explored for reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of a wide range of analytes from non-polar to polar, and acidic to basic solutes with high resolution, good selectivity, stability and reproducibility.
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High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of position isomers using metal-organic framework MIL-53(Al) as the stationary phase.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2011
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Metal-organic framework MIL-53(Al) was explored as the stationary phase for high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of position isomers using a binary and/or polar mobile phase. Baseline separations of xylene, dichlorobenzene, chlorotoluene and nitrophenol isomers were achieved on the slurry-packed MIL-53(Al) column with high resolution and good precision. The effects of mobile phase composition, injected sample mass and temperature were investigated. The separation of xylene, dichlorobenzene, chlorotoluene and nitrophenol isomers on MIL-53(Al) were controlled by entropy change.
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[TLR4 expression of human PBMC treated by BCG and its role of immune activation].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
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To investigate TLR4 expression of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC) treated with BCG and its role of immune activation.
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Identification of close relatives in the HUGO Pan-Asian SNP database.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2011
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The HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium has recently released a genome-wide dataset, which consists of 1,719 DNA samples collected from 71 Asian populations. For studies of human population genetics such as genetic structure and migration history, this provided the most comprehensive large-scale survey of genetic variation to date in East and Southeast Asia. However, although considered in the analysis, close relatives were not clearly reported in the original paper. Here we performed a systematic analysis of genetic relationships among individuals from the Pan-Asian SNP (PASNP) database and identified 3 pairs of monozygotic twins or duplicate samples, 100 pairs of first-degree and 161 second-degree of relationships. Three standardized subsets with different levels of unrelated individuals were suggested here for future applications of the samples in most types of population-genetics studies (denoted by PASNP1716, PASNP1640 and PASNP1583 respectively) based on the relationships inferred in this study. In addition, we provided gender information for PASNP samples, which were not included in the original dataset, based on analysis of X chromosome data.
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Metal-organic framework MIL-101(Cr) for high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of substituted aromatics.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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The diverse structures and pore topologies, accessible cages and tunnels, and high surface areas make metal-organic frameworks attractive as novel media in separation sciences. Here we report the slurry-packed MIL-101(Cr) column for high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of substituted aromatics. The MIL-101(Cr) packed column (5 cm long × 4.6 mm i.d.) offered high-resolution separation of ethylbenzene (EB) and xylene, dichlorobenzene and chlorotoluene isomers, and EB and styrene. The typical impurities of toluene and o-xylene in EB and styrene mixtures were also efficiently separated on the MIL-101(Cr) packed column. The column efficiencies for EB, m-dichlorobenzene, and m-chlorotoluene are 20000, 13000, and 10000 plates m(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation for five replicate separations of the substituted aromatics was 0.2-0.7%, 0.9-2.9%, 0.5-2.1%, and 0.6-2.7% for the retention time, peak area, peak height, and half peak width, respectively. The MIL-101(Cr) offered high affinity for the ortho-isomer, allowing fast and selective separation of the ortho-isomer from the other isomers within 3 min using dichloromethane as the mobile phase. The effects of the mobile phase composition, injected sample mass, and temperature were investigated. The separation of xylene, dichlorobenzene, and chlorotoluene on MIL-101(Cr) was controlled by entropy change, while the separation of EB and styrene on MIL-101(Cr) was governed by enthalpy change.
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Pain and cognitive dysfunction are the risk factors of delirium in elderly hip fracture Chinese patients.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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To observe the incidence of delirium in elderly hip fracture patients and search for the potential risk factors.
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Stable limited filamentous bulking through keeping the competition between floc-formers and filaments in balance.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2011
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Limited filamentous bulking (LFB) was proposed to save aeration energy consumption and enhance the capacity of filaments to degrade substrates with low concentrations in activated sludge systems. Operational parameters favorable for maintaining the LFB state were investigated in an anoxic-oxic reactor treating domestic wastewater. The experiments showed that the LFB state would deteriorate with sharply decreasing temperature, reducing substrate gradients or removing anoxic zones. The balance between filaments and floc-formers could be achieved by controlling dissolved oxygen and sludge loading rates to be in optimal ranges. Eikelboom Type 0041 and CandidatusMicrothrix parvicella were the filamentous bacteria responsible for the LFB state. However, the excess growth of Eikelboom Type 021N and Sphaerotilus natans were observed when serious bulking occurred under low substrate gradients. It was demonstrated that stable maintenance of LFB for energy saving was feasible by process control and optimization.
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Association of clinicopathologic parameters with the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial growth factor in mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
Oral Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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The roles that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play in tumorigenesis have been given special attention. In many tumors, their expression is upregulated. In addition, iNOS can stimulate the expression of VEGF. This study was carried out to investigate the expression of iNOS and VEGF as well as their relationship with angiogenesis and the clinicopathological characteristics of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC).
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Achieving nitrite accumulation in a continuous system treating low-strength domestic wastewater: switchover from batch start-up to continuous operation with process control.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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Although biological nitrogen removal via nitrite is recognized as one of the cost-effective and sustainable biological nitrogen removal processes, nitrite accumulation has proven difficult to achieve in continuous processes treating low-strength nitrogenous wastewater. Partial nitrification to nitrite was achieved and maintained in a lab-scale completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) treating real domestic wastewater. During the start-up period, sludge with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) but no nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was obtained by batch operation with aeration time control. The nitrifying sludge with the dominance of AOB was then directly switched into continuous operation. It was demonstrated that partial nitrification to nitrite in the continuous system could be repeatedly and reliably achieved using this start-up strategy. The ratio of dissolved oxygen to ammonium loading rate (DO/ALR) was critical to maintain high ammonium removal efficiency and nitrite accumulation ratio. Over 85% of nitrite accumulation ratio and more than 95% of ammonium removal efficiency were achieved at DO/ALR ratios in an optimal range of 4.0-6.0 mg O(2)/g N?d, even under the disturbances of ammonium loading rate. Microbial population shift was investigated, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis indicated that AOB were the dominant nitrifying bacteria over NOB when stable partial nitrification was established.
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Tree shrew models: a chronic social defeat model of depression and a one-trial captive conditioning model of learning and memory.
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Recent genome studies indicate that tree shrew is in the order or a closest sister of primates, and thus may be one of the best animals to model human diseases. In this paper, we report on a social defeat model of depression in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). Two male tree shrews were housed in a pair-cage consisting of two independent cages separated by a wire mesh partition with a door connecting the two cages. After one week adaptation, the connecting door was opened and a brief fighting occurs between the two male tree shrews and this social conflict session consisted of 1 h direct conflict (fighting) and 23 h indirect influence (e.g. smell, visual cues) per day for 21 days. The defeated tree shrew was considered the subordinate. Compared with naive animals, subordinate tree shrews at the final week of social conflict session showed alterations in body weight, locomotion, avoidance behavior and urinary cortisol levels. Remarkably, these alterations persisted for over two weeks. We also report on a novel captive conditioning model of learning and memory in tree shrew. An automatic trapping cage was placed in a small closed room with a freely-moving tree shrew. For the first four trials, the tree shrew was not trapped when it entered the cage and ate the bait apple, but it was trapped and kept in the cage for 1 h on the fifth trial. Latency was defined as the time between release of the tree shrew and when it entered the captive cage. Latencies during the five trials indicated adaptation. A test trial 24 h later was used to measure whether the one-trial trapping during the fifth trial could form captive memory. Tree shrews showed much longer trapping latencies in the test trial than the adaptation trials. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.), known to prevent the formation of memory, did not affect latencies in the adaptation trails, but did block captive memory as it led to much shorter trapping latencies compared to saline treatment in the test trial. These results demonstrate a chronic social defeat model of depression and a novel one-trial captive conditioning model for learning and memory in tree shrews, which are important for mechanism studies of depression, learning, memory, and preclinical evaluation for new antidepressants.
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Nasal prosthesis rehabilitation using CAD-CAM technology after total rhinectomy: a pilot study.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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This study describes a nose prosthetic rehabilitation using computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology after facial disfigurement because of a total rhinectomy.
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RGS2 and RGS4 modulate melatonin-induced potentiation of glycine currents in rat retinal ganglion cells.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins 2 (RGS2) and 4 (RGS4) play an important role in regulating G(i/o)- and G(q)-coupled receptors. In the present study, we investigated the possible impact of RGS2 and RGS4 on modulation of glycine currents of rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) mediated by the G(i/o)-coupled melatonin MT(2) receptor, using immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. By immunofluorescence labeling the expression profiles of RGS2 and RGS4 proteins were basically similar. Both of them were widely expressed in the rat retina, particularly in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and the ganglion cell layer (GCL). In addition, sparse signals of RGS2 and RGS4 were also detected in the inner nuclear layer (INL). Double immunofluorescence labeling further showed that all of RGCs retrogradely labeled expressed both RGS2 and RGS4. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of RGS2 and RGS4 proteins in the rat retina. Intracellular dialysis of RGCs with the antibody against RGS2/RGS4 to block RGS2/RGS4 function gradually increased glycine current amplitudes of these cells. In the presence of the RGS2/RGS4 antibody melatonin-induced potentiation of glycine currents of RGCs was not observable. These results suggest that RGS2/RGS4 are coupled to melatonin receptor signaling in rat RGCs and these proteins may regulate the MT(2) receptor to change melatonin-induced modulation of glycine currents in rat RGCs.
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? receptor 1 is preferentially involved in modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated light-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in rat retinal ganglion cells.
Neurosignals
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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Using patch-clamp whole-cell recording, we investigated how activation of the sigma receptor 1 (?R1) modulates light-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) of ganglion cells (GCs) in rat retinal slice preparations. Bath application of the ?R1 agonist SKF10047 (SKF) suppressed N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated eEPSCs at different holding potentials in ON, OFF and ON-OFF GCs, and the effects were blocked when the preparations were pre-incubated with the ?R1 antagonist BD1047. In contrast, SKF had no effects on ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated eEPSCs of these GCs. Furthermore, application of SKF did not affect AMPA receptor-mediated miniature EPSCs of GCs, suggesting that activation of ?R1 did not change the release of glutamate from bipolar cells. These results suggest that ?R1 may be involved in the regulation of output signaling of GCs by preferentially modulating NMDA receptor-mediated eEPSCs of these retinal neurons.
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The role of XPD in cell apoptosis and viability and its relationship with p53 and cdk2 in hepatoma cells.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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We investigated the role of XPD in cell apoptosis of hepatoma and its relationship with p53 during the regulation of hepatoma bio-behavior. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression levels of XPD, p53, c-myc, and cdk2. The cell apoptosis and cell cycle were analyzed with flow cytometry. Compared with the control cells, XPD-transfected cells displayed a lower viability and higher apoptosis rate. A decreased expression of p53 gene was detected in XPD-transfected cells. In contrast, both c-myc and cdk2 showed increased expressions of mRNAs and proteins in the transfected cells. Our results indicate that XPD may play an important role in cell apoptosis of hepatoma by inducing an over-expression of p53, but suppressing expressions of c-myc and cdk2.
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[Digital diagnosis and treatment system for facial prostheses].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2010
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Conventional diagnosis and treatment for facial prostheses have setbacks and limitations, including complicated procedure, inefficiency, low accuracy and poor esthetics, which could not meet the demand for high quality of the prostheses of the patients. With the technology of the computer aided design and computer aided manufacture (CAD/CAM), the new era for diagnosis and treatment for facial prostheses has been started since the 1990s. The digital diagnosis and treatment system for facial prostheses has been formed during these ten years, which including the digital data acquisition of the facial defect, CAD for facial prostheses, rapid fabrication of the prostheses. This new system will be the development direction and mainstream technology in the future.
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[Submergence tolerance and Sub1 locus in rice].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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Great progresses have been made in understanding of both submergence tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and the molecular mechanism of tolerance over 4 years. Tolerance of rice plants to submergence is controlled by Submergence-1 (Sub1) locus. Sub1 regulates ethylene- and GA-mediated responsiveness, leading to restriction in carbohydrate consumption and quiescence in shoot elongation during submergence and subsequently causing submergence tolerance. This article reviewed two strategies adopted by rice plants to cope with flooding stress, major physiological factors affecting submergence tolerance, and physical mapping of Sub1 locus, as well as the mechanisms of submergence tolerance, and assessed the prospects of the use of Sub1 in hybrid rice production.
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[Effect of original processing method on sterol compounds of rhizoma pinelliae].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2010
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Investigate the effect of different processing methods on the quality of Rhizoma Pinelliae.
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[Application of nonlinear mixed models in Logistic regression with random effect in clinical trials].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2010
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To explore the application of nonlinear mixed models fitting logistic regression in clinical trials.
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Melatonin potentiates glycine currents through a PLC/PKC signalling pathway in rat retinal ganglion cells.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2010
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In vertebrate retina, melatonin regulates various physiological functions. In this work we investigated the mechanisms underlying melatonin-induced potentiation of glycine currents in rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Immunofluorescence double labelling showed that rat RGCs were solely immunoreactive to melatonin MT(2) receptors. Melatonin potentiated glycine currents of RGCs, which was reversed by the MT(2) receptor antagonist 4-P-PDOT. The melatonin effect was blocked by intracellular dialysis of GDP-beta-S. Either preincubation with pertussis toxin or application of the phosphatidylcholine (PC)-specific phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor D609, but not the phosphatidylinositol (PI)-PLC inhibitor U73122, blocked the melatonin effect. The protein kinase C (PKC) activator PMA potentiated the glycine currents and in the presence of PMA melatonin failed to cause further potentiation of the currents, whereas application of the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide IV abolished the melatonin-induced potentiation. The melatonin effect persisted when [Ca(2+)](i) was chelated by BAPTA, and melatonin induced no increase in [Ca(2+)](i). Neither cAMP-PKA nor cGMP-PKG signalling pathways seemed to be involved because 8-Br-cAMP or 8-Br-cGMP failed to cause potentiation of the glycine currents and both the PKA inhibitor H-89 and the PKG inhibitor KT5823 did not block the melatonin-induced potentiation. In consequence, a distinct PC-PLC/PKC signalling pathway, following the activation of G(i/o)-coupled MT(2) receptors, is most likely responsible for the melatonin-induced potentiation of glycine currents of rat RGCs. Furthermore, in rat retinal slices melatonin potentiated light-evoked glycine receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents in RGCs. These results suggest that melatonin, being at higher levels at night, may help animals to detect positive or negative contrast in night vision by modulating inhibitory signals largely mediated by glycinergic amacrine cells in the inner retina.
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[The volatile components of three radix et rhizoma asari].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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To analyze and compare the volatile components of Asarum sieboldii Miq, Asarum himalaicum Hook. F. et Thoms and Asarum. debile Franch in the same area.
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Nogo-A expresses on neural stem cell surface.
Int. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
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Nogo-A, as a myelin-associated molecule to inhibit axon regeneration in the injured adult central nervous system (CNS), has been detected to be enriched in numerous populations of cells in CNS. In this study, we found that Nogo-A was also expressed on the surface of neural stem cells (NSCs). The possible effects of NSCs-expressed Nogo-A on the NSC transplantation for CNS repair were discussed.
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Natriuretic peptide receptors are expressed in rat retinal ganglion cells.
Brain Res. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2010
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Natriuretic peptides (NPs) exert their actions through three membrane-bound receptors, which are known as NP receptors (NPRs: NPR-A, NPR-B and NPR-C). In this work we examined the expression of three NPRs in rat retinal ganglion cells (GCs), retrogradely labeled and intracellularly dye-injected, by double immunofluorescence labeling. In vertical sections, almost all GCs, retrogradely labeled by cholera toxin B, were stained by antibodies against the three NPRs. The labeling for three NPRs was observed mainly on the membranes of the somata of GCs, whereas the staining for NPR-A was also seen in the cytoplasm. Moreover, with tangential sections, almost all cells located in the ganglion cell layer were NPR-A, B, C immunoreactive. By combining with intracellular injection of Neurobiotin into GCs in whole mount retinas that enables to identify ON-, OFF- and ON-OFF-types of GCs according to arborization of their dendrites in the inner plexiform layer, we further demonstrated that NPRs were expressed in these major types of GCs.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.