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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Pillar[6]arene-Valved Mesoporous Silica Nanovehicles for Multiresponsive Controlled Release.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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The synthesis and host-guest chemistry of pillararene (PA) derivatives are a hot research topic, and the applications of PAs in relevant research fields are essential to explore. Carboxylate-substituted pillar[6]arene (CPA[6])-valved mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) functionalized with dimethylbenzimidazolium (DMBI) and bipyridinium (BP) stalks were constructed, respectively, for multiresponsive controlled release. CPA[6] encircled the DMBI or BP stalks to develop supramolecular nanovalves for encapsulation of cargo within the MSN pores. The release of cargo was triggered by acidic pH or competitive binding for the dethreading of CPA[6] and the opening of the nanovalves; moreover, coordination chemistry is the first strategy to activate CPA nanovalves by metal chelating with the carboxylate groups of CPA for cargo release. The controlled release of the CPA[6]-valved MSN delivery systems can meet diverse requirements and has promising biological applications in targeted drug therapy.
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Maintenance therapy with capecitabine in patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma after adjuvant therapy: a retrospective cohort study.
Gastrointest Cancer Res
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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The 5-year survival of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy is below 25%. The original Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group (GITSG) adjuvant study demonstrated a survival benefit attributed to weekly intravenous boluses of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for 2 years in addition to chemoradiation compared to surgery alone. In theory, the prolonged exposure to therapy could maintain pressure on dormant cancer cells that remain in G0 arrest and kill them as they infrequently enter the G1/S phase. We retrospectively evaluated outcomes in patients who were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and maintenance capecitabine compared with those who received only adjuvant chemotherapy.
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[Effect of low dose heavy ion irradiation on subset percentage and cytokines expression of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with pancreatic cancer].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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The aim of this study was to examine the effect of low dose heavy ion irradiation on the subset percentage and expression of cytokines of peripheral blood lymphocytes(PBL) in patients with pancreatic cancer.
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Discussion of solutions to ethical issues in real-world study.
Front Med
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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In recent years, the paradigm of real-world study (RWS) has been at the forefront of clinical research worldwide, particularly in the field of traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, basic features and nature of real-world clinical studies are discussed, and ethical issues in different stages of RWS are raised and reviewed. Moreover, some preliminary solutions to these issues, such as protecting subjects during the process of RWS and performing ethical review, are presented based on recent practices and basic ethical rules to improve the scientific validity and ethical level of RWS.
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Experience inheritance from famous specialists based on real-world clinical research paradigm of traditional Chinese medicine.
Front Med
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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The current modes of experience inheritance from famous specialists in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) include master and disciple, literature review, clinical-epidemiology-based clinical research observation, and analysis and data mining via computer and database technologies. Each mode has its advantages and disadvantages. However, a scientific and instructive experience inheritance mode has not been developed. The advent of the big data era as well as the formation and practice accumulation of the TCM clinical research paradigm in the real world have provided new perspectives, techniques, and methods for inheriting experience from famous TCM specialists. Through continuous exploration and practice, the research group proposes the innovation research mode based on the real-world TCM clinical research paradigm, which involves the inheritance and innovation of the existing modes. This mode is formulated in line with its own development regularity of TCM and is expected to become the main mode of experience inheritance in the clinical field.
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Sensitive electrochemical sensors for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine, and uric acid based on Au@Pd-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Sensitive electrochemical sensors were fabricated with reduced graphene oxide-supported Au@Pd (Au@Pd-RGO) nanocomposites by one-step synthesis for individual and simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) with low detection limits and wide concentration ranges. From the Au@Pd-RGO-modified electrodes, well-separated oxidation peaks and enhanced peak currents of AA, DA, and UA were observed owing to the superior conductivity of RGO and the excellent catalytic activity of Au@Pd nanoparticles. For individual detection, the linear responses of AA, DA, and UA were in the concentration ranges of 0.1-1000, 0.01-100, and 0.02-500 ?M with detection limits of 0.02, 0.002, and 0.005 ?M (S/N = 3), respectively. For simultaneous detection by synchronous change of the concentrations of AA, DA, and UA, the linear response ranges were 1-800, 0.1-100, and 0.1-350 ?M with detection limits of 0.28, 0.024, and 0.02 ?M (S/N = 3), respectively. The fabricated sensors were further applied to the detection of AA, DA, and UA in urine samples. The Au@Pd-RGO nanocomposites have promising applications in highly sensitive and selective electrochemical sensing.
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Synergetic gating of metal-latching ligands and metal-chelating proteins for mesoporous silica nanovehicles to enhance delivery efficiency.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems are highly desirable for improved therapeutic efficacy and minimized adverse effects of drugs. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) functionalized with pentadentate ligands, N-(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)ethylenediamine triacetate (TSP-DATA), in the presence of metal ions with and without myoglobin (Mb)-containing surface-accessible histidine residues, were constructed for pH-triggered controlled release. The DATA ligands immobilized on the MSN pore outlets could encapsulate cargo within the pores by metal latching across pore openings, and release efficiency increased with the increase of surface density of the DATA ligands. The release efficiencies for the metal-chelating protein nanogates, through multiple-site binding of Mb with the metal-chelating ligands, were higher than those for the metal-latching ligand nanogates but were almost independent of surface density of the ligands investigated. Both the metal-latching ligands and the metal-chelating proteins played a synergetic role in gating MSNs for high-loading drug delivery and stimuli-responsive controlled release. The constructed Mb-Cu(2+)-gated MSN delivery system has promising applications in targeted drug therapy of tumors.
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Clinical data quality problems and countermeasure for real world study.
Front Med
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Real world study (RWS) has become a hotspot for clinical research. Data quality plays a vital role in research achievement and other clinical research fields. In this paper, the common quality problems in the RWS of traditional Chinese medicine are discussed, and a countermeasure is proposed.
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Oxidative stress and ca(2+) signals involved on cadmium-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocyte.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Cadmium (Cd) is an important industrial and environmental pollutant. In animals, the liver is the major target organ of Cd toxicity. In this study, rat hepatocytes were treated with 2.5?10 ?M Cd for various durations. Studies on nuclear morphology, chromatin condensation, and apoptotic cells demonstrate that Cd concentrations ranging within 2.5?10 ?M induced apoptosis. The early-stage marker of apoptosis, i.e., decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, was observed as early as 1.5 h at 5 ?M Cd. Significant (P?
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The impact of various platelet indices as prognostic markers of septic shock.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Platelet indices, including mean platelet volume (MPV), are readily available blood tests, although their prognostic value in patients with septic shock has not been fully explored. Current evidence has found contradictory results. This study aims to explore the behavior of platelet indices in septic shock and their clinical prognostic value.
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Tetramine poisoning in China: changes over a decade viewed through the media's eye.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Tetramine, or tetramethylenedisulfotetramine, is an internationally banned compound that had been used primarily as a rodenticide. Despite its regulatory status, there are widespread reports of its intentional use in human poisonings, primarily in China, and often in mass poisonings. Enhanced governmental regulations were implemented in 2003 to further reduce the availability of tetramine, though the effects of these regulations, and the current use of tetramine, remains unknown.
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Polymorphisms in the DNA repair gene ERCC2/XPD and breast cancer risk: a HapMap-based case-control study among Han Women in a Chinese less-developed area.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Genetic variations in DNA repair genes may impact repair functions, DNA damage, and breast cancer risk. This study is aimed to assess the associations of genetic polymorphisms in excision repair cross-complementing group 2 (ERCC2) with the risk of developing breast cancer.
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Clinical phenotype network: the underlying mechanism for personalized diagnosis and treatment of traditional Chinese medicine.
Front Med
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) investigates the clinical diagnosis and treatment regularities in a typical schema of personalized medicine, which means that individualized patients with same diseases would obtain distinct diagnosis and optimal treatment from different TCM physicians. This principle has been recognized and adhered by TCM clinical practitioners for thousands of years. However, the underlying mechanisms of TCM personalized medicine are not fully investigated so far and remained unknown. This paper discusses framework of TCM personalized medicine in classic literatures and in real-world clinical settings, and investigates the underlying mechanisms of TCM personalized medicine from the perspectives of network medicine. Based on 246 well-designed outpatient records on insomnia, by evaluating the personal biases of manifestation observation and preferences of herb prescriptions, we noted significant similarities between each herb prescriptions and symptom similarities between each encounters. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of TCM personalized medicine, we constructed a clinical phenotype network (CPN), in which the clinical phenotype entities like symptoms and diagnoses are presented as nodes and the correlation between these entities as links. This CPN is used to investigate the promiscuous boundary of syndromes and the co-occurrence of symptoms. The small-world topological characteristics are noted in the CPN with high clustering structures, which provide insight on the rationality of TCM personalized diagnosis and treatment. The investigation on this network would help us to gain understanding on the underlying mechanism of TCM personalized medicine and would propose a new perspective for the refinement of the TCM individualized clinical skills.
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Blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol targets for prevention of recurrent strokes and cognitive decline in the hypertensive patient: design of the European Society of Hypertension-Chinese Hypertension League Stroke in Hypertension Optimal Treatment randomized trial.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The SBP values to be achieved by antihypertensive therapy in order to maximize reduction of cardiovascular outcomes are unknown; neither is it clear whether in patients with a previous cardiovascular event, the optimal values are lower than in the low-to-moderate risk hypertensive patients, or a more cautious blood pressure (BP) reduction should be obtained. Because of the uncertainty whether 'the lower the better' or the 'J-curve' hypothesis is correct, the European Society of Hypertension and the Chinese Hypertension League have promoted a randomized trial comparing antihypertensive treatment strategies aiming at three different SBP targets in hypertensive patients with a recent stroke or transient ischaemic attack. As the optimal level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level is also unknown in these patients, LDL-C-lowering has been included in the design.
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Blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol lowering for prevention of strokes and cognitive decline: a review of available trial evidence.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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It is well established by a large number of randomized controlled trials that lowering blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by drugs are powerful means to reduce stroke incidence, but the optimal BP and LDL-C levels to be achieved are largely uncertain. Concerning BP targets, two hypotheses are being confronted: first, the lower the BP, the better the treatment outcome, and second, the hypothesis that too low BP values are accompanied by a lower benefit and even higher risk. It is also unknown whether BP lowering and LDL-C lowering have additive beneficial effects for the primary and secondary prevention of stroke, and whether these treatments can prevent cognitive decline after stroke.
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Characterization of ?2-microglobulin expression in different types of breast cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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?eta-2-microglobulin (?2-M) has been demonstrated as a growth factor and signaling molecule in breast cancer and leukemia. The purpose of the study is to characterize ?2-M expression in molecular subtypes of breast cancer, thereby investigating the mechanism of ?2-M action in breast cancer.
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N-acetylcysteine protects against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes.
J. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known hepatotoxic environmental pollutant. We used rat hepatocytes as a model to study the oxidative damage induced by Cd, its effect on the antioxidant systems, and the role of NAC (N-acetylcysteine) in cell protection towards Cd toxicity. Hepatocytes were incubated for 12 and 24 h with Cd. Results showed that high doses of Cd are required to induce cytotoxicity: 10 ?M caused 36.2% mortality after 12 h and 47.8% after 24 h. LDH, AST, and ALT activities also increased. Cd-treated hepatocytes had an elevated level of ROS generation. MDA content was increased. GSH level significantly decreased after cell treatment with Cd for 12 h, but increased after 24 h of cell treatment. The GPx activity significantly increased after cell treatment with Cd for 12 h, but decreased after 24 h. SOD and CAT activities increased. GST and GR activities decreased, but Cd did not significantly affect their activity. Rat hepatocytes incubated with NAC and Cd simultaneously had significant increase in viability and decrease in Cd-induced ROS generation. Our results suggested that Cd can induce ROS generation which leads to oxidative stress. Moreover, NAC has a major role in the protection of rat hepatocytes from cytotoxicity.
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Human symptoms-disease network.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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In the post-genomic era, the elucidation of the relationship between the molecular origins of diseases and their resulting phenotypes is a crucial task for medical research. Here, we use a large-scale biomedical literature database to construct a symptom-based human disease network and investigate the connection between clinical manifestations of diseases and their underlying molecular interactions. We find that the symptom-based similarity of two diseases correlates strongly with the number of shared genetic associations and the extent to which their associated proteins interact. Moreover, the diversity of the clinical manifestations of a disease can be related to the connectivity patterns of the underlying protein interaction network. The comprehensive, high-quality map of disease-symptom relations can further be used as a resource helping to address important questions in the field of systems medicine, for example, the identification of unexpected associations between diseases, disease etiology research or drug design.
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Activity of SL-401, a targeted therapy directed to interleukin-3 receptor, in blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm patients.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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This is the first prospective study of treatment of patients with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN), an aggressive hematologic malignancy derived from plasmacytoid dendritic cells that typically involves the skin and rapidly progresses to a leukemia phase. Despite being initially responsive to intensive combination chemotherapy, most patients relapse and succumb to their disease. Because BPDCN blasts overexpress the interleukin-3 receptor (IL3R), the activity of SL-401, diptheria toxin (DT)388IL3 composed of the catalytic and translocation domains of DT fused to IL3, was evaluated in BPDCN patients in a phase 1-2 study. Eleven patients were treated with a single course of SL-401 at 12.5 ?g/kg intravenously over 15 minutes daily for up to 5 doses; 3 patients who had initial responses to SL-401 received a second course in relapse. The most common adverse events including fever, chills, hypotension, edema, hypoalbuminemia, thrombocytopenia, and transaminasemia were transient. Seven of 9 evaluable (78%) BPDCN patients had major responses including 5 complete responses and 2 partial responses after a single course of SL-401. The median duration of responses was 5 months (range, 1-20+ months). Further studies of SL-401 in BPDCN including those involving multiple sequential courses, alternate schedules, and combinations with other therapeutics are warranted. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00397579.
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Targeted 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1?-Hydroxylase Adoptive Gene Therapy Ameliorates DSS-induced Colitis without Causing Hypercalcemia in Mice.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Systemic 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment ameliorating murine IBD could not be applied to patients because of hypercalcemia. We tested the hypothesis that increasing 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis locally by targeting delivery of the 1?-hydroxylase gene (CYP27B1) to the inflamed bowel would ameliorate IBD without causing hypercalcemia. Our targeting strategy is the use of CD11b(+)/Gr1(+) monocytes as the cell vehicle and a macrophage-specific promoter (Mac1) to control CYP27B1 expression. The CD11b(+)/Gr1(+) monocytes migrated initially to inflamed colon and some healthy tissues in DSS colitis mice; however, only the migration of monocytes to the inflamed colon was sustained. Adoptive transfer of Gr1(+) monocytes did not cause hepatic injury. Infusion of Mac1-CYP27B1-modified monocytes increased body weight gain, survival, and colon length, and expedited mucosal regeneration. Expression of pathogenic Th17 and Th1 cytokines (IL-17a and IFN-?) was decreased, while expression of protective Th2 cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13) was increased, by the treatment. This therapy also enhanced tight junction gene expression in the colon. No hypercalcemia occurred following this therapy. In conclusion, we have for the first time obtained proof-of-principle evidence for a novel monocyte-based adoptive CYP27B1 gene therapy using a mouse IBD model. This strategy could be developed into a novel therapy for IBD and other autoimmune diseases.Molecular Therapy (2014); doi:10.1038/mt.2014.201.
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The pollution levels of BTEX and carbonyls under haze and non-haze days in Beijing, China.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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The North China Plain including Beijing is frequently suffering from serious haze days in recent years. To best recognize the influence of haze days on regional air quality, the pollution levels of deleterious gases of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene) and carbonyls (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone) under haze and non-haze days were contrastively investigated during the period of September 2008-August 2010 in Beijing. In comparison with non-haze days, remarkable enhancement of BTEX and the carbonyls under haze days in winter was found, with enhancement factors of 1.9-5.7 for BTEX and of 1.5-4.2 for the carbonyls. Whereas the enhancement factors for both BTEX (1.0-3.0) and the carbonyls (1.2-1.9) under haze days in summer were relatively small. The ratios of each BTEX to CO under both haze days and non-haze days exhibited a minimal value in the afternoon, whereas maximal values for the ratios of the carbonyls to CO were usually found in the afternoon. The ratios of each BTEX to CO were extremely greater under haze days than those under non-haze days in winter, but no evident difference was found in summer. The ratios of each carbonyl under both haze days and non-haze days in summer were at least a factor of 2 greater than those in winter and only enhancement of the ratios under haze days was found in winter. The remarkably higher ratios of ethylbenzene to m,p-xylene under haze days than non-haze days in both winter and summer revealed high reactivity of photochemical reactions initiated by OH radicals under haze days.
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Multi-responsive and logic controlled release of DNA-gated mesoporous silica vehicles functionalized with intercalators for multiple delivery.
Small
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Novel DNA-gated mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) vehicles functionalized with disulfide-linked acridinamine intercalators are constructed for multi-responsive controlled release. The DNA-gated MSN vehicles release cargo encapsulated in the MSN pores under different stimuli, including disulfide reducing agents, elevated temperature, and deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I), for codelivery of drugs and DNA/genes in different forms. Furthermore, the cascade release of encapsulated and intercalative drugs is controlled by AND logic gates in combination of dual stimuli. The ingeniously designed DNA-gated MSN vehicles integrates multiple responses and AND logic gate operations into a single smart nanodevice not only for codelivery of drugs and DNA/genes but also for cascade release of two drugs and has promising biological applications to meet diverse requirements of controlled release.
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Clopidogrel improves aspirin response after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery.
J Biomed Res
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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We sought to assess the incidence of aspirin resistance after off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery, and investigate whether clopidogrel can improve aspirin response and be safely applied early after OPCAB surgery. Sixty patients who underwent standard OPCAB surgery were randomized into two groups. One group (30 patients) received mono-antiplatelet treatment (MAPT) with aspirin 100?mg daily and the other group received dual antiplatelet treatment (DAPT) with aspirin 100?mg daily plus clopidogrel 75?mg daily. Platelet aggregations in response to arachidonic acid (PLAA) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (PLADP) were measured preoperatively and on days 1 to 6, 8 and 10 after the antiplatelet agents were administered. A PLAA level above 20% was defined as aspirin resistance. Postoperative bleeding and other perioperative variables were also recorded. There were no significant differences between the two groups in baseline characteristics, average number of distal anastomosis, operation time, postoperative bleeding, ventilation time and postoperative hospital stay. However, the incidence of aspirin resistance was significantly lower in the DAPT group than that in the MAPT group on the first and second day after antiplatelet agents were given (62.1% vs. 32.1%, 34.5% vs. 10.7%, respectively, both P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in postoperative complication between the two groups. DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel can be safely applied to OPCAB patients early after the procedure. Moreover, clopidogrel reduces the incidence of OPCAB-related aspirin resistance.
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Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of benzene homologues in ambient air in the northeastern urban area of Beijing, China.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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Ambient benzene homologues were measured at a site in the northeastern urban area of Beijing, China, from August 24 to September 4, 2012 by SUMMA canister sampling followed by laboratory determination using cryogenic cold trap pre-concentration-GC-MS/FID, and their health risks were also assessed. Daily total benzene homologues ranged from 0.99 to 49.71 microg/m3 with an average of 11.98 microg/m3. Benzene homologues showed higher concentrations in the morning and evening than that at noontime. Comparison with previous studies revealed a trend of decrease for ambient benzene homologues probably due to the effective emission control in Beijing in recent years. Vehicular exhaust was the main source while volatilization of paints and solvents also made substantial contributions. Health risk assessment showed that BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene) and styrene had no appreciable adverse non-cancer health risks for the exposed population, while benzene has potential cancer risk of 1.34E-05. Available data from cities in China all implied that benzene imposes relatively higher cancer risk on the exposed populations and therefore strict control measures should be taken to further lower ambient benzene levels in China.
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Inhibition of osteoclast bone resorption activity through osteoprotegerin-induced damage of the sealing zone.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Bone remodeling is dependent on the dynamic equilibrium between osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated osteogenesis. The sealing zone is an osteoclast-specific cytoskeletal structure, the integrity of which is critical for osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. To date, studies have focused mainly on the osteoprotegerin (OPG)?induced inhibition of osteoclast differentiation through the OPG/receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/RANK system, which affects the bone resorption of osteoclasts. However, the effects of OPG on the sealing zone have not been reported to date. In this study, the formation of the sealing zone was observed by Hoffman modulation contrast (HMC) microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The effects of OPG on the existing sealing zone and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity, as well as the regulatory role of genes involved in the formation of the sealing zone were examined by immunofluorescence staining, HMC microscopy, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The sealing zone was formed on day 5, with belt-like protuberances at the cell edge and scattered distribution of cell nuclei, but no filopodia. The sealing zone was intact in the untreated control group. However, defects in the sealing zone were observed in the OPG-treated group (20 ng/ml) and the structure was absent in the groups treated with 40 and 80 ng/ml OPG. The podosomes showed a scattered or clustered distribution between the basal surface of the osteoclasts and the well surface. Furthermore, resorption lacunae were not detected in the 20 ng/ml OPG-treated group, indicating the loss of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity. Treatment with OPG resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of Arhgef8/Net1 and DOCK5 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs), 10 of 18 RhoGTPases (RhoA, RhoB, cdc42v1, cdc42v2, RhoU/Wrch1, RhoF/Rif, Rac2, RhoG, Rnd1 and RhoBTB1), ROCK1 and ROCK2. In conclusion, podosome distribution was affected by the OPG-induced inhibition of the expression of genes in the RhoGTPase signaling pathway. This resulted in damage to or destruction of the sealing zone, thus inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity.
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Leptin and IL-8: two novel cytokines screened out in childhood lead exposure.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Lead is a toxic heavy metal with many recognized adverse health side effects. The central nervous system is the main target of lead toxicity. Although many studies on lead toxicity were conducted, the mechanism of lead toxicity remains uncertain. One possible attribution is the immature blood-brain barrier that causes lead exposure in children. Few studies have investigated the cytokine changes caused by this exposure. Novel cytokines were detected by RayBio(®) Human Cytokine Antibody Array and validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Several children were admitted to West China Second University Hospital, after a serious lead pollution event in longchang, Sichuan, China. A total of 4 children with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) and 4 children with low BLLs were randomly chosen in the discovery set, and 40 children with elevated BLLs and 40 children with low BLLs were included in the validation set. Leptin and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were identified to be significantly different between children with elevated and low BLLs via RayBio(®) Human Cytokine Antibody Array. In the validation set, IL-8 was higher in children with elevated BLLs [median(P25-P75), 117.69(52.31-233.63) pg/mL] than in children with low BLLs [median(P25-P75): 17.70(10.75-26.52) pg/mL] (p=0.000). Leptin was lower in children with elevated BLLs [median(P25-P75): 1658.23(1421.86-2606.55) pg/mL] than in children with low BLLs [median(P25-P75): 4168.68(3246.32-4744.94) pg/mL] (p=0.000). In children with low BLLs, leptin was higher in children with BLLs<3 ?g/dL (N=7) [median(P25-P75): 7220.86(4265.72-7555.15) pg/mL] than in children with BLL ? 3 ?g/dL (N=33) [median(P25-P75): 4103.86(3163.40-4678.34) pg/mL] (p=0.026); IL-8 was significantly different in children with BLL<4 ?g/dL (N=13) [median(P25-P75): 12.49(8.25-14.86) pg/mL] than in children with BLL?4 ?g/dL (N=27) [median(P25-P75): 21.98(13.64-33.50) pg/mL] (p=0.013). The results defined specific changes in cytokine expressions to lead exposure, which can be used to explore the mechanism of lead toxicity and monitor lead exposure.
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[Change of platelet parameters in septic shock patients].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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To observe the changes in platelet parameters including platelet volume distribution width (PDW), platelet crit (PCT) and platelet large cell ratio (PLCR) in patients with septic shock, and to approach its predictive effect on prognosis to obtain the indexes predicting the prognosis quickly and conveniently.
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Preservation of laryngeal function improves outcomes of patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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This study compares clinical characteristics and survival between patients with and without laryngeal function (LF) preservation during surgical treatment for hypopharyngeal carcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed 485 cases of hypopharyngeal carcinoma treated at a single institution for analysis. There were 337 cases with and 148 cases without LF preservation after surgery. Preservation of LF was complete in 237 patients and partial in 100 patients. There were significant statistical differences between the preservation group and the group without preservation in T-stage (P < 0.001), overall staging (P < 0.001), and tumor sites (P < 0.001) except the N-stage (P = 0.240). The patients with LF preservation had significantly better overall survival (log-rank, P = 0.005) and a lower risk of death than those without LF preservation (HR 0.62, 95 % CI 0.43-0.97), after multivariable adjustment. Treatment with surgery in combination with radiotherapy is still the favorable choice for patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma. The maximal restoration of pharyngoesophageal continuity and function improves survival for patients whose tumors are excised completely for the preservation of LF and laryngeal and pharyngeal reconstruction.
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Zearalenone induces apoptosis and cytoprotective autophagy in primary Leydig cells.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Zearalenone (ZEA) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin found in several food commodities worldwide. ZEA causes reproductive disorders, genotoxicity, and testicular toxicity in animals. However, little is known about the functions of apoptosis and autophagy after exposure to ZEA in Leydig cells. This study investigated the effects of ZEA on rat Leydig cells. Results showed that ZEA at different doses significantly inhibited the growth of Leydig cells by inducing apoptosis. ZEA treatment upregulated Bax expression, promoted cytochrome c release into the cytosol, and triggered mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Consequently, caspase-9 and downstream effector caspase-3 were activated, followed by the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), resulting in Leydig cell apoptosis. ZEA treatment also upregulated LC3-II and Beclin-1 expression, suggesting that ZEA induced a high level of autophagy. Pretreatment with chloroquine (an autophagy inhibitor) and rapamycin (an autophagy inducer) increased and decreased the rate of apoptosis, respectively, in contrast to other ZEA-treated groups. Autophagy delayed apoptosis in the ZEA-treated Leydig cells. Therefore, autophagy may prevent cells from undergoing apoptosis by reducing ZEA-induced cytotoxicity.
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Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) protects against sodium arsenite-induced nephrotoxicity by suppressing ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction, pro-inflammatory signaling pathways and programed cell death.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Although kidney is a target organ of arsenic cytotoxicity, the underlying mechanisms of arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity remain poorly understood. As tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has recently been found to be a renal protectant in multiple kidney injuries, we hypothesize that TMP could suppress arsenic nephrotoxicity. In this study, human renal proximal tubular epithelial cell line HK-2 was used to elucidate the precise mechanisms of arsenic nephrotoxicity as well as the protective mechanism of TMP in these cells. Sodium arsenite exposure dramatically increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, decreased levels of cellular glutathione (GSH), decreased cytochrome c oxidase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential, which indicated mitochondrial dysfunction. On the other hand, sodium arsenite activated pro-inflammatory signals, including ?-catenin, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), tumor necrosis factor alpha and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Small molecule inhibitors of NF-?B and p38 MAPK blocked arsenic-induced COX-2 expression, suggesting arsenic-induced COX-2 up-regulation was NF-?B- and p38 MAPK-dependent. Finally, sodium arsenite induced autophagy in HK-2 cells at early phase (6 h) and the subsequent apoptosis at 24 h. Treatment by TMP or by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine decreased arsenic-induced ROS production, enhanced GSH levels, prevented mitochondria dysfunction and suppressed the activation of pro-inflammatory signals and the development of autophagy and apoptosis. Our results suggested that TMP may be used as a new potential therapeutic agent to prevent arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity by suppressing these pathological processes.
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RhoV mediates apoptosis of RAW264.7 macrophages caused by osteoclast differentiation.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Macrophages, a type of immune cell, are the precursors of osteoclasts, and have important roles in bone remodeling and the immune system. In the present study, the RAW264.7 cell line was used as a macrophage model in order to study the macrophage changes during osteoclastogenesis. Receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony?stimulating factor (M?CSF) induce the formation of osteoclasts from several precursor cells. Observation of RAW264.7 macrophage osteoclastogenesis under the induction of RANKL and M?CSF revealed that except the few RAW264.7 macrophages that were differentiated into osteoclasts, almost all undifferentiated RAW264.7 macrophages underwent apoptosis. BRL?3A cells have no differentiation ability, and RANKL and M?CSF treatments did not induce BRL?3A cell apoptosis. When osteoprotegerin (OPG) was used to completely inhibit the differentiation of RAW264.7 macrophages to osteoclasts, apoptosis did not occur amongst the RAW264.7 macrophages despite the action of RANKL and M?CSF. Rac1, RhoA and RhoV are apoptosis?associated genes in the Rho guanosine triphosphate (GTP)ase family. Their expression levels were detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During the process of osteoclast differentiation, the mRNA expression of RhoV was significantly upregulated, while apoptosis occurred in a large proportion of macrophages. However, when macrophage apoptosis was inhibited by OPG, RhoV expression was significantly downregulated. Conversely, Rac1 and RhoA expression did not vary in correspondence with the apoptotic rate of the RAW264.7 macrophages. In conclusion, differentiation of RAW264.7 macrophages into osteoclasts resulted in their apoptosis. OPG inhibited RAW264.7 macrophage differentiation into osteoclasts, and thereby inhibited the apoptosis of RAW264.7 macrophages. RhoV mediated the apoptosis of RAW264.7 macrophages during osteoclast differentiation.
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The role of mitogen-activated protein kinase in cadmium-induced primary rat cerebral cortical neurons apoptosis via a mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
J Trace Elem Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Cadmium (Cd) is an extremely toxic metal capable of severely damaging several organs, including the brain. Studies have shown that Cd induces neuronal apoptosis partially by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. However, the underlying mechanism of MAPK involving the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in neurons remains unclear. In this study, primary rat cerebral cortical neurons were exposed to Cd, which significantly decreased cell viability and the B-cell lymphoma 2/Bcl-2 associate X protein (Bcl-2/Bax) ratio and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells, release of cytochrome c, cleavages of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). In addition, Cd induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK. Inhibition of ERK and JNK, but not p38 MAPK, partially protected the cells from Cd-induced apoptosis. ERK and JNK inhibition also blocked alteration of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, release of cytochrome c, cleavages of caspase-3 and PARP, and nuclear translocation of AIF. Taken together, these data suggest that the ERK- and JNK-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathways play important roles in Cd-induced neuronal apoptosis.
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Zearalenone inhibits testosterone biosynthesis in mouse Leydig cells via the crosstalk of estrogen receptor signaling and orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 expression.
Toxicol In Vitro
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Zearalenone (ZEA) directly inhibits testosterone biosynthesis in Leydig cells, although the mechanisms involved remains unclear. Various experiments were performed to elucidate the molecular pathway of ZEA-mediated androgen inhibition. Leydig cells were isolated from 6 week-old male ICR mice and subjected to ZEA pre-treatment. The levels of testosterone and a series of influncing factors were measured. The results showed that ZEA caused a concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of testosterone stimulated both by hCG and cAMP (P<0.05). Exposure to ZEA did not affect the LHR binding activity nor the protein expression (P>0.05). However, ZEA exposure significantly elevated the cellular cAMP levels (P<0.05) in low concentrations (5 ?g/ml) or for long time periods (24 h), significantly reduce the mitochondrial membrane potential (P<0.05). The expression of P450scc, 17?-HSD, and P450c17 at the mRNA level were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and 3?-HSD expression was significantly increased (P<0.05). Furthermore, the ER? protein expression was not affected by ZEA, but Nur77 expression was significantly inhibited (P<0.05). These observations imply that ZEA activity interferes with testosterone biosynthesis in mouse Leydig cells via the crosstalk of estrogen receptor signaling and Nur77 expression.
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Network based integrated analysis of phenotype-genotype data for prioritization of candidate symptom genes.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Symptoms and signs (symptoms in brief) are the essential clinical manifestations for individualized diagnosis and treatment in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). To gain insights into the molecular mechanism of symptoms, we develop a computational approach to identify the candidate genes of symptoms.
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Cadmium induces PC12 cells apoptosis via an extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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To investigate the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and downstream events in cadmium (Cd)-induced neuronal apoptosis executed via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, this study used the PC-12 cell line as a neuronal model. The result showed that Cd significantly decreased cell viability and the Bcl-2?/?Bax ratio and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells, release of cytochrome c, caspase-3, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G. In addition, exposure to Cd-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK. Inhibition of ERK and JNK, but not p38 MAPK, partially protected the cells from Cd-induced apoptosis. ERK and JNK inhibition also blocked alteration of the Bcl-2?/?Bax ratio and cytochrome c release and suppressed caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and AIF and endonuclease G nuclear translocation. Taken together, these data suggest that the ERK- and JNK-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway played an important role in Cd-induced PC12 cells apoptosis.
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Recombinant adenoviral vector expressing human wild-type p53, GM-CSF, and B7-1 genes suppresses the growth of glioma in vivo.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Malignant gliomas are the most common of primary brain tumors and have been proven incurable with conventional treatments. Evidence have shown that a recombinant adenoviral vector expressing human wild-type p53, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and B7-1 genes (BB-102) may have antitumor effects in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effects of BB-102-based vaccine on glioma in vivo. An animal model using nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice with human immune system was established. The mice were vaccinated with inactivated U251 glioma cells transduced with BB-102 or adenoviral vector expressing green fluorescence protein (Ad-GFP) as a control and followed by the challenge of live U251 glioma cells. Tumor growth and antitumor responses were measured. Data showed that mice vaccinated with BB-102 had significantly reduced local tumor growth compared to mice with Ad-GFP vaccination or the control group. Histopathological analysis displayed low tumor cell density and significant infiltration of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HuPBLs) in the tumor tissues of mice transduced with BB-102. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that mutant p53 was not expressed in tumor tissues of mice with BB-102 vaccination, and the expression level of Ki67 was significantly lower in the tumor tissues of the BB-102 group than those in the Ad-GFP group or the control group. Further study demonstrated that mice with BB-102 vaccination had significantly increased total T cell numbers, total T cell proportion, CD4+ T cell proportion, and CD8+ T cell proportion in spleens, as well as higher value of IgG, IgA, and IgE in sera. These data suggest that the recombinant adenoviral vector expressing human wild-type p53, GM-CSF, and B7-1 genes could suppress glioma in NOD/SCID mice model and might be considered as a novel strategy for glioma therapy.
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Ultra-sensitive, high-throughput detection of infectious diarrheal diseases by portable chemiluminescence imaging.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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This paper describes a rapid, ultra-sensitive, and high-throughput pathogenic DNA identification strategy for infectious diarrheal diseases diagnosis. This strategy is based on specific DNA hybridization and horseradish-peroxidase-catalyzed chemiluminescence (CL) detection. Probe DNA strands are covalently immobilized on the aldehyde-group-modified slide and hybridized with biotin-modified target DNA strands. Horseradish-peroxidase (HRP) is then combined with the target DNA via a biotin-streptavidin linkage. The subsequently added mixture of luminol and hydrogen peroxide is catalyzed by HRP and radiates photons. The photons are collected and read out by a portable imager. The specific detection of target DNA strands was realized at a detection limitation of about 0.75 nM. This strategy facilitates quantitative detection, as indicated by the fact that the CL signals were consistent well with a linear function. This method was applied to identify a myriad of real diarrheal pathogens samples, including Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), Vibrio cholerae (VBC), Shigella (SHLA), and Salmonella (SMLA). Triple-assay of six gene sequences from these pathogens was realized, which facilitates accurate, high-throughput identification of diarrheal pathogens. This CL assay strategy is appropriate for application in disease diagnosis and prevention.
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Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis contributes to biology and drug discovery.
Yukinori Okada, Di Wu, Gosia Trynka, Towfique Raj, Chikashi Terao, Katsunori Ikari, Yuta Kochi, Koichiro Ohmura, Akari Suzuki, Shinji Yoshida, Robert R Graham, Arun Manoharan, Ward Ortmann, Tushar Bhangale, Joshua C Denny, Robert J Carroll, Anne E Eyler, Jeffrey D Greenberg, Joel M Kremer, Dimitrios A Pappas, Lei Jiang, Jian Yin, Lingying Ye, Ding-Feng Su, Jian Yang, Gang Xie, Ed Keystone, Harm-Jan Westra, Tonu Esko, Andres Metspalu, Xuezhong Zhou, Namrata Gupta, Daniel Mirel, Eli A Stahl, Dorothée Diogo, Jing Cui, Katherine Liao, Michael H Guo, Keiko Myouzen, Takahisa Kawaguchi, Marieke J H Coenen, Piet L C M van Riel, Mart A F J van de Laar, Henk-Jan Guchelaar, Tom W J Huizinga, Philippe Dieudé, Xavier Mariette, S Louis Bridges, Alexandra Zhernakova, René E M Toes, Paul P Tak, Corinne Miceli-Richard, So-Young Bang, Hye-Soon Lee, Javier Martín, Miguel A González-Gay, Luis Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Solbritt Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Lisbeth Arlestig, Hyon K Choi, Yoichiro Kamatani, Pilar Galán, Mark Lathrop, , Steve Eyre, John Bowes, Anne Barton, Niek de Vries, Larry W Moreland, Lindsey A Criswell, Elizabeth W Karlson, Atsuo Taniguchi, Ryo Yamada, Michiaki Kubo, Jun S Liu, Sang-Cheol Bae, Jane Worthington, Leonid Padyukov, Lars Klareskog, Peter K Gregersen, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Barbara E Stranger, Philip L De Jager, Lude Franke, Peter M Visscher, Matthew A Brown, Hisashi Yamanaka, Tsuneyo Mimori, Atsushi Takahashi, Huji Xu, Timothy W Behrens, Katherine A Siminovitch, Shigeki Momohara, Fumihiko Matsuda, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Robert M Plenge.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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A major challenge in human genetics is to devise a systematic strategy to integrate disease-associated variants with diverse genomic and biological data sets to provide insight into disease pathogenesis and guide drug discovery for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis in a total of >100,000 subjects of European and Asian ancestries (29,880 RA cases and 73,758 controls), by evaluating ?10 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We discovered 42 novel RA risk loci at a genome-wide level of significance, bringing the total to 101 (refs 2 - 4). We devised an in silico pipeline using established bioinformatics methods based on functional annotation, cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci and pathway analyses--as well as novel methods based on genetic overlap with human primary immunodeficiency, haematological cancer somatic mutations and knockout mouse phenotypes--to identify 98 biological candidate genes at these 101 risk loci. We demonstrate that these genes are the targets of approved therapies for RA, and further suggest that drugs approved for other indications may be repurposed for the treatment of RA. Together, this comprehensive genetic study sheds light on fundamental genes, pathways and cell types that contribute to RA pathogenesis, and provides empirical evidence that the genetics of RA can provide important information for drug discovery.
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Surgical management of cervical esophageal carcinoma with larynx preservation and reconstruction.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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There is no generally accepted treatment strategy for cervical esophageal carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the operative outcomes of reconstruction after resection of cervical esophageal and hypopharynx-esophagus junction carcinoma with larynx preservation.
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Diversification of nanostructure morphology by modifying angle-resolved heterogeneous shadow mask.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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This article presents a facile and generally applicable methodology for the morphology diversification of two-dimensional (2D) nanostructure arrays by modifying angle-resolved heterogeneous shadow mask (AR-HSM). Colloid spheres are used to prepare scalable well-organized monolayer film by self-assembly method and then etched in oxygen plasma to reduce size. Subsequently, the heterogeneous layer is generated by tilted metal deposition technique, then utilized as shadow mask in the substrate etching process, and finally removed by wet etching technique. As a result, the controllable fabrication of a series of complex morphologies, ranging from the crescent structure to the hoof-like structure and the stripes with apexes, is realized. The morphology of the nanostructure array is depend on the profile of the heterogeneous shadow mask (HSM) which is correlated to the incidence angle of the metal vapor. Therefore, a theoretical model is built for the prediction and design of the nanostructure morphology. This AR-HSM aided approach provides a novel and accessible route for the diversification of nanostructure morphology; and can be readily extended to other functional substrates which may be applied in photovoltaic devices or bio-chemical sensors.
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Structural-acoustic coupling effects on the non-vacuum packaging vibratory cylinder gyroscope.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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The resonant shells of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes are commonly packaged in metallic caps. In order to lower the production cost, a portion of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes do not employ vacuum packaging. However, under non-vacuum packaging conditions there can be internal acoustic noise leading to considerable acoustic pressure which is exerted on the resonant shell. Based on the theory of the structural-acoustic coupling, the dynamical behavior of the resonant shell under acoustic pressure is presented in this paper. A finite element (FE) model is introduced to quantitatively analyze the effect of the structural-acoustic coupling. Several main factors, such as sealing cap sizes and degree of vacuum which directly affect the vibration of the resonant shell, are studied. The results indicate that the vibration amplitude and the operating frequency of the resonant shell will be changed when the effect of structural-acoustic coupling is taken into account. In addition, an experiment was set up to study the effect of structural-acoustic coupling on the sensitivity of the gyroscope. A 32.4 mV/°/s increase of the scale factor and a 6.2 Hz variation of the operating frequency were observed when the radial gap size between the resonant shell and the sealing cap was changed from 0.5 mm to 20 mm.
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Graphene/liquid crystal based terahertz phase shifters.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Due to its high electrical conductivity and excellent transmittance at terahertz frequencies, graphene is a promising candidate as transparent electrodes for terahertz devices. We demonstrate a liquid crystal based terahertz phase shifter with the graphene films as transparent electrodes. The maximum phase shift is 10.8 degree and the saturation voltage is 5 V with a 50 µm liquid crystal cell. The transmittance at terahertz frequencies and electrical conductivity depending on the number of graphene layer are also investigated. The proposed phase shifter provides a continuous tunability, fully electrical controllability, and low DC voltage operation.
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Calcium-calmodulin signaling elicits mitochondrial dysfunction and the release of cytochrome c during cadmium-induced apoptosis in primary osteoblasts.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal used in industry and is associated with adverse effects on human health following long- or short-term environmental exposure. Although Cd is known to induce apoptosis in many human organ systems, the mechanism that underlies its toxicity in primary osteoblasts (OBs) is not yet established. In the present study, we confirmed that Cd induced apoptosis in OBs isolated from the craniums of fetal Sprague-Dawley rats. We then showed that exposure to Cd transiently increased intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) levels for up to 1.5h, after which the levels returned to normal. Pretreatment with the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM was able to prevent Cd-induced apoptosis by reversing Cd-induced changes in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m). In addition, we found that the antagonist of calcium-dependent calmodulin (CaM), W-7, inhibited the conformational change of calmodulin induced by Cd. Furthermore, Cd-induced apoptosis could be inhibited by W-7 through the suppression of the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c to the cytosol and the reversal of Cd-activation of caspase-3. These data indicate that activated Ca(2+)/CaM might transmit apoptotic signals to the mitochondria during Cd-induced apoptosis. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying apoptosis in OBs following exposure to Cd.
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Identification of molecular recognition of Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers using surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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A facile and effective approach for SERS identification of molecular recognition in Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers on smooth substrates was developed by spreading Ag nanoparticles on ordered alkyl chains in the monolayers, which acted as a spacer layer to separate analytes of interest from direct contact with active substrates.
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Induction of cytoprotective autophagy in PC-12 cells by cadmium.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Laboratory data have demonstrated that cadmium (Cd) may induce neuronal apoptosis. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in neurons. In this study, cell viability decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in PC-12 cells. As cells were exposed to Cd, the levels of LC3-II proteins became elevated, specific punctate distribution of endogenous LC3-II increased, and numerous autophagosomes appeared, which suggest that Cd induced a high level of autophagy. In the late stages of autophagy, an increase in the apoptosis ratio was observed. Likewise, pre-treatment with chloroquine (an autophagic inhibitor) and rapamycin (an autophagic inducer) resulted in an increased and decreased percentage of apoptosis in contrast to other Cd-treated groups, respectively. The results indicate that autophagy delayed apoptosis in Cd-treated PC-12 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment of cells with chloroquine reduced autophagy and cell activity. However, rapamycin had an opposite effect on autophagy and cell activity. Moreover, class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways served a function in Cd-induced autophagy. The findings suggest that Cd can induce cytoprotective autophagy by activating class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways. In sum, this study strongly suggests that autophagy may serve a positive function in the reduction of Cd-induced cytotoxicity.
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Creating protein-imprinted self-assembled monolayers with multiple binding sites and biocompatible imprinted cavities.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Imprinted monolayers have several advantages over bulk imprinted polymers such as excellent mass transfer of molecules into and out of imprinted sites and transduction of binding signals detected in real time. Protein-imprinted self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were created with multiple binding sites and biocompatible imprinted cavities from functional thiols and novel disulfide compounds containing an oligoethylene glycol (OEG) terminal moiety and two amide groups incorporated in the chain (DHAP) in a biologically benign solution. DHAP played an important role in the formation of multiple binding sites and biocompatible cavities in addition to resisting nonspecific protein binding. The created protein-imprinted SAMs exhibited the excellent ability of specific binding of target proteins determined by multiple binding sites and imprinted cavities. The strategy generates tailor-made monolayer surfaces with specific protein binding and opens the possibility of controlled assembly of intellectual biomaterials and preparation of biosensors.
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Optimizing prescription of chinese herbal medicine for unstable angina based on partially observable markov decision process.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2013
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Objective. Initial optimized prescription of Chinese herb medicine for unstable angina (UA). Methods. Based on partially observable Markov decision process model (POMDP), we choose hospitalized patients of 3 syndrome elements, such as qi deficiency, blood stasis, and turbid phlegm for the data mining, analysis, and objective evaluation of the diagnosis and treatment of UA at a deep level in order to optimize the prescription of Chinese herb medicine for UA. Results. The recommended treatment options of UA for qi deficiency, blood stasis, and phlegm syndrome patients were as follows: Milkvetch Root?+?Tangshen?+?Indian Bread?+?Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome (ADR = 0.96630); Danshen Root?+?Chinese Angelica?+?Safflower?+?Red Peony Root?+?Szechwan Lovage Rhizome Orange Fruit (ADR = 0.76); Snakegourd Fruit?+?Longstamen Onion Bulb?+?Pinellia Tuber?+?Dried Tangerine peel?+?Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome?+?Platycodon Root (ADR = 0.658568). Conclusion. This study initially optimized prescriptions for UA based on POMDP, which can be used as a reference for further development of UA prescription in Chinese herb medicine.
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Nitrite electrochemical biosensing based on coupled graphene and gold nanoparticles.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Biofunctionalized graphene-gold nanoparticle (AuNP) hybrids were prepared using a facile approach of in situ growth, with homogeneous distribution of AuNPs on the graphene nanosheets. Hemoglobin (Hb) was immobilized on the graphene-AuNP composites to fabricate biosensors for determination of nitrite (NO2(-)). A pair of well-defined redox peaks was observed for Hb immobilized on the graphene-AuNP hybrids with a formal potential (E(0)) of -0.314 V in 0.1 M phosphate buffered saline (0.15 M NaCl, pH 7.0). The novel biosensors exhibited many advantages, such as wide linear response range (from 0.05 to 1000 µM, R(2)=0.997), low detection limit (0.01 µM, a signal to noise ratio of 3), high sensitivity (0.15 ?A ?M(-1) cm(-2)), and excellent selectivity. These constructed biosensors were further used for determination of nitrite in pickled radish. The results obtained were in good agreement with those using spectrophotometry based on the National Food Safety Standard (GB 5009.33-2010), which indicates that these novel and sensitive biosensors have promising application for determination of nitrite in food.
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Human genetics in rheumatoid arthritis guides a high-throughput drug screen of the CD40 signaling pathway.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Although genetic and non-genetic studies in mouse and human implicate the CD40 pathway in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there are no approved drugs that inhibit CD40 signaling for clinical care in RA or any other disease. Here, we sought to understand the biological consequences of a CD40 risk variant in RA discovered by a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) and to perform a high-throughput drug screen for modulators of CD40 signaling based on human genetic findings. First, we fine-map the CD40 risk locus in 7,222 seropositive RA patients and 15,870 controls, together with deep sequencing of CD40 coding exons in 500 RA cases and 650 controls, to identify a single SNP that explains the entire signal of association (rs4810485, P?=?1.4×10(-9)). Second, we demonstrate that subjects homozygous for the RA risk allele have ?33% more CD40 on the surface of primary human CD19+ B lymphocytes than subjects homozygous for the non-risk allele (P?=?10(-9)), a finding corroborated by expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 1,469 healthy control individuals. Third, we use retroviral shRNA infection to perturb the amount of CD40 on the surface of a human B lymphocyte cell line (BL2) and observe a direct correlation between amount of CD40 protein and phosphorylation of RelA (p65), a subunit of the NF-?B transcription factor. Finally, we develop a high-throughput NF-?B luciferase reporter assay in BL2 cells activated with trimerized CD40 ligand (tCD40L) and conduct an HTS of 1,982 chemical compounds and FDA-approved drugs. After a series of counter-screens and testing in primary human CD19+ B cells, we identify 2 novel chemical inhibitors not previously implicated in inflammation or CD40-mediated NF-?B signaling. Our study demonstrates proof-of-concept that human genetics can be used to guide the development of phenotype-based, high-throughput small-molecule screens to identify potential novel therapies in complex traits such as RA.
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Investigation into the influence of physician for treatment based on syndrome differentiation.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Background. The characteristics of treatment based on syndrome differentiation (TBSD) cause great challenges to evaluate the effectiveness of the clinical methods. Objectives. This paper aims to evaluate the influence of physician to personalized medicine in the process of TBSD. Methods. We performed a randomized, triple-blind trial involving patients of primary insomnia treated by 3 physicians individually and independently. The patients (n = 30) were randomly assigned to receive treatments by the 3 physicians for every visit. However, they always received the treatment, respectively, prescribed by the physician at the first visit. The primary outcome was evaluated, respectively, by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the TCM symptoms measuring scale. The clinical practices of the physicians were recorded at every visit including diagnostic information, syndrome differentiation, treating principles, and prescriptions. Results. All patients in the 3 groups (30 patients) showed significant improvements (>66%) according to the PSQI and TCM symptoms measuring scale. Conclusion. The results indicate that although with comparable effectiveness, there exist significant differences in syndrome differentiation, the treating principles, and the prescriptions of the approaches used by the 3 physicians. This means that the physician should be considered as an important factor for individualized medicine and the related TCM clinical research.
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Effect of surface modification of nanofibres with glutamic acid peptide on calcium phosphate nucleation and osteogenic differentiation of marrow stromal cells.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Biomineralization is mediated by extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins with amino acid sequences rich in glutamic acid. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of calcium phosphate deposition on aligned nanofibres surface-modified with a glutamic acid peptide on osteogenic differentiation of rat marrow stromal cells. Blend of EEGGC peptide (GLU) conjugated low molecular weight polylactide (PLA) and high molecular weight poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was electrospun to form aligned nanofibres (GLU-NF). The GLU-NF microsheets were incubated in a modified simulated body fluid for nucleation of calcium phosphate crystals on the fibre surface. To achieve a high calcium phosphate to fibre ratio, a layer-by-layer approach was used to improve diffusion of calcium and phosphate ions inside the microsheets. Based on dissipative particle dynamics simulation of PLGA/PLA-GLU fibres, > 80% of GLU peptide was localized to the fibre surface. Calcium phosphate to fibre ratios as high as 200%, between those of cancellous (160%) and cortical (310%) bone, was obtained with the layer-by-layer approach. The extent of osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of marrow stromal cells seeded on GLU-NF microsheets was directly related to the amount of calcium phosphate deposition on the fibres prior to cell seeding. Expression of osteogenic markers osteopontin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin and type 1 collagen increased gradually with calcium phosphate deposition on GLU-NF microsheets. Results demonstrate that surface modification of aligned synthetic nanofibres with EEGGC peptide dramatically affects nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate crystals on the fibres leading to increased osteogenic differentiation of marrow stromal cells and mineralization. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Emergency department characteristics and capabilities in Beijing, China.
J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Emergency Departments (EDs) are a critical, yet heterogeneous, part of international emergency care.
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Oxidative stress and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways involved in cadmium-induced BRL 3A cell apoptosis.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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In this study, BRL 3A cells were treated with different Cd concentrations (0, 10, 20, and 40 ?mol/L) for 12 h and preincubated with or without N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) (2 mmol/L) for 30 min, and cells were treated with Cd (0 and 20 ?mol/L), pretreated with p38 inhibitor (SB203580), JNK (c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases) inhibitor (SP600125), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor (U0126) for 30 min, and then treated with 20 ?mol/L Cd for 12 h. Cd decreased cell viability, SOD, and GSH-Px activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Increased MDA level, ROS generation, nuclear condensation, shrinkage, and fragmentation in cell morphology were inhibited by NAC. Cd-induced apoptosis was attenuated by pretreatment with SB203580, SP600125, and U0126. The results of western blot showed that NAC preincubation affected Cd-activated MAPK pathways, p38 and ERK phosphorylation. Cd treatment elevated the mRNA levels of Bax and decreased the mRNA levels of Bcl-2, respectively. The same effect was found in their protein expression levels. These results suggest that oxidative stress and MAPK pathways participate in Cd-induced apoptosis and that the balance between pro- and antiapoptotic genes (Bax and Bcl-2) is important in Cd-induced apoptosis.
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Tandem assays of protein and glucose with functionalized core/shell particles based on magnetic separation and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.
Small
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Tandem assays of protein and glucose in combination with mannose-functionalized Fe3 O4 @SiO2 and Ag@SiO2 tag particles have promising potential in effective magnetic separation and highly sensitive and selective SERS assays of biomaterials. It is for the first time that tandem assay of glucose is developed using SERS based on the Con A-sandwiched microstructures between the functionalized magnetic and tag particles.
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Effect of CD44 binding peptide conjugated to an engineered inert matrix on maintenance of breast cancer stem cells and tumorsphere formation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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As cancer cells are affected by many factors in their microenvironment, a major challenge is to isolate the effect of a specific factor on cancer stem cells (CSCs) while keeping other factors unchanged. We have developed a synthetic inert 3D polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) gel culture system as a unique tool to study the effect of microenvironmental factors on CSCs response. We have reported that CSCs formed in the inert PEGDA gel by encapsulation of breast cancer cells maintain their stemness within a certain range of gel stiffness. The objective was to investigate the effect of CD44 binding peptide (CD44BP) conjugated to the gel on the maintenance of breast CSCs.
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Exploring effective core drug patterns in primary insomnia treatment with Chinese herbal medicine: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Chinese herbal medicine is one of the most popular Chinese medicine (CM) therapies for primary insomnia. One of the important characteristics of CM is that different Chinese clinicians give different prescriptions even for the same patient. However, there must be some fixed drug patterns in every clinicians prescriptions. This study aims to screen the effective core drug patterns in primary insomnia treatment of three prestigious Chinese clinicians.
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1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses TLR8 expression and TLR8-mediated inflammatory responses in monocytes in vitro and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in vivo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) suppresses autoimmunity and inflammation; however, the mechanism of its action has not been fully understood. We sought in this study to determine whether the anti-immune/anti-inflammatory action of 1,25(OH)2D3 is in part mediated through an interplay between 1,25(OH)2D3 and toll-like receptor (TLR)7/8 signaling. 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment prior to and/or following experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induction effectively reduced inflammatory cytokine expression in the spinal cord and ameliorated EAE. These effects were accompanied with a reduction in expression of several TLRs with the most profound effect observed for TLR8. The expression of TLR8 adaptor protein MyD88 was also significantly reduced by 1,25(OH)2D3. To determine the molecular mechanism by which 1,25(OH)2D3 suppresses EAE induction of TLR8 and inflammatory cytokine expression, we evaluated whether 1,25(OH)2D3 can directly inhibit TLR8 signaling and the resulting inflammatory responses in human THP-1 monocytes. 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment not only significantly reduced TLR8 expression but also the expression or activity of MyD88, IRF-4, IRF-7 and NF-kB in monocytes challenged with TLR8 ligands. TLR8 promoter-luciferase reporter assays indicated that 1,25(OH)2D3 decreases TLR8 mRNA level in part via inhibiting TLR8 gene transcription activity. As a result of inhibition on TLR8 signaling cascade at various stages, 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly diminished the TLR8 target gene expression (TNF-? and IL-1?). In summary, our novel findings suggest that TLR8 is a new target of 1,25(OH)2D3 and may mediate the anti-inflammatory action of 1,25(OH)2D3. Our findings also point to a destructive role of TLR8 in EAE and shed lights on pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.
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Polymorphisms in DNA repair pathway genes, body mass index, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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We conducted a population-based case-control study in Connecticut women to test the hypothesis that genetic variations in DNA repair pathway genes may modify the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Compared to those with BMI <25, women with BMI ?25 had significantly increased risk of NHL among women who carried BRCA1 (rs799917) CT/TT, ERCC2 (rs13181) AA, XRCC1 (rs1799782) CC, and WRN (rs1801195) GG genotypes, but no increase in NHL risk among women who carried BRCA1 CC, ERCC2 AC/CC, XRCC1 CT/TT, and WRN GT/TT genotypes. A significant interaction with BMI was only observed for WRN (rs1801195; P?=?0.004) for T-cell lymphoma and ERCC2 (rs13181; P?=?0.002) for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The results suggest that common genetic variation in DNA repair pathway genes may modify the association between BMI and NHL risk. Am. J. Hematol. 00:000-000, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Lysyl oxidase genetic variants and the prognosis of glioma.
APMIS
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a copper-dependent amine oxidase that plays important roles in the development and homeostasis of primary brain tumors such as glioma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in the LOX gene were associated with susceptibility to glioma. We tested two functional polymorphisms of LOX, -22G/C and 473G/A, and compared them between 466 glioma cases and 502 healthy controls in the Chinese population. Results showed that the prevalence of 473AA genotype was significantly increased in cases than in controls (p = 0.001). Individuals who carried 473A allele had a 1.44-fold of increased risk for glioma than those with 473G allele (p = 0.002). In addition, when analyzing the survival time of glioma patients with LOX 473G/A polymorphism, cases with AA genotype had significantly shorter survival time compared to the patients carrying G allele (25.0 months vs 43.0 months, p = 0.0009). These results suggested that polymorphism in LOX gene was associated with increased susceptibility to glioma and could be used as prognostic factor for this malignancy.
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Tetramethylpyrazine prevents contrast-induced nephropathy by inhibiting p38 MAPK and FoxO1 signaling pathways.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Apoptosis is recognized as an important mechanism in contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). As tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has been recently found to be renoprotective and anti-apoptotic in multiple kidney injuries, we hypothesized that TMP would prevent CIN.
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Panaxquin quefolium diolsaponins dose-dependently inhibits the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells by downregulating proto-oncogene expression.
Indian J Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Panax quinquefolium saponins (PQS) potentially prevent atherosclerosis in vivo. The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in coronary heart disease and restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. Here, we investigated the potential effect of Panax quinquefolium diolsaponins (PQDS), a subtype of PQS, on angiotensin II (AngII)-induced VSMC proliferation.
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Transgenic overexpression of ephrin b1 in bone cells promotes bone formation and an anabolic response to mechanical loading in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To test if ephrin B1 overexpression enhances bone mass, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing ephrin B1 under the control of a 3.6 kb rat collagen 1A1 promoter (Col3.6-Tg (efnb1) ). Col3.6-Tg (efnb1) mice express 6-, 12- and 14-fold greater levels of full-length ephrin B1 protein in bone marrow stromal cells, calvarial osteoblasts, and osteoclasts, respectively. The long bones of both genders of Col3.6-Tg (efnb1) mice have increased trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness and decreased trabecular separation. Enhanced bone formation and decreased bone resorption contributed to this increase in trabecular bone mass in Col3.6-Tg (efnb1) mice. Consistent with these findings, our in vitro studies showed that overexpression of ephrin B1 increased osteoblast differentiation and mineralization, osterix and collagen 1A1 expression in bone marrow stromal cells. Interaction of ephrin B1 with soluble clustered EphB2-Fc decreased osteoclast precursor differentiation into multinucleated cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the mechanical loading-induced increase in EphB2 expression and newly formed bone were significantly greater in the Col3.6-Tg (efnb1) mice than in WT littermate controls. Our findings that overexpression of ephrin B1 in bone cells enhances bone mass and promotes a skeletal anabolic response to mechanical loading suggest that manipulation of ephrin B1 actions in bone may provide a means to sensitize the skeleton to mechanical strain to stimulate new bone formation.
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Polymorphisms in Th1/Th2 cytokine genes, hormone replacement therapy, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Front Oncol
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
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We conducted a population-based case-control study in Connecticut women to test the hypothesis that genetic variations in Th1 and Th2 cytokine genes modify the relationship between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Compared to women without a history of HRT use, women with a history of HRT use had a significantly decreased risk of NHL if they carried IFNGR2 (rs1059293) CT/TT genotypes (OR = 0.5, 95%CI: 0.3-0.9), IL13 (rs20541) GG genotype (OR = 0.6, 95%CI: 0.4-0.9), and IL13 (rs1295686) CC genotype (OR = 0.6, 95%CI: 0.4-0.8), but not among women who carried IFNGR2 CC, IL13 AG/AA, and IL13CT/TT genotypes. A similar pattern was also observed for B-cell lymphoma but not for T-cell lymphoma. A statistically significant interaction was observed for IFNGR2 (rs1059293 P(for interaction) = 0.024), IL13(rs20541 P(for interaction) = 0.005), IL13 (rs1295686 P(for interaction) = 0.008), and IL15RA (rs2296135 P(for interaction) = 0.049) for NHL overall; IL13 (rs20541 P(for interaction) = 0.0009), IL13(rs1295686 P(for interaction) = 0.0002), and IL15RA (rs2296135 P(for interaction) = 0.041) for B-cell lymphoma. The results suggest that common genetic variation in Th1/Th2 pathway genes may modify the association between HRT and NHL risk.
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Knockdown of BDNF suppressed invasion of HepG2 and HCCLM3 cells, a mechanism associated with inactivation of RhoA or Rac1 and actin skeleton disorganization.
APMIS
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2011
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its primary receptor tropomysin-related kinase B (TrkB) mediate critical signalings for supporting survival and growth of neurons. Even though we have previously confirmed that more expressions of BDNF and TrkB were closely correlated with multiple and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the exact mechanisms underlying have not been investigated. The expressions of BDNF and TrkB were examined by western blot and BDNF secretion was evaluated by ELISA in human HCC cell lines of HepG2 and HCCLM3 with high metastatic potential. BDNF knockdown was performed by specific BDNF-siRNA transfection in HCC cells, actin cytoskeleton was shown by FITC-phalloidin staining and the activations of RhoA, Rac1 or Cdc42 were determined using western blot. Cell apoptosis and invasion were examined by flow cytometry and transwell assay, respectively. More expressions of BDNF and TrkB were found in HCCLM3 than in HepG2 cells. Inhibited expression of BDNF by specific siRNA showed impaired actin polymerization and decreased activations of RhoA or Rac1 in both HepG2 and HCCLM3 cells. BDNF knockdown also induced apoptosis and suppressed invasion of both HepG2 and HCCLM3 cells. Our results suggested a role of BDNF/TrkB in confering HCCLM3 cells advantage of metastasis, and BDNF knockdown inhibited cell invasion probably through the blocked actin polymerization and the correlated inactivation of RhoA or Rac1. Aiming at BDNF/TrkB signaling interruption may be an effective strategy to prevent HCC progression.
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In situ IRRAS studies of molecular recognition of barbituric acid lipids to melamine at the air-water interface.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2011
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Recognition and detection of melamine are of very significance in food industries. Molecular recognitions of barbituric acid lipids to melamine at the air-water interface have been investigated in detail using in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). Hydrogen bonding patterns and molecular orientations of the molecular recognitions have been revealed. Prior to molecular recognition, the barbituric acid moieties in the monolayers were hydrogen bonded with a flat-on fashion at the air-water interface, and the alkyl chains were preferentially oriented with their CCC planes perpendicular to the water surface. After molecular recognition, the NH(2) stretching bands of recognized melamine were clearly observed at the air-water interface as well as primary characteristic bands, the barbituric acid moieties underwent a change in orientation with non-hydrogen bonded C4?O bonds almost perpendicular to the water surface and C2?O and C6?O bonds involved in hydrogen bonds with melamine, and the alkyl chains were preferentially oriented with their CCC planes parallel to the water surface. The monolayers of barbituric acid lipids exhibited excellent selectivity for melamine over nucleosides.
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Complications and adverse events associated with Neuroform stent-assisted coiling of wide-neck intracranial aneurysms.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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Successful experiences of the Neuroform stent-assisted coiling have been reported by many teams in endovascular neurosurgery centers throughout the world. However, most of the reported complications involved a limited number of patients.
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The status of trauma registry systems in Chinese hospitals.
Inj. Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2011
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Injuries are a major source of mortality and morbidity in China with approximately 66 million citizens requiring emergency medical care. Trauma registries provide the basis for quality assurance processes and inform the treatment of the injured patient. Against the backdrop of the recently established Chinese National Injury Surveillance System, the feasibility of establishing a multicentre trauma registry in a limited number of hospitals was examined. Seven hospital directors reported on a range of hospital characteristics including patient volume information and the types of patient information routinely collected. The findings indicate significant numbers of patients presenting due to injury, though little comparability in the type of information collected both between hospitals and with international trauma registry systems. The development of multicentre trauma registry is suggested as a way to monitor trauma system performance. The integration of clinical indicators into the National Injury Surveillance System in the long term is also recommended.
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A novel non-toxic xylene substitute (SBO) for histology.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2011
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Xylene has been generally used as a clearing and deparaffinizing agent in histology. Because of the potential toxic and flammable nature of xylene, its substitutes have been introduced into some laboratories. In this study, we introduced a novel, non-toxic xylene substitute (SBO), which was generated through a mixture of 86% of white oil No.2 and 14% of N-heptane. SBO had a high boiling point (188°C) and flash point (144°C) coupled with a scentless and decreased volatility. To compare the effectiveness of SBO and xylene in histology, a wide range of tissue samples from rats and human beings were processed in parallel in SBO and xylene, subjected to various staining procedures. Similar to the xylene-processed paraffin blocks, the SBO-processed counterparts were easy to section without any evidence of cell shrinkage. Assessment of the SBO-treated sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin revealed a good maintenance of cell morphology and structure, and a clear definition of the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Moreover, comparable good results were achieved between the SBO- and xylene-processed tissues in other histochemical and immunohistochemical stainings. Six-month clinical applications at one department of pathology supported the potentials of SBO as a xylene substitute. In conclusion, we suggest that SBO is a safe and efficient substitute of xylene and may probably replace xylene without losing valuable diagnostic information.
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A novel approach in discovering significant interactions from TCM patient prescription data.
Int J Data Min Bioinform
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2011
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The efficacy of a traditional Chinese medicine medication derives from the complex interactions of herbs or Chinese Materia Medica in a formula. The aim of this paper is to propose a new approach to systematically generate combinations of interacting herbs that might lead to good outcome. Our approach was tested on a data set of prescriptions for diabetic patients to verify the effectiveness of detected combinations of herbs. This approach is able to detect effective higher orders of herb-herb interactions with statistical validation. We present an exploratory analysis of clinical records using a pattern mining approach called Interaction Rules Mining.
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