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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Identification and characterization of colorectal cancer using Raman spectroscopy and feature selection techniques.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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This study aims to detect colorectal cancer with near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and feature selection techniques. A total of 306 Raman spectra of colorectal cancer tissues and normal tissues are acquired from 44 colorectal cancer patients. Five diagnostically important Raman bands in the regions of 815-830, 935-945, 1131-1141, 1447-1457 and 1665-1675cm-1 related to proteins, nucleic acids and lipids of tissues are identified with the ant colony optimization (ACO) and support vector machine (SVM). The diagnostic models built with the identified Raman bands provide a diagnostic accuracy of 93.2% for identifying colorectal cancer from normal Raman spectroscopy. The study demonstrates that the Raman spectroscopy associated with ACO-SVM diagnostic algorithms has great potential to characterize and diagnose colorectal cancer.
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Cognitive motor interference for preventing falls in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
Age Ageing
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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we conducted a systematic review to determine the effect of cognitive motor interference (CMI) for the prevention of falls in older adults.
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IKK? is required for the homeostasis of regulatory T cells and for the expansion of both regulatory and effector CD4 T cells.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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It was reported that TNF receptor type II signaling, which has the capacity to stimulate CD4(+) forkhead box P3(+) (Foxp3(+)) regulatory T cells (Tregs), activated the noncanonical NF-?B pathway in an IKK?-dependent manner. Therefore, we studied the role of IKK? in the homeostasis of Treg population. To this end, we generated a mouse strain with conditional knockout of IKK? in CD4 cells (Ikk?(f/f):CD4.Cre) that showed a >60% reduction in the number of Tregs in the thymus and peripheral lymphoid tissues, whereas the number of Foxp3(-) effector T cells (Teffs) remained at a normal level. The function of Tregs deficient in IKK? was examined using Rag1(-/-) mice cotransferred with naive CD4 cells (nCD4s). Although wild-type (WT) Tregs inhibited colitis induced by transfer of WT nCD4s, IKK?-deficient Tregs failed to do so, which was associated with their inability to reconstitute Rag1(-/-) mice. Furthermore, nCD4s deficient in IKK? also failed to reconstitute Rag1(-/-) mice and were defective in proliferative responses in vitro and in vivo. Thus, our study reveals a novel role of IKK? in the maintenance of a normal Treg population and in the control of expansion of CD4 T cells. These properties of IKK? may be exploited as therapeutic strategies in the treatment of major human diseases.-Chen, X., Willette-Brown, J.,Wu, X., Hu, Y., Howard, O. M. Z., Hu, Y., Oppenheim, J. J. IKK? is required for the homeostasis of regulatory T cells and for the expansion of both regulatory and effectorCD4 T cells.
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Enhanced 2.7- and 2.84-?m emissions from diode-pumped Ho3+/Er3+-doped fluoride glass.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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This work reports the intense emissions at 2.7 and 2.84 ?m in a Ho3+/Er3+-codoped fluoride glass (ZrF4-BaF2-YF3-AlF3). An extensive transmission spectrum and the absence of strong OH- absorption guarantee the observation of mid-infrared (IR) emissions. For the Ho3+/Er3+-codoped sample, the 2.7- and 2.84-?m emissions are 5.8 and 3.8 times higher with larger emission cross-sections (10.2×10-21 and 9.8×10-21??cm2), respectively. Meanwhile, other near to middle infrared emissions (1200, 2045 nm emissions from Ho3+ and 980, and 1535 nm emissions from Er3+ ions) are all enhanced. The collective enhanced effect originates from the disappearance of nonradiative decay processes after codping Er3+ and Ho3+ ions. Hence, the advantageous spectroscopic characteristics of Ho3+/Er3+-codoped ZBYA glass indicate that this kind of fluoride glass may be an attractive host to develop solid-state lasers for 3 ?m.
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Ho3+/Er3+ doped fluoride glass sensitized by Ce3+ pumped by 1550 nm LD for efficient 2.0 ?m laser applications.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We present a detailed characterization of enhanced 2.0 ?m emission and energy transfer processes by codoping Ce3+ in ZBYA: Ho3+/Yb3+ glasses under 1550 nm excitation. The measured absorption and emission spectra show that Er3+ ions are efficiently excited by pumping and energy transfer from Er3+: 4I13/2 to Ho3+: 5I7 level. The 2.0 ?m emission from the Ho3+: 5I7?5I8 transition is enhanced by codoping Ce3+ (< 0.5 mol %) ions in the Ho3+/Er3+ doped glasses. However, excess Ce3+ ions in the glass network negatively affect the mid-infrared emission. The upconversion luminescence is dominated by Er3+ (667 nm) red emission in the Ho3+/Er3+ doped sample, which is suppressed after introducing Ce3+ ions. The red emission is abnormally dominated by the Ho3+ (650 nm) emission when the ratio of the three ions (Ho3+: Er3+: Ce3+) is 1:1:0.5. These results indicate that Ce3+ ions can enhance Ho3+: 2.0 ?m emission by suppressing the upconversion processes. The Ho3+/Er3+/Ce3+ triply-doped ZBYA glass is a promising material for 2.0 ?m fiber laser applications.
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Mild ArI-catalyzed C(sp²)-H or C(sp³)-H functionalization/C-O formation: an intriguing catalyst-controlled selectivity switch.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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A tandem C(sp(2))-H and C(sp(3))-H functionalization/C-O bond formation catalyzed by iodine(III) reagents generated in situ has been developed. The method shows wide scope under mild conditions and exhibits an unprecedented selectivity profile that can be switched depending on the catalyst employed.
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Immunophenotypic analysis of abnormal plasma cell clones in bone marrow of primary systemic light chain amyloidosis patients.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Primary systemic light chain amyloidosis (AL) is a rare plasma cell disease, our purpose was to analyze the immunophenotypic characteristics of the plasma cells in bone marrow in AL patients, and explore whether the detection of abnormal plasma cell clones in bone marrow by flow cytometry (FCM) could be used as an important indicator of AL diagnosis.
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Adjuvant effects of L. acidophilus LW1 on immune responses to the foot-and-mouth disease virus DNA vaccine in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The adjuvant effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus on DNA vaccination are not fully understood. It has been hypothesized that swine-derived Lactobacillus acidophilus SW1 (LASW1) could function as an immune adjuvant to enhance antigen-specific immune responses after foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) DNA vaccination in mice. To evaluate the effect of oral LASW1 on the immune response to a DNA vaccine (pRC/CMV-vp1) harboring FMD VP1 gene, anti-FMDV antibody and its isotypes, T-cell proliferation, and cytokine detection were investigated. The results showed that LASW1 was able to enhance FMDV-specific antibody levels and FMDV-neutralizing antibodies. After a booster vaccine, the anti-FMDV antibody titers and FMDV-neutralizing antibodies levels induced by pRC/CMV-vp1 were higher in mice treated with LSAW1 than in the group immunized with pRC/CMV-vp1 alone (the control). Using T-cell proliferation, the stimulation index of the LASW1 group was significantly higher in response to ConA and 146S antigen (P<0.05) than in the control group. Importantly, higher concentrations of IFN-? and IFN-?-producing cells were also observed in splenocytes isolated from the experimental LASW1 mice, indicating that INF-? secretion is important to the immune response to LASW1. The results indicate that LASW1 is a promising immune adjuvant in DNA vaccination against FMD when administrated orally.
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Prognostic factors of remission in myasthenia gravis after thymectomy.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Thymectomy has become an increasingly popular procedure for myasthenia gravis. Knowledge of factors associated with a good outcome (remission) or those most likely to benefit from surgery can help clinical decision-making. A systematic review search was conducted in Medline and Embase for English language studies from 1985 through to February 2014. Studies which evaluated variables associated with, or predictive of, remission in adult (?18 years) myasthenic patients after thymectomy and using multivariable regression models were included. Statistical pooling was not appropriate due to methodological heterogeneity. From 128 potentially relevant studies, 18 reports of 19 studies met the inclusion criteria. Preoperative mild disease classification (i.e. studies reported this variable as Osserman classification 1, 2A or MGFA I-II) showed the most consistent association with remission. Evidence for several other prognostic factors was inconclusive, or no evidence was found. Gender, age and absence of thymoma (or hyperplasia) were not associated with remission following thymectomy. Patients with mild disease preoperatively may have a better chance of remission of MG after thymectomy.
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The first measles outbreak caused by imported genotype D9 measles virus in Shandong Province, China, 2013.
Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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This study represents a measles outbreak caused by the genotype D9 measles virus (MeV), which was imported by Burmese individuals. Urine and throat swab specimens were collected from suspected measles cases. Viruses were isolated, and a 634-bp target fragment of the N gene was amplified by reverse transcription-PCR and sequenced. Phylogenetic results indicated that the 6 isolates belonged to genotype D9 MeV. Through appropriate prevention and control measures, the transmission of genotype D9 MeV was interrupted. Genotype D9 MeV was isolated for the first time in Shandong and was imported by Burmese individuals.
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Simultaneous quantitative analysis of nine triterpenoid saponins for the quality control of Stauntonia obovatifoliola Hayata subsp. intermedia stems.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Stauntonia obovatifoliola Hayata subsp. intermedia is used in China to treat rheumatic arthralgia, hernia pain, and traumatic pain. An accurate and reliable method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of nine triterpenoid saponins in this herb. By using a Kromasil 100-5 C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m), nine analytes were separated by gradient elution over a running time of 45.0 min. All standard calibration curves demonstrated satisfactory linearity (R(2) ? 0.9995) within a relatively wide range. The precision was evaluated by intra- and interday tests, which revealed relative standard deviation values within the ranges of 0.20-2.83 and 0.51-2.79%, respectively. The recoveries for the nine target compounds were between 84.6 and 103% with relative standard deviation values less than 2.67%. The samples were also analyzed on a linear trap quadrupole Orbitrap Velos Pro mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source in negative mode to confirm the quantification results. In conclusion, the present high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection method could serve as an accurate and reliable method for the quality evaluation of Stauntonia obovatifoliola Hayata subsp. intermedia stems.
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Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with Guillain-Barré and acquired CNS demyelinating overlap syndrome: a cohort study based on a literature review.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Some patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) also have acquired demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS) (i.e., acquired demyelinating syndrome, ADS). Often, the overlap of GBS and ADS is overlooked. Therefore, we evaluated case reports of GBS/ADS overlap syndrome.
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In vitro effect of iASPP on cell growth of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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iASPP is an inhibitory member of the apoptosis-stimulating proteins of P53 (ASPP) family. iASPP is over expressed in several malignant tumors and potentially affects cancer progression. However, the expression and potential role of iASPP in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) have not been addressed. In our study, we detected iASPP expression in OTSCC by immunohistochemistry. iASPP expression is up-regulated in OTSCC tissues. Moreover, in clinical pathology specimens, we found that increased iASPP expression correlates with poor differentiation and lymph node metastasis. Using multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS) and flow cytometry, we demonstrated that iASPP down-regulation arrests OTSCC cells at the G0/G1 phase, induces OTSCC cell apoptosis and inhibits OTSCC cell proliferation. These results indicate that iASPP plays a significant role in the progression of OTSCC and may serve as a biomarker or therapeutic target for OTSCC patients.
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Seed-mediated synthesis of bimetallic ruthenium-platinum nanoparticles efficient in cinnamaldehyde selective hydrogenation.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Core-shell RuPt (Ru core-Pt shell) and PtRu (Pt core-Ru shell) nanoparticles were prepared by decomposing in a two-step procedure a ruthenium ([Ru(COD)(COT)] (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene, COT = 1,3,5-cyclooctatriene)) and a platinum complex ([Pt2(dba)3] (dba = dibenzylideneacetone) or [Pt(CH3)2(COD)]) in the presence of 4-(3-phenylpropyl)pyridine (PPP) as a stabilizer and using different Ru/Pt ratios. The data obtained from a combination of several analyses (TEM, HRTEM, WAXS and IR) indicate that the so-obtained nanoparticles present a core-shell structure. The catalytic performances of these bimetallic nanoparticles for the selective hydrogenation of trans-cinnamaldehyde were investigated, which provided interesting results as well as useful information to elucidate their structure and composition. Indeed, the catalytic results evidence that: (1) the combination of both metals led in some cases to a synergistic effect on the selectivity of the reaction, and (2) the structure and the composition affected the selectivity of the reaction.
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Human aquaporin 4 gene polymorphisms in Chinese patients with neuromyelitis optica.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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To investigate the association between aquaporin 4 (AQP4) gene polymorphisms and Chinese patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO).
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Influence of early diagenesis on the vertical distribution of metal forms in sediments of Bohai Bay, China.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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The influence of early diagenesis on the vertical distribution of metal forms in the sediments of Bohai Bay was discussed in this paper. The results showed that the concentrations were: Al>Fe?Ca>Mn>Cr>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd. In vertical distribution, the forms of Cr and Pb were stable from the top to the bottom. However, the exchangeable forms and acid-extracted forms of Cd, Cu and Zn presented an obvious declining trend. The metals would be transformed to more stable forms during the early-diagenesis process. Further analysis found that early diagenesis can change the sedimentary environment, affecting pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), total dissolved solid (TDS) and the structure of organic matter (OM), all main factors influencing metal forms in the sediments of Bohai Bay.
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The effect of health education in patients with chronic low back pain.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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To assess the value of health education (active management and postural hygiene) over and above exercise alone, in patients with chronic low back pain.
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Experience of treatments of amanita phalloides induced fulminant liver failure with molecular adsorbent recirculating system and therapeutic plasma exchange.
ASAIO J.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Ingestion of the mushroom containing amanita phalloides can induce fulminant liver failure and death. There are no specific antidotes. Blood purifications, such as molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) and therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) are potential therapies. However, the extent to which these technologies avert the deleterious effects of amatoxins remains controversial, the optimal intensity, duration, and initiation criteria have not been determined yet. This study aimed to retrospectively observe the effects of MARS and TPE on nine patients with amanita phalloides-induced fulminant liver failure. The survival rate for the nine patients was 66.7%. Both TPE and MARS might remove toxins and improve liver functions. However, a single session of TPE produced immediately greater improvements in ALT (-60% vs -16.3%), AST (-47.6% vs -15.4%) and total bilirubin (-37.3% vs -17.1%) (compared to the values of pre-treatment, all p<0.05) than MARS compared to MARS. Early intervention may be more effective than delayed therapy. Additionally, the presence of severe liver failure and renal failure indicated worse outcome. Although these findings are promising, additional case-controlled, randomized studies are required to confirm our results.
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A propensity score analysis on the effect of on-pump versus off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting for patients with coronary artery disease.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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The aim of this retrospective observational study was to investigate the effect of on-pump versus off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for patients with coronary artery diseases (CAD).
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Compositional dependence of room-temperature Stark splitting of Yb³? in several popular glass systems.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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The room-temperature Stark splitting properties of Yb3+ are practical and valuable for lasers because the working temperature of the gain media intensively increases with the laser output. In this Letter, the room-temperature Stark splitting properties of Yb3+ in several popular laser glasses are contrastively studied. Yb3+-doped germanate (Ge), borate (B), silicate (Si), bismuthate (Bi), tellurite (Te), and fluorophosphate (FP) glasses exhibit large Stark splitting and tend to operate close to the quasi-four-level scheme, whereas phosphate (P) glass shows the weakest Stark splitting and tends to operate close to the quasi-three-level one. Due to the low thermal conductivity of the glass matrix, Yb3+-doped P glass suffers from serious thermal problems and is difficult to achieve high laser output. The Stark splitting is also used to estimate the crystal-field strength of glass hosts and local Yb3+ ligand asymmetry degree. The results show that P glass shows weaker crystal-field effect and lower Yb3+ ligand asymmetry than Ge, Si, and B glasses.
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Association of IL-23 and its receptor gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms with multiple sclerosis in Chinese southern population.
Int. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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The subunit of IL-23 (IL12B) and its receptor (IL23R) gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to be associated with several autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis and ankylosing spondylitis. However, the association studies between multiple sclerosis (MS) and SNPs of IL12B or IL23R gene have been reported with inconsistent results in Caucasian population. These discrepancies prompted us to investigate whether IL12B and IL23R variants are associated with susceptibility to MS in Chinese southern population. In this study, we investigated four SNPs (rs2201841, rs10889677, rs7517847 in IL23R and rs3212227 in IL12B) in 178 MS patients and 221 health controls in southern China using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. There was no difference of genotype or allele distribution of these SNPs between MS patients and controls. No association was found between gene polymorphisms and clinical characteristics in MS patients. Furthermore, haplotypes analysis showed similar distribution of haplotype frequencies in MS patients and controls. Our study showed that the IL12B and IL23R gene SNPs does not seem to be associated with MS susceptibility in Chinese southern population.
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Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing unipolar with bipolar hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral-neck fractures.
Int Orthop
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Unipolar and bipolar hemiarthroplasty (HA) are used to treat displaced femoral-neck fractures. However, which type is best for treating displaced femoral-neck fractures in elderly patients remains a subject for debate. Our aim was to review randomised controlled trials to establish which type provides superior clinical outcome for this patient population.
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Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer parameters of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and oxyfluoroaluminate glasses.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Er3+-doped fluorozirconate (ZrF4-BaF2-YF3-AlF3) and oxyfluoroaluminate glasses are successfully prepared here. These glasses exhibit significant superiority compared with traditional fluorozirconate glass (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF) because of their higher temperature of glass transition and better resistance to water corrosion. Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters are evaluated and used to compute the radiative properties based on the VIS-NIR absorption spectra. Broad emission bands located at 1535 and 2708?nm are observed, and large calculated emission sections are obtained. The intensity of 2708?nm emission closely relates to the phonon energy of host glass. A lower phonon energy leads to a more intensive 2708?nm emission. The energy transfer processes of Er3+ ions are discussed and lifetime of Er3+:4I13/2 is measured. It is the first time to observe that a longer lifetime of the 4I13/2 level leads to a less intensive 1535?nm emission, because the lifetime is long enough to generate excited state absorption (ESA) and energy transfer (ET) processes. These results indicate that the novel glasses possess better chemical and thermal properties as well as excellent optical properties compared with ZBLAN glass. These Er3+-doped ZBYA and oxyfluoroaluminate glasses have potential applications as laser materials.
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Molecular bridge enables anomalous enhancement in thermal transport across hard-soft material interfaces.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Conventional wisdom tells us that interfacial thermal transport is more efficient when the interface adhesion energy is enhanced. In this study, it is demonstrated that molecular bridges consisting of small molecules chemically absorbed on solid surfaces can enhance the thermal transport across hard-soft material interfaces by as much as 7-fold despite a significant decrease in the interface adhesion energy. This work provides an unconventional strategy to improve thermal transport across material interfaces.
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MiR-29a/b/c regulate human circadian gene hPER1 expression by targeting its 3'UTR.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Several essential biological progresses in mammals are regulated by circadian rhythms. Though the molecular mechanisms of oscillating these circadian rhythms have been uncovered, the specific functions of the circadian genes are not very clear. It has been reported that knocking down circadian genes by microRNA is a useful strategy to explore the function of the circadian rhythms. In this study, through a forward bioinformatics screening approach, we identified miR-29a/b/c as potent inhibitors for the human circadian gene hPER1. We further found that miR-29a/b/c could directly target hPER1 3'untranslated region (UTR) and down-regulate hPER1 at both mRNA and protein expression levels in human A549 cells. Thus, our findings suggested that the expression of hPER1 is regulated by miR-29a/b/c, which may also provide a new clue for the function of hPER1.
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Comparative clinical characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders with and without medulla oblongata lesions.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Brainstem involvement, especially the medulla oblongata (MO), has been reported in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). The purpose of this study was to investigate retrospectively and compare clinical, laboratory, and imaging features of NMOSDs with and without MO lesions. A total of 170 patients with NMOSDs were enrolled, including 44 patients with MO lesions and 126 patients without MO lesions. Clinical features, laboratory tests, and magnetic resonance imaging findings among these patients were assessed. MO lesions were found in 25.9 % of the NMOSDs patients. The mean duration was 13 months. Patients with MO lesions had a higher Annualized relapse rate and Expanded Disability Status Score Scale. Headache, dizziness, nystagmus, dysarthria, intractable hiccup and nausea, choking cough or dysphagia, movement disorders, and neuropathic pain were more common in MO lesion patients. Patients with MO lesions were more frequently complicated with thyroid diseases. Multiple brain involvement, More importantly, Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis were more frequently found in patients with MO lesions. MO lesions might be a symbol of more severe neurologic deficits and worse prognosis of NMOSDs.
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Association between neuromyelitis optica and tuberculosis in a Chinese population.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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A number of reports have described the presence of tuberculosis (TB) in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients. However, a definite association between the two conditions has not been conclusively demonstrated.
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Combination of autologous transplantation of G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Panax notoginseng saponins in the treatment of unreconstructable critical limb ischemia.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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The aim of this study is to explore the efficacy and safety of the combination of autologous transplantation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) and Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) in the treatment of unreconstructable critical limb ischemia (CLI).
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Discerning primary tumors from metastases in synchronous nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is one of the most common types of malignant tumor in Southern China and Southeast Asia, and its etiology is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Non-keratinizing carcinoma accounts for >95% of all nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases. In addition, metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma from other locations in the body is extremely rare. This study reports the case of a 53-year-old female who presented with a lesion on the left nasal alar skin that had slowly developed over a five-year period. A biopsy was obtained and the lesion was histologically diagnosed as cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A nasopharyngeal neoplasm was also detected by 18-fluorine-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and nasopharyngoscopy. A biopsy of the nasopharyngeal neoplasm confirmed a diagnosis of SCC. However, a small EBV-encoded nuclear RNA (EBER) test demonstrated that the nasopharyngeal tumor cells were all negative for EBV. As the majority of nasopharyngeal carcinomas were positive for EBER, it was concluded that the nasopharyngeal carcinoma had metastasized from the cutaneous SCC. A brief review of literature is also presented, in addition to a discussion of the pathogen, epidemiology and diagnosis of cutaneous and nasopharyngeal carcinomas.
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The effect of 'sleep high and train low' on weight loss in overweight Chinese adolescents: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Exercise and diet are the cornerstones for the treatment of obesity in obese children and adolescents. However, compensatory changes in appetite and energy expenditure elicited by exercise and dieting make it hard to maintain a reduced weight over the longterm. The anorexic effect of hypoxia can be potentially utilized to counteract this compensatory increase, thereby enhancing the success of weight loss. The purpose of the study is to assess the effectiveness of four week intermittent hypoxia exposure added to a traditional exercise and diet intervention on inducing short- and longterm weight loss in obese adolescents.
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Auxin biosynthetic gene TAR2 is involved in low nitrogen-mediated reprogramming of root architecture in Arabidopsis.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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In plants, the plasticity of root architecture in response to nitrogen availability largely determines nitrogen acquisition efficiency. One poorly understood root growth response to low nitrogen availability is an observed increase in the number and length of lateral roots (LRs). Here, we show that low nitrogen-induced Arabidopsis LR growth depends on the function of the auxin biosynthesis gene TAR2 (tryptophan aminotransferase related 2). TAR2 was expressed in the pericycle and the vasculature of the mature root zone near the root tip, and was induced under low nitrogen conditions. In wild type plants, low nitrogen stimulated auxin accumulation in the non-emerged LR primordia with more than three cell layers and LR emergence. Conversely, these low nitrogen-mediated auxin accumulation and root growth responses were impaired in the tar2-c null mutant. Overexpression of TAR2 increased LR numbers under both high and low nitrogen conditions. Our results suggested that TAR2 is required for reprogramming root architecture in response to low nitrogen conditions. This finding suggests a new strategy for improving nitrogen use efficiency through the engineering of TAR2 expression in roots.
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2.7 ?m emission of high thermally and chemically durable glasses based on AlF3.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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AlF3-based glasses (AlF3-YF3-CaF2-BaF2-SrF2-MgF2) with enhanced thermal and chemical stability were synthesized and compared with the well-known fluorozirconate glass (ZBLAN). The 2.7 ?m mid-infrared emission in the AlF3-based glasses was also investigated through the absorption and emission spectra. Both the temperature of glass transition and the characteristic temperatures (?T, Hr, k(gl)) of the fluoroaluminate glasses were much larger than those of the ZBLAN glasses. The corrosion phenomenon can be observed by naked-eye, and the transmittance dropped dramatically (0% at 3 ?m) when the ZBLAN glass was placed into distilled water. However, the AlF3-based glass was relatively stable. The fluoroaluminate glasses possessed large branching ratio (20%) along with the emission cross section (9.4×10(-21) cm(-2)) of the Er(3+):(4)I(11/2)?(4)I(13/2) transition. Meanwhile, the enhanced 2.7 ?m emission in highly Er(3+)-doped AYF glass was obtained. Therefore, these results showed that this kind of fluoride glass has a promising application for solid state lasers at 3 ?m.
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A genotypic difference in primary root length is associated with the inhibitory role of transforming growth factor-beta receptor-interacting protein-1 on root meristem size in wheat.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Previously we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) qTaLRO-B1 for primary root length (PRL) in wheat. Here we compare proteomics in the roots of the qTaLRO-B1 QTL isolines 178A, with short PRL and small meristem size, and 178B, with long PRL and large meristem size. A total of 16 differentially expressed proteins were identified: one, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta receptor-interacting protein-1 (TaTRIP1), was enriched in 178A, while various peroxidases (PODs) were more abundantly expressed in 178B. The 178A roots showed higher TaTRIP1 expression and lower levels of the unphosphorylated form of the brassinosteroid (BR) signaling component BZR1, lower expression of POD genes and reduced POD activity and accumulation of the superoxide anion O2(-) in the root elongation zone compared with the 178B roots. Low levels of 24-epibrassinolide increased POD gene expression and root meristem size, and rescued the short PRL phenotype of 178A. TaTRIP1 directly interacted with the BR receptor TaBRI1 of wheat. Moreover, overexpressing TaTRIP1 in Arabidopsis reduced the abundance of unphosphorylated BZR1 protein, altered the expression of BR-responsive genes, inhibited POD activity and accumulation of the O2(-) in the root tip and inhibited root meristem size. Our data suggested that TaTRIP1 is involved in BR signaling and inhibited root meristem size, possibly by reducing POD activity and accumulation of O2(-) in the root tip. We further demonstrated a negative correlation between the level of TaTRIP1 mRNA and PRL of landraces and modern wheat varieties, providing a valuable insight for better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the genotypic differences in root morphology of wheat in the future.
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Raloxifene suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and NF-?B-dependent CCL20 expression in reactive astrocytes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent clinical data have led to the consideration of sexual steroids as new potential therapeutic tools for multiple sclerosis. Selective estrogen receptor modulators can exhibit neuroprotective effects like estrogen, with fewer systemic estrogen side effects than estrogen, offering a more promising therapeutic modality for multiple sclerosis. The important role of astrocytes in a proinflammatory effect mediated by CCL20 signaling on inflammatory cells has been documented. Their potential contribution to selective estrogen receptor modulator-mediated protection is still unknown. Using a mouse model of chronic neuroinflammation, we report that raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, alleviated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-an animal model of multiple sclerosis-and decreased astrocytic production of CCL20. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry imaging and transwell migration assays revealed that reactive astrocytes express CCL20, which promotes Th17 cell migration. In cultured rodent astrocytes, raloxifene inhibited IL-1?-induced CCL20 expression and chemotaxis ability for Th17 migration, whereas the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 blocked this effect. Western blotting further indicated that raloxifene suppresses IL-1?-induced NF-?B activation (phosphorylation of p65) and translocation but does not affect phosphorylation of I?B. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that raloxifene provides robust neuroprotection against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, partially via an inhibitory action on CCL20 expression and NF-?B pathways in reactive astrocytes. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the critical roles of raloxifene in treating experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and uncover reactive astrocytes as a new target for the inhibitory action of estrogen receptors on chemokine CCL20 expression.
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Activation of the Transcription Factor c-Maf in T Cells Is Dependent on the CARMA1-IKK? Signaling Cascade.
Sci Signal
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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The proto-oncogene c-Maf is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in the differentiation of various T helper (TH) cell subsets. The amount of c-Maf increases after stimulation of the T cell receptor (TCR), which results in the production of multiple cytokines. We showed that two essential regulators of the transcription factor nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), the scaffold protein CARMA1 and the kinase IKK? [inhibitor of NF-?B (I?B) kinase ?], are also critical for the activation of c-Maf. Although CARMA1 deficiency did not affect the TCR-dependent increase in c-Maf abundance in T cells, CARMA1-dependent activation of the IKK complex was required for the nuclear translocation of c-Maf and its binding to the promoters of its target genes. Consistent with a role for c-Maf in the development of T follicular helper (TFH) cells, which provide help to B cells in the germinal centers of the spleen, CARMA1- or IKK?-deficient mice immunized with peptide antigen had defects in the generation of TFH cells, formation of germinal centers, and production of antigen-specific antibodies. Together, these data suggest a mechanism by which c-Maf is regulated during T cell activation and differentiation.
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Cerebrospinal fluid light and heavy neurofilaments in neuromyelitis optica.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Axonal injury is the correlate of disease progression in NMO and MS. Neurofilament (Nf) belongs to neuron specific intermediate filaments located in axons. Nf protein subunits are potential biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for acute axonal injury. However, whether CSF NfH and NfL levels are elevated in NMO patients has remained unclear.
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Epidemiologic and genetic characteristics of mumps viruses isolated in China from 1995 to 2010.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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The epidemiologic and genetic characteristics of mumps viruses detected in China from 1995 to 2010 were analyzed in this study. Mumps remains endemic in China with a high overall incidence rate. The incidence of mumps in Western China was higher than that in other regions of the country. Each year, most of mumps cases occurred between April and July, but a small peak also occurred in November and December. Mumps cases primarily affected the under 15year old age group. Virologic data demonstrated that genotype F was the predominant circulating genotype throughout China for at least 15years and no other genotype was detected between 1995 and 2010. Analysis of sequence data from the small hydrophobic (SH) gene indicated that multiple transmission chains of genotype F were found in various provinces of China, with no apparent chronologic and geographic restriction. This is the first report describing the epidemiology of mumps and genetic characterization of mumps viruses at the national level in China.
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Enhancement of photocatalytic H2 evolution on Zn(0.8)Cd(0.2)S loaded with CuS as cocatalyst and its photogenerated charge transfer properties.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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CuS/Zn(0.8)Cd(0.2)S composites have been successfully prepared by simple hydrothermal and cation exchange method. The Cu species loaded on Zn(0.8)Cd(0.2)S, together with the intimate contact formed between CuS and Zn(0.8)Cd(0.2)S, was clearly demonstrated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The optimized CuS/Zn(0.8)Cd(0.2)S photocatalyst has a high H2 evolution rate of 2792 ?mol g(-1) h(-1) at CuS content of 3 wt% and the apparent quantum efficiency of 36.7% at 420 nm. The photophysical mechanism of the photocatalytic activity was investigated with the help of surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) and transient photovoltage (TPV) techniques. The results revealed that photogenerated charge separation efficiency in Zn(0.8)Cd(0.2)S was enhanced and the photogenerated electrons were trapped by the loaded CuS, which benefits photo-reduction. Those were the reasons for significant enhancement in the photocatalytic H2 evolution from water splitting.
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Antibodies target microvessels in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis patients.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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This study investigated the presence of serum antibodies targeting microvessels in Chinese patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO).
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First-principles studies on transport properties and contact effects of Cu(111)/ZnO-nanobelt(1010)/Cu(111) systems.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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The transport properties of ZnO nanobelts along the (101¯0) non-polarized direction coupled with Cu electrodes were studied via non-equivalent Greens functions method and density functional theory formalism. The transport properties were greatly affected by interfacial spacing and nanobelt widths. The conductance decreased exponentially with the widths of the nanobelts. Ohmic behavior was found in narrow nanobelts, while rectifying characteristics were observed in wide nanobelts. In the case of narrow belts, the current-voltage characteristics were changed from ohmic type to rectifying characteristics as the interspace increased, corresponding to the contacts transforming from chemical to physical interactions. However, the conductance in the wider nanobelts declined exponentially as the interfacial distance increased. The change of metal induced gap states (MIGS) depends strongly on the interfacial distance but not significantly on the thickness of ZnO nanobelts. An n-type Schottky barrier between copper and ZnO nanobelts is induced by interfacial polarization effects. The Schottky barrier heights for the narrowest and widest nanobelts with equilibrium interfacial spacing were 0.37 eV and 0.44 eV, respectively, which is in good agreement with the experimental values. Additionally, the Schottky barrier heights increased almost linearly as the width of the nanobelts changed from 0.34 nm to 1.2 nm.
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Inhibitors of urokinase type plasminogen activator and cytostatic activity from crude plants extracts.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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In view of the clear evidence that urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) plays an important role in the processes of tumor cell metastasis, aortic aneurysm, and multiple sclerosis, it has become a target of choice for pharmacological intervention. The goal of this study was thus to determine the presence of inhibitors of uPA in plants known traditionally for their anti-tumor properties. Crude methanol extracts were prepared from the leaves of plants (14) collected from the subtropical dry forest (Guanica, Puerto Rico), and tested for the presence of inhibitors of uPA using the fibrin plate assay. The extracts that tested positive (6) were then partitioned with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol, in a sequential manner. The resulting fractions were then tested again using the fibrin plate assay. Extracts from leaves of Croton lucidus (C. lucidus) showed the presence of a strong uPA inhibitory activity. Serial dilutions of these C. lucidus partitions were performed to determine the uPA inhibition IC?? values. The chloroform extract showed the lowest IC?? value (3.52 µg/mL) and hence contained the most potent uPA inhibitor. Further investigations revealed that the crude methanol extract and its chloroform and n-butanol partitions did not significantly inhibit closely related proteases such as the tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasmin, indicating their selectivity for uPA, and hence superior potential for medicinal use with fewer side effects. In a further evaluation of their therapeutic potential for prevention of cancer metastasis, the C. lucidus extracts displayed cytostatic activity against human pancreatic carcinoma (PaCa-2) cells, as determined through an MTS assay. The cytostatic activities recorded for each of the partitions correlated with their relative uPA inhibitory activities. There are no existing reports of uPA inhibitors being present in any of the plants reported in this study.
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Clinical, radiographic characteristics and immunomodulating changes in neuromyelitis optica with extensive brain lesions.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) shows various brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities with recurrent central nervous system (CNS) attacks, although predominantly affecting the spinal cord and optic nerve. However, NMO with extensive involvement of the brain has infrequently been studied. We investigated the clinical, radiographic features and immunomodulating changes of NMO patients with extensive brain lesions (EBLs) in China.
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Enantioselective Electrophilic Trifluoromethylthiolation of ?-Ketoesters: A Case of Reactivity and Selectivity Bias for Organocatalysis.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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A chiral Lewis base or a phase-transfer catalyst (PTC) can mediate the highly enantioselective trifluoromethylthiolation of ?-ketoesters with the previously developed SCF3 reagent. Reactions of indanone-derived ?-ketoesters occurred with high yield and excellent enantioselectivity with quinine as catalyst. Reactions of tetralone- or 1-benzosuberone-derived ?-ketoesters occurred with moderate to good enantioselectivity with a quinine-derived PTC.
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Ulinastatin attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by enhancing anti-inflammatory responses.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common inflammatory and demyelinating neurological disease. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, has been widely used to test MS treatment methods. Ulinastatin (UTI), a drug used to treat acute inflammatory disorders, has been tested in animal models of autoimmune inflammatory diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and crescentic glomerulonephritis. We recently found that UTI has a neuroprotective effect on EAE by reducing oligodendrocyte apoptosis and demyelination. The anti-inflammatory effects of UTI on EAE/MS, however, have never been investigated. We have therefore evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of UTI in EAE and explored the mechanisms underlying this effect. EAE was induced in mice with and without UTI treatment. Inflammation and demyelination of spinal cords were evaluated by staining with hematoxylin and eosin and with Luxol fast blue, respectively. Inflammatory markers in serum were analyzed by the Luminex method, and spinal cords were evaluated by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. UTI significantly lowered the clinical and pathological scores and the serum concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and matrix metal protease-9 (MMP-9). UTI also reduced the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)/nuclear factor kappaB (NF-?B)/inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) proteins and decreased CD11b(+) cells in spinal cord lesions. UTI may protect against EAE in mice by suppressing inflammatory responses. We think that UTI might be a potential therapeutic agent for MS.
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Differential regulation of c-Jun protein plays an instrumental role in chemoresistance of cancer cells.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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The chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP)) is widely used in the treatment of human cancers. However, the mechanism underlying intrinsic tumor resistance to CDDP remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that treatment with CDDP resulted in down-regulation of c-Jun expression via caspase-9-dependent cleavage of c-Jun at Asp-65 and MEKK1-mediated ubiquitylation and degradation of c-Jun in CDDP-sensitive cancer cells. In contrast, activation of JNK2 (but not JNK1) phosphorylated and up-regulated the expression of c-Jun in CDDP-resistant cells. Activated c-Jun bound to the promoter regions of the MDR1 gene and promoted the expression of MDR1. Expression of a cleavage-resistant c-Jun mutant (D65A) suppressed CDDP-induced apoptosis of CDDP-sensitive cells, whereas depletion of JNK2, c-Jun, or MDR1 in CDDP-resistant cancer cells promoted apoptosis upon CDDP treatment. In addition, mammary gland tumors induced by polyomavirus middle T antigen in JNK2(-/-) mice were more sensitive to CDDP compared with those in JNK2(+/+) mice. These findings highlight the instrumental role of c-Jun in the resistance of tumors to treatment with CDDP and indicate that c-Jun is a molecular target for improving cancer therapy.
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Parathyroidectomy and heart rate variability in patients with stage 5 CKD.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Lower heart rate variability implies increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between mineral metabolism and heart rate variability and longitudinal changes of heart rate variability after parathyroidectomy in stage 5 CKD patients.
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Space-Confinement-Induced Synthesis of Pyridinic- and Pyrrolic-Nitrogen-Doped Graphene for the Catalysis of Oxygen Reduction.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Forced obedience: Layer-structured montmorillonite (MMT) was used as a nanoreactor for the generation of planar pyridinic and pyrrolic N sites in nitrogen-doped graphene (NG; see picture). The selectivity for the formation of planar N sites was inversely proportional to the interspace width (?) of the MMT and reached a maximum of 90.27?%. The NG catalyst exhibited low electrical resistance, high electrocatalytic activity, and good stability.
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IL-22 secreting CD4+ T cells in the patients with neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Interleukin (IL)-22 secreting CD4(+) T (Th22) cells and IL-22 are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, but their role in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) is unclear. We measured the proportion of Th22, Th17, CD4(+)IL-22(+)IL-17A(+) T cells and serum IL-22 in NMO and MS patients. The proportion of Th22 cells, Th17 cells and serum IL-22 were increased in patients with NMO and MS. Our findings suggest that increased Th22 cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of NMO and MS.
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Metal oxide composite enabled nanotextured Si photoanode for efficient solar driven water oxidation.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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We present a study of a transition metal oxide composite modified n-Si photoanode for efficient and stable water oxidation. This sputter-coated composite functions as a protective coating to prevent Si from photodecomposition, a Schottky heterojunction, a hole conducting layer for efficient charge separation and transportation, and an electrocatalyst to reduce the reaction overpotential. The formation of mixed-valence oxides composed of Ni and Ru effectively modifies the optical, electrical, and catalytic properties of the coating material, as well as the interfaces with Si. The successful application of this oxide composite on nanotextured Si demonstrates improved conversion efficiency due to enhanced catalytic activity, minimized reflection, and increased surface reaction sites. Although the coated nanotextured Si shows a noticeable degradation from 500 cycles of operation, the oxide composite provides a simple method to enable unstable photoanode materials for solar fuel conversion.
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A phosphate starvation response regulator Ta-PHR1 is involved in phosphate signalling and increases grain yield in wheat.
Ann. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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Phosphorus deficiency is a major limiting factor for crop yield worldwide. Previous studies revealed that PHR1 and it homologues play a key role in regulating the phosphate starvation response in plants. However, the function of PHR homologues in common wheat (Triticum aestivum) is still not fully understood. The aim of the study was to characterize the function of PHR1 genes in regulating phosphate signalling and plant growth in wheat.
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Geranylgeranyltransferase I mediates BDNF-induced synaptogenesis.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Geranylgeranyltransferase I (GGT) is a prenyltransferase that mediates lipid modification of Rho small GTPases, such as Rho, Rac, and Cdc42, which are important for neuronal synaptogenesis. Although GGT is expressed in brain extensively, the function of GGT in central nerves system is largely unknown so far. We have previously demonstrated that GGT promotes the basal and neuronal activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-induced dendritic morphogenesis of cultured hippocampal neurons and cerebellar slices. This study is to explore the function and mechanism of GGT in neuronal synaptogenesis. We found that the protein level and activity of GGT gradually increased in rat hippocampus from P7 to P28 and subcellular located at synapse of neurons. The linear density of Synapsin 1 and post-synaptic density protein 95 increased by over-expression of GGT ?, while reduced by inhibition or down-regulation of GGT. In addition, GGT and its known substrate Rac was activated by BDNF, which promotes synaptogenesis in cultured hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, BDNF-induced synaptogenesis was eliminated by GGT inhibition or down-regulation, as well as by non-prenylated Rac1 over-expression. Together, our data suggested that GGT mediates BDNF-induced neuronal synaptogenesis through Rac1 activation.
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Strategic targeted exercise for preventing falls in elderly people.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Randomized, controlled, blinded trial to evaluate the effectiveness of strategic targeted exercise for preventing falls in elderly people.
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Neuroprotective effect of TAT PTD-Ngb fusion protein on primary cortical neurons against hypoxia-induced apoptosis.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Hypoxic-ischemic injury increases neuroglobin (Ngb) expression in the brain. In our previous study, we have generated a transactivator-of-transcription protein-transduction domain-neuroglobin fusion protein (TAT PTD-Ngb) that successfully mediated exogenous Ngb expression in the primary neurons. In this study, we further investigated the role of TAT PTD-Ngb in protecting neurons against hypoxia-induced apoptosis and explored the possible mechanism. The primary cultured neurons were divided into four groups: (1) the normal group (no hypoxic injury); (2) the vehicle group (vehicle treatment and hypoxia injury); (3) the TAT PTD-Ngb group (TAT PTD-Ngb treatment and hypoxia injury); and (4) the Ngb group (Ngb treatment and hypoxia injury). Translocation of TAT PTD-Ngb into neurons was detected using fluorescent immunostaining against His-tag as early as 30 min after incubation. MTT assay showed that the TAT PTD-Ngb group had significantly increased cell viability compared to the vehicle or Ngb group after hypoxia. The result of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) also displayed rescued ultrastructure in TAT PTD-Ngb neurons compared to that of apoptotic neurons. In addition, TAT PTD-Ngb neurons showed significantly increased expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and decreased activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in response to hypoxia. These results suggest that TAT PTD-Ngb fusion protein protects primary cortical neurons against hypoxia-induced injury possibly through suppressing mitochondria apoptotic pathway.
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Structural analysis of low molecular weight heparin by ultraperformance size exclusion chromatography/time of flight mass spectrometry and capillary zone electrophoresis.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Although low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) have been used as anticoagulant agents for over 2 decades, their structures have not been fully characterized. In this work, we propose a new strategy for the comprehensive structural analysis of LMWHs based on the combination of ultraperformance size exclusion chromatography/electrospray quadruple time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPSEC/Q-TOF-MS) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). More than 70 components, including oligosaccharides with special structures such as 1,6-anhydro rings, saturated uronic acid at the nonreducing end and odd-numbered saccharides units were identified with UPSEC/Q-TOF-MS. Furthermore, a more detailed compositional analysis was accomplished by CZE analysis. PEG10000 and MgCl(2) were added to the background electrolyte to separate those saccharides with the nearly same charge-to-mass ratio. Baseline separation and quantification of all the building blocks of the most complex LMWH, namely, enoxaparin, which include 10 disaccharides, 1 trisaccharide, 2 tetrasaccharides, and, of particular importance, 4 1,6-anhyro derivatives, was achieved using CZE for the first time. Additionally, the peaks of oligosaccharides, in the absence of commercially available standards, were assigned on the basis of the linear correlation between the electrophoretic mobilities of oligosaccharides and their charge-to-mass ratios. These two approaches are simple and robust for structural analysis of LMWHs.
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Cerebrospinal fluid high-mobility group box protein 1 in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis.
Neuroimmunomodulation
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are two autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating diseases in the central nervous system. Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-17 may play important roles in the pathogenesis of these diseases. High-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) can activate the nuclear factor light chain enhancer of activated B cells and release cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-17. However, whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HMGB1 levels were altered in NMO and MS patients is still unclear.
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A case of exacerbated multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis after interferon ? treatment.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), which can be monophasic or with repeated episodes. Relapsing ADEM can be misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis (MS). We describe here a 16-year-old female patient with multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM), which was exacerbated after an interferon beta (INF-?) treatment. The patient presented with polysymptomatic and encephalopathic features at the first attack and was definitively diagnosed with ADEM. During the following 28months, she had two relapses, with the lesions spatially disseminated in time and space, but without encephalopathy. She was diagnosed with MS and started on treatment with IFN-? injection. A severe relapse occurred 5months after starting IFN-? treatment, with both the clinical and MRI characteristics worse than during the former 2 relapses, meeting the diagnostic criteria for MDEM. Treatment with IFN-? was halted, with no new relapses observed over the following 9months. These findings suggest that treating MDEM patients with IFN-? may exacerbate the disease, similar to that observed during IFN-? treatment of patients with neuromyelitis optica. Caution should be exercised when treating these patients with IFN-?.
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TNFR2 is critical for the stabilization of the CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T. cell phenotype in the inflammatory environment.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Several lines of evidence indicate the instability of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). We have therefore investigated means of promoting the stability of Tregs. In this study, we found that the proportion of Tregs in mouse strains deficient in TNFR2 or its ligands was reduced in the thymus and peripheral lymphoid tissues, suggesting a potential role of TNFR2 in promoting the sustained expression of Foxp3. We observed that upon in vitro activation with plate-bound anti-CD3 Ab and soluble anti-CD28 Ab, Foxp3 expression by highly purified mouse Tregs was markedly downregulated. Importantly, TNF partially abrogated this effect of TCR stimulation and stabilized Foxp3 expression. This effect of TNF was blocked by anti-TNFR2 Ab, but not by anti-TNFR1 Ab. Furthermore, TNF was not able to maintain Foxp3 expression by TNFR2-deficient Tregs. In a mouse colitis model induced by transfer of naive CD4 cells into Rag1(-/-) mice, the disease could be inhibited by cotransfer of wild-type Tregs, but not by cotransfer of TNFR2-deficient Tregs. Furthermore, in the lamina propria of the colitis model, most wild-type Tregs maintained Foxp3 expression. In contrast, an increased number of TNFR2-deficient Tregs lost Foxp3 expression. Thus, our data clearly show that TNFR2 is critical for the phenotypic and functional stability of Tregs in the inflammatory environment. This effect of TNF should be taken into account when designing future therapy of autoimmunity and graft-versus-host disease by using TNF inhibitors.
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A closed-form method for calculating the angular distribution of multiply scattered photons through isotropic turbid slabs.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2011
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This paper develops a method for calculating the angular distribution (AD) of multiply scattered photons through isotropic turbid slabs. Extension to anisotropic scattering is also discussed. Previous studies have recognized that the AD of multiply scattered photons is critical for many applications, such as the design of imaging optics and estimation of image quality. This paper therefore develops a closed-from method that can accurately calculate the AD over a wide range of conditions. Other virtues of the method include its simplicity in implementation and its prospective for extension to anisotropic scattering.
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Cloning of equine herpesvirus type 1 438/77 strain genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome.
Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2011
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Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is a major cause of respiratory and reproductive diseases in horses worldwide. The genome of EHV-1 strain 438/77 (isolated from an aborted equine fetus) was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in E. coli without any gene deletions. The mini-F plasmid sequence was inserted in the middle of ORF19 and 20 via homologous recombination following co-transfection of viral DNA and plasmid pE19_20/HA into RK13 cells. Circular viral DNA was extracted from RK13 cells infected with purified recombinant virus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and electrophorated into E. coli DH10B cells. The clone harboring the BAC was screened and analyzed by PCR and RFLP. Reconstitution of the recombinant virus was achieved successfully by transfection of the BAC DNA into RK13 cells. The mini-F sequence in the reconstituted virus was subsequently removed by homologous recombination between virus DNA and plasmid pE1920XM, inducing a point mutation in the Xbal site in ORF19. Comparison of RFLP profiles of the rescued, recovered and the wild-type viral genome demonstrated that no unexpected changes occurred during mutagenesis. In vitro replication assays showed that BAC-reconstituted virus mutant growth kinetics and plaque formation morphology/size were indistinguishable to those measured for wild-type virus.
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Plasma sCD28, sCTLA-4 levels in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis during relapse.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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Soluble forms of CD28 (sCD28) and CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4) were associated with many autoimmune diseases like Sjögrens syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, asthma, and autoimmune myasthenia gravis. However, sCD28 and sCTLA-4 in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients were less studied.
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Approaches to efficient molecular catalyst systems for photochemical H2 production using [FeFe]-hydrogenase active site mimics.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2011
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The research on structural and functional biomimics of the active site of [FeFe]-hydrogenases is in an attempt to elucidate the mechanisms of H(2)-evolution and uptake at the [FeFe]-hydrogenase active site, and to learn from Nature how to create highly efficient H(2)-production catalyst systems. Undoubtedly, it is a challenging, arduous, and long-term work. In this perspective, the progresses in approaches to photochemical H(2) production using mimics of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase active site as catalysts in the last three years are reviewed, with emphasis on adjustment of the redox potentials and hydrophilicity of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase active site mimics to make them efficient catalysts for H(2) production. With gradually increasing understanding of the chemistry of the [FeFe]-hydrogenases and their mimics, more bio-inspired proton reduction catalysts with significantly improved efficiency of H(2) production will be realized in the future.
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Combretastatin A4 phosphate induces programmed cell death in vascular endothelial cells.
Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) is currently undergoing clinical trials as a tumor vascular-targeting agent. Here, we defined the antivascular effect and programmed cell death (PCD) induced by CA4P in vascular endothelial cells. CA4P induced time- and dose-dependent antiproliferative activities against human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and caused G2/M arrest accompanied with DNA fragmentation. The in vitro wound assay and tube formation assay indicated that CA4P potently inhibited migration of endothelial cells and tube formation. The apoptosis and autophagy marker microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II was induced in CA4P-treated HUVECs. The current study demonstrates that CA4P is a promising antivascular agent with potent PCD-inducing activities. CA4P may be useful in the treatment of cancer and hemangioma.
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Disseminated intracranial tuberculoma mimicking neurocysticercosis.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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Intracranial tuberculoma and neurocysticercosis (NCC) are the most frequent granulomatous infections in the central nervous system. Here we report a 41-year-old man with disseminated intracranial tuberculoma mimicking NCC. The patient complained of relapsing vertigo and vomiting consistent with Bruns syndrome. Serum antibodies against cysticercosis were positive. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed multiple disseminated ring-enhanced lesions. An initial diagnosis of NCC was made based on clinical signs and MRI. However, during antiparasitic treatment, the patient exhibited fever, meningitis signs, and positive cerebrospinal fluid findings for tuberculosis. The diagnosis was therefore corrected as tuberculoma. After three months of antituberculous treatment, the patient recovered clinically and on MRI. Our results highlight the importance of differential diagnosis of these two diseases in the early stage.
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Enhanced dispersion and durability of Pt nanoparticles on a thiolated CNT support.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2011
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High dispersion Pt nanoparticles supported on surface thiolation functional carbon nanotubes (SH-CNTs) is presented and electrochemical measurements confirm that the Pt/SH-CNTs catalyst shows good durability and excellent ORR activity.
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Down-regulation of tumor suppressor MTUS1/ATIP is associated with enhanced proliferation, poor differentiation and poor prognosis in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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Microtubule-associated tumor suppressor gene (MTUS1, also known as mitochondrial tumor suppressor) is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene that has been implicated in several cancer types. The expression of MTUS1 gene leads to 5 known transcript variants and codes for 5 isoforms of Angiotensin II AT2 receptor interacting protein (ATIP). In this study, we first confirmed that the down-regulation of MTUS1/ATIP was a frequent event in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) and the premalignant lesion (leukoplakia). We further demonstrated that the down-regulation of MTUS1/ATIP was correlated with poor differentiation and enhanced proliferation (Ki67 proliferation index). Statistical analysis suggests that the down-regulation of MTUS1/ATIP was associated with reduced overall survival. Isoform specific quantitative RT-PCR assays revealed that ATIP1, ATIP3a and ATIP3b were the major isoforms of the MTUS1 gene products in oral tongue epithelial cells. Significant down-regulations were observed for all 3 ATIP isoforms in OTSCC as compared to matching normal tissues. In vitro functional study showed that the restoration of ATIP1 expression led to G1 arrest, apoptosis and reduction of cell proliferation in OTSCC cell lines. These ATIP1-induced cellular changes were accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and up-regulation of p53. Taken together, these data suggest that MTUS1 plays major roles in the progression of OTSCC, and may serve as a biomarker or therapeutic target for patients with OTSCC.
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Interleukin 17 gene polymorphism is associated with anti-aquaporin 4 antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica in the Southern Han Chinese--a case control study.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2011
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Interleukin 17 (IL-17) plays an important role in many autoimmune diseases including neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS), which are inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. A large number of non-HLA single nucleotide polymorphisms have been reported to increase the risk of MS. However, their effects on NMO have been less well studied.
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Cerebrospinal fluid levels of CXCL13 are elevated in neuromyelitis optica.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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B cells are believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of NMO. Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (CXCL13), the most potent B-cell chemoattractant, is a chemokine which is critical for secondary lymphoid tissue development and for B-cell migration. Concentration of CXCL13 in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) is elevated in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, whether levels of CSF CXCL13 are elevated in NMO patients still remain unknown.
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[Determination of trace sulfate ion in liposome doxorubicin with capillary electrophoresis].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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A capillary electrophoretic method for the determination of the trace sulfate ion in liposome doxorubicin has been developed with potassium nitrate as the background electrolyte. The components and pH of the buffer solution, the concentration of electroosmotic flow modifier and the separation voltage on the separation were studied in detail. The optimized electrophoretic conditions were as follows: capillary column diameter 50 microm, total length 60 cm and effective length 51.5 cm, 20 mmol/L potassium nitrate buffer solution (pH 7.0) containing 0.4 mmol/L cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) as the electroosmotic flow modifier, an applied voltage of -15 kV (reversed polarity) and a detection wavelength of 202 nm. Under the optimized capillary electrophoresis separation conditions, sulfate ion and chloride ion in the liposome doxorubicin breaking emulsion were separated successfully within 3 min, and the relative standard deviations of migration time and peak area of sulfate ion were less than 0.01% and 1.0% respectively. The detection limit was 5 microg/L. This method has been proved to be simple, sensitive and accurate, and also has been applied to determine sulfate ion in liposome doxorubicin sample with satisfactory results.
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The usefulness of toluidine red unheated serum test in the diagnosis of HIV-negative neurosyphilis.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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We retrospectively analyzed the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test, Treponema pallidum particle agglutination test, and toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST) in 41 cases of HIV-negative neurosyphilis and 34 non-neurologic syphilitic patient and found that serum-TRUST titers could be the indication of lumbar puncture in syphilitic patients and a reactive cerebrospinal fluid-TRUST is considered diagnostic to neurosyphilis.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.