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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mdm2 and Aurora A inhibitors synergize to block melanoma growth by driving apoptosis and immune clearance of tumor cells.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Therapeutics that induce cancer cell senescence can block cell proliferation and promote immune rejection. However, the risk of tumor relapse due to senescence escape may remain high due to the long lifespan of senescent cells that are not cleared. Here we show how combining a senescence-inducing inhibitor of the mitotic kinase Aurora A (AURKA) with an MDM2 antagonist activates p53 in senescent tumors harboring wildtype 53. In the model studied, this effect is accompanied proliferation arrest, mitochondrial depolarization, apoptosis and immune clearance of cancer cells by antitumor leukocytes in a manner reliant upon CCL5, CCL1 and CXCL9. The AURKA/MDM2 combination therapy shows adequate bioavailability and low toxicity to the host. Moreover, the prominent response of patient-derived melanoma tumors to co-administered MDM2 and AURKA inhibitors offers a sound rationale for clinical evaluation. Taken together, our work provides a preclinical proof-of-concept for a combination treatment which leverages both senescence and immune surveillance to therapeutic ends.
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Mizoribine versus mycophenolate mofetil or intravenous cyclophosphamide for induction treatment of active lupus nephritis.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most serious manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Although there have been substantial improvements in LN treatment over the last decade, the outcome remains unoptimistic in a considerable percentage of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mizoribine (MZR), a novel selective inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, as induction treatment for active LN in comparison with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and intravenous cyclophosphamide (CYC).
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[An analysis of clinical characteristics and risk factors for ulceration in ischemic colitis].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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To investigate the clinical manifestations and risk factors related to ulcer in patients with ischemic colitis (IC).
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[Cross-sectional association between sedentary behaviors and overweight/obesity among children and adolescents in Chengdu, Sichuan].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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To explore the situation of sedentary behavior and how it correlated to overweight/obesity among children and adolescents in Chengdu, China.
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In vitro dissolution and physicochemical characterizations of novel PVP-based solid dispersions containing valsartan prepared by a freeze-drying method.
Pak J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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Valsartan (VAL) shows poor oral bioavailability mainly as a result of its low water solubility at low pH. This study is designed to investigate the dissolution properties and physicochemical characteristics of novel PVP-based solid dispersions (SDs) containing VAL. The SDs were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-K30) as a hydrophilic polymer, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as an alkalizer, and poloxamer 188 (F68) as a surfactant, without using any organic solvents by a freeze-drying method. The dissolution study was carried out and the physicochemical properties of SDs were also characterized by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dissolution rates of SDs were significantly improved at pH1.2 and pH6.8 compared to that of pure drug. The results of physicochemical properties suggested that some interactions between VAL and carriers had occurred in the molecular level and the drug presented in the SDs was amorphous. It was concluded that the novel PVP-based SDs has been successfully prepared by a freeze-drying method, resulting in significant dissolution improvement of VAL.
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Photocatalytic aerobic oxidation of amines to imines on BiVO4 under visible light irradiation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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BiVO4 was found to be an efficient photocatalyst under visible light irradiation for selective oxidation of amines to imines with high activity (99% conversion) and selectivity (up to 99%) using oxygen as an oxidant.
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Structural Analysis of a Novel Small Molecule Ligand Bound to the CXCL12 Chemokine.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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CXCL12 binds to CXCR4, promoting both chemotaxis of lymphocytes and metastasis of cancer cells. We previously identified small molecule ligands that bind CXCL12 and block CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis. We now report a 1.9 Å resolution X-ray structure of CXCL12 bound by such a molecule at a site normally bound by sY21 of CXCR4. The complex structure reveals binding hot spots for future inhibitor design and suggests a new approach to targeting CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling in drug discovery.
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Virtual screening and biological evaluation of novel small molecular inhibitors against protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1).
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Protein arginine methylation is a common post-translational modification which is crucial for a variety of biological processes. Dysregulation of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) activity has been implicated in cancer and other serious diseases. Thus, small molecule inhibitors against PRMT have great potential for therapeutic development. Herein, through the combination of virtual screening and bioassays, six small molecular compounds were identified as PRMT1 inhibitors. Amongst them, the binding affinity of compounds DCLX069 and DCLX078 with PRMT1 was further validated by T1? and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments. Most important of all, both compounds effectively blocked cell proliferation in breast cancer, liver cancer and acute myeloid leukemia cell lines. The binding mode analysis from molecular docking simulations theoretically indicated that both inhibitors occupied the SAM binding pocket to exert the inhibitory effect. Taken together, our compounds enriched the structural scaffolds as PRMT1 inhibitors and afforded clues for further optimization.
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An improved 2b-RAD approach (I2b-RAD) offering genotyping tested by a rice (Oryza sativa L.) F2 population.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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2b-RAD (type IIB endonucleases restriction-site associated DNA) approach was invented by Wang in 2012 and proven as a simple and flexible method for genome-wide genotyping. However, there is still plenty of room for improvement for the existent 2b-RAD approach. Firstly, it doesn't include the samples pooling in library preparation as other reduced representation libraries. Secondly, the information of 2b-RAD tags, such as tags numbers and distributions, in most of species are unknown. The purposes of the research are to improve a new 2b-RAD approach which possesses samples pooling, moreover to figure out the characteristic and application potentiality of 2b-RAD tags by bioinformatics analysis.
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A DNA-Directed Light-Harvesting/Reaction Center System.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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A structurally and compositionally well-defined and spectrally tunable artificial light-harvesting system has been constructed in which multiple organic dyes attached to a three-arm-DNA nanostructure serve as an antenna conjugated to a photosynthetic reaction center isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1. The light energy absorbed by the dye molecules is transferred to the reaction center, where charge separation takes place. The average number of DNA three-arm junctions per reaction center was tuned from 0.75 to 2.35. This DNA-templated multichromophore system serves as a modular light-harvesting antenna that is capable of being optimized for its spectral properties, energy transfer efficiency, and photostability, allowing one to adjust both the size and spectrum of the resulting structures. This may serve as a useful test bed for developing nanostructured photonic systems.
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[Cloning of full-length cDNA of HMGR from Gobiocypris rarus and analysis of its expression profiles in male exposed to pentachlorophenol].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) is the first rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. The full-length cDNA of HMGR was cloned from Gobiocypris rarus, and HMGR expression profiles in different tissues and in response to different treatments of pentachlorophenol (PCP) were analyzed by real-time PCR, to investigate the endocrine disruption mechanism of PCP, which altered steroid hormone precursors (cholesterol) levels by modulating gene transcription profiles of HMGR. Based on the homologous clone strategy and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology, the full-length 3 101-base-pair (bp) cDNA of HMGR was isolated from the livers of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) for the first time, and was designated as GrHMGR (GenBank accession number KF885724). GrHMGR encoded a protein of 884 amino acids and phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that the deduced protein GrHMGR had extensive sequence similarities to other fish HMGRs. Real-time PCR analyses indicated that GrHMGR mRNA expression was tightly controlled in a tissue-specific fashion, with the sites of expression being brain, gonads and liver, and the highest site of expression being gonads. After male rare minnows were exposed to different concentrations of PCP, significant decrease in GrHMGR gene expression with increased PCP concentration in the brain and gonads were observed, together with the differential gene expression trend in the liver. Furthermore, it was found that the decrease of HMGR could reduce the synthesis of cholesterol. This proved that PCP might disrupt the pathway of cholesterol synthesis and then influenced the endocrine system of rare minnow.
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[Patterns and risk factors of recurrence in triple-negative breast cancer].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To analyze the recurrence characteristics of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and explore their clinicopathological correlations in northern China.
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Chiral porous organic frameworks for asymmetric heterogeneous catalysis and gas chromatographic separation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Three chiral robust diene-based porous organic frameworks (POFs) are prepared. POF- is shown to be an efficient heterogeneous catalyst after metallation for asymmetric conjugation addition with up to 93% ee, and it can also function as a new chiral stationary phase for gas chromatographic separation of racemates.
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Engineering chromatic dispersion and effective nonlinearity in a dual-slot waveguide.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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In this paper, we propose a new dual slot based on rib-like structure, which exhibits a flat and near-zero dispersion over a 198 nm wide wavelength range. Chromatic dispersion of dual-slot silicon (Si) waveguide is mainly determined by waveguide dispersion due to the manipulating mode effective area rather than by the material dispersion. Moreover, the nonlinear coefficient and effective mode area of the waveguide are also explored in detail. A nonlinear coefficient of 1460/m/W at 1550 nm is achieved, which is 10 times larger than that of the Si rib waveguide. By changing different waveguide variables, both the dispersion and nonlinear coefficient can be tailored, thus enabling the potential for a highly nonlinear waveguide with uniform dispersion over a wide wavelength range, which could benefit the performance of broadband optical signal systems.
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Magnetic-based Fano resonance of hybrid silicon-gold nanocavities in the near-infrared region.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Direct interference between the orthogonal electric and magnetic modes in a hybrid silicon-gold nanocavity is demonstrated to induce a pronounced asymmetric magnetic-based Fano resonance in the total scattering spectrum at near-infrared frequencies. Differing from the previously reported magnetic-based Fano resonances in metal nanoparticle clusters, the narrow discrete mode provided by the silicon magnetic dipole resonance can be directly excited by external illumination, and greatly enhanced electric and magnetic fields are simultaneously obtained at the Fano dip.
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Evidence of guest encapsulation within G8 and G10 dendrimers using NMR techniques.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Encapsulation of guest molecules within the interior cavities of dendrimers is promising, but high generation dendrimers show limited encapsulation capacity due to their dense surface shell. Here, for the first time, we prove that high generation polyamidoamine dendrimers, such as generation 8 and generation 10, are able to encapsulate hydrophobic guests using NMR spectroscopy. Guest molecules such as phenylbutazone, dexamethasone sodium phosphate and 9-anthracenecarboxylic acid with molecular weights up to 516 Da are in close proximity to the interior scaffold protons of high generation dendrimers. This encapsulation behavior depends on guest hydrophobicity. Chemical defects and back-folding of terminal groups make it possible for these guest molecules to penetrate through the dense surface shell of high generation dendrimers. These results provide new insights into the host-guest chemistry of dendrimers.
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Effect of sandblasting on surface roughness of zirconia-based ceramics and shear bond strength of veneering porcelain.
Dent Mater J
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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This study aims to investigate the effect of sandblasting on the surface roughness of zirconia and the shear bond strength of the veneering porcelain. Pre-sintered zirconia plates were prepared and divided into four groups. Group A were not treated at all; group B were first sandblasted under 0.2 MPa pressure and then densely sintered; group C and D were sintered first, and then sandblasted under 0.2 MPa and 0.4 MPa pressures respectively. Surface roughness was measured and 3D roughness was reconstructed for the specimens, which were also analyzed with X-ray diffractometry. Finally after veneering porcelain sintering, shear bond tests were conducted. Sandblasting zirconia before sintering significantly increased surface roughness and the shear bond strength between zirconia and veneering porcelain (p<0.05). Sandblasting zirconia before sintering is a useful method to increase surface roughness and could successfully improve the bonding strength of veneering porcelain.
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Why do people appear not to extrapolate trajectories during multiple object tracking? A computational investigation.
J Vis
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Intuitively, extrapolating object trajectories should make visual tracking more accurate. This has proven to be true in many contexts that involve tracking a single item. But surprisingly, when tracking multiple identical items in what is known as "multiple object tracking," observers often appear to ignore direction of motion, relying instead on basic spatial memory. We investigated potential reasons for this behavior through probabilistic models that were endowed with perceptual limitations in the range of typical human observers, including noisy spatial perception. When we compared a model that weights its extrapolations relative to other sources of information about object position, and one that does not extrapolate at all, we found no reliable difference in performance, belying the intuition that extrapolation always benefits tracking. In follow-up experiments we found this to be true for a variety of models that weight observations and predictions in different ways; in some cases we even observed worse performance for models that use extrapolations compared to a model that does not at all. Ultimately, the best performing models either did not extrapolate, or extrapolated very conservatively, relying heavily on observations. These results illustrate the difficulty and attendant hazards of using noisy inputs to extrapolate the trajectories of multiple objects simultaneously in situations with targets and featurally confusable nontargets.
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6-O-Sulfated Chitosan Promoting the Neural Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be induced to differentiate into nerve cells, endowing them with potential applications in the treatment of neurological diseases and neural repair. In this work, we report for the first time that sulfated chitosan can promote the neural differentiation of ESCs. As a type of sulfated glycosaminoglycan analog, sulfated chitosan with well-defined sulfation sites and a controlled degree of sulfation (DS) were prepared through simple procedures and the influence of sulfated glycosaminoglycan on neural differentiation of ESCs was investigated. Compared with other sulfation sites, 6-O-sulfated chitosan showed the most optimal effects. By monitoring the expression level of neural differentiation markers using immunofluorescence staining and PCR, it was found that neural differentiation was better enhanced by increasing the DS of 6-O-sulfated chitosan. However, increasing the DS by introducing another sulfation site in addition to the 6-O site to chitosan did not promote neural differentiation as much as 6-O-sulfated chitosan, indicating that compared with DS, the sulfation site is more important. Additionally, the optimal concentration and incubation time of 6-O-sulfated chitosan were investigated. Together, our results indicate that the sulfate site and the molecular structure in a sulfated polysaccharide are very important for inducing the differentiation of ESCs. Our findings may help to highlight the role of sulfated polysaccharide in inducing the neural differentiation of ESCs.
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Single-Component and Warm-White-Emitting Phosphor NaGd(WO4)2:Tm(3+), Dy(3+), Eu(3+): Synthesis, Luminescence, Energy Transfer, and Tunable Color.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Tm(3+), Dy(3+), and Eu(3+) codoped NaGd(WO4)2 phosphors were prepared by a facile hydrothermal process; they were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), photoluminescence spectra, and fluorescence lifetime. The results show that the novel octahedral microcrystals with a mean side length of 2 ?m are obtained. Under the excitation of ultraviolet, individual RE(3+) ion (Tm(3+), Dy(3+), and Eu(3+)) activated NaGd(WO4)2 phosphors exhibit excellent emission properties in their respective regions. Moreover, when codoping Dy(3+) and Eu(3+)/Tm(3+) in the single component, the energy migration from Dy(3+) to Eu(3+) has been demonstrated to be a resonant type via a dipole-quadrupole mechanism as well as that from Tm(3+) to Dy(3+) ions, of which the critical distance (RDy-Eu) is calculated to be 11.08 Å. More significantly, in the Tm(3+), Dy(3+), and Eu(3+) tridoped NaGd(WO4)2 phosphors, the energy migration of Tm(3+)-Dy(3+)-Eu(3+), utilized for sensitizing Eu(3+) ions besides compensating the red component at low Eu(3+) doping concentration, has been discussed first. In addition, under 365 nm near-ultraviolet radiation (nUV), the color-tunable emissions in octahedral NaGd(WO4)2 microcrystals are realized by giving abundant blue, green, white, yellow, and red emissions, especially warm white emission, and could be favorable candidates in full-color phosphors for nUV-LEDs.
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Clinical efficacy and prognostic factors of chemoreduction combined with topical treatment for advanced intraocular retinoblastoma.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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To explore the clinical efficacy and prognostic factors of chemoreduction combined with topical treatment of advanced intraocular retinoblastoma (RB).
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Wide-scale pollen banking of ornamental plants through cryopreservation.
Cryo Letters
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Cryopreservation has been proved to be an efficient method for the long-term storage of pollen, based on our previous studies establishing cryo pollen banks for Camellia, Paeonia, and Prunus mume.
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A central role for TRPS1 in the control of cell cycle and cancer development.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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The eukaryotic cell cycle is controlled by a complex regulatory network, which is still poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that TRPS1, an atypical GATA factor, modulates cell proliferation and controls cell cycle progression. Silencing TRPS1 had a differential effect on the expression of nine key cell cycle-related genes. Eight of these genes are known to be involved in the regulation of the G2 phase and the G2/M transition of the cell cycle. Using cell synchronization studies, we confirmed that TRPS1 plays an important role in the control of cells in these phases of the cell cycle. We also show that silencing TRPS1 controls the expression of 53BP1, but not TP53. TRPS1 silencing also decreases the expression of two histone deacetylases, HDAC2 and HDAC4, as well as the overall HDAC activity in the cells, and leads to the subsequent increase in the acetylation of histone4 K16 but not of histone3 K9 or K18. Finally, we demonstrate that TRPS1 expression is elevated in luminal breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer tissues as compared with other breast cancer subtypes. Overall, our study proposes that TRPS1 acts as a central hub in the control of cell cycle and proliferation during cancer development.
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GluA1 phosphorylation contributes to postsynaptic amplification of neuropathic pain in the insular cortex.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Long-term potentiation of glutamatergic transmission has been observed after physiological learning or pathological injuries in different brain regions, including the spinal cord, hippocampus, amygdala, and cortices. The insular cortex is a key cortical region that plays important roles in aversive learning and neuropathic pain. However, little is known about whether excitatory transmission in the insular cortex undergoes plastic changes after peripheral nerve injury. Here, we found that peripheral nerve ligation triggered the enhancement of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission in the insular cortex. The synaptic GluA1 subunit of AMPAR, but not the GluA2/3 subunit, was increased after nerve ligation. Genetic knock-in mice lacking phosphorylation of the Ser845 site, but not that of the Ser831 site, blocked the enhancement of the synaptic GluA1 subunit, indicating that GluA1 phosphorylation at the Ser845 site by protein kinase A (PKA) was critical for this upregulation after nerve injury. Furthermore, A-kinase anchoring protein 79/150 (AKAP79/150) and PKA were translocated to the synapses after nerve injury. Genetic deletion of adenylyl cyclase subtype 1 (AC1) prevented the translocation of AKAP79/150 and PKA, as well as the upregulation of synaptic GluA1-containing AMPARs. Pharmacological inhibition of calcium-permeable AMPAR function in the insular cortex reduced behavioral sensitization caused by nerve injury. Our results suggest that the expression of AMPARs is enhanced in the insular cortex after nerve injury by a pathway involving AC1, AKAP79/150, and PKA, and such enhancement may at least in part contribute to behavioral sensitization together with other cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate and the prefrontal cortices.
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[DNA quantification of blood samples pre-treated with pyramidon].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To study DNA quantification and STR typing of samples pre-treated with pyramidon.
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[Research of mechanism jinxueyuan granules increased saliva secretion of xerostomia model rats].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To analyze the specific mechanism of Jinxueyuan granules, the relationship between the Jinxueyuan granules increased the saliva secretion of xerostomia model SD rats and excitement of receptors were studied in this experiment. In the study, three groups of xerostomia model rats were successfully established by using M-receptor blockers-4-diphenyl-acetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine (4-DAMP) and atropine, or adrenergic receptor blocker phentolamine; after the modeling, the medicine Jinxueyuan granules were gavaged. According to the clinical dose of Jinxueyuan granules and SD rats body surface area, the rats in atropine group were divided three dose groups respectively, namely low, medium and high dose of Jinxueyuan granules groups. The 4-DAMP group and phentolamine group were gavaged medium dose of Jinxueyuan granules. And the amount of salivary secretion for 150 minutes in all groups continuously were measured, and the effect of Jinxueyuan granules increased salivation and the relationship between characteristics and the receptors were observed; and submandibular gland tissue of the rats was isolated, then the effect of Jinxueyuan Granules for expression of the water channel protein aquaporin-5 (AQP5) in submandibular gland cells was analyzed by the Western blot technology. It was found that the saliva secretion of Jinxueyuan Granules groups was increased significantly, and compared with the saline control group, phentolamine group, 4-DAMP group and atropine group, difference was significant, P < 0.05. There was no significant difference between the low-dose of Jinxueyuan granules group and the saline group, but the medium dose of Jinxueyuan granules group had a significant difference, compared with the saline group (P < 0.05). In the time distribution of increasing saliva secretion, there was a significant difference between the saline and Jinxueyuan granules group in the saliva secretion (P < 0.05). After administration of Jinxueyuan granules, the expression of AQP5 protein in the submandibular gland cells expressing of treatment groups was increased, and compared with the blocker groups, there was a significant difference, P < 0.05. Except the atropine group, there was no significant difference in Jinxueyuan granules relieving the inhibition induced by blocks in phentolamine group and 4-DAMP group, compared with the saline group. Compared the AQP5 expression in three blockers groups, there was no significant difference in the efficacy of Jinxueyuan granules between phentolamine group and 4-DAMP group; but there was a significant difference between the atropine group and other groups (P < 0.05). Therefore, it was considered that the mechanism of Jinxueyuan granules increasing saliva secretion (effectiveness of nourishing Yin and generating body fluid ) possibly through the pathway mediated by muscarinic M receptor, especially M3 receptor, or adrenergic receptor, and increased expression of salivary gland AQP5 membrane, and then stimulate saliva production.
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[Roles of reactive oxygen species in Streptomyces pactum Act12-induced tanshinone production in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Our previous research indicated that the Streptomyces pactum Act12 (Act12) had a certain promotional effect on tanshinone accumulation and up-regulated the expression of genes 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots. This study focuses on the roles of reactive oxygen species in S. pactum Act12-induced tanshinone production in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. The 4% Act12, 4% Act12 + CAT and 4% Act12 + SOD were added to S. miltiorrhiza hairy root and subcultured for 21 days, the dry weight, contents of reactive oxygen species, contents of tanshinones and expression of HMGR and DXR were determined at different harvest-time. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots was triggered by 4% Act12 treatment. The relative expressions of genes HMGR and DXR in 4% Act12 treatment were 32.4 and 4.8-fold higher than those in the control. And the total tanshinone in the hairy roots was 10.2 times higher than that of the control. The CAT and SOD could significantly inhibit the ROS accumulation and relative expressions of genes HMGR and DXR in 4% Act12 treatment, which induced the total tanshinone content was decreased by 74.6% comparing with the 4% Act12 treatment. ROS mediated Act12-induced tanshinone production. The Act12 may be via the ROS signal channel to activate the tanshinone biosynthesis pathways. Thereby the tanshinon content in hairy roots was increased.
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[Observations of spectral data and characteristics analysis of snow-bare soil mixed pixel generated by micro-simulation].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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To explore the differences of mixed-pixel in spectral mixing mechanism at micro-and macro -scale, the micro- simulation of snow-bare soil mixed pixel was taken as the object of study in an artificial test environment. Reflectance spectra of mixed pixel and snow, bare soil endmember with different area ratio were collected by full-band spectrometer with fixed probe distance. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of original reflectance spectra was done, and reflectance spectra form 350 to 2 500 nm and normalized reflectance spectral data of 350 to 1 815 nm excluding noise were normalized. At the same time, we collected EOS/MODIS and Environment and Disaster Monitoring Satellites data of the same period over the same area and analyzed the correlation of channels in visible, near-infrared and shortwave infrared wavelength range at different resolution scales and the relationship between spectrum of mixed snow-soil and endmember pixel in MODIS image was analyzed. The results showed that, (1) At the micro scale, non-linear relationship existed between mixed pixel and endmember within the scope of the full-wave and linear relationship existed in sub-band wavelength range; (2) At the macro scale, linear relationship existed between mixed pixel and endmember. (3) In statistics of spectral values, the correlation between snow-soil mixture and endmember is positive for snow-soil mixture and snow endmember, and is negative for snow-soil mixture and soil endmember.
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[Analysis of aldicarb and its metabolites in ginger using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with multiplug filtration clean up with multiwalled carbon nanotubes].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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A simple and rapid pretreatment procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of aldicarb and its metabolites, aldicarb sulfone and aldicarb sulfoxide in ginger. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and then cleaned up with multiplug filtration using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTS). The eluate was dried with nitrogen gas at room temperature, and redissolved in an acetonitrile-water (5:95, v/v) mixture, then quantified by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) operated in positive multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. A linear relationship was achieved in the range of 0.5 -200 microg/L for the peak areas to the mass concentrations of the target compounds with the linear correlation coefficients (r2) higher than 0.99. The recoveries at three spiked levels of 2, 20 and 200 microg/kg were in the range from 71.4% to 89.8% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) from 0.7% to 13.2% under the selected conditions. The limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) of aldicarb, aldicarb sulfone, and aldicarb sulfoxide in ginger were 1.0, 2.0 and 1.0 microg/kg, respectively. The results demonstrate that the developed method is rapid, cost-effective, and can meet the requirements of the multiple pesticide residue analysis. The method is applicable to determine aldicarb and its metabolites in ginger.
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[Determination of streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin in pollens by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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A method was established for the determination of streptomycin (STR) and dihydrostreptomycin (DHS) in pollens based on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted and cleaned-up by a C18 solid phase extraction cartridge. The separation was carried out on a Protemix WCX-NP5 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 5 microm) with a gradient elution using 5% (v/v) formic acid, 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate and methanol as mobile phases. The analysis of streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin was performed under electrospray positive ionization mode. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) and limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) for the both were 5 microg/kg and 10 microg/kg, respectively. Good linearities (r > 0.99) were achieved for the target compounds over the range of 10-200 microg/L. The recoveries at three spiked levels (10, 20, 50 microg/kg) in the blank matrices, such as pollen pini, corn pollen, camellia pollen, sunflower pollen, rape pollen and bee pollen, were from 76.8% to 100.3% with the relative standard deviations varied from 3.70% to 12.6%. The method is accurate, practical, and can be applied to most of the contaminated matrices. With this method, heptafluorobutyric acid is not required as mobile phase which is harmful to MS spectrometer.
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A Feasible Method to Eliminate Nanoleakage in Dentin Hybrid Layers.
J Adhes Dent
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Purpose: To determine whether high-pressure air blowing during adhesive application affects the infiltration of resin comonomers and nanoleakage manifestation in the resin/dentin interface under simulated pulpal pressure. Materials and Methods: Thirty mid-coronal dentin surfaces were bonded with an etch-and-rinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond 2) under simulated pulpal pressure. In the control group, the adhesive was thinned by ordinary air blowing with a pressure of 0.2 MPa, while in the experimental group, a high-pressure air blowing technique (pressure: 0.4 MPa) was used. All other procedures followed the manufacturer's instructions. Resin tag formation and nanoleakage in the bonding interface were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: When adhesive was thinned with high pressure air blowing, longer and more homogeneous resin tags were formed. The bonding interface demonstrated good overall morphology and integrity. Almost perfect infiltration of resin and no obvious nanoleakage were observed. Conclusion: Thinning of adhesive with high-pressure air blowing provides a clinically feasible adjunctive procedure for better resin infiltration.
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[Pelvic floor muscle strength screening and analysis of its related factors among migrant women in the pearl river delta].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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To investigate the prevalence and related factors of abnormal pelvic floor muscle strength and provide theoretical evidence for the prevention and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction.
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[The observation and analysis the function and morphology of the eustachian tube in secretory otitis media and chronic rhinosinusitis in children].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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To observe and analyze the function and morphology of pharyngeal ostium of the eustachian tubes in secretory otitis media and chronic rhinosinusitis in children under direct vision,in order to provide an objective basis for clinical treatments.
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[Adsorption of perchlorate by calcined Mg/Zn/Al layered double hydroxides].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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The adsorption capacity of perchlorate by Mg/Zn/Al layered double hydroxides was investigated. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the adsorption isothermal model and dynamic model were discussed. The effect of calcination temperature, Mg/Zn/Al molar ratio, pH value of solution, adsorption time and dosage on the adsorption capacity of samples were studied. The experiment results showed that the removal ratio and adsorption capacity reached the highest and the pH value had good applicability when the molar ratio was Mg/Zn/Al = 2: 1 : 1. The adsorption of perchlorate basically conformed to the pseudo-second kinetics and Langmuir, Freundlich isotherm model.
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Visible light-induced intermolecular radical addition: facile access to ?-ketoesters from alkyl-bromocarboxylates and enamines.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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A highly efficient addition of alkyl ?-bromocarboxylates to enamines by visible light-induced photoredox catalysis is reported. Compared with traditional methods, the reaction described here provided an alternative route for the construction of valuable ?-ketoesters in generally good yields.
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Clinical Implications of BMI-1 in Cancer Stem Cells of Laryngeal Carcinoma.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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The objective of this study is to investigate the chemoresistance of CD133(+) cancer stem cells in Hep-2 cells of laryngeal cancer and detect the expression mRNA and protein levels of BMI-1 in CD133(+) cells and CD133(-) cells. The response of Hep-2 cells to different chemotherapeutic agents was investigated, and the expression of CD133 was studied. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was used to identify CD133, and the CD133(+) subset of cells was separated and analyzed chemotherapy resistance. Colony formation assays were studied and cells were injected subcutaneously into axillary fossa of node mice to measure the tumor-forming ability. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses were used to detect the expression levels of BMI-1 in the different subpopulation cells. It was concluded that chemotherapy enriched the CD133(+) subpopulation 2-fourfold, relative to the untreated cells. 1.55 ± 0.28 % of Hep-2 cells were observed to be CD133(+) cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that after the treatment with these chemotherapeutic agents, the expression of CD133 was up to 5.16 ± 0.86 %, 4.94 ± 0.58 %, 3.66 ± 0.59 %. After 5-FU treatment, the expression of CD133 was 6.7 ± 1.6 % relative to the untreated mice 2.6 ± 0.96 % by nude mice tumor xenograft model. CD133(+) cancer stem cells were more resistant to chemotherapy; the proliferation capability and tumor-forming ability were no difference after chemotherapy. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses provided strong evidence that BMI-1 expression in CD133(+) cells is different from CD133(-) cells remarkably. Taken together, it was confirmed that CD133(+) cancer stem cells were chemoresistant and BMI-1 was highly expressed in these CD133(+) cells.
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[Soil fertility characteristics under different land use patterns in depressions between karst hills].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Soil samples were collected from the depressions between karst hills by grid sampling method (5 m x 5 m), soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK) in surface layer (0-20 cm) under different land use patterns (burning, cutting, cutting plus root removal, enclosure, maize plantation, and pasture plantation) were measured, the main factors of influencing the soil fertility was identified by principal component analysis (PCA), and the relationships between soil nutrients and microorganisms were demonstrated by canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The results showed that the soil was slightly alkaline (pH 7.83-7.98), and the soil fertility differed under the different land use patterns, with 76.78-116.05 g x kg(-1) of SOC, 4.29-6.23 g x kg(-1) of TN, 1.15-1.47 g x kg(-1) of TP, 3.59-6.05 g x kg(-1) of TK, 331.49-505.49 mg x kg(-1) of AN), 3.92-10.91 mg x kg(-1) of AP, and 136.28-198.10 mg x kg(-1) of AK. These soil indexes except pH showed moderate or strong variation. Different land use patterns had various impacts on soil fertility: Soil nutrients such as SOC, TN, TP, and AN were most significantly influenced by land use patterns in the depressions between karst hills; Followed by soil microorganisms, especially soil actinomycetes, and the effect decreased with the increasing gradient of human disturbance from enclosure, burning, cutting, cutting plus root removal, pasture plantation, and maize plantation. CCA elucidated that considerable interactions existed in soil TP with MBP (microbial biomass phosphorus), TK with MBC (microbial biomass carbon), TN with actinomycetes in the burned area, while TN and MBC in the cutting treatment, AP and MBN (microbial biomass nitrogen) in the treatment of cutting plus root removal, pH with MBC and fungus in the enclosure treatment, TN and TK with MBP in the maize plantation, pH with fungi and actinomycetes in the pasture plantation. Land use patterns changed the soil fertility in the depressions between karst hills; therefore, in the ecological restoration and reconstruction of karst region with fragmented landforms and shallow soil, rational land use patterns should be adopted to improve the soil quality of degraded ecosystems.
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Loss of BMAL1 in ovarian steroidogenic cells results in implantation failure in female mice.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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The circadian clock plays a significant role in many aspects of female reproductive biology, including estrous cycling, ovulation, embryonic implantation, onset of puberty, and parturition. In an effort to link cell-specific circadian clocks to their specific roles in female reproduction, we used the promoter that controls expression of Steroidogenic Factor-1 (SF1) to drive Cre-recombinase-mediated deletion of the brain muscle arnt-like 1 (Bmal1) gene, known to encode an essential component of the circadian clock (SF1-Bmal1(-/-)). The resultant SF1-Bmal1(-/-) females display embryonic implantation failure, which is rescued by progesterone supplementation, or bilateral or unilateral transplantation of wild-type ovaries into SF1-Bmal1(-/-) dams. The observation that the central clock, and many other peripheral clocks, are fully functional in this model allows the assignment of the implantation phenotype to the clock in ovarian steroidogenic cells and distinguishes it from more general circadian related systemic pathology (e.g., early onset arthropathy, premature aging, ovulation, late onset of puberty, and abnormal estrous cycle). Our ovarian transcriptome analysis reveals that deletion of ovarian Bmal1 disrupts expression of transcripts associated with the circadian machinery and also genes critical for regulation of progesterone production, such as steroidogenic acute regulatory factor (Star). Overall, these data provide a powerful model to probe the interlocking and synergistic network of the circadian clock and reproductive systems.
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[Near infrared spectroscopy synergy interval wavelength selection method using the LSSVM model].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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The present paper proposes a wavelength selection algorithm based on nonlinear factors named Synergy interval least squares support vector machines (siLSSVM). siLSSVM combines the interval strategy of wavelength selection method with the idea of synergy interval and overcomes the disadvantages of the traditional wavelength selection methods, i. e. ignoring the nonlinear factors. Taking the near infrared spectrum data of apple sugar as performance verification object of this new algorithm, comparing new algorithm with siPLS, the model performance has been greatly improved. The root-mean-square error (RMSEP) in new algorithm has increased respectively by 37.43% and 47.88% under the model of PLS and LSSVM, with increases of 6.04% and 7.31% in the correlative coefficient (RP). The examples illustrate that siLSSVM can efficiently select the optimum wavelength interval for spectrum data with strong nonlinear factors. This algorithm greatly improves the prediction accuracy and robustness of the model, which provides a new prospect for near infrared spectral with nonlinear factors to select wavelength.
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Effects of Wen Dan Tang on insomnia-related anxiety and levels of the brain-gut peptide Ghrelin.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Ghrelin, a brain-gut peptide that induces anxiety and other abnormal emotions, contributes to the effects of insomnia on emotional behavior. In contrast, the traditional Chinese Medicine remedy Wen Dan Tang reduces insomnia-related anxiety, which may perhaps correspond to changes in the brain-gut axis. This suggests a possible relationship between Wen Dan Tang's pharmacological mechanism and the brain-gut axis. Based on this hypothesis, a sleep-deprived rat model was induced and Wen Dan Tang was administered using oral gavage during model establishment. Wen Dan Tang significantly reduced insomnia-related anxiety and prevented Ghrelin level decreases following sleep deprivation, especially in the hypothalamus. Increased expression of Ghrelin receptor mRNA in the hypothalamus was also observed, suggesting that reduced anxiety may be a result of Wen Dan Tang's regulation of Ghrelin-Ghrelin receptors.
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Retention in Care and Factors Affecting It Among People Living With HIV/AIDS in Changsha City, China.
Asia Pac J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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The aim of this study was to describe the retention in care and examine the factors affecting it among people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) in Changsha City, China. Data on treatment, care, and their retention of all registered 822 PLWHA in Changsha Center for Disease Control and Prevention were analyzed. The retention rate had shown 58.1% among this sample. With logistic regression analysis, retention in care was significantly related to education level (senior high school vs university: odds ratio [OR] = 0.471, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.237-0.937), CD4 count (<50cells/mm(3) vs >500cells/mm(3): OR = 2.659, 95% CI = 1.816-28.760), and initiation of antiretroviral therapy (No vs Yes: OR = 0.362, 95% CI = 0.180-0.550). In conclusion, the intervention to improve retention in care for PLWHA in Changsha is warranted, especially for those who have lower education level, for those who have higher baseline CD4 count, and for those who have not initiated antiretroviral therapy.
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[Effect of light quality on growth, photosynthesis and effective components of Panax notoginseng].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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In order to discover light quality's effects on growth, photosynthesis and effective components content of Panax notoginseng, a pot experiment using 7 light qualities (red, orange, yellow, green, cyan, violet, and blue) was conducted. The growth, photosynthesis and content change of effective components were measured during plant growth. The results showed that light qualities had significant effect on plant growth, red light increased the plant height, while cyan, yellow, violet, and blue lights promoted accumulation of biomass underground, blue and yellow lights increased the photosynthesis, cyan light increased accumulation of ginsenoside Rd, yellow and cyan lights increased total effective components of individual plant.
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[Analysis of the effect of high glucose and high fat diet on the manufacturing of the experimental pre-diabetic rats model].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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To evaluate the roles of fat and sugar in inducing pre-diabetes rats and their effect factors, and analyze the relationship between the indicators.
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[Prostate health index in predicting the results of prostate biopsy for prostate cancer: a meta-analysis].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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To systematically evaluate prostate health index (PHI) in predicting the results of prostate biopsy in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
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Chiral Metal-Organic Frameworks Bearing Free Carboxylic Acids for Organocatalyst Encapsulation.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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Two chiral carboxylic acid functionalized micro- and mesoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are constructed by the stepwise assembly of triple-stranded heptametallic helicates with six carboxylic acid groups. The mesoporous MOF with permanent porosity functions as a host for encapsulation of an enantiopure organic amine catalyst by combining carboxylic acids and chiral amines in situ through acid-base interactions. The organocatalyst-loaded framework is shown to be an efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the asymmetric direct aldol reactions with significantly enhanced stereoselectivity in relative to the homogeneous organocatalyst.
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Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the ethmoid sinus: a case report.
Ear Nose Throat J
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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B-cell lymphoma of the paranasal sinuses is rare. We present the case of a 42-year-old woman who presented with proptosis, diplopia, and vision disturbances in the right eye. She was diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the ethmoid sinus. We describe the general clinical presentation, diagnosis, and differential diagnosis of this entity, and we review the pathology of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
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Involvement of inflammation-related miR-155 and miR-146a in diabetic nephropathy: implications for glomerular endothelial injury.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, we investigated both the repertoire of miRNAs in the kidneys of patients with DN and their potential regulatory role in inflammation-mediated glomerular endothelial injury.
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The Regenerating Spinal Cord of Gecko Maintains Unaltered Expression of ?-Catenin Following Tail Amputation.
J. Mol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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The Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) signaling pathway plays important roles in central nervous system (CNS) development and regeneration, and ?-catenin, the central component, has been considered in association with adult neurogenesis. To decipher its roles on spontaneous spinal cord regeneration, we cloned ?-catenin from Gekko japonicus and examined its function in regenerating spinal cord. The protein was localized in the neurons and oligodendrocytes and maintained a stable expression levels during the spinal cord regeneration. The temporal pattern of expression has been found to be completely distinct with those of glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?). Experiments of gain-of-function by overexpression of full length ?-catenin or stabilized ?N90-?-catenin revealed that the accumulated protein attenuates the elongation of neurites and oligodendrocyte process. Knockdown of endogenous ?-catenin, however, decreased proliferation of oligodendrocytes by affecting expression of downstream lef1 and c-jun. The upregulated extracellular matrix fibronectin in injured cord was found to be inefficient in regulation of ?-catenin expression. Our results suggest that a tightly regulated stable expression of ?-catenin is required for the spontaneous spinal cord regeneration.
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[Role of dysfunction of macrophage in intractable diabetic wound].
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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As a result of the stimulation of proinflammatory mediators, circulating peripheral-blood mononuclear cells migrate into the wound area, and they differentiate into different phenotypes of macrophage to take different roles in healing process. Their phenotypes interchange under different microenvironments. The disturbance of cutaneous environment in diabetic patients has been shown to alter the quantity, morphology, and functions of the macrophages resulting in retardation of wound healing. Healing of intractable diabetic wound can be improved by the supplement of exogenous growth factors, which might improve healing process by regulating the phenotype of macrophage in intractable diabetic wound. This article reviews the relationship between intractable diabetic wound and macrophage to explore new methods of treating intractable diabetic wound.
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[Growth activity of osteoblast on a novel strontium incorporated calcium sulfate].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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To investigate the growth activity of osteoblast on a novel strontium incorporated calcium sulfate and make comparison with normal calcium sulfate material.
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Microfluidic antibody arrays for simultaneous cell separation and stimulus.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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A microfluidic chip containing stamped antibody arrays was developed for simultaneous cell separation and drug testing. Poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) stamping was used to deposit antibodies in a microfluidic channel, forming discrete cell-capture regions on the surface. Cell mixtures were then introduced, resulting in the separation of cells when specific antibodies were used. Anti-CD19 antibody regions resulted in 94 % capture purity for CD19+ Ramos cells. An antibody that captures multiple cell types, for example anti-CD71, can also be used to capture several cell types simultaneously. Cells could also be loaded onto the arrays with spatial control using laminar streams. Both Ramos B cells and HuT 78 T cells were isolated in the chip and exposed to staurosporine in the same channel. Both cell lines had similar responses to the drug, with 2-10 % of cells remaining viable after 20 h of drug treatment, depending on cell type. The chip can also be used to analyze the efficacy of antibody therapy against cancer cells. Anti-CD95 was deposited on the surface and used for simultaneous cell capture and apoptosis induction via the extrinsic pathway. Cells captured on anti-CD95 surfaces had significant viability loss (15 % viability after 24 h) when compared with a control anti-CD71 antibody (81 % viability after 24 h). This chip can be used for a variety of cell separation and/or drug testing studies, enabling researchers to isolate cells and test them against different anti-cancer compounds and to follow cell response using fluorescence or other readout methods.
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A facile method for the synthesis of quaternary Ag-In-Zn-S alloyed nanorods.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Ag-In-Zn-S nanorods with tunable photoluminescence were formed by a convenient synthetic approach, and the nanorods demonstrated a relatively long fluorescence lifetime of 1.248 ?s. In addition, Ag-In-Zn-S nanorods of nail shape and rod-particle dimers were successfully produced by adjusting the reaction parameters.
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MnO2 spontaneously coated on carbon nanotubes for enhanced water oxidation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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?-MnO2/o-MWCNTs were synthesized by coating MnO2 spontaneously on oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes via simple immersion of the o-MWCNTs into KMnO4 solution. This catalyst comprising the outer region of catalytic MnO2 and the inner region of highly conductive o-MWCNTs enhanced photocatalytic water oxidation activity.
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Novel 2-arylbenzofuran dimers and polyisoprenylated flavanones from Sophora tonkinensis.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Two novel 2-arylbenzofuran dimers, shandougenines A (1) and B (2), and two new polyisoprenylated flavanones 3 (shandougenine C) and 4 (shandougenine D) were isolated from the 95% EtOH extract of Sophora tonkinensis, together with 18 known compounds. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data interpretation and by comparing the spectral data with that reported previously for known compounds. Shandougenine A (1) is a unique dimeric 2-arylbenzofuran with a C-3C-5? bond linkage. Shandougenine B (2) is the first naturally occurring dimeric 2-arylbenzofuran with a novel C-3C-3? bond linkage. Compound 1 showed moderate DPPH free radical scavenging capacity, whereas 2 has stronger DPPH free radical and ABTS cation radical scavenging capacity than Vc. Compounds 12, 19, and 20 showed parallel DPPH free radical scavenging capacity with Vc. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 19, 20, and 22 have parallel ABTS cation radical scavenging capacity to Vc. Compounds 1, 3, 4, and 18 showed slightly stronger superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity than the known flavanone luteolin. The antioxidant activities of shandougenines A (1) and B (2) indicated that compounds 1 and 2 may represent novel scaffolds for the development of new antioxidants.
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Restored immunosuppressive effect of mesenchymal stem cells on B cells after OAZ downregulation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Objective: To explore whether Olf1/EBF associated zinc finger protein (OAZ), a candidate lupus susceptibility gene involved in antinuclear antibody production, plays a role in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) - B cells regulation. Methods: MSCs from bone marrow (BM) of SLE patients and healthy controls, were expanded and incubated with siRNAs specific for OAZ or non-targeting sequence. Knockdown of mRNA levels of OAZ and its downstream genes was measured using RT-PCR, and protein levels of chemokine/cytokine and immunoglobulins by ELISA or Western blots. Effects of modulating OAZ levels in MSCs, either by silencing or overexpression, on B-cell proliferation and terminal differentiation were assessed by coculturing with mouse splenic cells. Results: OAZ gene expression was highly enriched in MSCs compared to PBLs, and elevated in SLE patients compared to controls. After silencing OAZ expression, SLE MSCs could regain the ability to inhibit B-cell proliferation and terminal differentiation, indicated by decreased percentages of BrdU(+) cells and CD138(+) cells as well as levels of IgG, IgM and antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) elevated after OAZ knock-down, while anti-CCL2 antibody completely counteracted the effect of OAZ silence. Umbilical cord derived normal MSCs that overexpressed OAZ had diminished ability to inhibit B-cell proliferation and terminal differentiation. Conclusion: OAZ downregulation could restore the impaired immunoregulation function of SLE MSCs to B cells, contributing to ANA reduction. OAZ might represent a new therapeutic target for SLE patients. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.
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Inhibition of autophagy enhances the radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by reducing Rad51 expression.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Radiotherapy has long been considered as the mainstay of treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, locoregional recurrence or distant metastasis may occur in some patients due to the radiation resistance of cancer cells. Autophagy plays a vital role in protecting cells against radiation. However, the mechanism of autophagy in radiation therapy remains obscure. In the present study, we demonstrated that suppression of autophagy related 5 (Atg5) aggravated ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human NPC cells without accelerating the cell cycle, whereas regulation of the cell cycle has been widely regarded as the most important determinant of IR sensitivity. Further study showed that inhibition of autophagy suppressed the mRNA expression of Rad51, a key protein of homologous recombination that has been demonstrated to play a critical role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks induced by radiation. Moreover, suppression of Atg5 had no impact on the radiosensitivity when cells were pre-treated by the Rad51 inhibitor, and the enhanced radiosensitivity by Atg5 suppression was reversed by overexpression of Rad51 in human NPC cells. Our results suggest that inhibition of autophagy enhances the susceptibility of NPC cells to radiation by reducing Rad51 expression. Therefore, Rad51 targeted therapy may be investigated as a potential novel agent for the adjuvant treatment of traditional radiation of NPC.
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Effects of ?-adrenoceptor subtypes on cardiac function in myocardial infarction rats exposed to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5).
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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The pathophysiological mechanisms of heart failure (HF) stems were mainly from longstanding overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Recent studies highlighted the potential benefits of ?1-adrenoceptor (?1-AR) blocker combined with ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2-AR) agonist in patients with HF. Long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution, such as particulate matter ? 2.5??m in diameter (PM2.5), has been found associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) which is the most common cause of congestive HF. In this study, we have investigated the effect of combined metoprolol and terbutaline on cardiac function in a rat model of AMI exposed to PM2.5. Our results demonstrated that short-term exposure to PM2.5 contributes to aggravate cardiac function in rats with myocardial infarction. The combined use of ?1-AR blocker and ?2-AR agonist is superior to ?1-AR blocker alone for the treatment of AMI rats exposed to PM2.5. The combination of ?1-AR blocker and ?2-AR agonist may decrease the mortality of patients with myocardial infarction who have been exposed to PM2.5.
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Diffusion weighted imaging and blood oxygen level-dependent MR imaging of kidneys in patients with lupus nephritis.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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BackgroundLupus nephritis (LN) is one of most common secondary glomerulonephritis. There is no ideal method to simultaneously assess renal structure and function in patients with LN. The aim of this study is to investigate the utility of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MR imaging in the assessment of renal involvement and pathological changes in patients with LN.MethodsSixty-five patients with LN and 16 healthy volunteers underwent coronal echo-planar DWI and BOLD MR imaging of the kidneys. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and R2* values of the kidneys were calculated with b values of 0 and 500 s/mm2. The relationship between the renal injury variables and the ADCs or R2* values were evaluated. And 16 of 65 patients with LN underwent a repeated evaluation after the induction treatment for 9 to 12 months.ResultsThe mean ADC values of kidneys in patients with LN were 2.40¿±¿0.25 × 10¿3 mm2/ s, the mean R2* values of the renal cortex and medulla were 11.03¿±¿1.60/sec and 14.05¿±¿3.38/sec respectively, which were all significantly lower than that in volunteers. In patients with LN, the mean ADC values were correlated with eGFR (r¿=¿0.510, p¿<¿0.01). There was a negative correlation between the mean ADC values and renal pathology chronicity indexes (r¿=¿¿0.249, p¿<¿0.05), the R2* values of the renal medulla and proteinuria (r¿=¿¿0.244, p¿<¿0.05), and the degree of tubulointerstitial lesions (r¿=¿¿0.242, p¿<¿0.05). The ADC and R2* values of kidneys were significantly higher than those of pre-treatment in complete remission patients.ConclusionsDWI and BOLD MR imaging of kidneys may be used to noninvasively monitor the disease activity and evaluate therapeutic efficacy in lupus nephritis.
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A novel human interleukin-24 peptide created by computer-guided design contributes to suppression of proliferation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma Eca-109 cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Based on the three-dimensional modeling structure of human interleukin-24 (hIL-24) and its most likely active position predicted by solvent accessibility and apparent electrostatic properties, a novel hIL-24 peptide M1 was created by computer-guided molecular design. The cytotoxicity and cell selectivity of M1 were examined in three human carcinoma cell lines and one normal human embryo lung fibroblast cell line (HEL). MTT assay showed that M1 induced growth arrest in two IL-20 receptor complex-positive cancer cell lines (the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line Eca-109 and the melanoma cell line A375), and antibodies against IL-24 or IL-20 receptor complexes significantly neutralized the inhibitory activity. Moreover, M1 had almost no cytotoxicity on the lung cancer A549 cell line, which lacks a full complement of the IL-20 receptor complexes, or on HEL cells that express the IL-20 receptor complexes. These findings demonstrate that M1 could act as an excellent candidate for the induction of growth arrest on receptor complex-positive cancer cells. In summary, the M1 peptide may represent a novel anticancer agent for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma therapy due to its cancer cell selectivity and its relatively low cytotoxicity to normal cells.
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Magnetic solid-phase extraction based on methylcellulose coated-Fe3O4-SiO2-phenyl for HPLC-DAD analysis of sildenafil and its metabolite in biological samples.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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In the present study, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with phenyl functionalized core and a hydrophilic methylcellulose coating were synthesized. The functionalized MNPs showed excellent dispersibility in aqueous solution and they were applied to magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of sildenafil and its metabolite, desmethyl sildenafil, from human urine and plasma samples followed by high performance liquid chromatographic analysis. The factors that may influence the extraction, including the amount of MNPs, pH and salt concentration of sample solution, extraction and desorption time, and the volume of desorption solvent, were investigated in detail. Under the optimum MSPE conditions, the developed method showed satisfactory reproducibility with intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations less than 8.2% and low limits of detection of 0.41-0.96 ng mL(-1) from urine and plasma samples. The proposed material possessed good water compatibility and demonstrated excellent applicability for biological samples.
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Gastric wall implantation metastasis of retroperitoneal extraskeletal osteosarcoma: A case report and review of the literature.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Retroperitoneal extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS) is a rare and highly invasive tumor that is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage due to the insidious onset. The present study analyses a case of retroperitoneal ESOS and its clinical, radiological and therapeutic conditions, and also provides a review of the literature. A 52-year-old male was diagnosed with retroperitoneal ESOS. The patient succumbed to the condition one year after the initial surgery. During treatment, the patient underwent two additional surgeries and two courses of chemotherapy. In the present case, a peritoneal metastatic lesion of ESOS was shed from the peritoneum and implanted into the outer membrane of the stomach and metastasis was identified, this has rarely been reported in the literature. Retroperitoneal ESOS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a retroperitoneal mass in order to facilitate the management of surgery and help determine the appropriate treatment of the disease.
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Effect of acupuncture treatment on vascular cognitive impairment without dementia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (VCIND) is a condition at risk for future dementia and should be the target of preventive strategies. Preliminary evidence suggests that acupuncture may be a clinically effective intervention for people with early-stage vascular cognitive impairment. We will do a multicenter, 6-month, drug-controlled, nonblinded, randomized, parallel-group trial to determine whether acupuncture is effective for improving cognitive function and quality of life for patients with VCIND.
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Associations between insomnia, sleep duration and poor work ability.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to examine the independent and joint effect of insomnia and objective sleep duration on poor work ability.
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Identification of interferon-inducible genes as diagnostic biomarker for systemic lupus erythematosus.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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The identification of biomarkers helps to perform early diagnosis, thus benefits the outcome of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), in which delayed treatment has been proposed as an independent adverse prognostic factor. In this study, we assessed the values of expression levels of five type I interferon (IFN)-inducible genes (LY6E, OAS1, OASL, MX1, and ISG15) and total IFN score for the diagnosis of SLE. Quantitative real-time PCR was applied to determine gene expressions at transcription level in peripheral blood from 69 SLE patients, 42 patients with other connective tissue diseases, and 26 normal controls. Expressions of five genes and IFN score, calculated according to the expressions of IFN-inducible genes, were all significantly increased in SLE patients compared to those in normal subjects and disease controls. IFN score was not related to age, gender, and the dose of steroids, but weakly correlated with SLE disease activity index. None of the gene expression was associated with concomitant infection status or elevated antibodies against Epstein-Barr (EB) virus in SLE. Both modified IFN score (calculated by the expression of three major IFN-inducible genes) and LY6E level showed good diagnostic accuracy in discriminating between SLE patients and disease controls as well as normal subjects (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.812 and 0.815, respectively), with 70-80 % specificity and 70-80 % sensitivity at the cutoff of 2.37 and 3.23. In conclusion, high IFN-inducible gene expression is constitutional for SLE patients. The modified IFN score or the LY6E level alone may serve as good biomarkers for SLE diagnosis.
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Prior Radial-Scanning Endoscopic Ultrasonography Training Did Not Contribute to Subsequent Line-Array Endoscopic Ultrasonography Study Performance in the Stomach of a Porcine Model.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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The optimal training mode for linear array endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has not been established. Prior radial-scanning EUS training seems to improve subsequent linear array EUS learning. The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate its value in linear array EUS training.
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Chitosan Degradation Products Promote Nerve Regeneration by Stimulating Schwann Cell Proliferation via miR-27a/FOXO1 Axis.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Natural polysaccharides are biomaterials widely used for constructing scaffolds in tissue engineering. While natural polysaccharides have been shown to robustly promote tissue regeneration, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we show that chitooligosaccharides (COS), the intermediate products of chitosan degradation, stimulate peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. Our experiment also shows that COS stimulate the proliferation of Schwann cells (SCs) during nerve regeneration. By analyzing the transcriptome and gene regulatory network, we identified the miR-27a/FOXO1 axis as the main signaling pathway for mediating the proliferative effects of COS on SCs. COS increase the expression level of miR-27a and cause a reduction of FOXO1, which subsequently accelerates the cell cycle and stimulates SC proliferation to stimulate nerve regeneration. These findings define a basic pathway for oligosaccharides-mediated cell proliferation and reveal a novel aspect of polysaccharide biomaterials in tissue engineering.
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Solvent-Free Syntheses of Hierarchically Porous Aluminophosphate-Based Zeolites with AEL and AFI Structures.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Development of sustainable routes for synthesizing aluminophosphate-based zeolites are very important because of their wide applications. As a typical sustainable route, solvent-free synthesis of zeolites not only decreases polluted wastes but also increases product yields. Systematic solvent-free syntheses of hierarchically porous aluminophosphate-based zeolites with AEL and AFI structures is presented. XRD patterns and SEM images show that these samples have high crystallinity. N2 sorption isotherm tests show that these samples are hierarchically porous, and their surface areas are comparable with those of corresponding zeolites from hydrothermal route. Chosen as an example, catalytic oxidation of ethylbenzene with O2 shows that cobalt substituted APO-11 from the solvent-free route (S-CoAPO-11) is more active than conventional CoAPO-11 from hydrothermal route owing to the sample hierarchical porosity.
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Bmi1 promotes erythroid development through regulating ribosome biogenesis.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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While Polycomb group protein Bmi1 is important for stem cell maintenance, its role in lineage commitment is largely unknown. We have identified Bmi1 as a novel regulator of erythroid development. Bmi1 is highly expressed in mouse erythroid progenitor cells and its deficiency impairs erythroid differentiation. BMI1 is also important for human erythroid development. Furthermore, we discovered that loss of Bmi1 in erythroid progenitor cells results in down-regulation of transcription of multiple ribosomal protein genes and impaired ribosome biogenesis. Bmi1 deficiency stabilizes p53 protein, leading to upregulation of p21 expression and subsequent G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Genetic inhibition of p53 activity rescues the erythroid defects seen in the Bmi1 null mice, demonstrating that a p53-dependent mechanism underlies the pathophysiology of the anemia. Mechanistically, Bmi1 is associated with multiple ribosomal protein genes and may positively regulate their expression in erythroid progenitor cells. Thus, Bmi1 promotes erythroid development, at least in part through regulating ribosome biogenesis. Ribosomopathies are human disorders of ribosome dysfunction, including diamond blackfan anemia (DBA) and 5q- syndrome, in which genetic abnormalities cause impaired ribosome biogenesis, resulting in specific clinical phenotypes. We observed that BMI1 expression in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from patients with DBA is correlated with the expression of some ribosomal protein genes, suggesting that BMI1 deficiency may play a pathological role in DBA and other ribosomopathies. Stem Cells 2014.
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Mutated in colorectal cancer (MCC) is a novel oncogene in B lymphocytes.
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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BackgroundIdentification of novel genetic risk factors is imperative for a better understanding of B lymphomagenesis and for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. TRAF3, a critical regulator of B cell survival, was recently recognized as a tumor suppressor gene in B lymphocytes. The present study aimed to identify novel oncogenes involved in malignant transformation of TRAF3-deficient B cells.MethodsWe used microarray analysis to identify genes differentially expressed in TRAF3¿/¿ mouse splenic B lymphomas. We employed lentiviral vector-mediated knockdown or overexpression to manipulate gene expression in human multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines. We analyzed cell apoptosis and proliferation using flow cytometry, and performed biochemical studies to investigate signaling mechanisms. To delineate protein-protein interactions, we applied affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry-based sequencing.ResultsWe identified mutated in colorectal cancer (MCC) as a gene strikingly up-regulated in TRAF3-deficient mouse B lymphomas and human MM cell lines. Aberrant up-regulation of MCC also occurs in a variety of primary human B cell malignancies, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and MM. In contrast, MCC expression was not detected in normal or premalignant TRAF3¿/¿ B cells even after treatment with B cell stimuli, suggesting that aberrant up-regulation of MCC is specifically associated with malignant transformation of B cells. In elucidating the functional roles of MCC in malignant B cells, we found that lentiviral shRNA vector-mediated knockdown of MCC induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in human MM cells. Experiments of knockdown and overexpression of MCC allowed us to identify several downstream targets of MCC in human MM cells, including phospho-ERK, c-Myc, p27, cyclin B1, Mcl-1, caspases 8 and 3. Furthermore, we identified 365 proteins (including 326 novel MCC-interactors) in the MCC interactome, among which PARP1 and PHB2 were two hubs of MCC signaling pathways in human MM cells.ConclusionsOur results indicate that in sharp contrast to its tumor suppressive role in colorectal cancer, MCC functions as an oncogene in B cells. Our findings suggest that MCC may serve as a diagnostic marker and therapeutic target in B cell malignancies, including NHL and MM.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.