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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Effect of FarR on transcriptional levels of arginine biosynthetic genes in Corynebacterium crenatum AS 1.542 and its relationship with ArgR].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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The FarR protein was involved in the regulation of arginine biosynthetic pathway in corynebacterium, but the regulation mechanism of FarR protein and its relationship with the negative regulator ArgR have never been reported. In this work, we constructed two deletion mutants: C. crenatum delta farR and C. crenatum delta argR delta farR, and investigated the FarR function and its relationship with ArgR through the determination of transcriptional levels of arginine biosynthetic genes in four strains, including C. crenatum delta argR constructed in previous work.
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Identification of two novel ?1-AR agonists using a high-throughput screening model.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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?1-Adrenoceptors (ARs; 1A, 1B, and 1D) have been determined to perform different prominent functions in the physiological responses of the sympathetic nervous system. A high-throughput screening assay (HTS) was set up to detect ?1-AR subtype-selective agonists by a dual-luciferase reporter assay in HEK293 cells. Using the HTS assay, two novel compounds, CHE3 and CHK3, were discovered as ?1-ARs agonists in ?1-ARs expressed in HEK293 cells. These compounds also showed moderate/weak anti-proliferative activities against tested cancer cell lines. The HTS assay proposed in this study represents a potential method for discovering more ?1-AR subtype-selective ligands.
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New graphene fiber coating for volatile organic compounds analysis.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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In the work, a novel graphene-based solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed for the analysis of trace amount of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath vapor. The graphene fiber coating was prepared by a one-step hydrothermal reduction reaction. The fiber with porous and wrinkled structure exhibited excellent extraction efficiency toward eight studied volatile organic compounds (two n-alkanes, five n-aldehydes and one aromatic compound). Meanwhile, remarkable thermal and mechanical stability, long lifespan and low cost were also obtained for the fiber. Under the optimal conditions, the developed method provided low limits of detection (1.0-4.5ngL(-1)), satisfactory reproducibility (3.8-13.8%) and acceptable recoveries (93-122%). The method was applied successfully to the analysis of breath samples of lung cancer patients and healthy individuals. The unique advantage of this approach includes simple setup, non-invasive analysis, cost-efficient and sufficient sensitivity. The proposed method supply us a new possibility to monitor volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath samples.
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Synthesis and cytotoxic activity evaluation of novel arylpiperazine derivatives on human prostate cancer cell lines.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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A series of novel arylpiperazine derivatives was synthesized. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of all synthesized compounds against three human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3, LNCaP, and DU145) were evaluated by a CCK-8 assay. Compounds 9 and 15 exhibited strong cytotoxic activities against LNCaP cells (IC50<5 ?M), and compound 8 (IC50=8.25 ?M) possessed the most potent activity against DU145 cells. However, these compounds also exhibited cytotoxicity towards human epithelial prostate normal cells RWPE-1. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of these arylpiperazine derivatives was also discussed based on the obtained experimental data.
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Halloysite nanotube supported Ag nanoparticles heteroarchitectures as catalysts for polymerization of alkylsilanes to superhydrophobic silanol/siloxane composite microspheres.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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Halloysite nanotube supported Ag nanoparticles heteroarchitectures have been prepared through a very simple electroless plating method. Robust Ag nanocrystals can be reproducibly fabricated by soaking halloysite nanotubes in ethanolic solutions of AgNO3 and butylamine. By simply adjusting the molar ratio of AgNO3 and butylamine, Ag nanoparticles with tunable size and quantity on halloysite nanotube are achieved. It reveals that the Ag nanoparticles are well-dispersed on the surface of halloysite nanotubes. The halloysite nanotube supported Ag nanoparticles heteroarchitectures can serve as active catalysts for the polymerization of an alkylsilane C18H37SiH3 with water to form silanol/siloxane composite microspheres and exhibit interesting superhydrophobicity ascribed to the micro/nanobinary structure.
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Characterization of two homogalacturonan pectins with immunomodulatory activity from green tea.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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Two natural homogalacturonan (HG) pectins (MW ca. 20 kDa) were isolated from green tea based on their immunomodulatory activity. The crude tea polysaccharides (TPS1 and TPS2) were obtained from green tea leaves by hot water extraction and followed by 40% and 70% ethanol precipitation, respectively. Two homogenous water soluble polysaccharides (TPS1-2a and TPS1-2b) were obtained from TPS1 after purification with gel permeation, which gave a higher phagocytic effect than TPS2. A combination of composition, methylation and configuration analyses, as well as NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy revealed that TPS1-2a and TPS1-2b were homogalacturonan (HG) pectins consisting of a backbone of 1,4-linked ?-D-galacturonic acid (GalA) residues with 28.4% and 26.1% of carboxyl groups as methyl ester, respectively. The immunological assay results demonstrated that TPS1-2, which consisted mainly of HG pectins, showed phagocytosis-enhancing activity in HL-60 cells.
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MicroRNA-155 inhibits migration of trophoblast cells and contributes to the pathogenesis of severe preeclampsia by regulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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The aim of the present study was to characterize the role of microRNA (miR)-155 in the pathogenesis of severe preeclampsia (PE). A total of 19 severe preeclampsic and 22 normal placentas were collected to measure miR-155 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression using quantitative (q)PCR and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated a significant increase in the levels of miR-155 and decreased eNOS expression in the severe preeclampsic placentas, as compared with the normal controls. In order to examine the function of miR-155 in the human placenta, the HTR8/Svneo cell line was transiently transfected with an miR-155 mimic or its inhibitor, anti-miR-155. It was confirmed that miR-155 may suppress the expression of eNOS in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Furthermore, a transwell insert invasion assay demonstrated that miR-155 inhibited cell invasion in trophoblast cells, and the effect was rescued by over expression of eNOS. The present study revealed that miR-155 has a negative regulatory role in the migratory behavior of HTR-8/SVneo cells via modulating eNOS.
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Influence of HNO3/H3PO4-NANO2 mediated oxidation on the structure and properties of cellulose fibers.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The bamboo pulp cellulose fiber was oxidized with HNO3/H3PO4-NaNO2 mixture to obtain oxidized cellulose containing different levels of carboxyl content and with high yields. The effects of HNO3/H3PO4-NaNO2 mediated oxidation on structure and properties of the fiber were investigated. The results showed that an increase in carboxyl content and weight loss of oxidized fibers appeared with increasing oxidation time. Compared with the original cellulose, the oxidized fibers had lower crystallinity (29-40%) and thermal stability. The patterns of (13)C NMR, X-ray diffraction and other testing methods revealed that the oxidation mostly occurred at C6 primary hydroxyl groups of cellulose. Moreover, an oxidized fiber with 94.14-98.59% of high yields and 1.13-3.56% of carboxyl content was obtained in the range of oxidation time from 15 to 60 min, while its mechanical properties did not change significantly. This work presented some detailed information about structure-property correlations of oxidized bamboo pulp cellulose fibers and was useful in planning applications of these products.
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Nitronyl nitroxide-metal complexes as metallo-ligands for the construction of hetero-tri-spin (2p-3d-4f) chains.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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A novel approach for the preparation of hetero-tri-spin magnetic compounds is described. It consists in using preformed metal-nitronyl nitroxide complexes as metallo-ligands in an assembling process involving an additional metal centre. This is illustrated by two unprecedented radical-Cu-Ln chain compounds (Ln = Gd(3+), Tb(3+)).
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Homogalacturonans from preinfused green tea: structural characterization and anticomplementary activity of their sulfated derivatives.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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Two homogeneous water-soluble polysaccharides (TPSR4-2B and TPSR4-2C) were obtained from preinfused green tea. Their average molecular weights were estimated to be 41 kDa and 28 kDa, respectively. A combination of composition, methylation, and configuration analysis, as well as NMR spectroscopy, indicated that both TPSR4-2B and TPSR4-2C were poly-(1-4)-?-d-galactopyranosyluronic acid in which 30.5 ± 0.3% and 28.3 ± 0.5%, respectively, of uronic acid existed as methyl ester. Two sulfated derivatives (Sul-R4-2B and Sul-R4-2C) from TPSR4-2B and TPSR4-2C were prepared after sulfation with a 2:1 chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine ratio. The anticomplementary assay showed that Sul-R4-2B and Sul-R4-2C demonstrated a stronger inhibitory effect on the complement activation through the classic pathway, compared to that of heparin. Preliminary mechanism studies by using complement component depleted-sera indicated that both Sul-R4-2B and Sul-R4-2C selectively interact with C1q, C1r, C1s, C2, C5, and C9 but not with C3 and C4. The relationship between DS and the anticomplementary activity of sulfated derivatives of homogalacturonans showed that low sulfated derivatives of homogalacturonans also exhibited potent anticomplementary effect, which might greatly reduce the side effects related to heparin and oversulfated chondroitin sulfate, such as anticoagulant activity and allergic-type reaction. These results suggested that sulfated derivatives of homogalacturonans might be promising drug candidates for therapeutic complement inhibition.
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Epidemiology and clinical features of respiratory adenoviral infections in children.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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This study was aimed to describe the epidemiology, clinical features, and prognosis of respiratory adenoviral infections among children in Suzhou, China. From 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012, medical records of 474 hospitalized patients with respiratory adenovirus infection were reviewed retrospectively. From 2006 to 2012, the virus positive rate was 1.42, 0.82, 1.45, 1.54, 0.77, 1.63, and 0.78 %, respectively; there was no outbreak in Suzhou throughout the 7 years. Adenovirus was detected in almost every month of the year with a peak from March to August. The median age was 36 months (range, 2 days-13 years); 89 % of the infections were confined to children <7 years of age, positive rates in patients between 2???7 years of age and patients >7 years of age were higher than that of patients <2 years of age (P?
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Association of meteorological factors with childhood viral acute respiratory infections in subtropical China: an analysis over 11 years.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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The objective of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the effects of meteorological factors on the prevalence and seasonality of common respiratory viruses in China, which has a subtropical climate. A retrospective study was conducted by identifying children admitted to a hospital with acute respiratory infections due to seven common viruses between January 2001 and December 2011. A total of 42,104 nasopharyngeal samples were tested for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A and B viruses (IV-A and IV-B), parainfluenza viruses 1-3 (PIV-1, PIV-2, PIV-3), and adenovirus (ADV) by direct immunofluorescence assay. Meteorological data were obtained from Suzhou Weather Bureau. Correlations of viral prevalence with meteorological factors were evaluated using Spearman rank correlation and partial correlation. Multivariate time-series analysis including an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and generalized linear Poisson models was conducted to study the effect of meteorological factors on the prevalence of respiratory virus infection. RSV and IV-A activity showed distinctive winter peak, whereas PIV-3 and ADV peaked in the summer. Incidence of RSV was correlated with low environmental temperature, and PIV-3 only with high temperature. IV-A activity was correlated with both low temperature and high relative humidity. ADV activity was correlated with high total rainfall. In the ARIMA model, RSV-associated hospitalizations were predictable, and the monthly number of RSV cases decreased by 11.25 % (95 % CI: 5.34 % to 16.79 %) for every 1 °C increase in the average temperature. Seasonality of certain respiratory virus may be explained by meteorological influences. The impact of meteorological factors on the prevalence of RSV may be useful for predicting the activity of this virus.
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Antinociceptive activity and pathway of the pallanalgesin isolated from venom of Agkistrodon halys (Pallas).
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Venom of Agkstrodon halys (Pallas) is a traditional Chinese medicine for the control of severe pain, but its analgesic mechanism is not clear.
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[Construction of Corynebacterium crenatum AS 1.542 ? argR and analysis of transcriptional levels of the related genes of arginine biosynthetic pathway].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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ArgR, coded by the argR gene from Corynebacterium crenatum AS 1.542, acts as a negative regulator in arginine biosynthetic pathway. However, the effect of argR on transcriptional levels of the related biosynthetic genes has not been reported. Here, we constructed a deletion mutant of argR gene: C. crenatum AS 1.542 Delta argR using marker-less knockout technology, and compared the changes of transcriptional levels of the arginine biosynthetic genes between the mutant strain and the wild-type strain.
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Secalonic acid A protects dopaminergic neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP?)-induced cell death via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Secalonic acid A (SAA) is a natural compound found in marine fungi. We have reported that SAA can attenuate the cytotoxicity of colchicine in rat cortical neurons. Whether SAA can also inhibit the neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) in dopaminergic neurons has not been investigated. Here, we show that pretreatment with 1 ?M SAA significantly rescued tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons from MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity in primary dopaminergic neuron culture. Moreover, SAA at doses of 0.15 mg/kg and 0.75 mg/kg increased the number of dopaminergic neurons and upregulated striatal dopamine in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinsons disease mice experiments. We also show that SAA significantly attenuated cytotoxicity induced by 2.5 mM MPP(+) in SH-SY5Y cells. These results indicate that the activation of JNK, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and caspase-3 during apoptosis triggered by MPP(+) could be suppressed by SAA; on the other hand, an MPP(+)-induced increase in the expression of Bax in SH-SY5Y cells was blocked by SAA. These results indicate that inhibition of the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, down-regulation of Bax expression, and suppression of caspase-3 activation are involved in the protective effects of SAA against MPP(+) toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. SAA may rescue dopaminergic neurons from MPP(+)-induced cell death through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
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Modified chaihu shugan powder for functional dyspepsia: meta-analysis for randomized controlled trial.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Context. Modified Chaihu Shugan powder (MCSP) is a popular traditional Chinese herbal formula for functional dyspepsia, which is revised from Chaihu Shugan San and recorded in a medical classic works of China. However, its role and effect in treating functional dyspepsia have not been well established. Objective. To assess the effect and safety of modified Chaihu Shugan powder for functional dyspepsia. Methods. We searched the published and unpublished studies up to August 2012. Only RCTs of modified Chaihu Shugan powder with or without prokinetic drugs versus prokinetic drugs in the patients diagnosed with functional dyspepsia were included. Results. Twenty-two clinical trials involving 1998 participants were included. There were evidences that modified Chaihu Shugan powder (RR = 1.20, 95%, CI 1.14 to 1.27) and modified Chaihu Shugan powder plus prokinetic drugs (RR = 1.18, 95%, CI 1.11 to 1.25) were significantly better treatment options than prokinetic drugs alone in improving symptoms. No serious adverse events were described in the included trials. Conclusions. This meta-analysis showed that modified Chaihu Shugan powder alone or in combination with prokinetic drugs might be more effective than prokinetic drugs alone. However, with poor methodological quality, all the included trials were at high risk of bias. Further large-scale high-quality trials are required for assessment.
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MyD88 as a target of microRNA-203 in regulation of lipopolysaccharide or Bacille Calmette-Guerin induced inflammatory response of macrophage RAW264.7 cells.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the regulation of target gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In order to better understand the role of microRNA-203 (miR-203) in the immunological regulation, the function of miR-203 was explored in the macrophage RAW264.7 cells against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) stimulation. The results evidenced that myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) was a novel target of miR-203, miR-203 was capable of directly targeting the 3 untranslated region (3UTR) of MyD88 and post-transcriptionally down-regulating the expression of protein. In addition, an overexpression of miR-203 in RAW264.7 cells was correlated with repressions of MyD88, as well as its downstream signaling of NF-?B (NF-?B1), TNF-? and IL-6. These results suggest that miR-203 may be an important regulator in macrophages against LPS or mycobacteria infection, which may through a mechanism of negatively regulating MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptors signaling pathway.
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Ru(phen)3(2+) doped silica nanoparticle based immunochromatographic strip for rapid quantitative detection of ?-agonist residues in swine urine.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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A Ru(phen)3(2+) doped silica nanoparticle based immunochromatographic strip was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of five common ?-agonist (salbutamol (SAL), cimbuterol, terbutaline, clenbuterol, and brombuterol) residues in swine urine. The broad spectrum monoclonal antibodies generated by immunizing BALB/c mice with salbutamol conjugated cationic bovine serum albumin. The fluorescence intensities (FIs) of the strip on the test line (FIT) and control line (FIC) were determined using a strip reader. Parameters that influenced the antibody and antigen interaction on the test strip were investigated by recording FIT and FIC values, and the concept of FIT/FIC ratio was used to offset the inherent heterogeneity of the test strips and the effect of the sample matrix. Under optimal conditions, the linear range for the quantitative detection of SAL was 0.6-5.0 ng/ml with a half maximal inhibitory concentration at 1.78 ng/ml. The limit of detection for real swine urine was 0.43 ng/ml. The recovery rates of the intraassay for spiked urine at SAL concentrations of 0.8, 1.5, and 3.5 ng/mL were 88.06%±3.75%, 95.77%±5.33%, and 94.06%±7.43%, whereas those for the interassay were 84.69%±5.0%, 95.06%±9.3%, and 88.34%±7.71%, respectively. The developed quantitative method exhibited excellent agreement with a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for SAL-spiked urine samples, with a correlation of coefficient of 0.95 and a slope of 0.99 (n=36). The results indicated that the developed test strip enables sensitive, reproducible, and easily implementable screening for the rapid and quantitative detection of ?-agonist residues in swine urine.
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Purification and characterization of a novel antinociceptive peptide from venom of Agkistrodon halys Pallas.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Venom of Agkistrodon halys Pallas can control severe pain such as cancer pain and neuropathic pain, but it is made up of complicated components. Aim of this study is to separate major analgesic fraction from venom of A. halys Pallas, and to reveal its biochemical and pharmacological properties. Three steps with ion exchange column first and molecular sieve columns next were used to separate and purify the fractions of venom. Analgesic effects were evaluated by hot plate tests and writhing tests in mice. The molecular weight (MW), isoelectric point, amino acid sequence, purity were respectively determined by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, Edman degradation and HPLC. The dependence and tolerance were observed by withdrawal test in rats, and analgesic effects were observed in mice during 7 days administration. Fourteen fractions were obtained by separation; the best analgesic fraction named Pallanalgesin was selected by ED50 and LD50. It had single band in electrophoresis, relative purity 92.16 %, MW 16.6 kDa, isoelectric point 8.8, and former sequence of ten amino acids H-L-L-Q-F-R-K-M-I-K. It showed significant analgesic effect without tolerance and dependence. As a novel analgesic, Pallanalgesin has been found to explain the function of venom of A. halys Pallas on severe pain control in traditional uses.
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Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the hydrolyzed sasanquasaponins from the defatted seeds of Camellia oleifera.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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The defatted seeds of Camellia oleifera (Abel.) are used for stopping itching and pain in old days, the effective compounds need to be investigated. Sasanquasaponin as a rich fraction was extracted with 70% ethanol, purified by AB-8 macro-reticular resin, crystallized in 80% ethanol, and further hydrolyzed by 4% hydroxyl potassium or 2 M hydrochloride. Anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts were measured by carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and croton oil induced ear inflammation in mice; the analgesic activities were analyzed by hot plate test, acetic acid induced writhing in mice; the levels of pain mediators of IL-1?, TNF-? and PGE? were determined; the antioxidative activities in vivo were evaluated by MDA, SOD and GSH-Px in serum of rats. The extracts showed significant (p < 0.01) anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, remarkably (p < 0.01) inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2, decreased MDA and increased SOD and GSH-Px in serum. Inhibition of IL-1?, TNF-? and PGE2 may contribute to their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects; elimination of free radicals is also involved. The sapogenin and acid hydrolyzed product have better anti-inflammatory, analgesic effects, and stronger antioxidative activity than sasanquasaponin and alkaline hydrolyzed product, and they are better candidate medicines for inflammation and pain.
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Cross-species association of quail invariant chain with chicken and mouse MHC II molecules.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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There are different degrees of similarity among vertebrate invariant chains (Ii). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between quail and other vertebrate Ii MHC class II molecules. The two quail Ii isoforms (qIi-1, qIi-2) were cloned by RACE, and qRT-PCR analysis of different organs showed that their expression levels were positively correlated with MHC II gene (B-LB) transcription levels. Confocal microscopy indicated that quail full-length Ii co-localized with MHC II of quail, chicken or mouse in 293FT cells co-transfected with both genes. Immunoprecipitation and western blotting further indicated that these aggregates corresponded to polymers of Ii and MHC class II molecules. This cross-species molecular association of quail Ii with chicken and mouse MHC II suggests that Ii molecules have a high structural and functional similarity and may thereby be used as potential immune carriers across species.
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[Testing methods for seed quality of Amomum villosum].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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The aim of this study was to optimize the testing methods for seed quality, and to provide a basis for establishing seed testing criterion and quality standard of Amomum villosum.
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Formulations of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape and improve plant vigor in field trials conducted at separate locations.
Can. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in the Peoples Republic of China. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen in field trials conducted at two independent locations. The pellet formulation significantly reduced disease (incidence and disease index) and increased plant dry mass, while the wrap formulation significantly reduced disease incidence and significantly increased plant dry mass at both field locations. Mean seed yield per 120 plants with both formulations of isolate Tu-100 was significantly greater than the appropriate controls, but at only one of the locations. Both formulations provided stable B. subtilis Tu-100 biomass (?10(5) CFU·g(-1)) and seed germination (?85%) over a 6 month period at room temperature. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence analysis identified ituC and ituD, and bacAB and bacD in the genome of isolate Tu-100. These genes are involved in the biosynthesis of iturin and bacilysin. Iturin was detected in culture filtrates from isolate Tu-100, with thin layer chromatography. Detection of bacilysin was not attempted. Experiments reported here indicate the commercial viability of B. subtilis Tu-100 for suppression of S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape.
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Utilization of halogen bond in lead optimization: a case study of rational design of potent phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2011
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For proof-of-concept of halogen bonding in drug design, a series of halogenated compounds were designed based on a lead structure as new inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type 5. Bioassay results revealed a good correlation between the measured bioactivity and the calculated halogen bond energy. Our X-ray crystal structures verified the existence of the predicted halogen bonds, demonstrating that the halogen bond is an applicable tool in drug design and should be routinely considered in lead optimization.
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[Research on utilization of phage display technology to screen chloramine ketone simulated surface point].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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Utilize phage display technology to screen chloramine ketone simulated surface point, providing the basis for establishing drug-free ELISA test system.
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[Investigation of Paris genus resources in Xishuangbanna].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2010
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To explore the species, distributing and resource of Paris genus plants in Xishuangbanna area of Yunnan province.
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Increased carotid arterial stiffness in subclinical hypothyroidism.
Eur. J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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Arterial stiffness is involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease, and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis. The present study was designed to examine whether SCH is associated with an increase in carotid arterial stiffness.
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Secalonic acid A reduced colchicine cytotoxicity through suppression of JNK, p38 MAPKs and calcium influx.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
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There are few articles about the cytotoxicity evoked by secalonic acid A (SAA) in some tumor cells. It has not yet been reported whether SAA has any action on neurons of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of SAA against apoptosis of rat cortical neurons induced by colchicine. The protective action of SAA on the cortical neurons treated with colchicine at 1 ?M was examined by Hoechst 33258, LDH release and flow cytometry methods. The results from the above tests indicated that SAA at 3 and 10 ?M significantly prevented colchicine-induced apoptosis of the cortical neurons. Further studies from Western blot and confocal microscopy experiments showed that the activation of JNK, p38 MAPKs and caspase-3 during neuron apoptosis triggered by 1 ?M colchicine could be obviously suppressed by SAA; on the other hand, an increase in the intracellular free Ca(2+) by 1 ?M colchicine in the cortical neuron was blocked evidently by SAA. The above results suggested that SAA could antagonize the cytotoxicity of colchicine in the rat cortical neurons, which may be through inhibition of phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPKs, calcium influx, and the activation of caspase-3.
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[Development of a colloidal gold immuno-chromatography assay to detect methamphetamine].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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A rapid detector method for non-professional staff detecting methamphetamine in scene, no instrument, sensitivity and specificity, would be set up.
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The epidemiology of hospitalized influenza in children, a two year population-based study in the Peoples Republic of China.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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The epidemiology and disease burden of annual influenza in children in mainland Peoples Republic of China have not been reported in detail. To understand the incidence and epidemiology of laboratory-proven influenza hospitalization in children in China, a review of available laboratory and hospital admission data was undertaken.
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Down-expression of PGC-1alpha partially mediated by JNK/c-Jun through binding to CRE site during apoptotic procedure in cerebellar granule neurons.
J. Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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In eukaryotes, mitochondria are critical for cellular bioenergetics and mediating apoptosis. The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is an important regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. However, the role of PGC-1alpha in neuronal apoptosis and its regulation by apoptotic pathway are still unknown. We demonstrated that PGC-1alpha expression was down-regulated in cerebellar granule neurons(CGNs) after activation of the JNK/c-Jun pathway by potassium deprivation. Overexpression of PGC-1alpha partially protected CGNs from potassium deprivation-induced apoptosis. JNK-specific inhibitors, SP600125 and CEP11004, partially blocked the inhibitory effects of JNK on PGC-1alpha expression and its promoter activity. Furthermore, ChIP assays revealed that c-Jun was able to bind to the CRE site (-188 to -180) in the PGC-1alpha promoter. In conclusion, these results suggest that down-expression of PGC-1alpha partially mediated by activation of JNK/c-Jun may be through the binding of c-Jun to the CRE site in the PGC-1alpha promoter, and it might be involved in potassium deprivation-induced apoptosis in CGNs.
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Simultaneous determination of six herbal components in intestinal perfusate by high-performance liquid chromatography.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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An effective, accurate and reliable HPLC with UV detection method was developed and validated for quantitation of six components: baicalin, berberine hydrochloride, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and baicalein in intestinal perfusate using rotundin as an internal standard. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Welchrom-C(18) column (250 x 4.6 mm i.d. with 5.0 microm particle size) with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile, water, phosphoric acid and triethylamine (30:70:0.2:0.1,v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and a UV detection at 270 nm. The method had a chromatographic run time of 30 min and excellent linear behavior over the investigated concentration ranges observed with the values of r higher than 0.99 for all the analytes. The lower limit of quantification of the analytical method was 0.09 microg/mL for berberine hydrochloride, quercetin, kaempferol and baicalein and 0.18 microg/mL for baicalin and isorhamnetin. The intra- and inter-day precisions measured at three concentration levels were all less than 10% for all analytes. The bias ranged from -6.91 to 4.33%. The validated method has been successfully applied to investigate the rat intestine absorption profiles of baicalin, berberine hydrochloride, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and baicalein.
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Neuroprotective effects of (+/-)-catechin against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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The neuroprotective effects of (+/-)-catechin against toxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) were investigated in mice. MPTP caused the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and decreased the level of striatal dopamine. Additionally, MPTP increased the level of phospho-c-Jun, a known substrate of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caused a rapid activation of GSK-3beta, evidenced by the decrease in the level of phospho-Ser9 of GSK-3beta. However, pretreatment with (+/-)-catechin was found to protect dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra against MPTP toxicity, and restore the depletion of striatal dopamine in mice. (+/-)-Catechin attenuated the phosphorylation of c-Jun and recovered the phosphorylation of GSK-3beta (Ser9). These results suggested that the suppression of JNK and GSK-3beta signaling cascades might contribute to the neuroprotective effect of (+/-)-catechin against toxicity of MPTP.
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Reversal of multidrug resistance by curcumin through FA/BRCA pathway in multiple myeloma cell line MOLP-2/R.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2009
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Most patients with multiple myeloma (MM) will relapse eventually due to the acquired multidrug resistance (MDR). The objective of this study was to explore the reversal effect of curcumin on the MDR of human MM cell line, MOLP-2/R, and analyze the role of Fanconi anemia (FA)/BRCA pathway in this process. MOLP-2/R was selected by stepwise exposure of parental MOLP-2 cells to increasing concentrations of melphalan. The MTT assay was used to detect the reversal ratio of curcumin. The FANCD2 monoubiquitination expression was detected by western blotting to explore the role of FA/BRCA pathway. Cell cycle, apoptosis, and intracellular drug concentration were analyzed by flow cytometry. The results indicated that combination of melphalan with curcumin had stronger effects on the proliferation inhibition, inducement of apoptosis, G2/M phase arrest, and enhancement of intracellular drug concentration than melphalan alone in MOLP-2/R cells. These effects were accompanied with inhibition of FA/BRCA pathway by down regulation of FANCD2 protein monoubiquitination in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, curcumin reversed multidrug resistance of MOLP-2/R through inhibition of FA/BRCA pathway. The possible mechanisms include (1) reduction of DNA damage repair and stimulation of apoptosis of tumor cells through inhibition of FA/BRCA pathway, which is important for DNA repair, and (2) achievement of high concentration in target cells. Curcumin may be a safe reversal agent of multidrug resistance with low-dose DNA cross-linking agents.
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Genome-wide analysis of BP1 transcriptional targets in breast cancer cell line Hs578T.
Int. J. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2009
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Homeobox genes are known to be critically important in tumor development and progression. The BP1 (Beta Protein 1) gene, an isoform of DLX4, belongs to the Distal-less (DLX) subfamily of homeobox genes and encodes a homeodomain-containing transcription factor. Our studies have shown that the BP1 gene was overexpressed in 81% of primary breast cancer and its expression was closely correlated with the progression of breast cancer. However, the exact role of BP1 in breast has yet to be elucidated. Therefore, it is important to explore the potential transcriptional targets of BP1 via whole genome-scale screening. In this study, we used the chromatin immunoprecipitation on chip (ChIP-on-chip) and gene expression microarray assays to identify candidate target genes and gene networks, which are directly regulated by BP1 in ER negative (ER-) breast cancer cells. After rigorous bioinformatic and statistical analysis for both ChIP-on-chip and expression microarray gene lists, 18 overlapping genes were noted and verified. Those potential target genes are involved in a variety of tumorigenic pathways, which sheds light on the functional mechanisms of BP1 in breast cancer development and progression.
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Discrimination of the rare medicinal plant Dendrobium officinale based on naringenin, bibenzyl, and polysaccharides.
Sci China Life Sci
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The aim of this study was to establish a method for discriminating Dendrobium officinale from four of its close relatives Dendrobium chrysanthum, Dendrobium crystallinum, Dendrobium aphyllum and Dendrobium devonianum based on chemical composition analysis. We analyzed 62 samples of 24 Dendrobium species. High performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed that the four low molecular weight compounds 4,5,7-trihydroxyflavanone (naringenin), 3,4-dihydroxy-4,5-dime-thoxybibenzyl (DDB-2), 3,4-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybibenzyl (gigantol), and 4,4-dihydroxy-3,3,5-trimethoxybibenzy (moscatilin), were common in the genus. The phenol-sulfuric acid method was used to quantify polysaccharides, and the monosaccharide composition of the polysaccharides was determined by gas chromatography. Stepwise discriminant analysis was used to differentiate among the five closely related species based on the chemical composition analysis. This proved to be a simple and accurate approach for discriminating among these species. The results also showed that the polysaccharide content, the amounts of the four low molecular weight compounds, and the mannose to glucose ratio, were important factors for species discriminant. Therefore, we propose that a chemical analysis based on quantification of naringenin, bibenzyl, and polysaccharides is effective for identifying D. officinale.
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Therapy with Astragalus polysaccharides rescues lipotoxic cardiomyopathy in MHC-PPAR? mice.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
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Obesity-related diabetes mellitus leads to lipotoxic cardiomyopathy resulting in a form of cardiac dysfunction. Mice with heart-specific overexpression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? showed a metabolic and cardiomyopathic phenotype similar to the diabetic heart. To define the role of Astragalus Polysaccharides (APS) treatment for PPAR?-mediated lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy, myosin heavy chain [MHC]-PPAR? mice with high-fat diet were administrated with APS or vehicle for 16 weeks. The APS treatment prevented myocardial long-chain triglyceride accumulation, ultrastructure abnormality in cardiac myocytes and cardiac dysfunction in the MHC-PPAR? mice, which was associated with reduced free fatty acids (FFA) utilization and increased glucose uptake and oxidation in hearts by APS treatment. Consistent with the metabolic changes, activation of PPAR? gene regulatory pathway involved in FFA-oxidation in the MHC-PPAR? heart was down-regulated by APS treatment, while suppression of PPAR? target genes involved in glucose uptake and oxidation in the MHC-PPAR? hearts was normalized by APS administration. We conclude that therapy with APS might lead to the inhibition of PPAR?-mediate lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
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[Effect of calcium ionophore A23187 plus IFN-?on dendritic cells derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
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To explore the effect of calcium ionophore (CI) A23187 plus IFN-? on dendritic cells (DC) from healthy human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC).
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Single-molecule magnets based on rare earth complexes with chelating benzimidazole-substituted nitronyl nitroxide radicals.
Dalton Trans
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Three rare earth-nitronyl nitroxide radical complexes [Ln(tfa)(3)(NIT-BzImH)] (Ln(III) = Gd 1, Tb 2, Dy 3; tfa = trifluoroacetylacetonate; NIT-BzImH = 2-(2-benzimidazolyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazolyl-1-oxyl-3-oxide) have been successfully prepared and structurally characterized. X-Ray crystallographic analysis reveals that all three complexes are isomorphous. Their crystal structures consist of mononuclear molecule units in which lanthanide(III) is 8-coordinated to one NIT-BzImH and three trifluoroacetylacetonate ligands. The NIT-BzImH acts as a bidentate ligand via its nitrogen atom of the imidazole ring and the oxygen atom of the N-O group. The magnetic properties of complexes 1-3 were studied. All the three complexes exhibit ferromagnetic Ln(III)-radical coupling. AC magnetic susceptibility studies of 2 and 3 show slow magnetic relaxation suggesting that they behave as SMMs.
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The critical role of Astragalus polysaccharides for the improvement of PPAR? [ correction of PPRA?]-mediated lipotoxicity in diabetic cardiomyopathy.
PLoS ONE
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Obesity-related diabetes mellitus leads to increased myocardial uptake and oxidation of fatty acids, resulting in a form of cardiac dysfunction referred to as lipotoxic cardiomyopathy. We have shown previously that Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) administration was sufficient to improve the systemic metabolic disorder and cardiac dysfunction in diabetic models.
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Boosting immune response with the invariant chain segments via association with non-peptide binding region of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules.
BMC Immunol.
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Based on binding of invariant chain (Ii) to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules to form complexes, Ii-segment hybrids, Ii-key structure linking an epitope, or Ii class II-associated invariant chain peptide (CLIP) replaced with an epitope were used to increase immune response. It is currently unknown whether the Ii-segment cytosolic and transmembrane domains bind to the MHC non-peptide binding region (PBR) and consequently influence immune response. To investigate the potential role of Ii-segments in the immune response via MHC II/peptide complexes, a few hybrids containing Ii-segments and a multiepitope (F306) from Newcastle disease virus fusion protein (F) were constructed, and their binding effects on MHC II molecules and specific antibody production were compared using confocal microscopy, immunoprecipitation, western blotting and animal experiments.
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[Primary investigation of contaminating fungi on Panax notoginseng and Amomum tsaoko in Yunnan].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
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To analyze the potential risks of fungal contaminants on Panax notoginseng and Amomum tsaoko.
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The clinical characteristics and direct medical cost of influenza in hospitalized children: a five-year retrospective study in Suzhou, China.
PLoS ONE
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There have been few studies on children hospitalized with influenza published from mainland China. We performed a retrospective review of medical charts to describe the epidemiology, clinical features and direct medical cost of laboratory-proven influenza hospitalized children in Suzhou, China.
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Prediction of the properties and thermodynamics of formation for energetic nitrogen-rich salts composed of triaminoguanidinium cation and 5-nitroiminotetrazolate-based anions.
J Comput Chem
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Density functional theory and volume-based thermodynamics calculations were performed to study the effects of different substituents and linkages on the densities, heats of formation (HOFs), energetic properties, and thermodynamics of formation for a series of energetic nitrogen-rich salts composed of triaminoguanidinium cation and 5-nitroiminotetrazolate anions. The results show that the -NO(2), -NF(2), or -N(3) group is an effective substituent for increasing the densities of the 5-nitroiminotetrazolate salts, whereas the effects of the bridge groups on the density are coupled with those of the substituents. The substitution of the group -NH(2), -NO(2), -NF(2), -N(3), or the nitrogen bridge is helpful for increasing the HOFs of the salts. The calculated energetic properties indicate that the -NO(2), -NF(2), -N(3), or -N=N- group is an effective structural unit for improving the detonation performance for salts. The thermodynamics of formation of the salts show that all the salts may be synthesized easily by the proposed reactions. The structure-property relationships provide basic information for the molecular design of novel high-energy salts.
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Sulfotanshinone sodium injection for unstable angina pectoris: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
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Objective. To assess the effect of sulfotanshinone sodium injection for unstable angina. Methods. We searched for published and unpublished studies up to June 2011. We included randomized controlled trials that confoundedly addressed the effect of sulfotanshinone sodium injection in the treatment of unstable angina. Results. Twenty-five studies involving 2,377 people were included. There was no evidence that sulfotanshinone sodium alone had better or worse effects to routine western medicine treatments in improving clinical symptoms (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.11) and ECG (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.09). However, there was evidence that sulfotanshinone sodium combined with western medications was a better treatment option than western medications alone in improving clinical symptoms (RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.3), ECG (RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.35), C-reaction protein (mean difference 2.10, 95% CI 1.63 to 2.58), and IL-6 (mean difference -3.85, 95% CI -4.10 to -3.60). There was no difference between sulfotanshinone sodium plus western medications and western medications alone affecting mortality (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.02 to 12.13). Conclusion. Compared with western medications alone, sulfotanshinone sodium combined with western medications may provide more benefits for patients with unstable angina. Further large-scale high-quality trials are warranted.
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Spatial learning and memory deficit of low level polybrominated diphenyl ethers-47 in male adult rat is modulated by intracellular glutamate receptors.
J Toxicol Sci
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Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of widely used flame retardants, are extensively diffused in the environment. Of particular concern are the reported highly sensitivity of PBDEs in children or developmental animals, however, almost no information is available on their potential effects on adults and the mechanisms are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the neurotoxic effects of sub-chronic PBDE-47 exposure on adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Thus, PBDE-47, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg per day was administered to rats by gavage for 30 days. The learning and memory function was tested by Morris water maze. Further, in order to explore the potential mechanism, the expression of NMDA-receptors was evaluated by using both immunohistochemistry (IHC) and RT-PCR. Our results showed that sub-chronic exposure to PBDE-47 produced learning and memory deficits in male adult rats. Also, significant decrease in the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus areas of hippocampus affected by all three doses of PBDE-47 on the expression of NR(1), NR(2)B and Glu were found by IHC. In addition, the evaluation of expression of the NR(1), NR(2)B and NR(2)C showed statistically significant decrease in mRNA expression in rats exposed to PBDE-47. These findings showed that sub-chronic exposure to PBDE-47 could also induce behavioral alterations and the neurotoxic effects might due to the down-regulation expression of NMDA receptors. Our data indicated that the possibility of exposure of adults to PBDE-47 warranted further studies to characterize their potential neurotoxicity.
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Neuroprotection by nicotine against colchicine-induced apoptosis is mediated by PI3-kinase--Akt pathways.
Int. J. Neurosci.
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Although nicotine is known to protect against ?-amyloid (A?)-induced neurotoxicity, the effect of nicotine on colchicine-induced neurotoxicity remains unknown. Colchicine is a microtubule-interfering agent and is able to induce neural apoptosis. Here we investigated whether nicotine exhibits similar neuroprotective effects and the mechanism against colchicine-induced neurotoxicity of the primarily cultured cortical neurons. In this study, we investigated the effect of nicotine on the protection of neurons against colchicine damage and evaluated the associated intracellular signaling pathways. Nicotine-induced protection was blocked by an ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) antagonist and a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. These results suggest that the neuroprotective effects of nicotine are mediated by the ?7 nAChRs and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. In addition, we reveal that blockade of p38 and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) signaling increased Akt signaling, thus enhancing the survival of cell treatment with colchicine. On the other hand, inhibition of constitutively active Akt enhanced p38 or JNK signaling phosphorylation. These data suggested that crosstalk between PI3K Akt and p38 or JNK signaling pathways contributed to nicotine against colchicine-induced cytotoxicity.
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A sensitive chromatographic strip test for the rapid detection of enrofloxacin in chicken muscle.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess
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A sensitive colloidal gold immunochromatography assay using a specific monoclonal antibody was developed for the rapid detection of enrofloxacin (ENR) residues in chicken muscles. Anti-ENR antibodies with high sensitivity and specificity are generated by immunising BALB/c mice with well-characterised ENR-bovine serum albumin conjugate. An orthogonal L?(3)³ test was designed, and various parameters that influenced the assay performance were investigated and optimised. Under the optimised conditions, the cut-off limits of semi-quantitative test strips for ENR were found to be 3?ng/mL in phosphate-buffered saline and 8?µg/kg in chicken muscle. The ENR test strips showed a 6% cross-reactivity with ciprofloxacin, 3% with norfloxacin, less than 1% with ofloxacin and sarafloxacin and 0.1% with the other eight fluoroquinolones including enoxacin, difloxacin, danofloxacin, pefloxacin, lomefloxacin, sparfloxacin, oxolinic acid and flumequine. Consistent results are produced from the parallel analysis of ENR-contaminated chicken muscle extracts using test strips and ELISA.
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MicroRNA-149 Negatively Regulates TLR-Triggered Inflammatory Response in Mouse Macrophages by Targeting MyD88.
J. Cell. Biochem.
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be important regulators of TLR signaling pathway at the post-transcriptional level. In this study, the potential role of miR-149 was explored in murine alveolar macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Our results demonstrated a dynamic change of the expressions of miR-149 expression and MyD88 in macrophage RAW264.7 upon Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerlin (BCG) infection or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. The presence of BCG or LPS dynamically reduced the miR-149 expression, along with a substantially striking increase of MyD88 expression in these cells. More importantly, overexpression of miR-149 in RAW264.7 cells was associated with a significant decrease of MyD88 protein expression, as well as a reduced production of inflammatory mediator NF-?B 1, TNF-? and IL-6 in response to the microbial ligands. Further studies using immunoblotting assay against anti-MyD88 antibody and microRNA targeting luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-149 was able to directly target the 3-UTR of MyD88 mRNA and post-transcriptionally regulated MyD88 protein expression. These data suggested that miR-149 might be a key player of immune modulator for TLR/MyD88 signaling pathway in macrophages, which may through a mechanism of negatively regulating MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptors signaling pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Clinical Characteristics and Direct Medical Cost of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children Hospitalized in Suzhou, China.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
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There have been few studies on children hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) published from mainland China. We performed a retrospective review of medical charts to describe the epidemiology, clinical features and direct medical cost of laboratory-proven RSV children hospitalized in Suzhou, China.
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