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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Steroids in Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: Current Evidence and Implications for Future Research.
Ann Pharmacother
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To review the evidence for the use of steroids in adults presenting with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), or overlap.
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Prediction of general hospital admission in people with dementia: cohort study.
Br J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Background People with dementia are extremely vulnerable in hospital and unscheduled admissions should be avoided if possible. Aims To identify any predictors of general hospital admission in people with dementia in a well-characterised national prospective cohort study. Method A cohort of 730 persons with dementia was drawn from the Scottish Dementia Research Interest Register (47.8% female; mean age 76.3 years, s.d. = 8.2, range 50-94), with a mean follow-up period of 1.2 years. Results In the age- and gender-adjusted multivariable model (n = 681; 251 admitted), Neuropsychiatric Inventory score (hazard ratio per s.d. disadvantage 1.21, 95% CI 1.08-1.36) was identified as an independent predictor of admission to hospital. Conclusions Neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia, measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, predict non-psychiatric hospital admission of people with dementia. Further studies are merited to test whether interventions to reduce such symptoms might reduce unscheduled admissions to acute hospitals.
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Online two-dimensional porous graphitic carbon/reversed phase liquid chromatography platform applied to shotgun proteomics and glycoproteomics.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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A novel fully automatable two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2DLC) platform has been integrated into a modified commercial off-the-shelf LC instrument, incorporating porous graphitic carbon (PGC) separation and conventional low-pH reversed-phase (RP) separation for both proteomics and N-glycomics analyses; the dual-trap column configuration of this platform offers desirable high-throughput analyses with almost no idle time, in addition to a miniaturized setup and simplified operation. The total run time per analysis was only 19 h when using eight PGC fractions for unattended large-scale qualitative and quantitative proteomic analyses; the identification of 2678 non-redundant proteins and 11,984 unique peptides provided one of the most comprehensive proteome datasets for primary cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). The effect of pH on the PGC column was investigated for the first time to improve the hydrophobic peptide coverage; the performance of the optimized system was first benchmarked using tryptic digests of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell lysates and then evaluated through duplicate analyses of Macaca fascicularis cerebral cortex lysate using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology. An additional plug-and-play PGC module functioned in a complementary manner to recover unretained hydrophilic solutes from the low-pH RP column; synchronization of the fractionations between the PGC-RP system and the PGC module facilitated simultaneous analyses of hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds from a single sample injection event. This methodology was applied to perform, for the first time, detailed glycomics analyses of Macaca fascicularis plasma, resulting in the identification of a total 130 N-glycosylated plasma proteins, 705 N-glycopeptides, and 254 N-glycosylation sites.
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Frailty, Mycophenolate Reduction, and Graft Loss in Kidney Transplant Recipients.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) side effects often prompt dose reduction or discontinuation, and this MMF dose reduction (MDR) can lead to rejection and possibly graft loss. Unfortunately, little is known about what factors might cause or contribute to MDR. Frailty, a measure of physiologic reserve, is emerging as an important, novel domain of risk in kidney transplantation recipients. We hypothesized that frailty, an inflammatory phenotype, might be associated with MDR.
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Comparison of central and local HIV-1 RNA quantification from two international clinical trials.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Local and centrally measured plasma HIV RNA (pVL) were assessed for agreement in two trials, ENCORE1 and SECOND-LINE. The proportion less than 200 copies/ml at week 48 was qualitatively similar [ENCORE1 2.5% (95% confidence interval, 95% CI –1.6 to 6.6); 1.9% (95% CI –1.9 to 2.1); SECOND-LINE 0.3% (95% CI –6.4 to 10.0); 1.8% (95% CI –4.7 to 8.3)]. The mean difference in log10 pVL copies/ml at weeks 0 and 48 was less than 0.2 log10 copies/ml in both trials. Our data indicate that central testing of pVL in HIV therapeutic trials is not warranted.
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Expression of the Chemokine Receptor Gene, CCR8, is Associated With DUSP22 Rearrangements in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma.
Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is one of the most common T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas and has 2 main subtypes: an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive subtype characterized by ALK gene rearrangements and an ALK-negative subtype that is poorly understood. We recently identified recurrent rearrangements of the DUSP22 locus on 6p25.3 in both primary cutaneous and systemic ALK-negative ALCLs. This study aimed to determine the relationship between these rearrangements and expression of the chemokine receptor gene, CCR8. CCR8 has skin-homing properties and has been suggested to play a role in limiting extracutaneous spread of primary cutaneous ALCLs. However, overexpression of CCR8 has also been reported in systemic ALK-negative ALCLs. As available antibodies for CCR8 have shown lack of specificity, we examined CCR8 expression using quantitative real-time PCR in frozen tissue and RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) in paraffin tissue. Both approaches showed higher CCR8 expression in ALCLs with DUSP22 rearrangements than in nonrearranged cases (PCR: 19.5-fold increase, P=0.01; ISH: 3.3-fold increase, P=0.0008). CCR8 expression was not associated with cutaneous presentation, cutaneous biopsy site, or cutaneous involvement during the disease course. These findings suggest that CCR8 expression in ALCL is more closely related to the presence of DUSP22 rearrangements than to cutaneous involvement and that the function of CCR8 may extend beyond its skin-homing properties in this disease. This study also underscores the utility of RNA-ISH as a paraffin-based method for investigating gene expression when reliable antibodies for immunohistochemical analysis are not available.
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Loss to follow-up in the Australian HIV Observational Database.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Loss to follow-up (LTFU) in HIV-positive cohorts is an important surrogate for interrupted clinical care which can potentially influence the assessment of HIV disease status and outcomes. After preliminary evaluation of LTFU rates and patient characteristics, we evaluated the risk of mortality by LTFU status in a high resource setting.
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An investigation into the minimum accelerometry wear time for reliable estimates of habitual physical activity and definition of a standard measurement day in pre-school children.
Physiol Meas
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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The purpose of this study was to determine the number of hours and days of accelerometry data necessary to provide a reliable estimate of habitual physical activity in pre-school children. The impact of a weekend day on reliability estimates was also determined and standard measurement days were defined for weekend and weekdays.Accelerometry data were collected from 112 children (60 males, 52 females, mean (SD) 3.7 (0.7)yr) over 7?d. The Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula (S-B prophecy formula) was used to predict the number of days and hours of data required to achieve an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.7. The impact of including a weekend day was evaluated by comparing the reliability coefficient (r) for any 4?d of data with data for 4?d including one weekend day.Our observations indicate that 3?d of accelerometry monitoring, regardless of whether it includes a weekend day, for at least 7?h? d(-1) offers sufficient reliability to characterise total physical activity and sedentary behaviour of pre-school children. These findings offer an approach that addresses the underlying tension in epidemiologic surveillance studies between the need to maintain acceptable measurement rigour and retention of a representatively meaningful sample size.
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Multiple Low-dose Challenges in a Rhesus Macaque AIDS Vaccine Trial Result in an Evolving Host Response that affects Protective Outcome.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Using whole-blood transcriptional profiling, we investigated differences in the host response to vaccination and challenge in a rhesus macaque AIDS vaccine trial. Samples were collected from animals prior to and after vaccination with live irradiated vaccine cells secreting the modified endoplasmic reticulum chaperone gp96-Ig loaded with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) peptides, either alone or in combination with a SIV-gp120 protein boost. Additional samples were collected following multiple low-dose rectal challenge with SIVmac251. Animals in the boosted group had a 73% reduced risk of infection. Surprisingly, few changes in gene expression were observed during the vaccination phase. Focusing on post-challenge comparisons, in particular for protected animals, we identified a host response signature of protection comprised of strong interferon signaling after the first challenge, which then largely abated after further challenges. We also identified a host response signature, comprised of early macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses, in animals with undetectable viral load five days after the first challenge, but which had unusually high viral titers after subsequent challenges. Statistical analysis showed that prime-boost vaccination significantly lowered the probability of infection in a time-consistent manner throughout several challenges. Given that humoral responses in the prime-boost group were highly significant pre-challenge correlates of protection, the strong innate signaling after the first challenge suggests that interferon signaling could possibly enhance vaccine-induced antibody responses and is an important contributor to protection from infection during repeated low-dose exposure to SIV.
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Integrating external evidence of intervention effectiveness with both practice and the parent perspective: development of 'What Works' for speech, language, and communication needs (SLCN).
Dev Med Child Neurol
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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The aim of the study was to develop an ecologically valid synthesis of the evidence underpinning interventions for children with speech, language, and communication needs (SLCN), integrating a range of different data sources.
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Patient- and Provider-Reported Information about Transplantation and Subsequent Waitlisting.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Because informed consent requires discussion of alternative treatments, proper consent for dialysis should incorporate discussion about other renal replacement options including kidney transplantation (KT). Accordingly, dialysis providers are required to indicate KT provision of information (KTPI) on CMS Form-2728; however, provider-reported KTPI does not necessarily imply adequate provision of information. Furthermore, the effect of KTPI on pursuit of KT remains unclear. We compared provider-reported KTPI (Form-2728) with patient-reported KTPI (in-person survey of whether a nephrologist or dialysis staff had discussed KT) in a prospective ancillary study of 388 hemodialysis initiates. KTPI was reported by both patient and provider for 56.2% of participants, by provider only for 27.8%, by patient only for 8.3%, and by neither for 7.7%. Among participants with provider-reported KTPI, older age was associated with lack of patient-reported KTPI. Linkage with the Scientific Registry for Transplant Recipients showed that 20.9% of participants were subsequently listed for KT. Patient-reported KTPI was independently associated with a 2.95-fold (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.54 to 5.66; P=0.001) higher likelihood of KT listing, whereas provider-reported KTPI was not associated with listing (hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.60 to 2.32; P=0.62). Our findings suggest that patient perception of KTPI is more important for KT listing than provider-reported KTPI. Patient-reported and provider-reported KTPI should be collected for quality assessment in dialysis centers because factors associated with discordance between these metrics might inform interventions to improve this process.
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Specific language impairment: a convenient label for whom?
Int J Lang Commun Disord
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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The term 'specific language impairment' (SLI), in use since the 1980s, describes children with language impairment whose cognitive skills are within normal limits where there is no identifiable reason for the language impairment. SLI is determined by applying exclusionary criteria, so that it is defined by what it is not rather than by what it is. The recent decision to not include SLI in DSM-5 provoked much debate and concern from researchers and clinicians.
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HIV multi-drug resistance at first-line antiretroviral failure and subsequent virological response in Asia.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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First-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure often results from the development of resistance-associated mutations (RAMs). Three patterns, including thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs), 69 Insertion (69Ins) and the Q151M complex, are associated with resistance to multiple-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and may compromise treatment options for second-line ART.
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High-power broadband Yb-free clad-pumped EDFA for L-band DWDM applications.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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We demonstrated high-power broadband Yb-free clad-pumped erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) using commercial available low-cost 976 nm multimode diodes. An output power +33 dBm with less than ±1 dB natural gain flatness over a gain bandwidth of 33 nm (1570.3-1603.3 nm) was obtained using a new double-clad erbium-doped fiber which has a large core diameter of 17 ?m and low NA of 0.11. The saturated output power, net gain, noise figure, and optical power conversion efficiency of the clad-pumped EDFA were characterized, and system impact of LP11 mode and four-wave-mixing nonlinearity were also evaluated.
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Eradicating syphilis, hepatitis C and HIV in MSM through frequent testing strategies.
Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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The rates of sexual transmission of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis C in MSM are rising in most countries. Recent research has raised the question of whether increasing testing and treatment of these infections could substantially reduce their transmission.
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Trends in underlying causes of death in people with HIV from 1999 to 2011 (D:A:D): a multicohort collaboration.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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With the advent of effective antiretroviral treatment, the life expectancy for people with HIV is now approaching that seen in the general population. Consequently, the relative importance of other traditionally non-AIDS-related morbidities has increased. We investigated trends over time in all-cause mortality and for specific causes of death in people with HIV from 1999 to 2011.
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Relationship between CD4 cell count and serious long-term complications among HIV-positive individuals.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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To summarize recent findings on the relationship between CD4 cell count metrics and selected serious clinical outcomes, and to deduce implications for CD4 cell count monitoring in treated HIV infection and the timing of combination antiretroviral therapy initiation.
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Target-specific oral anticoagulants in patients undergoing cardioversion.
Am J Health Syst Pharm
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
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Published evidence on the use of target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOAs) versus traditional warfarin therapy in patients undergoing cardioversion for atrial fibrillation (AF) is reviewed.
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Primary bone marrow lymphoma is a rare neoplasm with poor outcome: case series from single tertiary care centre and review of literature.
Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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Primary bone marrow lymphoma is a rare disease and remains undiagnosed due to deceptive clinical presentation. Here, we report four cases of primary bone marrow B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which presented with cytopenias without any lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. Bone marrow examination revealed large atypical B-cells with a reactive T-cell infiltrate with suppression of the normal hematopoietic elements. This lymphoma is known to have a poor prognosis. Inspite of treatment, two of our patients died during chemotherapy. Two patients relapsed, of which one showed an early relapse after two months and was put on an alternative regimen. The other patient relapsed twice at an interval of 4 and 5 years, respectively, following which he remained in remission for another 5 years and had recently shown a relapse for the third time. Review of literature revealed seven case series and 11 case reports of primary bone marrow lymphoma in the last five decades.
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ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a genetically heterogeneous disease with widely disparate clinical outcomes.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a CD30-positive T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that morphologically resembles ALK-positive ALCL but lacks chromosomal rearrangements of the ALK gene. The genetic and clinical heterogeneity of ALK-negative ALCL has not been delineated. We performed immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization on 73 ALK-negative ALCLs and 32 ALK-positive ALCLs and evaluated the associations among pathology, genetics, and clinical outcome. Chromosomal rearrangements of DUSP22 and TP63 were identified in 30% and 8% of ALK-negative ALCLs, respectively. These rearrangements were mutually exclusive and were absent in ALK-positive ALCLs. Five-year overall survival rates were 85% for ALK-positive ALCLs, 90% for DUSP22-rearranged ALCLs, 17% for TP63-rearranged ALCLs, and 42% for cases lacking all 3 genetic markers (P < .0001). Hazard ratios for death in these 4 groups after adjusting for International Prognostic Index and age were 1.0 (reference group), 0.58, 8.63, and 4.16, respectively (P = 7.10 × 10(-5)). These results were similar when restricted to patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy, as well as to patients not receiving stem cell transplantation. Thus, ALK-negative ALCL is a genetically heterogeneous disease with widely disparate outcomes following standard therapy. DUSP22 and TP63 rearrangements may serve as predictive biomarkers to help guide patient management.
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The draft genome sequence of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) facilitates study of human respiratory disease.
Nat. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is an important animal model for multiple human respiratory diseases. It is considered the 'gold standard' for modeling human influenza virus infection and transmission. Here we describe the 2.41 Gb draft genome assembly of the domestic ferret, constituting 2.28 Gb of sequence plus gaps. We annotated 19,910 protein-coding genes on this assembly using RNA-seq data from 21 ferret tissues. We characterized the ferret host response to two influenza virus infections by RNA-seq analysis of 42 ferret samples from influenza time-course data and showed distinct signatures in ferret trachea and lung tissues specific to 1918 or 2009 human pandemic influenza virus infections. Using microarray data from 16 ferret samples reflecting cystic fibrosis disease progression, we showed that transcriptional changes in the CFTR-knockout ferret lung reflect pathways of early disease that cannot be readily studied in human infants with cystic fibrosis disease.
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The contribution of early language development to children's emotional and behavioural functioning at 6 years: an analysis of data from the Children in Focus sample from the ALSPAC birth cohort.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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An association between children's early language development and their emotional and behavioural functioning is reported in the literature. The nature of the association remains unclear and it has not been established if such an association is found in a population-based cohort in addition to clinical populations.
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Age and sex disparities in discussions about kidney transplantation in adults undergoing dialysis.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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To explore whether disparities in age and sex in access to kidney transplantation (KT) originate at the time of prereferral discussions about KT.
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Fully automatable multidimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography with online tandem mass spectrometry.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Liquid chromatography (LC) is essential for sample fractionation in shotgun proteomics applications. With suitable design, common LC separation chemistries, including reversed-phase (RP) and strong cation exchange (SCX) mode, can be combined in online multidimensional LC to greatly enhance the overall separation power and, thus, proteome coverage. This protocol describes the design and assembly of a flexible online multidimensional RP-SCX-RP LC system that is compatible with deep proteome profiling on common shotgun proteomics platforms.
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Trends in mortality after diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection: an international comparison and implications for monitoring the population impact of treatment.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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People living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are at increased risk of all-cause and liver-related mortality, although successful treatment has been shown to reduce this risk. The aim of this study was to provide baseline data on trends in cause-specific mortality, and establish an international surveillance system for evaluating the population level impact of HCV treatments.
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Improving oral human papillomavirus detection using toothbrush sampling in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Pre- and postabrasion oral rinse samples (ORS) and a toothbrush sample detected human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in at least one sample among 45 (26%) of 173 HIV-positive men who have sex with men. There was moderate agreement for HPV genotype detection between the preabrasion and postabrasion ORS (? = 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.61). There was good agreement between postabrasion ORS and toothbrushes (? = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.80). The sensitivities for HPV genotypes detected were 80% (95% CI, 69 to 88) for preabrasion ORS, 65% (95% CI, 54 to 76) for postabrasion ORS, and 75% (95% CI, 63 to 84) for toothbrushes.
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The influence of sex steroids on adipose tissue growth and function.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Abstract Obesity remains a major global health concern. Understanding the metabolic influences of the obesity epidemic in the human population on maintenance of a healthy weight and metabolic profile is still of great significance. The importance and role of white adipose tissue has been long established, particularly with excess adiposity. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), however, has only recently been shown to contribute significantly to the metabolic signature of mammals outside the previously recognised role in small mammals and neonates. BAT's detection in adults has led to a renewed interest and is now considered to be a potential therapeutic target to prevent excess white fat accumulation in obesity, a theory further promoted by the recent discovery of beige fat. Adipose tissue distribution varies significantly between genders. Pre-menopausal females often show enhanced lower and peripheral fat deposition in adiposity deposition compared to the male profile of central and visceral fat accumulation with obesity. This sex disparity is partly attributed to the different effects of sex hormone profiles and interactions on the adipose tissue system. In this review, we explore this intricate relationship and show how modifications in the effects of sex hormones impact on both brown and white adipose tissues. We also discuss the impact of sex hormones on activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and how the three pathways between adiposity, HPA and sex steroids can have a major contribution to the prevention or maintenance of obesity and therefore on overall health.
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Recent trends in early stage response to combination antiretroviral therapy in Australia.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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There have been improvements in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) over the last 15 years. The aim of this analysis was to assess whether improvements in ART have resulted in improvements in surrogates of HIV outcome.
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Cancer incidence in a Nationwide HIV/AIDS patient cohort in Taiwan in 1998-2009.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The aims of this study were to investigate the cancer incidence and risk in HIV/AIDS patients relative to the general population in Taiwan.
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Development, reliability, and validity of a novel Epidermolysis Bullosa Disease Activity and Scarring Index (EBDASI).
J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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There is a lack of validated standardized outcome measures for epidermolysis bullosa (EB) that can separate activity from damage.
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Improving the clinical prediction of detrusor overactivity by utilizing additional symptoms and signs to overactive bladder symptoms alone.
Int Urogynecol J
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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We attempted to improve the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of detrusor overactivity (DO) by using other significant clinical parameters in addition to overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms alone.
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Could point-of-care testing be effective for reducing the prevalence of trichomoniasis in remote Aboriginal communities?
Sex Health
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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High prevalence of trichomoniasis is reported for many remote Indigenous communities despite intensive screening and treatment programs. Mathematical modelling has previously been used to show that point-of-care (POC) testing for gonorrhoea and chlamydia has the potential to increase the impact of screening in reducing the prevalence of these sexually transmissible infections. The study was extended to estimate the impact of a rapid POC test for trichomoniasis. The results suggest that POC testing in place of conventional testing will also provide additional reductions in trichomoniasis prevalence. However, more emphasis should be placed on testing for trichomoniasis in older women due to the high prevalence observed in this group.
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Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2)-associated amyloidosis is a frequent cause of hepatic amyloidosis in the United States.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Using laser microdissection and mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics, we subtyped amyloid deposits from 130 cases of hepatic amyloidosis. Although we confirmed that immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis was the most frequent cause of hepatic amyloidosis, leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) amyloidosis (ALect2) accounted for 25% of cases. This novel finding was associated with Hispanic ancestry, incidental discovery of amyloid in liver specimens sampled for other unrelated conditions, and a characteristic pattern of hepatic amyloid deposition. Although ALect2 patients had a common LECT2 polymorphism, pathogenic mutations were not discovered, suggesting that constitutive or compensatory LECT2 overexpression led to ALect2 deposition. These findings indicate that ALect2 is a common cause of hepatic amyloidosis in the population of the United States, and subtyping hepatic amyloid deposits by an accurate analytic method such as MS is required for optimal clinical management of hepatic amyloidosis patients and to avoid incorrect and unnecessarily toxic therapies.
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Gender differences in HIV-positive persons in use of cardiovascular disease-related interventions: D:A:D study.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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There is a lack of data on potential gender differences in the use of interventions to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-positive individuals. We investigated whether such differences exist in the D:A:D study.
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A clinically useful risk-score for chronic kidney disease in HIV infection.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Development of a simple, widely applicable risk score for chronic kidney disease (CKD) allows comparisons of risks or benefits of starting potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals (ARVs) as part of a treatment regimen.
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Lack of association between use of efavirenz and death from suicide: evidence from the D:A:D study.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A recent meta-analysis of 4 RCTs showed an increased rate of suicidality events (suicidal ideation or attempted/completed suicide) associated with efavirenz (EFV) compared to other regimens, but only a trend towards a higher rate of completed/attempted suicides, as only 17 events occurred. We investigated the association between EFV use and completed suicide.
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A new method for assessing how sensitivity and specificity of linkage studies affects estimation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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While the importance of record linkage is widely recognised, few studies have attempted to quantify how linkage errors may have impacted on their own findings and outcomes. Even where authors of linkage studies have attempted to estimate sensitivity and specificity based on subjects with known status, the effects of false negatives and positives on event rates and estimates of effect are not often described.
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Testing commercial sex workers for sexually transmitted infections in Victoria, Australia: an evaluation of the impact of reducing the frequency of testing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The frequency of testing sex workers for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Victoria, Australia, was changed from monthly to quarterly on 6 October 2012. Our aim was to determine the impact of this change to the clients seen at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MHSC).
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Moving away from Ritonavir, Abacavir, Tenofovir, and Efavirenz (RATE)--agents that concern prescribers and patients: a feasibility study and call for a trial.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Regimens sparing RATE (ritonavir, abacavir, tenofovir, efavirienz) agents might have better long-term safety. We conducted a feasibility exercise to assess the potential for a randomised trial evaluating RATE-sparing regimens.
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Factors associated with suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Asia.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) plays an important role in treatment outcomes. It is crucial to identify factors influencing adherence in order to optimize treatment responses. The aim of this study was to assess the rates of, and factors associated with, suboptimal adherence (SubAdh) in the first 24 months of ART in an Asian HIV cohort.
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Determinants of suicide and accidental or violent death in the Australian HIV Observational Database.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Rates of suicide and accidental or violent death remain high in HIV-positive populations despite significantly improved prognosis since the introduction of cART.
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The significance of HIV 'blips' in resource-limited settings: is it the same? analysis of the treat Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) and the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Magnitude and frequency of HIV viral load blips in resource-limited settings, has not previously been assessed. This study was undertaken in a cohort from a high income country (Australia) known as AHOD (Australian HIV Observational Database) and another cohort from a mixture of Asian countries of varying national income per capita, TAHOD (TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database).
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Quilt plots: a simple tool for the visualisation of large epidemiological data.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Graphical representation of data is one of the most easily comprehended forms of explanation. The current study describes a simple visualization tool which may allow greater understanding of medical and epidemiological data.
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Racial Differences in Gout Incidence in a Population-Based Cohort: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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We examined racial differences in gout incidence among black and white participants in a longitudinal, population-based cohort and tested whether racial differences were explained by higher levels of serum urate. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study is a prospective, US population-based cohort study of middle-aged adults enrolled between 1987 and 1989 with ongoing annual follow-up through 2012. We estimated the adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of incident gout by race among 11,963 men and women using adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. The cohort was 23.6% black. The incidence rate of gout was 8.4 per 10,000 person-years (15.5/10,000 person-years for black men, 12.0/10,000 person-years for black women, 9.4/10,000 person-years for white men, and 5.0/10,000 person-years for white women; P < 0.001). Black participants had an increased risk of incident gout (for women, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29, 2.22; for men, adjusted HR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.44, 2.56). Upon further adjustment for uric acid levels, there was modest attenuation of the association of race with incident gout (for women, adjusted HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.22; for men, adjusted HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.00) compared with white participants. In this US population-based cohort, black women and black men were at increased risk of developing gout during middle and older ages compared with whites, which appears, particularly in men, to be partly related to higher urate levels in middle-aged blacks.
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Language and social/emotional problems identified at a universal developmental assessment at 30 months.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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Preschool language and neurodevelopmental problems often persist and impede learning. The aims of the current study are to assess the uptake of a new universal 30 month health visitor contact and to quantify the prevalence of language delay and social/emotional difficulties.
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The Influence of Behaviors and Relationships on the Vaginal Microbiota of Women and Their Female Partners: The WOW Health Study.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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Background.?A community-based study of women who have sex with women (WSW) was performed to determine the burden of bacterial vaginosis (BV), and behavioral factors influencing the vaginal microbiota of women and their female sexual partners (FSPs), as measured by Nugent score (NS).Methods.?In a cross-sectional study of 18-55-year-old WSW recruited nationally, participants completed questionnaires and self-collected vaginal swab samples weekly on 3 occasions. BV was defined as an NS of 7-10. Factors associated with BV, stability of NS category, and concordance of these categories in coenrolled couples were examined with multivariable logistic regression analysis.Results.?A total of 458 participants were recruited; 192 were coenrolled with their FSP (96 couples). BV was detected in 125 women (27%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23%-32%). BV was associated with ?4 lifetime FSPs (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1), an FSP with BV symptoms (AOR, 2.9; 1.0-8.2) and smoking, with ?30 cigarettes per week showing greatest odds (AOR, 2.7; 1.5-5.0). Of 428 women returning ?2 swab samples, 375 (88%) had a stable NS category across all samples, predominantly reflecting normal flora. Coenrolled WSW were less likely to have BV (31% vs 23%; P = .07), and the majority (70%) were concordant for NS category (? = 0.47; P ? .01), with most concordant for normal flora. Concordant NS category was associated with a relationship of >6 months (AOR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.4-16.4) and frequent sexual contact (more than once per month; AOR, 2.7; 1.0-7.1).Conclusions.?BV is associated with key behaviors and smoking practices in WSW, but longer-duration, sexually active WSW partnerships support a stable favorable vaginal microbiota.
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What motivates patients and carers to participate in dementia studies?
Nurs Older People
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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The aim of this study was to explore what motivates people to participate in dementia research.
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Dynamic assessment of word learning skills of pre-school children with primary language impairment.
Int J Speech Lang Pathol
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Dynamic assessment has been shown to have considerable theoretical and clinical significance in the assessment of socially disadvantaged and culturally and linguistically diverse children. In this study it is used to enhance assessment of pre-school children with primary language impairment. The purpose of the study was to determine whether a dynamic assessment (DA) has the potential to enhance the predictive capacity of a static measure of receptive vocabulary in pre-school children. Forty pre-school children were assessed using the static British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS), a DA of word learning potential and an assessment of non-verbal cognitive ability. Thirty-seven children were followed up 6 months later and re-assessed using the BPVS. Although the predictive capacity of the static measure was found to be substantial, the DA increased this significantly especially for children with static scores below the 25th centile. The DA of childrens word learning has the potential to add value to the static assessment of the child with low language skills, to predict subsequent receptive vocabulary skills and to increase the chance of correctly identifying children in need of ongoing support.
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Near elimination of genital warts in Australia predicted with extension of human papillomavirus vaccination to males.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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The National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program for females delivering the quadrivalent vaccine Gardasil has been included in the National Immunisation Program in Australia since 2007. Sentinel surveillance data show that genital wart incidence has been steadily declining since then. The objective of this study was to estimate the additional impact on genital warts as a result of male vaccination, which was approved by the Australian government in 2012 and commenced in 2013.
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Randomized trial of a population-based, home-delivered intervention for preschool language delay.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Population approaches to lessen the adverse impacts of preschool language delay remain elusive. We aimed to determine whether systematic ascertainment of language delay at age 4 years, followed by a 10-month, 1-on-1 intervention, improves language and related outcomes at age 5 years.
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STI in remote communities: improved and enhanced primary health care (STRIVE) study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing usual practice STI care to enhanced care in remote primary health care services in Australia.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Despite two decades of interventions, rates of sexually transmissible infections (STI) in remote Australian Aboriginal communities remain unacceptably high. Routine notifications data from 2011 indicate rates of chlamydia and gonorrhoea among Aboriginal people in remote settings were 8 and 61 times higher respectively than in the non-Indigenous population.
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Intensity of human prion disease surveillance predicts observed disease incidence.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Prospective national screening and surveillance programmes serve a range of public health functions. Objectively determining their adequacy and impact on disease may be problematic for rare disorders. We undertook to assess whether objective measures of disease surveillance intensity could be developed for the rare disorder sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and whether such measures correlate with disease incidence.
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Evaluating immunologic response and clinical deterioration in treatment-naive patients initiating first-line therapies infected with HIV-1 CRF01_AE and subtype B.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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HIV-1 group M viruses diverge 25%-35% in envelope, important for viral attachment during infection, and 10%-15% in the pol region, under selection pressure from common antiretrovirals. In Asia, subtypes B and CRF01_AE are common genotypes. Our objectives were to determine whether clinical, immunological, or virological treatment responses differed by genotype in treatment-naive patients initiating first-line therapy.
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Risk factors for incident hyperuricemia during mid-adulthood in African American and White men and women enrolled in the ARIC cohort study.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Increased serum urate levels are associated with poor outcomes including but not limited to gout. It is unclear whether serum urate levels are the sole predictor of incident hyperuricemia or whether demographic and clinical risk factors also predict the development of hyperuricemia. The goal of this study was to identify risk factors for incident hyperuricemia over 9 years in a population-based study, ARIC.
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Mechanisms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-induced acute lung injury.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Systems biology offers considerable promise in uncovering novel pathways by which viruses and other microbial pathogens interact with host signaling and expression networks to mediate disease severity. In this study, we have developed an unbiased modeling approach to identify new pathways and network connections mediating acute lung injury, using severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) as a model pathogen. We utilized a time course of matched virologic, pathological, and transcriptomic data within a novel methodological framework that can detect pathway enrichment among key highly connected network genes. This unbiased approach produced a high-priority list of 4 genes in one pathway out of over 3,500 genes that were differentially expressed following SARS-CoV infection. With these data, we predicted that the urokinase and other wound repair pathways would regulate lethal versus sublethal disease following SARS-CoV infection in mice. We validated the importance of the urokinase pathway for SARS-CoV disease severity using genetically defined knockout mice, proteomic correlates of pathway activation, and pathological disease severity. The results of these studies demonstrate that a fine balance exists between host coagulation and fibrinolysin pathways regulating pathological disease outcomes, including diffuse alveolar damage and acute lung injury, following infection with highly pathogenic respiratory viruses, such as SARS-CoV.
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Drug repurposing: a better approach for infectious disease drug discovery?
Curr. Opin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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The advent of publicly available databases containing system-wide phenotypic data of the host response to both drugs and pathogens, in conjunction with bioinformatics and computational methods now allows for in silico predictions of FDA-approved drugs as treatments against infection diseases. This systems biology approach captures the complexity of both the pathogen and drug host response in the form of expression patterns or molecular interaction networks without having to understand the underlying mechanisms of action. These drug repurposing techniques have been successful in identifying new drug candidates for several types of cancers and were recently used to identify potential therapeutics against influenza, the newly discovered Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus and several parasitic diseases. These new approaches have the potential to significantly reduce both the time and cost for infectious diseases drug discovery.
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Associations between immune depression and cardiovascular events in HIV infection.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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To consider associations between the latest/nadir CD4 cell count, and time spent with CD4 cell count less than 200?cells/?l (duration of immune depression), and myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, or cardiovascular disease (CVD) (CHD or stroke) in 33?301 HIV-positive individuals.
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Child speech, language and communication need re-examined in a public health context: a new direction for the speech and language therapy profession.
Int J Lang Commun Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Historically speech and language therapy services for children have been framed within a rehabilitative framework with explicit assumptions made about providing therapy to individuals. While this is clearly important in many cases, we argue that this model needs revisiting for a number of reasons. First, our understanding of the nature of disability, and therefore communication disabilities, has changed over the past century. Second, there is an increasing understanding of the impact that the social gradient has on early communication difficulties. Finally, understanding how these factors interact with one other and have an impact across the life course remains poorly understood.
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Clonally related follicular lymphomas and Langerhans cell neoplasms: expanding the spectrum of transdifferentiation.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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The traditional model of hematopoiesis is based on unidirectional maturation of hematopoietic precursors into lineage-committed cells. However, recent studies indicate that mature B lymphocytes may demonstrate significant lineage plasticity. We and others have reported transdifferentiation of follicular lymphomas (FLs) into clonally related histiocytic/dendritic cell neoplasms. Here, we describe 2 patients with FL who developed clonally related Langerhans cell neoplasms. The first was a 52-year-old man diagnosed with FL, grade 1. He received immunochemotherapy and had stable disease for 8 years. He then developed increasing lymphadenopathy, and lymph node biopsy showed Langerhans cell sarcoma with no evidence of FL. The second patient was a 77-year-old woman who presented with lymphadenopathy, an abdominal mass, and pulmonary nodules. Lymph node biopsy showed both Langerhans cell histiocytosis and minimal involvement by FL, grade 1. In each case, a combination of immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies provided evidence to support a clonal relationship between the FL and Langerhans cell neoplasm. These cases provide striking examples of neoplastic transdifferentiation and expand the spectrum of lesions clonally identical to otherwise typical FL. Awareness of this phenomenon may aid in diagnosis when histologically dissimilar tumors arise synchronously or metachronously in patients with lymphoma.
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Systems virology: host-directed approaches to viral pathogenesis and drug targeting.
Nat. Rev. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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High-throughput molecular profiling and computational biology are changing the face of virology, providing a new appreciation of the importance of the host in viral pathogenesis and offering unprecedented opportunities for better diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines. Here, we provide a snapshot of the evolution of systems virology, from global gene expression profiling and signatures of disease outcome, to geometry-based computational methods that promise to yield novel therapeutic targets, personalized medicine and a deeper understanding of how viruses cause disease. To realize these goals, pipettes and Petri dishes need to join forces with the powers of mathematics and computational biology.
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Frailty as a novel predictor of mortality and hospitalization in individuals of all ages undergoing hemodialysis.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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To quantify the prevalence of frailty in adults of all ages undergoing chronic hemodialysis, its relationship to comorbidity and disability, and its association with adverse outcomes of mortality and hospitalization.
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The chlamydia knowledge, awareness and testing practices of Australian general practitioners and practice nurses: survey findings from the Australian Chlamydia Control Effectiveness Pilot (ACCEPt).
BMC Fam Pract
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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ACCEPt, a large cluster randomized control trial, aims to determine if annual testing for 16 to 29 year olds in general practice can reduce chlamydia prevalence. ACCEPt is the first trial investigating the potential role of practice nurses (PN) in chlamydia testing. To inform the design of the ACCEPt intervention, we aimed to determine the chlamydia knowledge, attitudes, and testing practices of participating general practitioners (GPs) and PNs.
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Frailty and falls among adult patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis: a prospective cohort study.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Patients undergoing hemodialysis are at high risk of falls, with subsequent complications including fractures, loss of independence, hospitalization, and institutionalization. Factors associated with falls are poorly understood in this population. We hypothesized that insights derived from studies of the elderly might apply to adults of all ages undergoing hemodialysis; we focused on frailty, a phenotype of physiological decline strongly associated with falls in the elderly.
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On the Use of Fractional Polynomial Models to Assess Preventive Aspect of Variables: An Example in Prevention of Mortality Following HIV Infection.
Int J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Identification of disease risk factors can help in the prevention of diseases. In assessing the predictive value of continuous variables, a routine procedure is to categorize the factors. This yield to inability to detect non-linear relationship, if exist. Multivariate fractional polynomial (MFP) modeling is a flexible method to reveal non-linear associations. We aim to demonstrate the impact of choice of risk function on the significance of variables.
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Non-AIDS defining cancers in the D:A:D Study--time trends and predictors of survival: a cohort study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Using data from a large international cohort of HIV-positive individuals, we described the incidence of NADC from 2004-2010, and described subsequent mortality and predictors of these.
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Population movement can sustain STI prevalence in remote Australian indigenous communities.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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For almost two decades, chlamydia and gonorrhoea diagnosis rates in remote Indigenous communities have been up to 30 times higher than for non-Indigenous Australians. The high levels of population movement known to occur between remote communities may contribute to these high rates.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.