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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Terahertz-bandwidth photonic fractional Hilbert transformer based on a phase-shifted waveguide Bragg grating on silicon.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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We propose and experimentally demonstrate the first THz bandwidth on-chip photonic fractional Hilbert transformer. The reported design uses a novel approach, based on a uniform and nonapodized single phase-shifted integrated waveguide Bragg grating on silicon, where the fractional order P can be engineered by simply varying the effective index modulation ?n. Experimental results for P=1.5 show very low processing error for a broad range of pulse bandwidths between 77 GHz and 2.07 THz, corresponding to a time-bandwidth product as high as 27.
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On-chip programmable ultra-wideband microwave photonic phase shifter and true time delay unit.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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We proposed and experimentally demonstrated an ultra-broadband on-chip microwave photonic processor that can operate both as RF phase shifter (PS) and true-time-delay (TTD) line, with continuous tuning. The processor is based on a silicon dual-phase-shifted waveguide Bragg grating (DPS-WBG) realized with a CMOS compatible process. We experimentally demonstrated the generation of delay up to 19.4 ps over 10 GHz instantaneous bandwidth and a phase shift of approximately 160° over the bandwidth 22-29 GHz. The available RF measurement setup ultimately limits the phase shifting demonstration as the device is capable of providing up to 300° phase shift for RF frequencies over a record bandwidth approaching 1 THz.
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Precise control of the coupling coefficient through destructive interference in silicon waveguide Bragg gratings.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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We present waveguide Bragg gratings with misaligned sidewall corrugations on a silicon-on-insulator platform. The grating strength can be tuned by varying the misalignment between the corrugations on the two sidewalls. This approach allows for a wide range of grating coupling coefficients to be achieved with precise control, and substantially reduces the effects of quantization error due to the finite mask grid size. The experimental results are in very good agreement with simulations using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method.
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Screening and investigation of a cyanine fluorescent probe for simultaneous sensing of glutathione and cysteine under single excitation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Here we report the synthesis and screening of Cy-3-NO2 that showed simultaneous fluorescence sensing ability towards glutathione and cysteine under single excitation, and its application in living cell imaging.
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Pulmonary MicroRNA Expression Profiling in an Immature Piglet Model of Cardiopulmonary Bypass-Induced Acute Lung Injury.
Artif Organs
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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After surgery performed under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), severe lung injury often occurs in infants. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potentially involved in diverse pathophysiological processes via regulation of gene expression. The objective of this study was to investigate differentially expressed miRNAs and their potential target genes in immature piglet lungs in response to CPB. Fourteen piglets aged 18.6?±?0.5 days were equally divided into two groups that underwent sham sternotomy or CPB. The duration of aortic cross-clamping was 2?h, followed by 2?h reperfusion. Lung injury was evaluated by lung function indices, levels of cytokines, and histological changes. We applied miRNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis to determine miRNA expression. Meanwhile, qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for validation of predicted mRNA targets. The deterioration of lung function and histopathological changes revealed the piglets' lungs were greatly impaired due to CPB. The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, and interleukin 10 increased in the lung tissue after CPB. Using miRNA microarray, statistically significant differences were found in the levels of 16 miRNAs in the CPB group. Up-regulation of miR-21 was verified by PCR. We also observed down-regulation in the levels of miR-127, miR-145, and miR-204, which were correlated with increases in the expression of the products of their potential target genes PIK3CG, PTGS2, ACE, and IL6R in the CPB group, suggesting a potential role for miRNA in the regulation of inflammatory response. Our results show that CPB induces severe lung injury and dynamic changes in miRNA expression in piglet lungs. Moreover, the changes in miRNA levels and target gene expression may provide a basis for understanding the pathogenesis of CPB-induced injury to immature lungs.
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Fibrinogen concentrate improves survival during limited resuscitation of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in a Swine model.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of fibrinogen concentrate, as a hemostatic agent, on limited resuscitation of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. We use a swine model of hemorrhagic shock with free bleeding from a 4-mm aortic tear to test the effect of adding a one-time dose of fibrinogen concentrate given at the onset of limited fluid resuscitation. Immature female swine were anesthetized and subjected to catheter hemorrhage and aortic tear to induce uniform hemorrhagic shock. Animals (n = 7 per group) were then randomized to receive (i) no fluid resuscitation (neg control) or (ii) limited resuscitation in the form of two boluses of 10 mL/kg of 6% hydroxyethyl starch solution given 30 min apart (HEX group), or (iii) the same fluid regimen with one dose of 120-mg/kg fibrinogen concentrate given with the first hydroxyethyl starch bolus (FBG). Animals were then observed for a total of 6 h with aortic repair and aggressive resuscitation with shed blood taking place at 3 h. Survival to 6 h was significantly increased with FBG (7/8, 86%) versus HEX (2/7, 29%) and neg control (0/7, 0%) (FBG vs. HEX, Kaplan-Meier log-rank P = 0.035). Intraperitoneal blood loss adjusted for survival time was increased in HEX (0.4 mL/kg per minute) when compared with FBG (0.1 mg/kg per minute, P = 0.047) and neg control (0.1 mL/kg per minute, P = 0.041). Systemic and cerebral hemodynamics also showed improvement with FBG versus HEX. Fibrinogen concentrate may be a useful adjunct to decrease blood loss, improve hemodynamics, and prolong survival during limited resuscitation of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock.
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Novel Quantitative Metabolomic Approach for the Study of Stress Responses of Plant Root Metabolism.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Quantitative metabolomics (qMetabolomics) is a powerful tool for understanding the intricate metabolic processes involved in plant abiotic stress responses. qMetabolomics is hindered by the limited coverage and high cost of isotopically labeled standards. In this study, we first selected 271 metabolites which might play important roles in abiotic stress responses as the targets and established a comprehensive LC-MS/MS based qMetabolomic method. We then developed a novel metabolic labeling method using E. coli-Saccharomyces cerevisiae two-step cultivation for the production of uniformly (13)C-labeled metabolites as internal standards. Finally, we applied the developed qMetabolomic method to investigate the influence of Pb stress on maize root metabolism. The absolute concentration of 226 metabolites in maize roots was accurately quantified in a single run within 30 min. Our study also revealed that glycolysis, purine, pyrimidine, and phospholipids were the main metabolic pathways in maize roots involved in Pb stress response. To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive qMetabolomic method for plant metabolomics thus far. We developed a simple and inexpensive metabolic labeling method which dramatically expanded the availability of uniformly (13)C labeled metabolites. Our findings also provided new insights of maize metabolic responses to Pb stress.
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[Pro731Ser mutation in the ?-myosin heavy chain and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a Chinese pedigree].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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To identify the casual mutation of a Chinese pedigree with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and to analyze the genotype-phenotype relationship.
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Focusing sub-wavelength grating couplers with low back reflections for rapid prototyping of silicon photonic circuits.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We demonstrate fully-etched fiber-waveguide grating couplers with sub-wavelength gratings showing high coupling efficiency as well as low back reflections for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes. The power reflection coefficients for the TE and TM modes have been significantly suppressed to -16.2 dB and -20.8 dB, respectively. Focusing grating lines have also been used to reduce the footprint of the design. Our sub-wavelength grating couplers for the TE and TM modes show respective measured insertion losses of 4.1 dB and 3.7 dB with 1-dB bandwidths of 30.6 nm (3-dB bandwidth of 52.3 nm) and 47.5 nm (3-dB bandwidth of 81.5 nm), respectively.
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Optical bandpass/notch filter with independent tuning of wavelength and bandwidth based on a blazed diffraction grating.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We propose a multifunctional optical filter based on a blazed diffraction grating. The optical filter can function as a bandpass filter or a notch filter. A theoretical model of the filter is built for analysis. Both bandwidth and wavelength of the filter can be independently and continuously tuned. In the experimental demonstration, the wavelength can be linearly tuned within the entire C-band and partial L-band. The bandwidths of the filter can be tuned from 1.3 to 6.4 nm (-3 dB bandwidth) and from 2.4 to 11.3 nm (-10 dB bandwidth) for bandpass function and from 6.9 to 11.9 nm (-3 dB bandwidth) and from 5.1 to 8.8 nm (-10 dB bandwidth) for band-stop function, respectively. The extinction ratio of more than 35 dB is achieved.
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Magnetic Bead-Based Colorimetric Immunoassay for Aflatoxin B1 Using Gold Nanoparticles.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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A competitive colorimetric immunoassay for the detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB) has been established using biofunctionalized magnetic beads (MBs) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Aflatoxin B1-bovine serum albumin conjugates (AFB-BSA) modified MBs were employed as capture probe, which could specifically bind with GNP-labeled anti-AFB antibodies through immunoreaction, while such specific binding was competitively inhibited by the addition of AFB. After magnetic separation, the supernatant solution containing unbound GNPs was directly tested by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The absorption intensity was directly proportional to the AFB concentration. The influence of GNP size, incubation time and pH was investigated in detail. After optimization, the developed method could detect AFB in a linear range from 20 to 800 ng/L, with the limit of detection at 12 ng/L. The recoveries for spiked maize samples ranged from 92.8% to 122.0%. The proposed immunoassay provides a promising approach for simple, rapid, specific and cost-effective detection of toxins in the field of food safety.
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Tissue Depletion of Quinocetone and Its Five Major Metabolites in Pigs, Broilers, and Carp Fed Quinocetone Premix.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2014
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A residue depletion study was performed to investigate the tissue kinetics of quinocetone (1) and its major metabolites. Quinocetone and its major metabolites were simultaneously quantitated with a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method. A total of 25 pigs, 30 broilers, and 50 carp were fed 100 mg/kg quinocetone for 90, 42, and 60 days, respectively. Liver, kidney, muscle, and fat (skin) tissues were collected at five different withdrawal times for analysis. Results revealed that quinocetone, 1-desoxyquinocetone (2), carbonyl-reduced 4-desoxyquinocetone (4), 3-methylquinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (5), and carbonyl-reduced dideoxyquinocetone (6) could be depleted quickly in tissues; by contrast, dideoxyquinocetone, 3, persisted for a long time in the liver. Therefore, the liver is possibly the target tissue of quinocetone, and 3 is the residual marker; the recommended withdrawal times (WDTs) are 0 days in pigs and carp and 3 days in broilers. These results provided clear monitoring tools and technical standards to evaluate the food safety of quinocetone.
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[Application of microperimeter in the visual function evaluation].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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In condition of direct vision on hindus of eye, microperimeter can quantitatively detect the retinal light sensitivity of macular area, and record real time tracking of the eye, automatically analyze the location and stability of fixation. Microperimeter matches hindus image with micro cyclogram point-to-point, thus it achieves the combination of visual function and structure. The characteristics of microperimeter have good relations with subjective vision, so it can be a new method for the accurate vision evaluation and has application potential to assess the visual function in legal medicine. In this article, we summarize the principle, method and parameters of microperimeter. Also, the applications of microperimeter in vision assessment are focused in order to provide a reference for the assessment of visual function in the legal medicine.
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Comparison of Antiviral Activity of Lambda-Interferons Against HIV Replication in Macrophages.
J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Lambda-interferons (IFN-?s) have been demonstrated as having the ability to inhibit HIV replication in macrophages. However, specific differences in signaling transduction and anti-HIV activity in macrophages between different IFN-?s are unclear. Here, we showed that although all 3 members of (IFN-?1, ?2, and ?3) IFN-? family induced the expression of a number of genes of janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway in monocyte-derived macrophages, IFN-?1 or IFN-?3 induced higher levels of antiviral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) expression than did IFN-?2. In addition, IFN-?1 or IFN-?3 induced higher levels of several pattern recognition receptors (PPRs) than did IFN-?2. Incubation of IFN-?s with HIV-infected macrophages showed that IFN-?1 or IFN-?3 is more potent in anti-HIV activity than IFN-?2. We also showed that IFN-? treatment before HIV infection was more potent in HIV inhibition than that after HIV infection. Further investigations showed that the inductions of ISGs and PPRs expression by IFN-?s were largely compromised by HIV infection. These findings provide further experimental evidence that IFN-?s have therapeutic potential in treatment of HIV infection.
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Effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia on cardiac function and myocardial cell apoptosis in isoproterenol-induced chronic heart failure rats.
J Interv Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) on cardiac function and myocardial cell apoptosis in isoproterenol (ISO) induced chronic heart failure (CHF) rats.
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Managing end of life medications at home-accounts of bereaved family carers: a qualitative interview study.
BMJ Support Palliat Care
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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To explore how bereaved family members recall managing end of life medications when delivering care to a patient dying at home in England.
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Hybrid balloon valvuloplasty through the ascending aorta via median sternotomy in infants with severe congenital valvular aortic stenosis: feasibility of a new method†
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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To evaluate a novel hybrid balloon valvuloplasty procedure for severe congenital valvular aortic stenosis in low-weight infants, performed through the ascending aorta via median sternotomy.
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Automatic heart positioning method in computed tomography scout images.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Computed tomography (CT) radiation dose can be reduced significantly by region of interest (ROI) CT scan. Automatically positioning the heart in CT scout images is an essential step to realize the ROI CT scan of the heart. This paper proposed a fully automatic heart positioning method in CT scout image, including the anteroposterior (A-P) scout image and lateral scout image. The key steps were to determine the feature points of the heart and obtaining part of the heart boundary on the A-P scout image, and then transform the part of the boundary into polar coordinate system and obtain the whole boundary of the heart using slant elliptic equation curve fitting. For heart positioning on the lateral image, the top and bottom boundary obtained from A-P image can be inherited. The proposed method was tested on a clinical routine dataset of 30 cases (30 A-P scout images and 30 lateral scout images). Experimental results show that 26 cases of the dataset have achieved a very good positioning result of the heart both in the A-P scout image and the lateral scout image. The method may be helpful for ROI CT scan of the heart.
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[Research on ECG de-noising method based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition and wavelet transform using improved threshold function].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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A de-noising method for electrocardiogram (ECG) based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and wavelet threshold de-noising theory is proposed in our school. We decomposed noised ECG signals with the proposed method using the EEMD and calculated a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Then we selected IMFs and reconstructed them to realize the de-noising for ECG. The processed ECG signals were filtered again with wavelet transform using improved threshold function. In the experiments, MIT-BIH ECG database was used for evaluating the performance of the proposed method, contrasting with de-noising method based on EEMD and wavelet transform with improved threshold function alone in parameters of signal to noise ratio (SNR) and mean square error (MSE). The results showed that the ECG waveforms de-noised with the proposed method were smooth and the amplitudes of ECG features did not attenuate. In conclusion, the method discussed in this paper can realize the ECG denoising and meanwhile keep the characteristics of original ECG signal.
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Fluorographene with high fluorine/carbon ratio: a nanofiller for preparing low-? polyimide hybrid films.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Sufficient amounts of fluorographene sheets with different sheet-size and fluorine/carbon ratio were synthesized for preparing of fluorographene/polyimide hybrids in order to explore the effect of fluorographene on the dielectric properties of hybrid materials. It is found that the fluorine/carbon ratio, width of band gap, and sheet-size of fluorographene play the important roles in determining the final dielectric properties of hybrids. The fluorographene with high fluorine/carbon ratio (F/C ? 1) presents broaden band gap, enhanced hydrophobicity, good dispersity and thermal stability, etc. Even at a very low filling, only 1 wt %, its polyimide hybrids exhibited drastically reduced dielectric constants as low as 2.1 without sacrificing thermal stability, improved mechanical properties obviously and decreased water absorption by about 120% to 1.0 wt %. This provides a novel route for improving the dielectric properties of materials and a new thought to carry out the application of fluorographene as an advanced material.
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Anatomy of the Sural Nerve with an Emphasis on the Incision for Medial Displacement Calcaneal Osteotomy.
J Foot Ankle Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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An inappropriately positioned skin incision for medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy can put the sural nerve at risk; however, unanimous agreement has not been reached about the optimal strategy for making this incision. In the present cadaveric study, 20 cadaveric specimens were dissected to describe the anatomic course of the sural nerve within the operative area and to provide a more practical reference for surgeons to make a safe incision. The following points were used in the analyses: point A, the tip of the lateral malleolus; point B, the inferior margin of the calcaneus on the plumb line through point A; point C, the posteroinferior margin of the calcaneus; and point D, the lateral border of the Achilles tendon on the same level (collinear) with point A. With careful dissection, the distances of the sural nerve to points A and B in the vertical direction (lines D1 and D2, respectively), to points A and C in the diagonal direction (lines D3 and D4, respectively), and to points A and D in the horizontal direction (lines D5 and D6, respectively) were measured. The landmarks were identified and the distances measured by 3 independent researchers. The median ratio of D1 to D1+D2, D3 to D3+D4, and D5 to D5+D6 was 0.36 (range 0.20 to 0.47), 0.26 (range 0.19 to 0.32), and 0.43 (range 0.34 to 0.52), respectively. Accordingly, we believe it is relatively safe to make an oblique incision that runs through the point that is no less than one third of the distance from the tip of the lateral malleolus to the posteroinferior margin of the calcaneus.
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Characteristics of CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1-A20-NF-?B expression in T cell-acute lymphocytic leukemia.
Eur. J. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Knowledge of the oncogenic signaling pathways of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) remains limited. Constitutive aberrant activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) signaling pathway has been detected in various lymphoid malignancies and plays a key role in the development of these carcinomas. The zinc finger-containing protein, A20, is a central regulator of multiple NF-?B-activating signaling cascades. A20 is frequently inactivated by deletions and/or mutations in several B-and T-cell lymphoma subtypes. However, few A20 mutations and polymorphisms have been reported in T-ALL. Thus, it is of interest to analyze the expression characteristics of A20 and its regulating factors, including upstream regulators and the CBM complex, which includes CARMA1, BCL10, and MALT1.
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Structure-function analysis of porcine cytochrome P450 3A29 in the hydroxylation of T-2 toxin as revealed by docking and mutagenesis studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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T-2 toxin, one of the type A trichothecenes, presents a potential hazard to human and animal health. Our previous work demonstrated that porcine cytochrome P450 3A29 (CYP3A29) played an important role in the hydroxylation of T-2 toxin. To identify amino acids involved in this metabolic process, T-2 toxin was docked into a homology model of CYP3A29 based on a crystal structure of CYP3A4 using AutoDock 4.0. Nine residues of CYP3A29, Arg105, Arg106, Phe108, Ser119, Lys212, Phe213, Phe215, Arg372 and Glu374, which were found within 5 Å around T-2 toxin were subjected to site-directed mutagenesis. In the oxidation of nifedipine, the CLint value of R106A was increased by nearly two-folds compared with the wild-type CYP3A29, while the substrate affinities and CLint values of S119A and K212A were significantly reduced. In the hydroxylation of T-2 toxin, the generation of 3'-OH-T-2 by R105A, S119A and K212A was significantly less than that by the wild-type, whereas R106A slightly increased the generation of 3'-OH-T-2. These results were further confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry analysis, suggesting that these four residues are important in the hydroxylation of T-2 toxin and Arg105 may be a specific recognition site for the toxin. Our study suggests a possible structure-function relationship of CYP3A29 in the hydroxylation of T-2 toxin, providing with new insights into the mechanism of CYP3A enzymes in the biotransformation of T-2 toxin.
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Apoptotic effects of diosgeninlactoside on oral squamous carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Diosgenyl saponins possess a variety of biological functions. Herein, we demonstrate a new type of diosgenyl saponin derivatives that inhibit cellular proliferation of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines. Thereafter, we analyzed these cells' expression of apoptosis-related proteins. Crucial proteins that participate in apoptosis regulation including caspases 8, 9, and 3, and cleaved Bid were activated and upregulated accompanied by increased concentrations of diosgenyl saponins. Meanwhile, Bcl-2 was downregulated and mitochondrial membrane potential decreased. In our mice model of OSCC, compound 1 showed potent inhibition of solid tumor growth and salient antitumor activity. Diosgenyl ?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranoside might induce OSCC cell line apoptosis through extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, and might provide a mechanistic background for the development of this new type of diosgenylsaponin derivatives into anti-oral cancer agents against OSCC.
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Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) rs246079 G/A polymorphism is associated with decreased risk of esophageal cancer in a Chinese population.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer-associated death worldwide. In addition to environmental risk factors, genetic factors might play an important role in esophageal cancer carcinogenesis. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the association between functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) and the development of esophageal cancer. A total of 380 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases and 380 controls were recruited for this study. The UNG rs3219218 A/G and UNG rs246079 G/A genotypes were determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). When the UNG rs246079 GG homozygote genotype was used as the reference group, the GA genotype was associated with a significantly decreased risk for ESCC (GA vs. GG: adjusted OR 0.67, 95 % CI 0.49-0.91, P = 0.011); the AA genotype was not associated with the risk of ESCC. In stratification analyses, a significantly decreased risk of ESCC associated with the UNG rs246079 G/A polymorphism was evident among women, younger patients and never-smokers and never-drinkers. The UNG rs3219218 A/G polymorphism was not associated with the risk for ESCC. These findings indicated that UNG rs246079 G/A might contribute to a decreased risk of ESCC in specific populations. Because of the limited sample size, further studies including a larger and more diverse population, as well as tissue-specific biological characterization, are required to confirm the current findings.
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The results of a two-stage double switch operation for congenital corrected transposition of the great arteries with a deconditioned morphologically left ventricle.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate a two-stage double switch operation, morphological left ventricular (mLV) retraining followed by an atrial-arterial switch operation, in the management of patients with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (CCTGA) and a deconditioned mLV.
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Hyperspectral imaging of exciton photoluminescence in individual carbon nanotubes controlled by high magnetic fields.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) provide an exceptional platform for studying one-dimensional excitons (bound electron-hole pairs), but the role of defects and quenching centers in controlling emission remains controversial. Here we show that, by wrapping the CNT in a polymer sheath and cooling to 4.2 K, ultranarrow photoluminescence (PL) emission line widths below 80 ?eV can be seen from individual solution processed CNTs. Hyperspectral imaging of the tubes identifies local emission sites and shows that some previously dark quenching segments can be brightened by the application of high magnetic fields, and their effect on exciton transport and dynamics can be studied. Using focused high intensity laser irradiation, we introduce a single defect into an individual nanotube which reduces its quantum efficiency by the creation of a shallow bound exciton state with enhanced electron-hole exchange interaction. The emission intensity of the nanotube is then reactivated by the application of the high magnetic field.
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SUMOylation-Dependent LRH-1/PROX1 Interaction Promotes Atherosclerosis by Decreasing Hepatic Reverse Cholesterol Transport.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is an antiatherogenic process in which excessive cholesterol from peripheral tissues is transported to the liver and finally excreted from the body via the bile. The nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) drives expression of genes regulating RCT, and its activity can be modified by different posttranslational modifications. Here, we show that atherosclerosis-prone mice carrying a mutation that abolishes SUMOylation of LRH-1 on K289R develop less aortic plaques than control littermates when exposed to a high-cholesterol diet. The mechanism underlying this atheroprotection involves an increase in RCT and its associated hepatic genes and is secondary to a compromised interaction of LRH-1 K289R with the corepressor prospero homeobox protein 1 (PROX1). Our study reveals that the SUMOylation status of a single nuclear receptor lysine residue can impact the development of a complex metabolic disease such as atherosclerosis.
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The association of red blood cell distribution width with anemia and inflammation in patients with Takayasu arteritis.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) has been shown to be related to both anemia and inflammation in various diseases. However, the role of RDW in patients with Takayasu arteritis (TA) is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the association of RDW with anemia, inflammation, and disease activity in TA.
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Methyl-CpG binding domain 4 tagging polymorphisms and esophageal cancer risk in a Chinese population.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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In 2009, esophageal cancer was recorded as the fifth most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in China. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) accounts for more than 90% of esophageal cancers. Genetic factors might play an important role in the carcinogenesis of ESCC. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the association between methyl-CpG binding domain 4 (MBD4) rs3138373 A>G, rs2005618 T>C, and rs3138355 G>A tag single nucleotide polymorphisms and the risk of developing ESCC. A total of 629 ESCC patients and 686 controls were recruited. Genotypes were determined using the ligation detection reaction method. When the MBD4 rs3138355 GG homozygous genotype was used as the reference group, the GA, AA, and GA/AA genotypes were not associated with ESCC risk. In the recessive model, when the MBD4 rs3138355 GG/GA genotypes were used as the reference group, the AA homozygous genotype was associated with a 28% decreased risk for ESCC (AA vs.
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Evaluation of miR-720 prognostic significance in patients with colorectal cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Aberrant expression of miR-720 had been reported in several cancers. However, the expression level and prognostic value of miR-720 in colorectal cancer (CRC) had not been addressed. In our study, we detected the expression level of miR-720 in 96 CRC tissues to evaluate its clinicopathological characteristics in colorectal cancer. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was performed to evaluate the prognostic role of miR-720 in patients with CRC. Furthermore, in vitro, we transfected the miR-720 mimics or inhibitors into the corresponding CRC cell lines and evaluated the effects on the abilities of cell growth, colony formation, migration, wound healing, and invasion in CRC cells. Our data showed that miR-720 level was significantly upregulated in CRC tissues than that in corresponding normal-appearing tissues (NATs) (p?
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Associations between extreme precipitation and childhood hand, foot and mouth disease in urban and rural areas in Hefei, China.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Understanding the relationship between extreme weather events and childhood hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is important in the context of climate change. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between extreme precipitation and childhood HFMD in Hefei, China, and further, to explore whether the association varied across urban and rural areas.
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[Clinical efficacies of bilevel positive airway pressure ventilator treatment in uremic patients with acute heart failure].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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To explore the clinical efficacies of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) ventilation in uremic patients with acute heart failure.
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Aberrant expression of p-STAT3 in peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells related to hepatocellular carcinoma development.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancer types worldwide. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein is a member of the STAT transcription factor family. Oncogenesis, invasion, and metastasis of HCC are associated with activation of STAT3. However, whether aberrant expression of phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) in peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T cells relates to HCC pathogenesis remains unclear. In this study, the expression of p-STAT3 in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and the levels of interferon-? (IFN-?), interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6 and IL-10 in the human hepatoma cell line Huh7 co-cultured with peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs) of healthy volunteers were measured. The correlations between p-STAT3 and IFN-?/IL-4, IFN-?, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 were then analyzed. Results showed that the p-STAT3 level is higher in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the peripheral blood of HCC patients, and in PBMCs co-cultured with Huh7 cells compared to controls. The cytokine (IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) levels were increased and the IFN-? level was decreased in the serum of HCC patients and in supernatants of PBMCs co-cultured with Huh7 cells. Correlation analyses demonstrated that the IFN-?/IL-4 ratio and the IFN-? level negatively correlate to the p-STAT3 level in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in samples from patients and in cells cultured in vitro. By contrast, the levels of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 positively correlated to the p-STAT3 level. This study indicated that the expression of p-STAT3 is upregulated in peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of HCC patients, and which may result in abnormal immune surveillance and thereby, contribute to HCC pathogenesis.
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Development of a novel genetically modified bioluminescent-bacteria-based assay for detection of fluoroquinolones in animal-derived foods.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Fluoroquinolones (FQNs) are broad-spectrum antibacterial agents widely used in animal husbandry and aquaculture. The residues and antimicrobial resistance of such antibiotics are a major public health concern. To realize multianalyte detection of FQN residues, a genetically modified bacterium, Escherichia coli pK12 harboring plasmid pRecAlux3, was constructed in this study to develop a bioluminescent-bacteria-based assay for the detection of FQNs in animal-derived foods. This assay was based on the principle of induction of an SOS response by FQNs via inducing the recA-promoter-fused luciferase reporter gene existing on the plasmid pRecAlux3. E. coli pK12 was able to recognize 11 FQNs: difloxacin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, sarafloxacin, norfloxacin, danofloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, lomefloxacin, marbofloxacin, and orbifloxacin. This method could be applied to 11 edible tissues, including milk, fish muscle, and the muscles, livers, and kidneys of cattle, chickens, and pigs, with a very simple and rapid sample extraction procedure using only phosphate-buffered saline. The limits of detection of the FQNs were between 12.5 and 100 ?g kg(-1), all of which were lower than the maximum residue limits. Most of the recoveries of the FQNs were in the range from 60 to 120 %, and the interassay coefficients of variation were less than 30 %. This method, confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography, is reliable and can be used as both a screening test and a semiquantitative assay, when the identity of a single type of FQN is known.
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Theoretical investigation of the mechanisms and dynamics of the reaction CHF2OCF 2CHFCl+Cl.
J Mol Model
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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The reaction of CHF2OCF2CHFCl with atomic chlorine was studied using B3LYP/6-311G(d,p), BHandHLYP/6-311G(d,p), and M06-2X/6-311G(d,p) methods and further using CCSD(T) and QCISD(T) methods. Two hydrogen abstraction channels were found for the title reaction. Dynamics calculations were followed by means of canonical variational transition state with the small-curvature tunneling correction between 220 and 2,000 K. Our rate constant k?=?2.90?×?10(-15) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) is in reasonable agreement with the available data (3.20?±?0.32)?×?10(-15) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 296 K. The three-parameter Arrhenius expression (in the unit of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) for the title reaction is given as k (T)?=?1.38?×?10 (-19)? T (2.57) exp (-2622.95/T).
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Regulation of human genome expression and RNA splicing by human papillomavirus 16 E2 protein.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is causative in human cancer. The E2 protein regulates transcription from and replication of the viral genome; the role of E2 in regulating the host genome has been less well studied. We have expressed HPV16 E2 (E2) stably in U2OS cells; these cells tolerate E2 expression well and gene expression analysis identified 74 genes showing differential expression specific to E2. Analysis of published gene expression data sets during cervical cancer progression identified 20 of the genes as being altered in a similar direction as the E2 specific genes. In addition, E2 altered the splicing of many genes implicated in cancer and cell motility. The E2 expressing cells showed no alteration in cell growth but were altered in cell motility, consistent with the E2 induced altered splicing predicted to affect this cellular function. The results present a model system for investigating E2 regulation of the host genome.
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Novel behaviors of multiferroic properties in Na-Doped BiFeO? nanoparticles.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Highly aliovalent Na(1+) ions were selected as the dopant to substitute Bi(3+) ions in BiFeO? (BFO) and Bi1-xNaxFeO? (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) nanoparticles prepared via a facile sol-gel method. Weak ferromagnetism and an obvious exchange bias (EB) phenomenon without field cooling were observed in the samples. To establish the presence of EB in the nanoparticles, training effect (TE) data were analyzed using Binek's model. Moreover, with the increase in Na(1+) content, the band gap was decreased, while interestingly, the leakage current density was significantly reduced and the smallest leakage current density (?10(-7) A cm(-2)) was observed for the 3% Na-doped BFO. The electrical conduction mechanism of samples was investigated by plotting log?J versus log?E. Oxygen vacancies decreased with the increase of Na content analyzed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. To further explain the decrease of band gap and leakage current density with the increase of Na content, the interplay of oxygen vacancies and holes was analyzed and a phenomenological qualitative model based on the electronic energy band proposed.
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Stability and predictors of change in salivary cortisol measures over six years: MESA.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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A major challenge in characterizing features of the daily cortisol curve is variability in features over time. Few studies have examined the stability of daily features of the cortisol curve over long periods or the predictors of long term changes. Repeated salivary cortisol measures on 580 adults from the MESA Stress study were used to examine the stability of various features of the daily cortisol curve (wakeup value, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), the early and late decline slope and the area under the curve (AUC)), over short periods (several days) and long periods (approximately 6-years) and to investigate the association of demographic factors with the changes. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to estimate the short and long term stability. Piecewise linear mixed models were used to assess factors associated with changes in features over time. For most features, short term stability (ICCs: 0.17-0.74) was higher than long term stability (ICCs: 0.05-0.42), and long term stability was highest when several days were averaged for each time point. The decline over the day showed the highest long term stability: when several days for each wave were averaged the stability of the daily decline slope across 6 years was similar (or higher) than the stability across short periods. AUC had high stability over short periods (ICCs: 0.65-0.74) but much lower stability across long periods (ICC: 0.05). All features of daily cortisol curve investigated changed significantly over the approximately 6 year follow-up period. The wakeup cortisol became higher; the CAR became smaller; both the early and late decline became flatter; and the AUC became larger. Hispanics experienced significantly larger increases in the wakeup value; and African-Americans and Hispanics showed less flattening over time of the early decline slope than Non-Hispanic Whites. Our findings have implications for characterization of features in studies linking cortisol to health outcomes. The presence of variability over time suggests opportunities for future investigation of the predictors of changes over time as well as the links between these changes and health outcomes.
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Detection of uric acid depositing in tophaceous gout using a new dual energy spectral CT technology.
J Xray Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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To assess the feasibility and diagnostic value of detecting uric acid depositing among patients with tophaceous gout using a dual energy CT based Gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) technology for qualitative analysis of uric acid.
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Generalized Nash Bargaining Solution to Rate Control Optimization for Spatial Scalable Video Coding.
IEEE Trans Image Process
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Rate control (RC) optimization is indispensable for scalable video coding (SVC) with respect to bitstream storage and video streaming usage. From the perspective of centralized resource allocation optimization, the inner-layer bit allocation problem is similar to the bargaining problem. Therefore, bargaining game theory can be employed to improve the RC performance for spatial SVC. In this paper, we propose a bargaining game based one-pass RC scheme for spatial H.264/SVC. In each spatial layer (SL), the encoding constraints, such as bit rates, buffer size are jointly modeled as resources in the inner-layer bit allocation bargaining game. The modified rate-distortion (R-D) model incorporated with the inter-layer coding information is investigated. Then the generalized Nash bargaining solution (NBS) is employed to achieve an optimal bit allocation solution. The bandwidth is allocated to the frames from the generalized NBS adaptively based on their own bargaining powers. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed rate control algorithm achieves appealing image quality improvement and buffer smoothness. The average mismatch of our proposed algorithm is within the range of 0:19%2:63%.
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Interleukin?21 promotes the development of ulcerative colitis and regulates the proliferation and secretion of follicular T helper cells in the colitides microenvironment.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) are at increased risk of developing colitis?associated colon cancer. Previous studies have indicated that interleukin (IL)?21, which is predominantly secreted by follicular T helper (Tfh) cells, is overproduced in inflammatory bowel diseases. In order to investigate the role of IL?21 in UC and the association between IL?21 and Tfh cells, the number of Tfh cells and the level of IL?21 were investigated in colonic tissues from UC patients and wild?type (WT) mice, which were induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). High Tfh cell counts and levels of IL?21 were observed in UC patients and WT mice with DSS?induced colitis. Subsequent comparison of the mucosal damage and expression of Tfh?associated cytokines in the WT mice and IL?21 knockout (IL?21KO) mice following DSS administration, revealed that IL?21KO mice were largely protected against colitis and exhibited reduced infiltration of Tfh cells, as well as decreased production of Tfh?associated cytokines. The present study also found that IL?21 was necessary for the proliferation and secretion of Tfh cells in vitro. In addition, neutralization of IL?21 in DSS?administered WT mice using anti?IL?21 reduced the number of Tfh cells and the level of mucosal damage. Administration of a neutralizing IL?21 antibody decreased the colonic infiltration of Tfh cells and reduced damage to the mucosa. These results indicated that Tfh cells are important in UC and that its effector molecule, IL?21, is not only a critical regulator of inflammation, but also regulates the proliferation and response of Tfh cells in the colitis microenvironment.
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[Effect of grazing on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration in Hulunber meadow steppe].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Grazing is one of the major human activities which lead to disturbance on grassland ecosystem. Quantifying the effect of grazing on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration ( Q10 ) is essential for accurate assessment of carbon budget in grassland ecosystem. This study was conducted on the grazing gradients experiment platform in Hulunber meadow steppe. Soil respiration was measured by a dynamic closed chamber method (equipped with Li 6400-09, Lincoln, NE, USA) during the growing season in 2011. The results showed that soil respiration had significant seasonal variation and the maximum occurred in July, which was mainly dominated by temperature. The order of average soil respiration during the period from May to September in different treatments was G1 > GO > G2 > G3 > G4 > G5. Comparing with non-grazing treatment, Q10 under heavy grazing conditions (0. 92 Au hm-2) was reduced by about 10% , and was increased a little under light grazing conditions (0. 23 Au hm-2). There was a significant negative correlation between Q15 and grazing intensities (r = 0. 944, P <0. 05) . Grazing could decrease the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration to different degrees. The Q10 under different grazing gradients had positive linear regression relationships with aboveground biomass, belowground biomass, soil organic carbon and soil moisture. They could explain 71.0%-85.2% variations of Q10. It was suggested that the variation of Q10 was mainly determined by the change of biotic and environmental factors due to grazing.
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Integrated system of structural health monitoring and intelligent management for a cable-stayed bridge.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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It is essential to construct structural health monitoring systems for large important bridges. Zhijiang Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge that was built recently over the Hangzhou Qiantang River (the largest river in Zhejiang Province). The length of Zhijiang Bridge is 478 m, which comprises an arched twin-tower space and a twin-cable plane structure. As an example, the present study describes the integrated system of structural health monitoring and intelligent management for Zhijiang Bridge, which comprises an information acquisition system, data management system, evaluation and decision-making system, and application service system. The monitoring components include the working environment of the bridge and various factors that affect bridge safety, such as the stress and strain of the main bridge structure, vibration, cable force, temperature, and wind speed. In addition, the integrated system includes a forecasting and decision-making module for real-time online evaluation, which provides warnings and makes decisions based on the monitoring information. From this, the monitoring information, evaluation results, maintenance decisions, and warning information can be input simultaneously into the bridge monitoring center and traffic emergency center to share the monitoring data, thereby facilitating evaluations and decision making using the system.
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[Inhibitory effect of kukoamine B on lung inflammatory responses in mice with sepsis].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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To investigate the inhibitory effect of kukoamine B (KB) on lung inflammatory responses in mice with sepsis and its possible molecular mechanism.
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Function of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in Takayasu arteritis disease monitoring.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Increased levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Inflammation may also affect levels of NT-proBNP. We investigated the relationship of NT-proBNP with inflammation, disease activity, disease severity, and progression of Takayasu arteritis (TA).
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MegaTevs: single-chain dual nucleases for efficient gene disruption.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Targeting gene disruptions in complex genomes relies on imprecise repair by the non-homologous end-joining DNA pathway, creating mutagenic insertions or deletions (indels) at the break point. DNA end-processing enzymes are often co-expressed with genome-editing nucleases to enhance the frequency of indels, as the compatible cohesive ends generated by the nucleases can be precisely repaired, leading to a cycle of cleavage and non-mutagenic repair. Here, we present an alternative strategy to bias repair toward gene disruption by fusing two different nuclease active sites from I-TevI (a GIY-YIG enzyme) and I-OnuI E2 (an engineered meganuclease) into a single polypeptide chain. In vitro, the MegaTev enzyme generates two double-strand breaks to excise an intervening 30-bp fragment. In HEK 293 cells, we observe a high frequency of gene disruption without co-expression of DNA end-processing enzymes. Deep sequencing of disrupted target sites revealed minimal processing, consistent with the MegaTev sequestering the double-strand breaks from the DNA repair machinery. Off-target profiling revealed no detectable cleavage at sites where the I-TevI CNNNG cleavage motif is not appropriately spaced from the I-OnuI binding site. The MegaTev enzyme represents a small, programmable nuclease platform for extremely specific genome-engineering applications.
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Crosstalk of JNK1-STAT3 is critical for RAW264.7 cell survival.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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T-2 toxin, a major compound of trichothecenes, inhibits protein synthesis and induces inflammation and cell apoptosis through the activation of MAPK pathway. The JAK/STAT pathway has recently been shown to be downstream targets of trichothecenes. However, whether there is any crosstalk between JNK and JAK/STAT pathways in trichothecene toxicity has not been studied. In the present study, we explored this potential in RAW264.7 cells treated with T-2 toxin. Our results revealed a crosstalk between JNK1 and STAT3 after T-2 toxin treatment, which was mediated by K-Ras. T-2 toxin treatment resulted in rapid phosphorylation, and more importantly, JNK1-STAT3 signaling pathway was shown to maintain the normal function of the mitochondria and to inhibit T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis. Therefore, this pathway was considered to be a potential cell survival pathway. Breakdown and degranulation of ribosomes in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and swelling of mitochondria were clearly visible after the cells had been incubated with T-2 toxin for 12h. Our data suggest that T-2 toxin had a Janus face: it induced both apoptotic and cell survival pathways. These results suggest that the crosstalk and the balance between MAPK and JAK/STAT pathway might be involved in T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis in RAW264.7 cells.
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Ildr1b is essential for semicircular canal development, migration of the posterior lateral line primordium and hearing ability in zebrafish: implications for a role in the recessive hearing impairment DFNB42.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Immunoglobulin-like domain containing receptor 1 (ILDR1) is a poorly characterized gene that was first identified in lymphoma cells. Recently, ILDR1 has been found to be responsible for autosomal recessive hearing impairment DFNB42. Patients with ILDR1 mutations cause bilateral non-progressive moderate-to-profound sensorineural hearing impairment. However, the etiology and mechanism of ILDR1-related hearing loss remains to be elucidated. In order to uncover the pathology of DFNB42 deafness, we used the morpholino injection technique to establish an ildr1b-morphant zebrafish model. Ildr1b-morphant zebrafish displayed defective hearing and imbalanced swimming, and developmental delays were seen in the semicircular canals of the inner ear. The gene expression profile and real-time PCR revealed down-regulation of atp1b2b (encoding Na(+)/K(+) transporting, beta 2b polypeptide) in ildr1b-morphant zebrafish. We found that injection of atp1b2b mRNA into ildr1b-knockdown zebrafish could rescue the phenotype of developmental delay of the semicircular canals. Moreover, ildr1b-morphant zebrafish had reduced numbers of lateral line neuromasts due to the disruption of lateral line primordium migration. In situ hybridization showed the involvement of attenuated FGF signaling and the chemokine receptor 4b (cxcr4b) and chemokine receptor 7b (cxcr7b) in posterior lateral line primordium of ildr1b-morphant zebrafish. We concluded that Ildr1b is crucial for the development of the inner ear and the lateral line system. This study provides the first evidence for the mechanism of Ildr1b on hearing in vivo and sheds light on the pathology of DFNB42.
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Matrine improved the function of heart failure in rats via inhibiting apoptosis and blocking ?3?adrenoreceptor/endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Matrine, an alkaloid isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Sophora flavescens AIT has exhibited a number of therapeutic effects on cardiovascular and liver diseases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether matrine has a protective effect on heart failure in rats. Coronary artery ligation was used to induce a heart failure (CHF) model in rats. Four weeks following the procedure, the rats were treated with different doses of matrine for one month. Histopathological examination demonstrated that matrine treatment alleviated myocardial hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis in failing hearts. Furthermore, matrine administration also inhibited the increase of plasma aspartate amino transferase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels in CHF rats. The rats with heart failure exhibited a significant reduction in ejection fraction and fractional shortening, as well as an increase in the left ventricular end systolic dimension, and matrine attenuated this decline in heart function. Further investigation demonstrated that matrine treatment also inhibited the upregulation of Bax and increase in the Bcl?2 expression in the failing hearts. Furthermore, the upregulation of ?3-adrenoreceptor (AR) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase proteins following heart failure were also attenuated by matrine. In conclusion, matrine had a preventive role in heart failure in rats at least in part by inhibiting myocardial apoptosis and the ?3-AR pathway.
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Measuring individual morphological relationship of cortical regions.
J. Neurosci. Methods
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Although local features of brain morphology have been widely investigated in neuroscience, the inter-regional relations in brain morphology have rarely been investigated, especially not for individual participants.
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Advanced glycation end products induce oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in SH-SY5Y cells.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the direct effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on the mitochondrial structure and function of SH-SY5Y cells and the possible molecular mechanism(s) underlying mitochondria dysfunction by AGEs. SH-SY5Y cells were cultured in 400 ?g/ml of AGE-bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 24 h, and changes in the mitochondrial function of SH-SY5Y cells were analysed as follows. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate molecular probes. Mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) was determined by flow cytometry using fluorescent probes. The expression of cytochrome c (Cyt c) protein level was assessed by Western blotting. Mitochondrial structures were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Our results showed that AGE-BSA induced an increase in ROS levels, a decrease in mitochondrial ??m, and the release of Cyt c from mitochondria in SH-SY5Y cells. The mitochondria of SH-SY5Y cells showed remarkable swelling and vacuolisation, but these changes were recovered after pretreatment with neutralising anti-receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) antibody. Our results suggested that AGE-BSA induced mitochondrial dysfunction in SH-SY5Y cells through RAGE pathways. Thus, AGEs are potential mechanistic links between diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease.
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Exogenous carbon monoxide suppresses Escherichia coli vitality and improves survival in an Escherichia coli-induced murine sepsis model.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Aim:Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) has been shown to modulate inflammation and inhibit cytokine production both in vivo and in vitro. The aim of this study was to examine whether exogenous carbon monoxide could suppress the vitality of Escherichia coli (E coli) and improve the survival rate in an E coli-induced murine sepsis model.Methods:ICR mice were infected with E coli, and immediately injected intravenously with carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg) or inactive CORM-2 (8 mg/kg). The survival rate was monitored 6 times daily for up to 36 h. The blood samples, liver and lung tissues were collected at 6 h after the infection. Bacteria in peritoneal lavage fluid, blood and tissues were enumerated following culture. Tissue iNOS mRNA expression was detected using RT-PCR. NF-?B expression was detected with Western blotting.Results:Addition of CORM-2 (200 and 400 ?mol/L) into culture medium concentration-dependently suppressed the growth of E coli and decreased the colony numbers, but inactive CORM-2 had no effect. Treatment of the infected mice with CORM-2 significantly increased the survival rate to 55%, while all the infected mice treated with inactive CORM-2 died within 36 h. E coli infection caused severe pathological changes in liver and lungs, and significantly increased serum transaminases, lipopolysaccharide, TNF-? and IL-1? levels, as well as myeloperoxidase activity, TNF-? and IL-1? levels in the major organs. Meanwhile, E coli infection significantly increased the number of colonies and the expression of iNOS mRNA and NF-?B in the major organs. All these abnormalities were significantly attenuated by CORM-2 treatment, while inactive CORM-2 was ineffective.Conclusion:In addition directly suppressing E coli, CORM-2 protects the liver and lungs against E coli-induced sepsis in mice, thus improving their survival.
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Risk Factors Associated with Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation after Corrective Surgery for Tetralogy of Fallot.
Congenit Heart Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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This study examined early postoperative results to identify perioperative factors that are associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) in tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) patients undergoing corrective surgery.
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Two-photon luminescence and second harmonic generation from gold micro-plates.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Micron-sized gold plates were prepared by reducing chloroauric acid with lemongrass extract. Their two-photon luminescence (TPL) and second harmonic generation (SHG) were investigated. The results show that the TPL and SHG intensity of gold plates is dependent on the wavelength and polarization of excitation laser. The TPL intensity of gold plates decreases with the increase of the excitation wavelength except for a small peak around 820-840 nm, while SHG intensity increases with the excitation wavelength redshift. In addition, it is found that the TPL intensity of the gold plate's edge is related with the angle between the edge orientation and the polarization direction of the excitation light. The TPL intensity increases with the angle increase from 0° to 90°.
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Temperature variation between neighboring days and mortality: a distributed lag non-linear analysis.
Int J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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To investigate whether a sudden temperature change between neighboring days has significant impact on mortality.
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Malaria outbreaks in China (1990-2013): a systematic review.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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China has already achieved remarkable accomplishments in shrinking the malaria burden since the mid-20th Century. The country now plans to eliminate malaria by the year 2020. Looking at the dynamics of malaria outbreaks during the last decades might provide important information regarding the potential challenges of such an elimination strategy and might help to avoid mistakes of the past.
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The E3 ligase RNF34 is a novel negative regulator of the NOD1 pathway.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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To identify the regulator of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) and its regulatory function.
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Alcohol enhances HIV infection of cord blood monocyte-derived macrophages.
Curr. HIV Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Alcohol consumption or alcohol abuse is common among pregnant HIV(+) women and has been identified as a potential behavioral risk factor for the transmission of HIV. In this study, we examined the impact of alcohol on HIV infection of cord blood monocyte-derived macrophages (CBMDM). We demonstrated that alcohol treatment of CBMDM significantly enhanced HIV infection of CBMDM. Investigation of the mechanisms of alcohol action on HIV demonstrated that alcohol inhibited the expression of several HIV restriction factors, including anti-HIV microRNAs, APOBEC3G and APOBEC3H. Additionally, alcohol also suppressed the expression of IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), an intracellular sensor of viral infection. The suppression of these IFN regulatory factors was associated with reduced expression of type I IFN. These experimental findings suggest that maternal alcohol consumption may facilitate HIV infection, promoting vertical transmission of HIV.
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Interaction of a screw dislocation with a nano-sized, arbitrarily shaped inhomogeneity with interface stresses under anti-plane deformations.
Proc. Math. Phys. Eng. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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We propose an elegant and concise general method for the solution of a problem involving the interaction of a screw dislocation and a nano-sized, arbitrarily shaped, elastic inhomogeneity in which the contribution of interface/surface elasticity is incorporated using a version of the Gurtin-Murdoch model. The analytic function inside the arbitrarily shaped inhomogeneity is represented in the form of a Faber series. The real periodic function arising from the contribution of the surface mechanics is then expanded as a Fourier series. The resulting system of linear algebraic equations is solved through the use of simple matrix algebra. When the elastic inhomogeneity represents a hole, our solution method simplifies considerably. Furthermore, we undertake an analytical investigation of the challenging problem of a screw dislocation interacting with two closely spaced nano-sized holes of arbitrary shape in the presence of surface stresses. Our solutions quite clearly demonstrate that the induced elastic fields and image force acting on the dislocation are indeed size-dependent.
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Treatment of chronic deltoid ligament injury using suture anchors.
Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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To explore the efficacy of overlapping suture-anchor fixation for treatment of chronic deltoid ligament injury.
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Evaluation of matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction for 11 ?-agonists in swine feed by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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A sensitive liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of 11 ?-agonists (clenbuterol, salbutamol, ractopamine, terbutaline, fenoterol, cimaterol, isoxsuprine, mabuterol, mapenterol, clenproperol, and tulobuterol) in swine feed. This rapid, simple, and effective extraction method was based on matrix solid-phase dispersion. The limit of quantification of clenbuterol, cimaterol, mabuterol, salbutamol, terbutaline, mapenterol, clenproperol, and tulobuterol was 1 ?g/kg and that of ractopamine, fenoterol, and isoxsuprine was 2 ?g/kg. The recoveries of ?-agonists spiked in swine feeds at a concentration range of 1-8 ?g/kg were >83.1% with relative standard deviations <9.3%. This rapid and reliable method can be used to efficiently separate, characterize, and quantify the residues of 11 ?-agonists in swine feeds with advantages of simple pretreatment and environmental friendliness.
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Combination of pulse wave velocity with clinical factors as a promising tool to predict major adverse cardiac events after percutaneous coronary intervention.
J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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The relationship between aortic stiffness and coronary artery disease has been proven. Logistic Clinical SYNTAX score (LogCSS), which combined the anatomical evaluation of coronary artery disease and three clinical factors (age, left ventricular ejection fraction, and creatinine clearance), showed improved predictive value for cardiovascular events in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The combination of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and clinical factors may show equivalent predictive value.
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Study on typhoon characteristic based on bridge health monitoring system.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Through the wind velocity and direction monitoring system installed on Jiubao Bridge of Qiantang River, Hangzhou city, Zhejiang province, China, a full range of wind velocity and direction data was collected during typhoon HAIKUI in 2012. Based on these data, it was found that, at higher observed elevation, turbulence intensity is lower, and the variation tendency of longitudinal and lateral turbulence intensities with mean wind speeds is basically the same. Gust factor goes higher with increasing mean wind speed, and the change rate obviously decreases as wind speed goes down and an inconspicuous increase occurs when wind speed is high. The change of peak factor is inconspicuous with increasing time and mean wind speed. The probability density function (PDF) of fluctuating wind speed follows Gaussian distribution. Turbulence integral scale increases with mean wind speed, and its PDF does not follow Gaussian distribution. The power spectrum of observation fluctuating velocity is in accordance with Von Karman spectrum.
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Alpine cold vegetation response to climate change in the western Nyainqentanglha range in 1972-2009.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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The Tibetan Plateau is regarded as one of the most climatic-sensitive regions all over the world. Long-term remote sensing data enable us to monitor spatial-temporal change in this area. The vegetation changes of the western Nyainqentanglha region were detected by using RS and GIS techniques. And the vegetation coverage was derived by the NDVI-SMA (spectral mixture analysis) methods. An incensement of vegetation was observed in the mountain areas during 1972-2009 with a mean vegetation coverage of 24.87%, 35.89%, and 42.88% in 30/09/1972, 14/09/1991, and 30/08/2009, respectively. The vegetation fraction increased by 18% in the period of 1972-2009. The bin with the elevation between 4400 and 5200 m had the highest vegetation coverage. This may be the result of the mountain effect. Alpine vegetation had a trend to increase and expand to higher altitudes with the climate change in the past 40 years. The variation appears to be associated with an increase in mean temperature of 0.05 °C per year and an increase in precipitation of 1.83 mm per year in the growing season of the past four decades. The results provide further evidence of alpine ecosystem change due to climate change in the central Tibetan Plateau.
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The regulatory role of immunosuppressants on immune abnormalities in acute pancreatitis.
Biomed Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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The uncontrolled progression of the inflammatory cascade is the main cause underlying the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in acute pancreatitis. In this study, we investigated the effects of several immunosuppressants on mitigating the systemic inflammatory reaction syndrome (SIRS) and the compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS) associated with acute pancreatitis. A total of 93 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: group 1 was the sham group and group 2 underwent laparoscopic intrapancreatic duct injection of sodium taurocholate to induce pancreatitis. The remaining 3 groups were the same as group 2, with the addition of methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide or methotrexate treatment (metastab, CTX or MTX groups, respectively). Following establishment of the acute pancreatitis model, the serum levels of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were found to be significantly elevated. Following immunosuppressant administration, the levels of all inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines investigated in groups 3, 4 and 5 were decreased compared to those in group 2. The pancreatic amylase levels and pancreatic wet weight (PWW) were also decreased in groups 3, 4 and 5 compared to those in group 2. Therefore, immunosuppressants may reduce inflammation-related cytokine levels in acute pancreatitis and relieve disease progression.
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rAAV/ABAD-DP-6His attenuates oxidative stress-induced injury of PC12 cells.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Our previous studies have revealed that amyloid ? (A?)-binding alcohol dehydrogenase (ABAD) decoy peptide antagonizes A?42-induced neurotoxicity. However, whether it improves oxidative stress injury remains unclear. In this study, a recombinant adenovirus constitutively secreting and expressing A?-ABAD decoy peptide (rAAV/ABAD-DP-6His) was successfully constructed. Our results showed that rAAV/ABAD-DP-6His increased superoxide dismutase activity in hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress-mediated injury of PC12 cells. Moreover, rAAV/ABAD-DP-6His decreased malondialdehyde content, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, and the level of reactive oxygen species. rAAV/ABAD-DP-6His maintained the stability of the mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, the ATP level remained constant, and apoptosis was reduced. Overall, the results indicate that rAAV/ABAD-DP-6His generates the fusion peptide, A?-ABAD decoy peptide, which effectively protects PC12 cells from oxidative stress injury induced by hydrogen peroxide, thus exerting neuroprotective effects.
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Particle lithography-based patterning of polyelectrolyte template films and their application in fabrication of gold/silver nanoparticle assembly.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The site-specific deposition of polyelectrolytes (PEs) or PE/noble metallic nanoparticle (NP) composites at nanoscale is highly desirable owing to their diverse applications in nanodevices. Herein, we demonstrated a simple yet effective method to fabricate different types of surface micropatterns with PE/noble metallic NP composites via particle lithography. The positively charged PE of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and negatively charged NPs of gold/silver (Au/Ag) were used as a model system. The layer-by-layer self-assembly technique was employed as the fabricating strategy. The final nanostructures, consisting of Au NP films with inlaid circular vacant island microarrays or Au NP films with inlaid circular Ag NP island microarrays, were fabricated, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to investigate the structural morphology, microstructure, and the NP growth. Furthermore, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering performance has been obtained based on the as-prepared Au/Ag nanopatterns. Our method displayed an excellent opportunity for the simple and effective production of nanopatterns on the surfaces demonstrating significant advantages in designing novel nanodevices.
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Vasopressin decreases neuronal apoptosis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The American Heart Association and the European Resuscitation Council recently recommended that vasopressin can be used for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, instead of epinephrine. However, the guidelines do not discuss the effects of vasopressin during cerebral resuscitation. In this study, we intraperitoneally injected epinephrine and/or vasopressin during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a rat model of asphyxial cardiac arrest. The results demonstrated that, compared with epinephrine alone, the pathological damage to nerve cells was lessened, and the levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 expression were significantly decreased in the hippocampus after treatment with vasopressin alone or the vasopressin and epinephrine combination. No significant difference in resuscitation effects was detected between vasopressin alone and the vasopressin and epinephrine combination. These results suggest that vasopressin alone or the vasopressin and epinephrine combination suppress the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways and reduce neuronal apoptosis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.