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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Punishment based on public benefit fund significantly promotes cooperation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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In prisoner's dilemma game (shortly, PD game), punishment is most frequently used to promote cooperation. However, outcome varies when different punishment approaches are applied. Here the PD game is studied on a square lattice when different punishment patterns are adopted. As is known to all, tax system, a common tool to adjust the temperature of the economy, is widely used in human society. Inspired by this philosophy, players in this study would pay corresponding taxes in accordance with their payoff level. In this way, public benefit fund is established consequently and it would be utilized to punish defectors. There are two main methods for punishing: slight intensity of punishment (shortly, SLP) and severe intensity of punishment (shortly, SEP). When the totaling of public benefit fund keeps relatively fixed, SLP extends further, which means more defectors would be punished; by contrast, SEP has a smaller coverage. It is of interest to verify whether these two measures can promote cooperation and which one is more efficient. Simulate results reveal that both of them can promote cooperation remarkably. Specifically speaking, SLP shows constant advantage from the point of view either of fractions of cooperation or average payoff.
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Identification and characterisation of a novel 1-Cys thioredoxin peroxidase gene (AccTpx5) from Apis cerana cerana.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Thioredoxin peroxidases (Tpxs), members of the antioxidant protein family, play critical roles in resisting oxidative stress. In this work, a novel 1-Cys thioredoxin peroxidase gene was isolated from Apis cerana cerana and was named AccTpx5. The open reading frame (ORF) of AccTpx5 is 663bp in length and encodes a 220-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass and isoelectric point of 24,921kDa and 5.45, respectively. Promoter sequence analysis of AccTpx5 revealed the presence of putative transcription factor binding sites related to early development and stress responses. Additionally, real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis indicated that AccTpx5 was primarily present in some developmental stages, with the highest expression levels in the first-instar larvae. The expression level of AccTpx5 was up-regulated under various abiotic stresses, including 4°C, 42°C, HgCl2, H2O2, phoxim and acaricide treatments. Conversely, it was down-regulated by UV and pyriproxyfen treatments. Moreover, H2O2 concentration dramatically increased under a variety of stressful conditions. Finally, the purified recombinant AccTpx5 protein protected the supercoiled form of plasmid DNA from damage in the thiol-dependent mixed-function oxidation (MFO) system. These results suggest that AccTpx5 most likely plays an essential role in antioxidant defence.
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GhWRKY40, a multiple stress-responsive cotton WRKY gene, plays an important role in the wounding response and enhances susceptibility to ralstonia solanacearum infection in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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WRKY transcription factors form one of the largest transcription factor families and function as important components in the complex signaling processes that occur during plant stress responses. However, relative to the research progress in model plants, far less information is available on the function of WRKY proteins in cotton. In the present study, we identified the GhWRKY40 gene in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and determined that the GhWRKY40 protein is targeted to the nucleus and is a stress-inducible transcription factor. The GhWRKY40 transcript level was increased upon wounding and infection with the bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. The overexpression of GhWRKY40 down-regulated most of the defense-related genes, enhanced the wounding tolerance and increased the susceptibility to R. solanacearum. Consistent with a role in multiple stress responses, we found that the GhWRKY40 transcript level was increased by the stress hormones salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and ethylene (ET). Moreover, GhWRKY40 interacted with the MAPK kinase GhMPK20, as shown using yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation systems. Collectively, these results suggest that GhWRKY40 is regulated by SA, MeJA and ET signaling and coordinates responses to wounding and R. solanacearum attack. These findings highlight the importance of WRKYs in regulating wounding- and pathogen-induced responses.
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Overexpression of cotton GhMKK4 enhances disease susceptibility and affects abscisic acid, gibberellin and hydrogen peroxide signalling in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana.
Mol. Plant Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are involved in plant development, stress responses and hormonal signal transduction. MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), as the key nodes in these cascades, link MAPKs and MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs). In this study, GhMKK4, a novel group C MAPKK gene from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), was isolated and identified. Its expression can be induced by various stresses and signalling molecules. The overexpression of GhMKK4 in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced its susceptibility to bacterial and fungal pathogens, but had no significant effects on salt or drought tolerance. Notably, the overexpressing plants showed increased sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), and ABA and gibberellin (GA) signalling were affected on infection with Ralstonia solanacearum bacteria. Furthermore, the overexpressing plants showed more reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and stronger inhibition of catalase (CAT), a ROS-scavenging enzyme, than control plants after salicylic acid (SA) treatment. Interestingly, two genes encoding ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), the key enzymes in polyamine synthesis, exhibited reduced R.?solanacearum-induced expression in overexpressing plants. These findings broaden our knowledge about the functions of MAPKKs in diverse signalling pathways and the negative regulation of disease resistance in the cotton crop.
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Therapeutic activation of macrophages and microglia to suppress brain tumor-initiating cells.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) contribute to the genesis and recurrence of gliomas. We examined whether the microglia and macrophages that are abundant in gliomas alter BTIC growth. We found that microglia derived from non-glioma human subjects markedly mitigated the sphere-forming capacity of glioma patient-derived BTICs in culture by inducing the expression of genes that control cell cycle arrest and differentiation. This sphere-reducing effect was mimicked by macrophages, but not by neurons or astrocytes. Using a drug screen, we validated amphotericin B (AmpB) as an activator of monocytoid cells and found that AmpB enhanced the microglial reduction of BTIC spheres. In mice harboring intracranial mouse or patient-derived BTICs, daily systemic treatment with non-toxic doses of AmpB substantially prolonged life. Notably, microglia and monocytes cultured from glioma patients were inefficient at reducing the sphere-forming capacity of autologous BTICs, but this was rectified by AmpB. These results provide new insights into the treatment of gliomas.
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A reusable nanofibrous film chemosensor for highly selective and sensitive optical signaling of Cu2+ in aqueous media.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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A novel surface modification strategy for an electrospun nanofibrous film was reported, allowing detection and removal of copper ions in the aqueous solution. This reusable dual fluorescent-colorimetric nanofibrous film can be utilized conveniently to achieve real-time naked-eye sensing in aqueous medium just like using a test paper.
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Dual-source computed tomography for evaluating coronary stenosis and left ventricular function.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between coronary stenosis and left ventricular function using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT). DSCT coronary angiography (CAG) was performed on 66 patients with coronary disease and 36 healthy volunteers. The degree of coronary stenosis, end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and myocardial mass (MM) were measured for the left ventricle. These values were compared with the results obtained by echocardiography (ECHO) and selective CAG, which were both adopted as controls. The diagnoses of coronary stenosis based on DSCT CAG and those based on selective CAG were not significantly different (P>0.05). Similarly, the values of EDV, ESV, SV or EV measured by DSCT CAG were not significantly different from thoses obtained by ECHO (P>0.05). However, significant differences were observed in the ESV, EF and SV of the severe stenosis group compared with the moderate and mild stenosis groups (both P<0.05). The values of EDV and MM significantly varied between the mild, moderate and severe stenosis groups (P<0.05). DSCT CAG is a highly accurate and highly reproducible method for evaluating the preliminary changes in cardiac function based on the variations of coronary stenosis. Significant changes were detected in the EDV and MM of the moderate stenosis group and in all parameters of the severe stenosis group.
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Cotton GhMPK6a negatively regulates osmotic tolerance and bacterial infection in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana, and plays a pivotal role in development.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play important roles in the perception of external signals and the generation of suitable responses. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is an important fibre-producing and oil-producing crop worldwide. However, few MAPKs and their interaction partners have been functionally characterized in cotton. In the present study, the group A MAPK G. hirsutum (Gh)MPK6a was identified and characterized. GhMPK6a expression can be induced through multiple defence-related signal molecules and abiotic and biotic stresses. The ectopic expression of GhMPK6a in Nicotiana benthamiana reduced drought and salt tolerance, with elevated malondialdehyde content, higher reactive oxygen species content and lower abscisic acid content than in wild-type plants. Moreover, plants overexpressing GhMPK6a were sensitive to the bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. Histochemical analysis of ?-glucuronidase activity revealed that GhMPK6a showed tissue-specific expression during postgermination development, mixed bud differentiation, and pollination. Most importantly, GhMPK6a interacts with the upstream MAPK kinase GhMKK4, as shown by the use of yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation systems, compensating for a deficiency of MAPK interaction partners in cotton crops. Taken together, these results suggest that GhMPK6a negatively regulates osmotic stress and bacterial infection, and plays an important role in developmental processes. These results provide useful information for elucidating the roles of MAPK cascades in cotton crops.
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Activation of elements in HERV-W family by caffeine and aspirin.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Caffeine and aspirin have been suggested to be involved in neurologic diseases, such as schizophrenia, and previous data have revealed that abnormal expression of HERV-W elements may be an important factor in the etiopathogenesis of those diseases. In this article, we reported that caffeine and aspirin contributed to the expression of HERV-W env and gag in Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and quantitative Real-time PCR were used to detect the mRNA of HERV-W env and gag in cells exposed to caffeine or aspirin. Western blotting was used to detect the protein of HERV-W env. Luciferase activity assay was employed to detect the activity of HERV-W env promoter. It was found that both caffeine and aspirin could increase the expression of HERV-W env and gag in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Caffeine could activate the HERV-W env promoter, while aspirin could not. With previous studies we can conjecture that HERVs might play a bridging role between environmental factors, such as drugs and neurologic diseases.
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[Influence of predominant aerobic bacteria isolated from different healthy animals on daidzein biotransforming capacity by co-culture with different daidzein biotransforming bacteria].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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To investigate the influence of isolated predominant aerobic bacteria on daidzein biotransformation capacity by co-culture with daidzein biotransforming bacteria.
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AKT signaling pathway in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: correlation with ERa, ER? and HER-2 expression.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2011
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Estradiol exerts most of its effects by direct binding to the estrogen receptor in breast carcinoma, ER? expression is a useful biomarker for breast cancer in a manner that is independent of ERa expression. However, studies evaluating ER? expression with certain tumor variables, such as tumor grade and disease-free survival, had produced conflicting results. The Akt signaling pathway currently attracts considerable attention as a new target for effective therapeutic strategies. The current study attempted to compare the relative associations of variables including ERa, ER?, HER-2/neu and AKT staining with the presence of metastases or survival.
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Methylation of a phosphatase specifies dephosphorylation and degradation of activated brassinosteroid receptors.
Sci Signal
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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Internalization of cell surface receptors, followed by either recycling back to the plasma membrane or degradation, is crucial for receptor homeostasis and signaling. The plant brassinosteroid (BR) receptor, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), undergoes constitutive cycling between the plasma membrane and the internal membranes. We show that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) dephosphorylated BRI1 and that Arabidopsis thaliana rcn1, a mutant for a PP2A subunit, caused an increase in BRI1 abundance and BR signaling. We report the identification, in A. thaliana, of a suppressor of bri1, sbi1, which caused selective accumulation of BR-activated BRI1, but not the BR co-receptor BAK1 (BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1), in the membranous compartment. SBI1 mRNA was induced by BRs, and SBI1 encodes a leucine carboxylmethyltransferase (LCMT) that methylated PP2A and controlled its membrane-associated subcellular localization. We propose that BRs increase production of SBI1, which methylates PP2A, thus facilitating its association with activated BRI1. This leads to receptor dephosphorylation and degradation, and thus to the termination of BR signaling.
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Omentin-1 is associated with carotid atherosclerosis in patients with metabolic syndrome.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2011
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The goal of this study was to investigate the association between omentin-1 and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
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[Feasibility of planting sweet sorghum in sugarcane region to prolong milling duration for bioethanol production].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2010
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In order to explore the feasibility of planting sweet sorghum in sugarcane growing area to prolong milling duration for bioethanol production, 15 varieties were sown monthly from March to September in Liuzhou of Central Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Yields of fresh stem, grain and leave were documented. The results showed that all varieties grew well when sown from March to August, but could not get mature when sown after late September. The high fresh stem yields were observed for the varieties Sart and PT3-S, 79.28 t/hm2 and 78.58 t/hm2 for single growing season, and 157.95 t/hm2 and 155.25 t/hm2 for two growing seasons. Ripening began from the end of June to late December, making the feed stock available for ethanol production from July to the end of December, even January next year.
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[Biotransformation of daidzein by resting cell system of bacterial strain isolated from bovine rumen gastric juice].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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In previous study we isolated a gram-positive bacterial strain, designated Niu-O16, from bovine rumen gastric juice. The growing cells of bacterial strain Niu-O16 is capable of biotransforming isoflavone daidzein into dihydrodaidzein efficiently under anaerobic conditions. In this study we investigated the optimal bioconversion conditions for the resting cells of bacterial strain Niu-O16 to convert daidzein into dihydrodaidzein. Single factor test showed that the optimal conditions for the initial pH of phosphate buffer, the concentration of the resting cell and the concentration of the substrate daidzein were 6.0-8.0, 32-64 mg/mL (wet weight) and 0.8-1.2 mmol/L, respectively. Orthogonal experiments were used to determine the optimal combination of the resting cell concentration, substrate concentration and biotransformation time. The results showed that the optimal combination included resting cell concentration 32 mg/mL, substrate concentration 0.8 mmol/L and the biotransformation time 24 h. Furthermore, the biotransformation kinetics under optimal conditions were studied, under which conditions the highest bioconversion rate was 63.9% in the resting cell system. The results might provide information for resting cell biotransforming of anaerobes as well as its industrial application.
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A novel CdSe/CdS quantum dot-based competitive fluoroimmunoassay for the detection of clenbuterol residue in pig urine using magnetic core/shell Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles as a solid carrier.
Anal Sci
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor fluorescent nanoparticles, which can be used for food safety or environmental monitoring with high sensitivity. This work demonstrates the feasibility of detecting clenuterol residue in pig urine using CdSe/CdS quantum dots as fluorescent labels based magnetic core/shell Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles (MCFN) as solid carriers. The detection of clenbuterol is carried out by a fluoroimmunoassay-based biosensor using competitive binding between conjugated clenbuterol antigen-CdSe/CdS QDs and free clenbuterol with immobilized clenbuterol antibodies on MCFN. This assay method allows for clenbuterol determination in a linear working range of 0.5-20000 pg mL(-1). It would provide a simple, rapid, and ultra-sensitive detection method for clenbuterol or other biomolecular analysis.
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[C-ring cleavage of isoflavone daidzein by a newly-isolated facultative Enterococcus hirae AUH-HM195 from Crossoptilon mantchuricum feces].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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To isolate specific bacteria capable of biotransforming isoflavone daidzein.
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Identification and characterization of an Apis cerana cerana Delta class glutathione S-transferase gene (AccGSTD) in response to thermal stress.
Naturwissenschaften
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Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are members of a multifunctional enzyme super family that plays a pivotal role in both insecticide resistance and protection against oxidative stress. In this study, we identified a single-copy gene, AccGSTD, as being a Delta class GST in the Chinese honey bee (Apis cerana cerana). A predicted antioxidant response element, CREB, was found in the 1,492-bp 5-flanking region, suggesting that AccGSTD may be involved in oxidative stress response pathways. Real-time PCR and immunolocalization studies demonstrated that AccGSTD exhibited both developmental- and tissue-specific expression patterns. During development, AccGSTD transcript was increased in adults. The AccGSTD expression level was the highest in the honey bee brain. Thermal stress experiments demonstrated that AccGSTD could be significantly upregulated by temperature changes in a time-dependent manner. It is hypothesized that high expression levels might be due to the increased levels of oxidative stress caused by the temperature challenges. Additionally, functional assays of the recombinant AccGSTD protein revealed that AccGSTD has the capability to protect DNA from oxidative damage. Taken together, these data suggest that AccGSTD may be responsible for antioxidant defense in adult honey bees.
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Molecular cloning, expression and oxidative stress response of a mitochondrial thioredoxin peroxidase gene (AccTpx-3) from Apis cerana cerana.
J. Insect Physiol.
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Thioredoxin peroxidase (Tpxs) plays an important role in maintaining redox homeostasis and in protecting organisms from the accumulation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we isolated a mitochondrial thioredoxin peroxidase gene from Apis cerana cerana, AccTpx-3. The open reading frame (ORF) of AccTpx-3 is 729 bp in length and encodes a predicted protein of 242 amino acids, 27.084 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.70. Furthermore, the 980 bp 5 flanking region was cloned, and the transcription factor binding sites were predicted. A quantitative RT-PCR (Q-PCR) analysis indicated that AccTpx-3 was expressed higher in muscle than other tissues, with its highest expression occurring on the fourth day of the larval stage, followed by the fifteenth day of the adult stage. Moreover, the expression of the AccTpx-3 transcript was upregulated by such abiotic stresses as 4°C, 42°C, H(2)O(2), cyhalothrin, acaricide and phoxime treatments. In contrast, AccTpx-3 transcription was downregulated by other abiotic stresses, including 16°C, 25°C, ultraviolet light and HgCl(2). Recombinant AccTpx-3 protein acted as a potent antioxidant that resisted paraquat-induced oxidative stress and protected DNA from oxidative damage. Taken together, these results suggest that the AccTpx-3 protein is an antioxidant enzyme that may protect organisms from oxidative stress.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.