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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Structures, chemotaxonomic significance, cytotoxic and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activities of new cardenolides from Asclepias curassavica.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Five new cardenolide lactates () and one new dioxane double linked cardenolide glycoside () along with 15 known compounds ( and ) were isolated from the ornamental milkweed Asclepias curassavica. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR). The molecular structures and absolute configurations of and were further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Simultaneous isolation of dioxane double linked cardenolide glycosides () and cardenolide lactates () provided unique chemotaxonomic markers for this genus. Compounds were evaluated for the inhibitory activities against DU145 prostate cancer cells. The dioxane double linked cardenolide glycosides showed the most potent cytotoxic effect followed by normal cardenolides and cardenolide lactates, while the C21 steroids were non-cytotoxic. Enzymatic assay established a correlation between the cytotoxic effects in DU145 cancer cells and the Ki for the inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Molecular docking analysis revealed relatively strong H-bond interactions between the bottom of the binding cavity and compounds or , and explained why the dioxane double linked cardenolide glycosides possessed higher inhibitory potency on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase than the cardenolide lactate.
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[Research progress of detecting large-diameter tail in lipid injectable emulsions].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Injectable lipid emulsions have been routinely used in patients since 1960s as a nutritional supplement for patients requiring parenteral nutrition. In recent years, lipid injectable emulsions have been extensively studied as a kind of novel drug carrier, also the quality problems of the lipid emulsion attract more and more attentions gradually. Large diameter tail of injectable lipid emulsions as a significant quality control indicator should pay more attention. Regarding to the defect of detecting large diameter tail of lipid injectable emulsions in our country, the purpose of this article is to summarize the techniques of detecting large diameter tail, illustrate the impacts of large lipid droplet on the quality of lipid injectable emulsions, emphasize the importance of detecting large diameter tail in lipid emulsions and provide guidance for researching and developing lipid emulsions in domestic market.
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Cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic Acid stimulates rice defense response to a piercing-sucking insect.
Mol Plant
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) is a destructive, monophagous, piercing-sucking insect pest of rice. Previous studies indicated that jasmonic acid (JA) positively regulates rice defense against chewing insect pests but negatively regulates it against the piercing-sucking insect of BPH. We here demonstrated that overexpression of allene oxide cyclase (AOC) but not OPR3 (cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) reductase 3, an enzyme adjacent to AOC in the JA synthetic pathway) significantly increased rice resistance to BPH, mainly by reducing the feeding activity and survival rate. Further analysis revealed that plant response to BPH under AOC overexpression was independent of the JA pathway and that significantly higher OPDA levels stimulated rice resistance to BPH. Microarray analysis identified multiple candidate resistance-related genes under AOC overexpression. OPDA treatment stimulated the resistance of radish seedlings to green peach aphid Myzus persicae, another piercing-sucking insect. These results imply that rice resistance to chewing insects and to sucking insects can be enhanced simultaneously through AOC-mediated increases of JA and OPDA and provide direct evidence of the potential application of OPDA in stimulating plant defense responses to piercing-sucking insect pests in agriculture.
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Mutation Choice to Eliminate Buried Free Cysteines in Protein Therapeutics.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Buried free-cysteine (Cys) residues can contribute to an irreversible unfolding pathway that promotes protein aggregation, increases immunogenic potential, and significantly reduces protein functional half-life. Consequently, mutation of buried free-Cys residues can result in significant improvement in the storage, reconstitution, and pharmacokinetic properties of protein-based therapeutics. Mutational design to eliminate buried free-Cys residues typically follows one of two common heuristics: either substitution by Ser (polar and isosteric), or substitution by Ala or Val (hydrophobic); however, a detailed structural and thermodynamic understanding of Cys mutations is lacking. We report a comprehensive structure and stability study of Ala, Ser, Thr, and Val mutations at each of the three buried free-Cys positions (Cys16, Cys83, and Cys117) in fibroblast growth factor-1. Mutation was almost universally destabilizing, indicating a general optimization for the wild-type Cys, including van der Waals and H-bond interactions. Structural response to Cys mutation characteristically involved changes to maintain, or effectively substitute, local H-bond interactions-by either structural collapse to accommodate the smaller oxygen radius of Ser/Thr, or conversely, expansion to enable inclusion of novel H-bonding solvent. Despite the diverse structural effects, the least destabilizing average substitution at each position was Ala, and not isosteric Ser. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci.
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Suppression of human breast cancer cell metastasis by coptisine in vitro.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Coptisine, an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Coptidis rhizoma, has many biological activities such as antidiabetic, antimicrobial and antiviral actions. However, whether coptisine exerts anti-cancer metastasis effects remains unknown.
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Expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 and protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 in the synovium of collagen-induced arthritis rats.
Chin. Med. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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To study the expression level of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PADI4) and protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) in the synovium of rat model of collagen-induced arthritis, and to explore their possible therapeutic role in rheumatoid arthritis.
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Curcumin induces apoptosis in SGC-7901 gastric adenocarcinoma cells via regulation of mitochondrial signaling pathways.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Curcumin, a polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa L. has been verified as an anticancer compound against several types of cancer. However, understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which it induces apoptosis is limited. In this study, the anticancer efficacy of curcumin was investigated in human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 cells. The results demonstrated that curcumin induced morphological changes and decreased cell viability. Apoptosis triggered by curcumin was visualized using Annexin V-FITC/7- AAD staining. Curcumin-induced apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells was associated with the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax that led to the cleavage of caspase-3 and increased cleaved PARP was observed in SGC-7901 cells treated with curcumin. Therefore, curcumin-induced apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells might be mediated through the mitochondria pathway, which gives the rationale for in vivo studies on the utilization of curcumin as a potential cancer therapeutic compound.
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Rapamycin enhances cetuximab cytotoxicity by inhibiting mTOR-mediated drug resistance in mesenchymal hepatoma cells.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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The synergistic effect of combined drug therapy provides an enhanced treatment for advanced liver cancer. We aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism of cetuximab sensitization by rapamycin in hepatoma cells. Four hepatoma cell lines, HepG2, HuH7, SNU-387, and SNU-449, were treated with cetuximab or cetuximab plus rapamycin and growth inhibition was evaluated by measuring relative cell viability and cell proliferation. The cell phenotype was determined for each hepatoma cell line by western blot analysis of E-cadherin and vimentin expression and mTOR activation status. To identify the role of mTOR signaling in cetuximab sensitization, we used deferoxamine-mediated hypoxia to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HuH7 and HepG2 cells and measured mTOR activity after rapamycin treatment. Rapamycin significantly increased cetuximab cytotoxicity in hepatoma cell lines with differential sensitivities. Phenotypic differences among hepatoma cell lines, specifically epithelial (HuH7 and HepG2) and mesenchymal (SNU-387 and SNU-449), correlated with the efficacy of rapamycin cotreatment, although rapamycin treatment did not affect cell phenotype. We further showed that rapamycin inhibits mTOR in mesenchymal SNU-387 and SNU-449 cells. In addition, the induction of EMT in HuH7 and HepG2 cells significantly decreased cetuximab cytotoxicity; however, rapamycin treatment significantly restored cetuximab sensitivity and decreased mTOR signaling in these cells. In conclusion, we identified significant differences in rapamycin-induced cetuximab sensitization between epithelial and mesenchymal hepatoma cells. We therefore report that rapamycin cotreatment enhances cetuximab cytotoxicity by inhibiting mTOR signaling in mesenchymal cells.
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Facile synthesis of multifunctional multi-walled carbon nanotube for pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus detection in fishery and environmental samples.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Interest in carbon nanotubes for detecting the presence of pathogens arises because of developments in chemical vapor deposition synthesis and progresses in biomolecular modification. Here we reported the facile synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), which functioned as immuno-, magnetic, fluorescent sensors in detecting Vibrio alginolyticus (Va). The structures and properties of functionalized MWCNTs were characterized by ultraviolet (UV), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), magnetic property measurement system (MPMS) and fluorescent spectra (FL). It was found that the functionalized MWCNTs showed: (1) low nonspecific adsorption for antibody-antigen, (2) strong interaction with antibody, and (3) high immune-magnetic activity for pathogenic cells. Further investigations revealed a strong positive linear relationship (R=0.9912) between the fluorescence intensity and the concentration of Va in the range of 9.0 × 10(2) to 1.5 × 10(6) cfum L(-1). Moreover, the relative standard deviation for 11 replicate detections of 1.0 × 10(4) cfum L(-1) Va was 2.4%, and no cross-reaction with the other four strains was found, indicating a good specificity for Va detection. These results demonstrated the remarkable advantages of the multifunctional MWCNTs, which offer great potential for the rapid, sensitive and quantitative detection of Va in fishery and environmental samples.
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Antagonistic effect of protein extracts from Streptococcus sanguinis on pathogenic bacteria and fungi of the oral cavity.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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An antibacterial substance from Streptococcus sanguinis (S. sanguinis) is known to have an inhibitory effect on putative periodontal pathogens, but its inhibitory effect on pathogens of oral candidiasis is unknown. In this study, intracellular and exocrine proteins were extracted from S. sanguinis. The antagonistic effect of the protein extracts on Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) was detected by a well-plate technique, and the effects of the protein extracts on biofilms formed by these bacteria were evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The antagonistic effect of the protein extracts on pathogenic fungi was investigated using Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Candida tropicalis (C. tropicalis). The growth curves of C. albicans and C. tropicalis were determined from ultraviolet absorption measurements, their morphological changes following treatment were observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and the effects of the protein extracts on the thickness of their biofilms and the distribution of dead/live bacteria within the biofilms were detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results showed significant inhibitory effects of the intracellular proteins extracted from S. sanguinis on pathogenic bacteria (P. intermedia and P. gingivalis), fungi (C. albicans and C. tropicalis) and the biofilms formed by them. Furthermore, the growth curves and morphology of C. albicans and C. tropicalis were altered following treatment with the intracellular proteins, resulting in disc-like depressions in the surfaces of the fungal spores and mycelia. By contrast, the exocrine proteins demonstrated no significant inhibitory effect on the pathogenic bacteria, fungi and the biofilms formed by them. Thus, it may be concluded that intracellular proteins of S. sanguinis have antibacterial activity and exert an antagonistic effect on certain pathogenic bacteria and fungi of the oral cavity.
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Efficacy of swim-up versus density gradient centrifugation in improving sperm deformity rate and DNA fragmentation index in semen samples from teratozoospermic patients.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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To compare the efficacy of swim-up and DGC in improving sperm deformity and DNA fragmentation and to determine which method is better in teratozoospermic patients requiring artificial reproduction.
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Establishment of Multiple Locus Variable-number Tandem Repeat Analysis Assay for Genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Detected in China.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Human Lyme Borreliosis (LB), which is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi), has been identified as a major arthropod-borne infectious disease in China. We aimed to develop a multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) assay for the genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi strains detected in China.
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Preparative separation of five flavones from flowers of Polygonum cuspidatum by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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A preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography method was successfully used for the isolation of five minor flavones from Polygonum cuspidatum flowers. Among them, three compounds were obtained from P. cuspidatum for the first time. A twin two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (1:6:3:6, v/v/v/v) and petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (2:4:3:3, v/v/v/v) was developed. Compounds were obtained from the fraction B and fraction C prepurified by silica gel column chromatography. Five minor compositions, 6.8 mg of hesperidin, 11.2 mg of phloridzin, 4.9 mg of luteolin, 5.3 mg of hyperin, and 3.7 mg of luteoloside were obtained from 140 mg of the fraction B and 110 mg of fraction C with a purity of 95.3, 96.4, 98.0, 96.8, and 95.3%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The structures of these compounds were identified by (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy.
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with paranasal sinus invasion: the prognostic significance and the evidence-based study basis of its T-staging category according to the AJCC staging system.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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To evaluate the prognostic significance of paranasal sinus invasion for patients with NPC and to provide empirical proofs for the T-staging category of paranasal sinus invasion according to the AJCC staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
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Enhanced activated carbon cathode performance for microbial fuel cell by blending carbon black.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Activated carbon (AC) is a useful and environmentally sustainable catalyst for oxygen reduction in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but there is great interest in improving its performance and longevity. To enhance the performance of AC cathodes, carbon black (CB) was added into AC at CB:AC ratios of 0, 2, 5, 10, and 15 wt % to increase electrical conductivity and facilitate electron transfer. AC cathodes were then evaluated in both MFCs and electrochemical cells and compared to reactors with cathodes made with Pt. Maximum power densities of MFCs were increased by 9-16% with CB compared to the plain AC in the first week. The optimal CB:AC ratio was 10% based on both MFC polarization tests and three electrode electrochemical tests. The maximum power density of the 10% CB cathode was initially 1560 ± 40 mW/m(2) and decreased by only 7% after 5 months of operation compared to a 61% decrease for the control (Pt catalyst, 570 ± 30 mW/m(2) after 5 months). The catalytic activities of Pt and AC (plain or with 10% CB) were further examined in rotating disk electrode (RDE) tests that minimized mass transfer limitations. The RDE tests showed that the limiting current of the AC with 10% CB was improved by up to 21% primarily due to a decrease in charge transfer resistance (25%). These results show that blending CB in AC is a simple and effective strategy to enhance AC cathode performance in MFCs and that further improvement in performance could be obtained by reducing mass transfer limitations.
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Efficiency of plant induced volatiles in attracting Encarsia formosa and Serangium japonicum, two dominant natural enemies of whitefly Bemisia tabaci in China.
Pest Manag. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a globally distributed and most destructive pest to agriculture. Owing to increasing chemical resistance, a long-lasting strategy to manage this pest must involve biological control. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) usually play a profoundly important role in the foraging behaviour of natural enemies. Here, the effects of HIPVs from Chinese broccoli on the foraging behaviour of two dominant natural enemy species of B. tabaci in China, Encarsia formosa and Serangium japonicum, were investigated using a four-arm olfactometer, and exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) was used to induce plant volatiles to mimic the damage of the herbivore pest.
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Significance of agitation-induced shear stress on mycelium morphology and lavendamycin production by engineered Streptomyces flocculus.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Lavendamycin methyl ester (LME) is a derivative of a highly functionalized aminoquinone alkaloid lavendamycin and could be used as a scaffold for novel anticancer agent development. This work demonstrated LME production by cultivation of an engineered strain of Streptomyces flocculus CGMCC4.1223 ?stnB1, while the wild-type strain did not produce. To enhance its production, the effect of shear stress and oxygen supply on ?stnB1 strain cultivation was investigated in detail. In flask culture, when the shaking speed increased from 150 to 220 rpm, the mycelium was altered from a large pellet to a filamentous hypha, and the LME production was almost doubled, while no significant differences were observed among varied filling volumes, which implied a crucial role of shear stress in the morphology and LME production. To confirm this suggestion, experiments with agitation speed ranging from 400 to 1,000 rpm at a fixed aeration rate of 1.0 vvm were conducted in a stirred tank bioreactor. It was found that the morphology became more hairy with reduced pellet size, and the LME production was enhanced threefolds when the agitation speed increased from 400 to 800 rpm. Further experiments by varying initial k L a value at the same agitation speed indicated that oxygen supply only slightly affected the physiological status of ?stnB1 strain. Altogether, shear stress was identified as a major factor affecting the cell morphology and LME production. The work would be helpful to the production of LME and other secondary metabolites by filamentous microorganism cultivation.
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Effects of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation on the interstitial cells of Cajal.
Cell Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) have recently been found to display phenotypic changes. The present study is designed to determine whether phenotypic changes occur in ICC associated with an inflammatory microenvironment and whether the ICC phenotype could be recovered after the discontinuation of inflammatory stimuli. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed that the functional ICC marker, c-kit, was markedly reduced in patients with Hirschsprung's disease (n = 34) compared with controls (n = 12), whereas another marker of ICC, CD34, was not altered significantly. Compared with the vehicle group (n = 6), intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1.5 mg/kg) in mice (n = 6) significantly induced plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) levels as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction assessment further showed that LPS injection markedly suppressed intestinal c-kit protein and mRNA expression, which could be blocked by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) deficiency (n = 6) rather than TLR2 deficiency (n = 6) and had no effects on CD34. Compared with the vehicle group (n = 6), intraperitoneal TNF-? (30 ?g/kg) administration (n = 6) also significantly reduced intestinal c-kit protein and mRNA levels but not CD34 levels. However, the reduction of c-kit induced by TNF-? injection was not suppressed by TLR4 deficiency (n = 6). Intestinal c-kit protein and mRNA levels were markedly restored after the discontinuation of TNF-? administration for 7 days. Moreover, immunofluorescence analysis of primary ICC further confirmed that exposure to TNF-? for 24 h suppressed c-kit expression, which could be restored after discontinuation of TNF-? exposure. CD34 expression was not altered upon exposure to TNF-?. Thus, phenotypic changes in ICC occur in an inflammatory microenvironment in the gut and LPS, TLR4 and TNF? are crucial to this process.
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Operation performance and microbial community dynamics of phosphorus removal sludge with different electron acceptors.
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Operation performances of phosphorus removal sludge with different electron acceptors in three parallel SBRs were firstly compared in the present study, and the effect of post-aeration on denitrifying phosphorus removal was also studied. Moreover, community dynamics of different phosphorus removal sludge was systematically investigated with high-throughput sequencing for the first time. TP removal rates for nitrate-, nitrite-, and oxygen-based phosphorus removal sludge were 84.8, 78.5, and 87.4 %, with an average effluent TP concentration of 0.758, 0.931, and 0.632 mg/l. The average specific phosphorus release and uptake rates were 20.3, 10.8, and 21.5, and 9.43, 8.68, and 10.8 mgP/(gVSS h), respectively. Moreover, electron utilization efficiency of denitrifying phosphorus removal sludge with nitrate as electron acceptor was higher than nitrite, with P/e(-) were 2.21 and 1.51 mol-P/mol-e(-), respectively. With the assistance of post-aeration for nitrate-based denitrifying phosphorus removal sludge, settling ability could be improved, with SVI decreased from 120 to 80 and 72 ml/g when post-aeration time was 0, 10, and 30 min, respectively. Moreover, further phosphorus removal could be achieved during post-aeration with increased aeration time. However, the anoxic phosphorus uptake was deteriorated, which was likely a result of shifted microbial community structure. Post-aeration of approximately 10 min was proposed for denitrifying phosphorus removal. Nitrate- and nitrite-based denitrifying phosphorus removal sludge exhibited similar community structure. More phosphorus accumulating organisms were enriched under anaerobic-aerobic conditions, while anaerobic-anoxic conditions were favorable for suppressing glycogen-accumulating organisms. Significant differences in pathogenic bacterial community profiles revealed in the current study indicated the potential public health hazards of non-aeration activated sludge system.
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Stereotactic gamma-ray body radiation therapy for asynchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma.
Radiol Med
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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To preliminarily evaluate the feasibility, therapeutic effect and toxicity of stereotactic gamma-ray body radiation therapy (?-SBRT) for asynchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma (bRCC).
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Preparation of regenerated keratin sponge from waste feathers by a simple method and its potential use for oil adsorption.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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In this work, pigeon feathers, a kind of totally waste by-product from the poultry industry, were utilized to fabricate a highly porous keratin sponge in a very simple way by freeze-drying treatment of the dissolved keratin solution, and applied for the first time as an oil adsorbent. An improved method was proposed to dissolve the feather keratin using the inexpensive sodium disulfite as the reducing reagent for sulfitolysis reaction, with a much lower concentration of all involving reaction regents. Moreover, the regenerated keratin sponges obtained a high oil adsorption capacity of above 30 g/g for both liquid paraffin and soybean oil, as well as a good oil holding ability, suggesting that this keratin sponge might be a potential for use as oil adsorbent.
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Enhanced oral absorption and therapeutic effect of acetylpuerarin based on D-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate nanoemulsions.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Acetylpuerarin (AP), because of its lower water solubility, shows poor absorption that hinders its therapeutic application. Thus, the aim of this study was to prepare nanoemulsions for AP, enhance its oral bioavailability, and thus improve the therapeutic effect.
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Prognostic impact of cigarette smoking on the survival of patients with established nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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Cigarette smoking is associated with the etiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma; however, the influence of smoking on survival in patients with established nasopharyngeal carcinoma remains unknown.
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[Analysis and identification of degradation products of buagafuran by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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An HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method was developed for rapid analysis and identification of degradation products of buagafuran. Buagafuran and degradation products were separated on a Zorbax C8 column (5 microm, 4.6 mm x 150 mm) using acetonitrile-water (78 : 22) as mobile phase. The elutes were detected with diode array detector and tandem mass spectrometer via electrospray ionization source in positive ion mode. According to analysis of the retention time, UV spectra and MS, MS/MS data, combined with the possible degradation reaction of buagafuran, the structures of main degradation products were inferred. The results showed that six main degradation products were oxidation or peroxidation productions of buagafuran. Degradation product A was a double bond epoxidation product of buagafuran, degradation products B, C, D and E were the further oxidation products of degradation product A, degradation product F was a peroxidation product of buagafuran. The results indicated that the established method was effective in the rapid identification of the degradation products of buagafuran.
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Rotary self-locking intramedullary nail for long tubular bone fractures.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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Intramedullary nails had been widely used in the treatment of long-bone fractures because of less interference of fractures and center bearing biomechanical advantage. However, it had been also found many shortcomings such as broken nails, delayed healing and was modified in order to achieve better efficacy and reduce complications. The aim of the present study is to compare the efficacy of rotary self-locking intramedullary nails (RSIN) with that of interlocking intramedullary nails (IIN) in the treatment of long-bone fractures.
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[Effects nutrients on the seedlings root hair development and root growth of Poncirus trifoliata under hydroponics condition].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Ahydroponics experiment was conducted to study the effects of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) deficiency on the length of primary root, the number of lateral roots, and the root hair density, length, and diameter on the primary root and lateral roots of Poncirus trifoliata seedlings. Under the deficiency of each test nutrient, root hair could generate, but was mainly concentrated on the root base and fewer on the root tip. The root hair density on lateral roots was significantly larger than that on primary root, but the root hair length was in adverse. The deficiency of each test nutrient had greater effects on the growth and development of root hairs, with the root hair density on primary root varied from 55.0 to 174.3 mm(-2). As compared with the control, Ca deficiency induced the significant increase of root hair density and length on primary root, P deficiency promoted the root hair density and length on the base and middle part of primary root and on the lateral roots significantly, Fe deficiency increased the root hair density but decreased the root hair length on the tip of primary root significantly, K deficiency significantly decreased the root hair density, length, and diameter on primary root and lateral roots, whereas Mg deficiency increased the root hair length of primary root significantly. In all treatments of nutrient deficiency, the primary root had the similar growth rate, but, with the exceptions of N and Mg deficiency, the lateral roots exhibited shedding and regeneration.
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[Accumulation of S, Fe and Cd in rhizosphere of rice and their uptake in rice with different water managements].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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The interactions between the concentrations of sulfur, iron and cadmium in the rhizosphere and their uptakes in rice (Oryza sativa L. ) were studied using paddy soil which was contaminated by acid mine drainage under five water-management treatments of 60%, 80%, 100% field moisture capacity (FMC), flooded throughout the entire rice growth period and flooded followed by keeping 80% FMC after heading-flowering period. The water managements had no significant influence on the Fe and Cd concentrations in rhizosphere soil in maturity stage, although the concentration of Cd slightly increased with the increase of soil moisture in the tillering stage. However, the uptake of Fe and Cd in rice was obviously related to water managements. The increase of soil moisture enhanced the uptake of Fe, but decreased the uptake of Cd in different organs of rice (roots, stems and leaves, grains) except for Cd uptake of the root in the 60% FMC treatment. However, aerobic treatment after heading-flowering period enhanced Cd uptake in rice in all treatments, but did not influence the uptake of Fe in rice. On the other hand, the increase of soil moisture reduced the concentrations of total sulfur and available sulfur in the rhizosphere soil except for the 60% FMC treatment, which corresponded with the reduction of Cd uptake in rice. And the aerobic treatment promoted Cd uptake in rice, which was also positively related to the increase of total sulfur and available sulfur in rhizosphere soil. Therefore, it was concluded that the uptake and speciation of sulfur in rhizosphere soil other than the change of Fe concentration induced by water management could play an important role in Cd uptake of rice.
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Three-Dimensional Framework of Vigor, Organization, and Resilience (VOR) for Assessing Rangeland Health: A Case Study from the Alpine Meadow of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.
Ecohealth
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Rangeland health assessments play an important role in providing qualitative and quantitative data about ecosystem attributes and rangeland management. The objective of this study is to test the feasible of a modified model and visualize the health in a three-dimensional model. A modified Costanza model was employed, and eight indicators, including the biomass, biodiversity, and carrying capacity [associated with the vigor, organization, and resilience (VOR)] were applied. An entropy method was also developed to calculate the weight of each indicator, and a three-dimensional framework was applied to visualize the indicators and health index. The conceptual model was demonstrated using data from a case study on the alpine rangeland of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, one of the globally important grassland biomes being severely degraded by natural and human factors. The health indices of four grassland plots at different levels of degradation were calculated using a modified approach to measuring their VOR. The results indicated that the least disturbed plot was relatively healthy compared to the other plots. In addition, the health indices presented in the three-dimensional VOR framework decreased in a consistent manner across the four plots along the disturbance gradients. Such rangeland health assessments should be integrated with management efforts to insure their long-term sustainable use.
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Use of pyrolyzed iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid modified activated carbon as air-cathode catalyst in microbial fuel cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Activated carbon (AC) is a cost-effective catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). To enhance the catalytic activity of AC cathodes, AC powders were pyrolyzed with iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (FeEDTA) at a weight ratio of FeEDTA:AC = 0.2:1. MFCs with FeEDTA modified AC cathodes and a stainless steel mesh current collector produced a maximum power density of 1580 ± 80 mW/m(2), which was 10% higher than that of plain AC cathodes (1440 ± 60 mW/m(2)) and comparable to Pt cathodes (1550 ± 10 mW/m(2)). Further increases in the ratio of FeEDTA:AC resulted in a decrease in performance. The durability of AC-based cathodes was much better than Pt-catalyzed cathodes. After 4.5 months of operation, the maximum power density of Pt cathode MFCs was 50% lower than MFCs with the AC cathodes. Pyridinic nitrogen, quaternary nitrogen and iron species likely contributed to the increased activity of FeEDTA modified AC. These results show that pyrolyzing AC with FeEDTA is a cost-effective and durable way to increase the catalytic activity of AC.
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Optimization of pulse-field gel electrophoresis for Borrelia burgdorferi subtyping.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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To optimize the performance of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) for the comparison of inter-laboratory results and information exchange of Borrelia burgdorferi subtyping.
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Enhancing charge harvest from microbial fuel cells by controlling the charging and discharging frequency of capacitors.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Capacitor is a storage device to harvest charge produced from microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In intermittent charging mode, the capacitor is charged by an MFC first, and then discharged through an external resistance. The charge harvested by capacitor is affected by the charging and discharging frequency. In the present study, the effect of the charging and discharging frequency on charge harvest was investigated. At the switching time (ts) of 100 s, the average current over each time segment reached its maximum value (1.59 mA) the earliest, higher than the other tested conditions, and the highest COD removal (63%) was also obtained, while the coulombic efficiency reached the highest of 67% at the ts of 400 s. Results suggested that lower ts led to higher current output and COD removal, but appropriate ts should be selected in consideration of charge recovery efficiency.
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Pseudomonas reactans, a bacterial strain isolated from the intestinal flora of Blattella germanica with anti-Beauveria bassiana activity.
Environ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Anti-Beauveria bassiana activity of aqueous fecal extracts from conventional German cockroaches [Blattella germanica (L.)] was detected, but was not detected in samples from germ-free German cockroaches. Subsequently, bacterial strain BGI-14 was isolated from the gut of conventional German cockroaches and was identified as Pseudomonas reactans based on 16S rDNA sequence. The strain BGI-14 not only inhibited the germination of conidia, but also inhibited the growth of B. bassiana hyphae. Further studies demonstrated that B. bassiana infections in German cockroaches orally treated with the extracts of BGI-14 fermentation were significantly weakened. Compared with the control group, the cumulative mortality rate of treatment group was reduced by 10.3% at 20 d postinoculation. These studies imply that intestinal flora with anti-B. bassiana activity might contribute to resistance of infection by entomopathogenic fungi.
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25-Hydroxyvitamin D is closely related with the function of the pancreatic islet ? cells.
Pak J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2013
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Objectives: This study is to investigate the relationship between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) and pancreatic islet ? cell function under different glucose tolerance statuses in China. Methodology: Totally, 180 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM group), 178 patients with impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance (IFG/IGT group), and 160 normal control subjects (NGT group) were included to measure their body parameters and biochemical parameters. In oral glucose tolerance test, fasting serum 25-OH-D was assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (Homa-IR), insulin acuity index (IAI), ?-cell function index (Homa-BCF) as well as secretion index (IS) were determined. Results: The levels of 25-OH-D, IAI and Homa-BCF in the DM group and IFG/IGT group were significantly lower than that in NGT group (P < 0.05). Homa-IR in DM group and IFG/IGT group was significantly higher than that in the NGT group (P < 0.05). Pearson correlation analysis and partial correlation analysis showed that 25-OH-D was positively correlated with fasting insulin (FINS) and Homa-BCF (P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that 25-OH-D was one of the influential factors of pancreatic islet ? cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: Our results suggest that 25-OH-D is closely related with the function of the pancreatic islet ? cells and is one of the influential factors of pancreatic islet ? cell function.
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Endostatin/collagen XVIII is increased in cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Recent studies have suggested that endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin/collagen XVIII might play an important role in the secondary brain injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, we measured endostatin/collagen XVIII concentrations serially for 1 week after hospitalization by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 30 patients with TBI and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 or less on admission. There was a significant trend toward increased CSF levels of endostatin after TBI versus control from 72?h after injury. In patients with GCS score of 3-5, CSF endostatin concentration was substantially higher at 72?h after injury than that in patients with GCS score of 6-8 (P < 0.05) and peaked rapidly at day 5 after injury, but decreased thereafter. The CSF endostatin concentration in 12 patients with an unfavorable outcome was significantly higher than that in 18 patients with a favorable outcome at day 5 (P = 0.043) and day 7 (P = 0.005) after trauma. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested a reliable operating point for the 7-day CSF endostatin concentration predicting poor prognosis to be 67.29?pg/mL. Our preliminary findings provide new evidence that endostatin/collagen XVIII concentration in the CSF increases substantially in patients with sTBI. Its dynamic change may have some clinical significance on the judgment of brain injury severity and the assessment of prognosis. This trial is registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01846546.
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Factors related to clinical pregnancy after vitrified-warmed embryo transfer: a retrospective and multivariate logistic regression analysis of 2313 transfer cycles.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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What factors does multivariate logistic regression show to be significantly associated with the likelihood of clinical pregnancy in vitrified-warmed embryo transfer (VET) cycles?
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[Analysis of the molecular characteristics and cloning of full-length coding sequence of interleukin-2 in tree shrews].
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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While the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is an excellent animal model for studying the mechanisms of human diseases, but few studies examine interleukin-2 (IL-2), an important immune factor in disease model evaluation. In this study, a 465 bp of the full-length IL-2 cDNA encoding sequence was cloned from the RNA of tree shrew spleen lymphocytes, which were then cultivated and stimulated with ConA (concanavalin). Clustal W 2.0 was used to compare and analyze the sequence and molecular characteristics, and establish the similarity of the overall structure of IL-2 between tree shrews and other mammals. The homology of the IL-2 nucleotide sequence between tree shrews and humans was 93%, and the amino acid homology was 80%. The phylogenetic tree results, derived through the Neighbour-Joining method using MEGA5.0, indicated a close genetic relationship between tree shrews, Homo sapiens, and Macaca mulatta. The three-dimensional structure analysis showed that the surface charges in most regions of tree shrew IL-2 were similar to between tree shrews and humans; however, the N-glycosylation sites and local structures were different, which may affect antibody binding. These results provide a fundamental basis for the future study of IL-2 monoclonal antibody in tree shrews, thereby improving their utility as a model.
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[Isolation and identification of Tupaia orthoreovirus].
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Pathogenic viruses can harm acutely the life and health of laboratory tree shrews acutely; however, few papers exist regarding natural pathogenic virus infection in this species. Six fecal samples obtained from dead tree shrews were collected. The fecal supernatant infected Vero cell line resulted in cytopathic effects (CPE) after 72 h. The CPE included granulating, shrinking, rounding, seining and falling off. Electron microscopy showed the isolation was spherical, double-layered capsid, and about 75 nm in diameter. The purified isolation genome was 10 segments in a typical 3:3:4 arrangements, as shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The isolation was confirmed by RT-PCR assays targeting the conserved region of the L1 gene, sequence analysis and reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree. The isolation was a Tupaia Orthoreovirus (TRV), belonging to Mammalian Orthoreovirus (MRV). The obtained strain had the closest phylogenetic relationship to the MRV strain T3/Bat/Germany/342/08. As a zoonotic virus, the novel TRV strain was first isolated from wild tree shrews, which is significant for promoting tree shrew standardization and providing scientific data for preventing zoonotic tree shrew-to-human transmission.
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The influence of hemocoagulation disorders on the development of posttraumatic cerebral infarction and outcome in patients with moderate or severe head trauma.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Posttraumatic cerebral infarction (PTCI) is a severe secondary insult of head injury and often leads to a poor prognosis. Hemocoagulation disorder is recognized to have important effects on hemorrhagic or ischemic damages. We sought to assess if posttraumatic hemocoagulation disorders were associated with cerebral infarction, and evaluate their influence on outcome among patients with moderate or severe head trauma. In this study, PTCI was observed in 28 (10.57%) of the 265 patients within the first week after injury. In multivariate analysis, the thrombocytopenia (odds ratio (OR) 2.210, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.065-4.674), abnormal prothrombin time (PT) (OR 3.241, 95% CI 1.090-7.648), D-dimer (>2 mg/L) (OR 7.260, 95% CI 1.822-28.076), or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) scores (? 5) (OR 4.717, 95% CI 1.778-12.517) were each independently associated with an increased risk of PTCI. Admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, abnormal activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrinogen, and D-dimer (>2 mg/L) and DIC scores (? 5) showed an independent predictive effect on poor outcome. In conclusion, recognition of this important treatable cause of PTCI and the associated risk factors may help identify the group at risk and tailor management of patients with TBI.
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Arsenic, copper, and zinc contamination in soil and wheat during coal mining, with assessment of health risks for the inhabitants of Huaibei, China.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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Field studies were conducted to investigate arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) contamination in agricultural soils and wheat crops at two areas in Huaibei, China. Area A is in the proximity of Shuoli coal mine. In area B, three coal mines and a coal cleaning plant were distributed. The potential health risk of As, Cu, and Zn exposure to the local inhabitants through consumption of wheat grains was also estimated. The results showed that significantly higher (p?
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One hour of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus is sufficient to develop chronic epilepsy in mice, and is associated with mossy fiber sprouting but not neuronal death.
Neurosci Bull
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Determining the minimal duration of status epilepticus (SE) that leads to the development of subsequent spontaneous seizures (i.e., epilepsy) is important, because it provides a critical time-window for seizure intervention and epilepsy prevention. In the present study, male ICR (Imprinting Control Region) mice were injected with pilocarpine to induce acute seizures. SE was terminated by diazepam at 10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 4 h after seizure onset. Spontaneous seizures occurred in the 1, 2 and 4 h SE groups, and the seizure frequency increased with the prolongation of SE. Similarly, the Morris water maze revealed that the escape latency was significantly increased and the number of target quadrant crossings was markedly decreased in the 1, 2 and 4 h SE groups. Robust mossy fiber sprouting was observed in these groups, but not in the 10 or 30 min group. In contrast, Fluoro-Jade B staining revealed significant cell death only in the 4 h SE group. The incidence and frequency of spontaneous seizures were correlated with Timm score (P = 0.004) and escape latency (P = 0.004). These data suggest that SE longer than one hour results in spontaneous motor seizures and memory deficits, and spontaneous seizures are likely associated with robust mossy fiber sprouting but not neuronal death.
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A study of the technique of western blot for diagnosis of lyme disease caused by Borrelia afzelii in China.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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To study the technique of Western blot for the diagnosis of Lyme disease caused by Borrelia afzelii in China and to establish the standard criteria by operational procedure.
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Seroepidemiological investigation of lyme disease and human granulocytic anaplasmosis among people living in forest areas of eight provinces in China.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Lyme disease and Human granulocytic anaplasmosis are tick-borne diseases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum respectively. We have investigated infection and co-infection of the two diseases in the population of forest areas of eight provinces in China by measuring seroprevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum.
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Oxygen-reducing biocathodes operating with passive oxygen transfer in microbial fuel cells.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Oxygen-reducing biocathodes previously developed for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have required energy-intensive aeration of the catholyte. To avoid the need for aeration, the ability of biocathodes to function with passive oxygen transfer was examined here using air cathode MFCs. Two-chamber, air cathode MFCs with biocathodes produced a maximum power density of 554 ± 0 mW/m(2), which was comparable to that obtained with a Pt cathode (576 ± 16 mW/m(2)), and 38 times higher than that produced without a catalyst (14 ± 3 mW/m(2)). The maximum current density with biocathodes in this air-cathode MFC was 1.0 A/m(2), compared to 0.49 A/m(2) originally produced in a two-chamber MFC with an aqueous cathode (with cathode chamber aeration). Single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs with the same biocathodes initially produced higher voltages than those with Pt cathodes, but after several cycles the catalytic activity of the biocathodes was lost. This change in cathode performance resulted from direct exposure of the cathodes to solutions containing high concentrations of organic matter in the single-chamber configuration. Biocathode performance was not impaired in two-chamber designs where the cathode was kept separated from the anode solution. These results demonstrate that direct-air biocathodes can work very well, but only under conditions that minimize heterotrophic growth of microorganisms on the cathodes.
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Synthesis of indazole based diarylurea derivatives and their antiproliferative activity against tumor cell lines.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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New series of indazole based diarylureas were synthesized and their anticancer activity against cancer cells H460, A549, OS-RC-2, HT-29, Lovo, HepG2, Bel-7402, SGC-7901 and MDA-MB-231 were examined. These derivatives of diarylureas, except azaindazole based diarylureas 5f, 5l and 5m, showed superior or similar activity against most of these selected cancer cell lines to the reference compound sorafenib. The effect of substituents on the indazole ring was also investigated. Derivatives with trifluoromenthy or halogen substituent on the indazole ring showed higher activity against the selected cancer cell lines than sorafenib. The acute toxicity assay showed that compounds 5a, 5b and 5i possessed lower toxicity than sorafenib. Compound 5i with 4-(trifluoromenthy)-1H-indazole and 4-(trifluoromenthy) benzene moieties exhibited the most potent anticancer activity.
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Improving startup performance with carbon mesh anodes in separator electrode assembly microbial fuel cells.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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In a separator electrode assembly microbial fuel cell, oxygen crossover from the cathode inhibits current generation by exoelectrogenic bacteria, resulting in poor reactor startup and performance. To determine the best approach for improving startup performance, the effect of acclimation to a low set potential (-0.2V, versus standard hydrogen electrode) was compared to startup at a higher potential (+0.2 V) or no set potential, and inoculation with wastewater or pre-acclimated cultures. Anodes acclimated to -0.2 V produced the highest power of 1330±60 mW m(-2) for these different anode conditions, but unacclimated wastewater inocula produced inconsistent results despite the use of this set potential. By inoculating reactors with transferred cell suspensions, however, startup time was reduced and high power was consistently produced. These results show that pre-acclimation at -0.2 V consistently improves power production compared to use of a more positive potential or the lack of a set potential.
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Successional Distance between the Source and Recipient Influence Seed Germination and Seedling Survival during Surface Soil Replacement in SW China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Adding propagules (source) to a degraded site (recipient) is a common way of manipulating secondary succession to restore diversity and services formerly provided by forests. However, heretofore no study has considered the effect of "successional distance" between source and recipient site. Four sites in the Shilin karst area of SW China were treated as different states along a secondary successional sere: grass, shrub, young secondary forest, and primary forest. Ten 1 m ×1m soil quadrats in the grass, shrub and young forest sites were replaced with 10 cm deep soil sources from corresponding later successional stage(s) in January 2009. Woody plant seed germination was monitored in the first year and seedling survival was monitored until the end of the second year. At the end of 2010, 2097 seeds of woody plants belonging to 45 taxa had germinated, and 3.9% of the seedlings and 7.8% of the species survived. Germination of most species was sensitive to ambient light (red, far-red, R:FR ratios, photosynthetically active radiation). Soil source and recipient site had a significant effect on the total number of seeds and number of species that germinated, and on the percentage of seedlings that survived through the end of the second year. Closer successional stages between recipient site and soil source had higher seed germination and seedling-survival percentages. However, a transition threshold exists in the young forest state, where seeds can germinate but not survive the second year. Our results, although based on an unreplicated chronosequence, suggest that successional distance between soil sources and recipient sites affect forest recruitment and restoration in degraded karst of SW China.
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Intersection of transfer cells with phloem biology-broad evolutionary trends, function, and induction.
Front Plant Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Transfer cells (TCs) are ubiquitous throughout the plant kingdom. Their unique ingrowth wall labyrinths, supporting a plasma membrane enriched in transporter proteins, provides these cells with an enhanced membrane transport capacity for resources. In certain plant species, TCs have been shown to function to facilitate phloem loading and/or unloading at cellular sites of intense resource exchange between symplasmic/apoplasmic compartments. Within the phloem, the key cellular locations of TCs are leaf minor veins of collection phloem and stem nodes of transport phloem. In these locations, companion and phloem parenchyma cells trans-differentiate to a TC morphology consistent with facilitating loading and re-distribution of resources, respectively. At a species level, occurrence of TCs is significantly higher in transport than in collection phloem. TCs are absent from release phloem, but occur within post-sieve element unloading pathways and particularly at interfaces between generations of developing Angiosperm seeds. Experimental accessibility of seed TCs has provided opportunities to investigate their inductive signaling, regulation of ingrowth wall formation and membrane transport function. This review uses this information base to explore current knowledge of phloem transport function and inductive signaling for phloem-associated TCs. The functional role of collection phloem and seed TCs is supported by definitive evidence, but no such information is available for stem node TCs that present an almost intractable experimental challenge. There is an emerging understanding of inductive signals and signaling pathways responsible for initiating trans-differentiation to a TC morphology in developing seeds. However, scant information is available to comment on a potential role for inductive signals (auxin, ethylene and reactive oxygen species) that induce seed TCs, in regulating induction of phloem-associated TCs. Biotic phloem invaders have been used as a model to speculate on involvement of these signals.
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[Effects of irrigation mode on winter wheat yield and water- and nutrient use efficiencies under maize straw returning to field].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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In 2008-2010, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation modes on the grain yield, dry matter translocation, water use efficiency (WUE), and nutrient use efficiency (NUE) of winter wheat under maize straw returning to the field in a semi-arid and semi-humid monsoon region of Linfen, Shanxi Province of Northwest China. Irrigation at wintering time promoted tillering, irrigation at jointing stage increased the total tiller number and the fertile spike rate per tiller, whereas irrigation at booting stage promoted the dry matter accumulation in spike and increased the 1000-kernel mass. When the irrigation was implemented at two growth stages and the second irrigation time was postponed, both the dry matter translocation to leaf and the kernels per spike increased. Irrigation twice throughout the whole growth season induced a higher NUE and higher dry matter accumulation in spike, as compared to irrigation once. The irrigation amount at wintering time and the total irrigation amount had lesser effects on the tillering and the dry matter accumulation in spike. Increasing irrigation amount at jointing stage or booting stage more benefited the nutrient uptake, dry matter accumulation and translocation, and grain WUE, which in turn made the yield-formation factors be more balance and the grain yield be higher. It was concluded that to guarantee the irrigation amount at wintering time could achieve stabilized yield, and the optimal irrigation mode was irrigation at wintering time plus an additional irrigation at jointing stage (900 m3 hm(-2)), which could satisfy the water demand of winter wheat at its mid and later growth stage and increase the WUE of grain, and realize water-saving and high-yielding cultivation.
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[Peripheral blood stem cell collection from ABO incompatible allogeneic donors and its effect in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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The study was aimed to evaluate the yield of the COBE Spectra blood cell separator with auto-peripheral blood stem cell program for collection of peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells (PBHSC) from HLA-matched ABO-incompatible allogeneic PBHSC donor, and observe the safety and effect of allogeneic peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-PBHSCT) without removal of erythrocytes and plasma. PBHSC from 28 allogeneic donors were collected by COBE Spectra blood cell separator with auto-peripheral blood hematopoiEtic stem cell (auto-PBHSCT) program. Control group included 15 HLA-matched patients who received allo-PBHSCT with ABO-compatible grafts. The amount of PBHSC was harvested and the parameter was modified according to the hematocrit and mononuclear cell (MNC) counts of donors. The nucleated cell count, proportion of MNC, number of CD34(+) cells were detected, and reconstitution status of hematopoietic function and time for change into donors blood group were observed. The results showed that the nucleated cell count proportion of MNC and number of CD34(+) cells showed no significant difference between groups of ABO incompatible and compatible (p > 0.05). All their hematopoietic functions were reconstituted. Between the ABO incompatibility and the compatible groups, the time of neutrophil and platelet recovery was not significantly different (p > 0.05), In ABO blood major incompatible and the compatible groups, the recovery of erythropoiesis were significantly delayed (p < 0.01). The blood type of 18 patients in ABO incompatible group was turned into donors blood type successfully at 35-139 days after transplantation. It is concluded that major ABO incompatibility did not affect the erythropoiesis reconstitution in HLA matched allo-HSCT. the major incompatibility may be a main reason of erythropoietic delay.
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Compounds from Arnebia euchroma and their related anti-HCV and antibacterial activities.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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Three new hydroquinone terpenoids with benzogeijerene skeletons, euchroquinols A-C (1- 3), and a new monoterpenylbenzenoid, 9,17-epoxyarnebinol (4), along with five known compounds were isolated from the stem bark of ARNEBIA EUCHROMA. Shikonin (6) exhibited potent anti-HCV activity with a selective index of 43.56, and compounds 1, 6, and des-O-methyllasiodiplodin (7) showed anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity with MICs of 0.5, 0.125, and 0.125 mg/mL, respectively.
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[The study of the secondary metabolites from fungus Paecilomyces sp].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2011
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To get active secondary metabolites from the fungus Paecilomyces sp..
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[Effects of growth regulators and growth media on root-hair development of Poncirus trifoliate].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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By using river sand and mixed soil as growth media, and treating with different concentration IBA, ETH, and NAA, this paper studied the root-hair development of Poncirus trifoliate seedlings, and the development cycle and distribution pattern of the root-hairs under phosphorus deficiency in sand culture. The root-hairs had a development cycle of about 4 days, and formed block-shaped and clumped, mainly around root, and with uneven distribution. Sand culture gave rise to the production of more root hairs, with an average of 486.3 per tap root, and treating with 1.0 micromol x L(-1) of IBA and ETH notablypromoted root-hair development. The phosphorous deficiency in sand culture induced more roothair formation (636.3 per tap root). Mixed soil culture produced lesser root-hairs (212.3 per taproot), and all the test growth regulators had no obvious effects on the root-hair development.
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A112, a tamibarotene dimethylaminoethyl ester, may inhibit human leukemia cell growth more potently than tamibarotene.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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A112 is a tamibarotene dimethylaminoethyl ester considered a candidate compound for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Our goal in this study was to evaluate the efficacy of anti-cancer activity, beginning by studying its inhibitory effects on leukemia cells and then comparing it to tamibarotene. A112 effectively inhibited the growth of HL-60 and NB4 cells as estimated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The inhibitory effect of A112 was confirmed in mice in which A112 delayed the growth of HL-60 xenografts after 3 weeks injection. The efficacy of A112 on leukemia cell growth was stronger than that of tamibarotene at the same dosage. The detection of A112 and tamibarotene in plasma of rats showed that A112 might sustain release of its hydrolysate tamibarotene, and the concentration was maintained at a higher level and for a longer time than that of tamibarotene injection. We studied the differentiation morphologies of leukemic cells exposed to A112 or tamibarotene. The number of differentiated NB4 cells was increased, suggesting that A112 possessed differentiation activity in the inhibition of leukemia growth. Further studies showed that the expression of CD11b, a marker of terminal granulocyte differentiation, was increased as estimated by flow cytometry with a direct immunofluorescence assay. A112 was found to induce the activation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21(Waf1/cip1) and p27(Kip1) while cell growth was inhibited. These activities of A112 were greater than those of tamibarotene. The higher efficacy of A112 was also evidenced by induction of apoptosis in leukemia cells. A112 induced a greater number of annexin V-positive cells than did tamibarotene as measured by flow cytometry analysis. Treatment of mice with A112 resulted in stronger terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining in HL-60 xenografts. Western blot analysis revealed that A112 increased the expression of caspase-3, caspase-9 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in leukemia cells both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that induction of apoptosis was involved in the inhibition of leukemia growth. Taken together, these results suggest that A112 is a highly effective derivative of trans retinoic acid and a potential candidate compound for the treatment of leukemia.
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[Ryanodine downregulates the expression of p-eNOS (Thr495) and improves the functions of rapamycin treated endothelial outgrowth cells].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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To observe the effects of ryanodine on rapamycin treated endothelial outgrowth cells (EOCs).
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Alternate charging and discharging of capacitor to enhance the electron production of bioelectrochemical systems.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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A bioelectrochemical system (BES) can be operated in both "microbial fuel cell" (MFC) and "microbial electrolysis cell" (MEC) modes, in which power is delivered and invested respectively. To enhance the electric current production, a BES was operated in MFC mode first and a capacitor was used to collect power from the system. Then the charged capacitor discharged electrons to the system itself, switching into MEC mode. This alternate charging and discharging (ACD) mode helped the system produce 22-32% higher average current compared to an intermittent charging (IC) mode, in which the capacitor was first charged from an MFC and then discharged to a resistor, at 21.6 ? external resistance, 3.3 F capacitance and 300 mV charging voltage. The effects of external resistance, capacitance and charging voltage on average current were studied. The average current reduced as the external resistance and charging voltage increased and was slightly affected by the capacitance. Acquisition of higher average current in the ACD mode was attributed to the shorter discharging time compared to the charging time, as well as a higher anode potential caused by discharging the capacitor. Results from circuit analysis and quantitatively calculation were consistent with the experimental observations.
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[The effect of cyclosporine A on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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To investigate the effect of mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in mice.
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Formulation, characterization and hypersensitivity evaluation of an intravenous emulsion loaded with a paclitaxel-cholesterol complex.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2011
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The objective of this paper was to develop a novel Cremophor-free, autoclave stable, intravenous emulsion for paclitaxel (PACE). A paclitaxel-cholesterol complex was used as the drug carrier to improve the solubility of paclitaxel in the oil phase of emulsions. The complex and PACE were prepared by rotary evaporation and high-pressure homogenization, respectively. Effects of oil phases, emulsifiers and pH values on the characteristics of PACE were investigated. PACE was characterized with regard to its appearance, morphology, osmolality, pH value, particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and stability. Hypersensitivity was evaluated by guinea pig hypersensitivity reaction. The final formulation was composed of the complex, soybean oil, medium-chain triglyceridel, soybean lecithin, poloxamer 188 and glycerol. The resulting PACE had an encapsulation efficiency of 97.3% with a particle size of 135 nm and a zeta potential of -38.3 mV. Osmolality and pH of the formulation were 383 mOsmol/kg and 4.5, respectively. The formulation survived autoclaving at 115 °C for 30 min and remained stable for at least 12 months at 6 °C. PACE also exhibited a better tolerance than an equal dose of Cremophor-based paclitaxel injection in guinea pigs, as no obvious hypersensitivity reaction was observed. These results suggested that PACE has a great potential for industrial-scale production and clinical applications.
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[Progress in studies on HCV receptor of Tupaia as a potential hepatitis C animal model].
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Hepatitis C virus is a prevalent and globally distributed human pathogen that seriously harmful to public health. However, the development of therapy and vaccine was impeded by the lack of suit small animal models. Herein, we introduce the characters of HCV replication. Taken the HCV cellular receptors as the viewpoint, the potentiality of tupaia as hepatitis C animal model is discussed at the molecular level by comparing of present animal model.
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Uncommon fusion of teeth and lateral periodontal cyst in a Chinese girl: a case report.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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Fusion is a developmental anomaly of dental hard tissues. Most cases occur in the anterior region of both the primary and permanent dentitions. Occasionally, fusion of permanent and supernumerary teeth may occur in the maxillary anterior region; however, a supernumerary tooth fused with a premolar is a rare case. Developmental lateral periodontal cyst is also an uncommon developmental odontogenic cyst with no clinical symptoms, and the lesion is often discovered on routine radiographic examination. In the present case, we report the uncommon fusion of teeth and lateral periodontal cyst in a Chinese girl. Using cone beam computed tomography we are able to acquire a better understanding of the complicated root canal morphology of the fused tooth and successfully manage the lateral periodontal cyst.
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Stacked microbial desalination cells to enhance water desalination efficiency.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a new method to obtain clean water from brackish water using electricity generated from organic matters by exoelectrogenic bacteria. Anions and cations, derived from salt solution filled in the desalination chamber between the anode and cathode, move to the anode and cathode chambers under the force of electrical field, respectively. On the basis of the primitive single-desalination-chambered MDC, stacked microbial desalination cells (SMDCs) were developed in order to promote the desalination rate in the present study. The effects of desalination chamber number and external resistance were investigated. Results showed that a remarkable increase in the total desalination rate (TDR) could be obtained by means of increasing the desalination cell number and reducing the external resistance, which caused the charge transfer efficiency increased since the SMDCs enabled more pairs of ions separated while one electron passed through the external circuit. The maximum TDR of 0.0252 g/h was obtained using a two-desalination-chambered SMDC with an external resistance of 10 ?, which was 1.4 times that of single-desalination-chambered MDC. SMDCs proved to be an effective approach to increase the total water desalination rate if provided a proper desalination chamber number and external resistance.
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LYP, a bestatin dimethylaminoethyl ester, inhibited cancer angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo.
Microvasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Our previous study revealed that LYP, a bestatin dimethylaminoethyl ester, inhibited the growth of human ovarian carcinoma ES-2 xenografts in mice and suppressed aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13) activity more potently than bestatin. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of LYP on migration and formation of capillary tube of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro and anti-angiogenesis in ES-2 xenografts in mice. LYP did not possess cytotoxicity to HUVEC proliferation according to the MTT assay and trypan blue exclusion assay. However, APN/CD13 activity on cell surface of HUVECs was suppressed in the presence of LYP as measured by quantifying the enzymatic cleavage of the substrate l-leucine-p-nitroanilide. The assays of scratch and transwell chamber showed that LYP significantly inhibited HUVEC migration and invasion through Matrigel coated polycarbonate filters. Capillary tube formation assay revealed that the number of branch points formed by HUVECs on 3-D Matrigel was reduced after incubation with LYP. The anti-angiogenesis of LYP was verified in ES-2 xenografts in mice. The mean vascular density (MVD) and mean vascular luminal diameter (MVLD) were markedly reduced by LYP after two weeks of intravenous injection as evaluated by CD34 immunohistochemical staining. LYP suppression of cancer angiogenesis was greater than that of bestatin. The inhibition of angiogenic molecules may involve in anti-angiogenesis of LYP. The levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-?) were decreased in HUVECs and ES-2 xenografts after treatment with LYP as determined by Western blot analysis. These results indicated that the high efficacy of LYP may partially relate to the inhibition of angiogenesis.
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Inhibition of angiogenesis involves in anticancer activity of riccardin D, a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl, in human lung carcinoma.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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Riccardin D is a novel macrocyclic bisbibenzyl compound extracted from Chinese liverwort plant Dumortiera hirsuta. Our previous studies showed that riccardin D is a DNA topo II inhibitor and has therapeutic potential for treatment of cancers. In this combined in vitro and in vivo study, we examined the inhibitory effects of riccardin D on tumor angiogenesis and the subsequent effect of anticancer activity was evaluated. Incubation with riccardin D weakly inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) as estimated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The scratch wound experiment showed that riccardin D effectively decreased the motility and migration of HUVEC cells. Riccardin D inhibited the formation of capillary tube as demonstrated by decrease of branch points formed by HUVEC cells on 3-D Matrigel. We examined the levels of angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor 2, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF receptor), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) in HUVEC cells. The expressions of VEGF, phospho-VEGF receptor 2, EGF receptor and MMP-2 were significantly reduced by riccardin D as estimated by Western blot assay and real-time quantitative PCR analysis. The decrease of VEGF was also detected in riccardin D-treated human lung cancer H460 cells. The anticancer activity of riccardin D was then evaluated in a mouse model in which riccardin D delayed the growth of H460 xenografts without obvious toxicity to animals after three weeks injection. To evaluate the role of antiangiogenesis of riccardin D in mice, CD34 immunohistochemical staining was employed to analyze the mean vascular density in H460 xenograft tissues. The number of blood vessels was significantly decreased after riccardin D treatment. These results suggest that riccardin D display the inhibitory effect on growth of human lung carcinoma cells and that the inhibition of angiogenesis may involve in anticancer activity of riccardin D.
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N1-acetyl substituted pyrrolidine derivative CIP-A5: a novel compound that could ameliorate liver cirrhosis through modulation of hepatic stellate cell activity.
Toxicol In Vitro
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2011
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(2S,4R)-methyl 1-acetyl-4-(N-(4-bromophenyl)sulfamoyloxy)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate (CIP-A5) is the N1-acetyl substituted pyrrolidine derivative which was designed against the structure of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2) and MMP-9. CIP-A5 has been considered as a candidate compound for treatment of liver cirrhosis. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of CIP-A5 on the activity of hepatic stellate cells. CIP-A5 prevented the transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?)-induced proliferation of hepatic stellate HSC-T6 cells as estimated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. CIP-A5 stimulated MMPs activity as evidenced by an increase of degradation of succinylated gelatin. Gelatin zymography analysis showed that CIP-A5 stimulated the secretion and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HSC-T6 cells. This stimulatory effect on MMPs was verified by the observation of increased expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 as evaluated by Western blot assay. At the same time, a significant decrease of the expression of tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) was observed, suggesting a modulation of the balance of MMPs/TIMPs in hepatic stellate cells. CIP-A5 treatment also resulted in suppression of the profibrogenic cytokines, such as TGF-?, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in HSC-T6 cells. CIP-A5 did not have cytotoxicity to human normal hepatic cells. These results implied that CIP-A5 could selectively ameliorate the process of liver cirrhosis through modulation of activated hepatic stellate cell activity, which offers hope for prevention and treatment of this devastating end-stage liver disease.
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Des-?-carboxyl prothrombin induces matrix metalloproteinase activity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by involving the ERK1/2 MAPK signalling pathway.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Des-?-carboxy prothrombin (DCP), an aberrant prothrombin produced by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, has been shown to be associated with the biological malignant potential of HCC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DCP on HCC cell growth and metastasis, and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. DCP significantly stimulated HCC cell growth, as measured by cell counting kit-8 assay. Transwell chamber assay showed that DCP increased HCC cell migration through reconstituted extracellular matrix (Matrigel). Gelatin zymography assay and Western blot analysis demonstrated that DCP increased the secretion and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in the supernatant of cultured HCC cells and on tumour cell membranes. DCP was found to bind to the cell surface receptor Met, resulting in Met phosphorylation and subsequent activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Western blot analysis demonstrated that DCP stimulated a sequential kinase phosphorylation cascade including ERK1/2, MEK1/2 and c-Raf, indicating activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen activated protein kinase (ERK1/2 MAPK) signalling pathway. Furthermore, blocking ERK1/2 MAPK activation with ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 essentially abolished the DCP-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity, confirming the signalling pathway of DCP stimulation. Taken together, these results suggested that DCP stimulates HCC growth and promotes HCC metastasis by increasing the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 through activation of the ERK1/2 MAPK signalling pathway.
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[Analysis of human papillomavirus type 61, 83 and 84 MY fragments and preparation of standard samples].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2010
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To investigate the mutations in nucleotide and amino acid level in HPV61, 83 and 84 Shanxi isolates.
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[Isolation and identification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from ticks in six provinces in China].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2010
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To understand the carrying status of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks from the mountain areas from six representative provinces, including Jilin, Shanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Guizhou and Hunan in China.
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Baicalin attenuates focal cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury through inhibition of nuclear factor ?B p65 activation.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2010
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Baicalin is a flavonoid compound purified from plant Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. We aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of baicalin against cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury. Male Wistar rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Baicalin at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was intravenously injected after ischemia onset. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, the neurological deficit was scored and infarct volume was measured. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was performed to analyze the histopathological changes of cortex and hippocampus neurons. We examined the levels of NF-?B p65 in ischemic cortexes by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR assay. The results showed that the neurological deficit scores were significantly decreased from 2.0 ± 0.7 to 1.2 ± 0.4 and the volume of infarction was reduced by 25% after baicalin injection. Histopathological examination showed that the increase of neurons with pycnotic shape and condensed nuclear in cortex and hippocampus were not observed in baicalin treated animals. Further examination showed that NF-?B p65 in cortex was increased after ischemia reperfusion injury, indicating the molecular mechanism of ischemia reperfusion injury. The level of NF-?B p65 was decreased by 73% after baicalin treatment. These results suggest that baicalin might be useful as a potential neuroprotective agent in stroke therapy. The neuroprotective effects of baicalin may relate to inhibition of NF-?B p65.
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[Cloning of full-length coding sequence of tree shrew CD3E and prediction of its molecular characteristics].
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2010
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The use of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) in human disease studies demands essential research tools, in particular cellular markers and their monoclonal antibodies for immunological studies. Here we cloned the full-length cDNAs encoding CD3E from total RNA of the spleen, liver and peripheral blood of tree shrews and analyzed their structural characteristics in comparison with other mammals by Discovery Studio software. The results showed that the open reading frame sequence of tree shrew CD3E was 582 bp, encoding 194 amino acids. The overall structure of tree shrew CD3E protein was similar to its counterparts of other mammals, intracellular and transmembrane domain highly conserved. However, detailed analysis revealed two potential glycosylation sites and different surface charges in the extracellular domain. Availability of the entire open-reading-frame and related sequence information would therefore facilitate the preparation of monoclonal antibodies against tree shrew CD3 and further studies for its function.
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[Study on the second metabolisms from fungus HS-1 Epicoccum spp. from the sea cucumber in Yellow Sea].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2010
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To get active metabolites from the microbes associated with sea cucumber.
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