Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphatases (5PTases) that hydrolyze the 5 position of the inositol ring are key components of membrane trafficking system. Recently, we reported that mutation in At5PTase7 gene reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased expression of stress-responsive genes, resulting in increased salt sensitivity. Here, we describe an even more salt-sensitive 5ptase mutant, At5ptase9, which also hydrolyzes the 5 phosphate groups specifically from membrane-bound phosphatidylinositides. Interestingly, the mutants were more tolerant to osmotic stress. We analyzed the main cellular processes that may be affected by the mutation, such as production of ROS, influx of calcium, and induction of salt-response genes. The At5ptase9 mutants showed reduced ROS production and Ca(2+) influx, as well as decreased fluid-phase endocytosis. Inhibition of endocytosis by phenylarsine oxide or Tyrphostin A23 in wild-type plants blocked these responses. Induction of salt-responsive genes in wild-type plants was also suppressed by the endocytosis inhibitors. Thus, inhibition of endocytosis in wild-type plants mimicked the salt stress responses, observed in the At5ptase9 mutants. In summary, our results show a key non-redundant role of At5PTase7 and 9 isozymes, and underscore the localization of membrane-bound PtdIns in regulating plant salt tolerance by coordinating the endocytosis, ROS production, Ca(2+) influx, and induction of stress-responsive genes.
Plants possess remarkable ability to adapt to adverse environmental conditions. The adaptation process involves the removal of many molecules from organelles, especially membranes, and replacing them with new ones. The process is mediated by an intracellular vesicle-trafficking system regulated by phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) kinases and phosphatases. Although PtdIns comprise a fraction of membrane lipids, they function as major regulators of stress signaling. We analyzed the role of PtdIns 5-phosphatases (5PTases) in plant salt tolerance. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome contains 15 At5PTases. We analyzed salt sensitivity in nine At5ptase mutants and identified one (At5ptase7) that showed increased sensitivity, which was improved by overexpression. At5ptase7 mutants demonstrated reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Supplementation of mutants with exogenous PtdIns dephosphorylated at the D5 position restored ROS production, while PtdIns(4,5)P(2), PtdIns(3,5)P(2), or PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) were ineffective. Compromised salt tolerance was also observed in mutant NADPH Oxidase, in agreement with the low ROS production and salt sensitivity of PtdIns 3-kinase mutants and with the inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in wild-type plants. Localization of green fluorescent protein-labeled At5PTase7 occurred in the plasma membrane and nucleus, places that coincided with ROS production. Analysis of salt-responsive gene expression showed that mutants failed to induce the RD29A and RD22 genes, which contain several ROS-dependent elements in their promoters. Inhibition of ROS production by diphenylene iodonium suppressed gene induction. In summary, our results show a nonredundant function of At5PTase7 in salt stress response by regulating ROS production and gene expression.
Stomatal closure during water stress is a major plant mechanism for reducing the loss of water through leaves. The opening and closure of stomata are mediated by endomembrane trafficking. The role of the vacuolar trafficking pathway, that involves v-SNAREs of the AtVAMP71 family (formerly called AtVAMP7C) in stomatal movements, was analysed. Expression of AtVAMP711-14 genes was manipulated in Arabidopsis plants with sense or antisense constructs by transformation of the AtVAMP711 gene. Antisense plants exhibited decreased stomatal closure during drought or after treatment with abscisic acid (ABA), resulting in the rapid loss of leaf water and tissue collapse. No improvement was seen in plants overexpressing the AtVAMP711 gene, suggesting that wild-type levels of AtVAMP711 expression are sufficient. ABA treatment induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in guard cells of both wild-type and antisense plants, indicating that correct hormone sensing is maintained. ROS were detected in nuclei, chloroplasts, and vacuoles. ABA treatment caused a significant increase in ROS-containing small vacuoles and also in plastids and nuclei of neighbouring epidermal and mesophyll cells. Taken together, our results show that VAMP71 proteins play an important role in the localization of ROS, and in the regulation of stomatal closure by ABA treatment. The paper also describes a novel aspect of ROS signalling in plants: that of ROS production in small vacuoles that are dispersed in the cytoplasm.
Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs) produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA). SA is sensed and transduced to downstream defense components by a redox-regulated protein called NPR1.
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