The objective of this study was to review all cases in literature in which the clinical manifestations of ischemic stroke and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) were presented in the same patient including a new case of our own and discuss the possible mechanism and management of this syndrome. We reviewed 12 reports in which 18 cases were diagnosed as ischemic stroke and ITP. The clinical manifestations and ischemic lesion patterns of the 18 cases and our new case were analyzed in detail to elucidate the characteristics and management of this kind of syndrome. Of all the cases, 8 females and 10 males, 10 of them were Koreans; 3 were Americans; 3 were Japanese; 1 was British and 1 was Australian. The age of eight patients was no more than 50 years old. Most of them had a low platelet count. CT and/or MRI of brain were seen in all tested cases. Prognosis of ischemic stroke was good in 18 of the 19 patients. Although extremely rare, ischemic stroke and ITP may present in the same patient with variant characteristics. This paradoxical mechanism and management of ischemic stroke associated with ITP requires further investigation.
Puerarin extracted from Radix puerariae has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects. However, it is still not known whether puerarin protects hippocampal neurons against cell death in pilocarpine-induced seizures. In this study, we found that pretreatment with puerarin significantly attenuated the neuronal death in the hippocampus of rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. In addition, puerarin decreased the level of seizure-induced reactive oxygen species in mitochondria isolated from the rat hippocampi. Terminal deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining showed that puerarin exerted an anti-apoptotic effect on the neurons in the epileptic hippocampus. Western blot analysis showed that puerarin treatment significantly decreased the expression of Bax and increased the expression of Bcl-2. Moreover, puerarin treatment restored the altered mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria in the epileptic hippocampi. Altogether, the findings of this study suggest that puerarin exerts a therapeutic effect on epilepsy-induced brain injury through antioxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms.
In the majority of cases, trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a unilateral condition with ultra-short stabbing pain located along one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve. Although prophylactic pharmacological treatment is first choise, considering of insufficient effect or unacceptable side effects, neurosurgical treatment or lesion treatment should be considered. In addition to all these procedures mentioned above, one approach has been based on local intradermal and/or submucosal injections of Botulinum Toxin Type A (BTX-A).
Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a facial nerve disorder characterized by episodic involuntary ipsilateral facial muscle contraction. Information on Chinese patients with HFS has not been well-characterized. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical feature and the treatment status of HFS across China.
The spore photoproduct lesion (SP; 5-thymine-5,6-dihydrothymine) is the dominant photoproduct found in UV-irradiated spores of some bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis. Upon spore germination, this lesion is repaired in a light-independent manner by a specific repair enzyme: the spore photoproduct lyase (SP lyase). In this work, a host-guest approach in which the N-terminal fragment of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (MMLV RT) serves as the host and DNA as the guest was used to determine the crystal structures of complexes including 16?bp oligonucleotides with and without the SP lesion at 2.14 and 1.72?Å resolution, respectively. In contrast to other types of thymine-thymine lesions, the SP lesion retains normal Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding to the adenine bases of the complementary strand, with shorter hydrogen bonds than found in the structure of the undamaged DNA. However, the lesion induces structural changes in the local conformation of what is otherwise B-form DNA. The region surrounding the lesion differs significantly in helical form from B-DNA, and the minor groove is widened by almost 3?Å compared with that of the undamaged DNA. Thus, these unusual structural features associated with SP lesions may provide a basis for recognition by the SP lyase.
Mdivi-1 is a selective inhibitor of a mitochondrial fission protein Drp1. Recent studies demonstrated that inhibition of Drp1 provides neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the role of mdivi-1 in hippocampal neuron death after seizures induced by pilocarpine. Our data showed that pretreatment with mdivi-1 (1.25 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the neuronal death in hippocampus induced by seizures. This neuroprotective effect was dose-dependent. In addition, the seizures resulted in up-regulation of Drp1 expression and mdivi-1 treatment had no effect on the expression. Moreover, we also found that mdivi-1 (1.25 mg/kg) treatment reversed the release of cytochrome c (CytC), translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) induced by seizures while inhibiting the activated caspase-3. Altogether, our data suggested that mdivi-1 exerts neuroprotective effects against cell death of hippocampal neurons induced by seizures, and the underlying mechanism may be through inhibiting CytC release, AIF translocation and suppression of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.
To investigate the effects of estrogen treatment on aortic endothelial senescence and atherosclerosis, an ovariectomized female rabbit model was constructed, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were utilized to explore the potential mechanisms. Twenty-eight female rabbits were randomized into 4 groups (7 each): sham operation, ovariectomized, ovariectomized plus low-dose estradiol treatment, and ovariectomized plus high-dose estradiol treatment. All rabbits were fed on high-cholesterol diet for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected to determine the serum estradiol, asymmetric dimethyl L-arginine (ADMA), and lipid levels, and the aortas were separated for histopathologic analysis. After ovariectomy and high-fat diet, the concentration of serum estradiols declined significantly (P < 0.01) and the levels of ADMA and serum lipids increased (all P < 0.01) as the area of senescent endothelium and atherosclerotic lesions enlarged (both P < 0.01). However, administration of estradiols reduced the levels of ADMA, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and inhibited endothelial senescence and atherosclerosis (all P < 0.01). Simultaneously, the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride increased (all P < 0.01). In vitro experiments also confirmed that estradiols could decrease the ADMA levels induced by oxidized LDL and inhibited oxidized LDL–induced and ADMA-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell senescence. These results indicate that estrogens can inhibit endothelial senescence and atherosclerosis with reduced ADMA levels and improved lipid profile.
Depression is one of the most frequent neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimers disease (AD). As the main regulator of the tissue plasminogen activator/brain-derived neurotrophic factor axis, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is involved in the pathogenesis of both AD and depression. This suggests a potential role of the PAI-1 gene SERPINE1 in the development of AD-related depression and its response to antidepressant treatment. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between the SERPINE1 promoter polymorphisms (rs1799889 and rs2227631) and the risk of depression in AD and to determine the relationship between these 2 polymorphisms and the response to paroxetine treatment in AD patients with depressive symptoms. A total of 423 AD patients, all of which were inpatients, including 161 patients with obvious depressive symptoms, were recruited into this study, and the MassARRAY system was used for genotyping. We failed to detect any significant associations of these 2 polymorphisms with AD-related depression in the Chinese population (p>0.05). However, for the depressive symptoms in AD, the frequency of the 5G allele of rs1799889 was significantly higher (p=0.009 after Bonferroni correction) in responders than in non-responders to an 8-week paroxetine treatment. Our preliminary results suggest that the SERPINE1 promoter polymorphisms may be associated with antidepressant treatment, but not with the increased susceptibility to the depressive symptoms in AD.
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