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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Genetic variants within obesity-related genes are associated with tumor recurrence in patients with stages II/III colon cancer.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Obesity is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and it is also linked to CRC recurrence and survival. Polymorphisms located in obesity-related genes are associated with an increased risk of developing several cancer types including CRC. We evaluated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms in obesity-related genes may predict tumor recurrence in colon cancer patients.
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New Zn²? coordination polymers constructed from acylhydrazidate molecules: synthesis and structural characterization.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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By employing two types of hydrothermal in situ ligand reactions (acylation of N2H4 with aromatic polycarboxylic acids, reduction of 3-nitrophthalhydrazide by N2H4), three new acylhydrazidate-extended Zn(2+) coordination polymers [Zn2(3-apth)(atrz)2] (3-apth = 3-aminophthalhydrazidate; atrz = 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolate) 1, [Zn2(4-apth)(atez)2] (4-apth = 4-aminophthalhydrazidate; atez = 5-aminotetrazolate) 2, and [Zn(3-cppth)(H2O)] (3-cppth = 4-(3-carboxyphenoxy)phthalhydrazidate) 3 were obtained. X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis revealed that (i) compound 1 possesses a 3-D structure. The triazolate molecules link the Zn(2+) ions to form a 2-D layer with a (6,3) topology. Then the acylhydrazidate molecule acts as the second linker, extending the (6,3) nets into a 3-D network of compound 1; (ii) compound 2 also exhibits a 3-D structure. The acylhydrazidate molecules first link the Zn(2+) ions into a 1-D infinite chain. The tetrazolate molecules propagate further the chains into a 3-D (4,4)-connected net (symbol: (4·6(4)·8)2(4(2)·6(2)·8(2))); (iii) compound 3 only shows a 1-D chain structure. The photoluminescence analysis indicates that the three title compounds all emit light, especially compound 2 which emits extremely strong blue light. The side group on the phthalhydrazidate molecule plays a crucial role in the emission behaviors of compounds 1-3. At 77 K, the activated compound 2 can adsorb N2 with a capacity of ca. 41.0 cm(3) g(-1).
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms in AREG and EREG are prognostic biomarkers in locally advanced gastric cancer patients after surgery with curative intent.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Amphiregulin (AREG) and epiregulin (EREG) are important ligands to the epithelial growth factor receptor, which is involved in the regulation of progression and stemness in gastric cancer (GC). This study investigated whether frequent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of AREG and EREG are associated with recurrence-free survival and overall survival in patients with locally advanced GC.
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Structure and mechanism of the unique C2 domain of Aida.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Axin interactor, dorsalization-associated (Aida) was identified as a regulatory factor that utilizes its C-terminal region to interact with axis formation inhibitor (Axin). Aida abrogates the Axin-mediated Jun N-terminal kinase activation required for proper dorsalization during zebrafish embryonic development, and thus functions as a proventralization factor. Here, we report the structure of Aida C-terminal fragments, which adopt a conventional C2 domain topology. We also demonstrate that Aida can specifically bind to phosphoinositides in a Ca(2+) -independent manner, and is able to associate with the cell membrane via a novel positively charged surface, namely a basic loop. Mutation of the positively charged patch on the basic loop leads to destabilization of the Aida-membrane association or disruption of the Aida-Axin interaction, resulting in impaired Jun N-terminal kinase inhibition. Together, our findings provide a molecular basis for C2 domain-mediated Aida-membrane and Aida-Axin associations.
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Solvation and stabilization of palladium nanoparticles in phosphonium-based ionic liquids: a combined infrared spectroscopic and density functional theory study.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Analysis of infrared spectra of palladium nanoparticles (NPs) immersed in the tri-tert-butyl-R-phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) demonstrates that both cations and anions of the ILs interact with the NPs. According to quantum-chemical simulations of these interactions, the binding energy of anions to the Pd6 cluster, taken as a minimal-size model of the NPs, increases from ?6 to ?27 kcal mol(-1) in the order [PF6](-)? [BF4](-) < [Tf2N](-) < [OTf](-) < [Br](-)? [TFA](-). In contrast, the binding energy for all types of the [Bu(t)3PR](+) cations slightly varies at about ?22 kcal mol(-1) only moderately depending on the choice of the R moiety (n-pentyl, 2-hydroxyethyl, 2-methoxyethyl, 2-ethoxy-2-oxoethyl). As a result, the energies of interaction between a Pd6 cluster and various ion pairs, formed by the abovementioned counter-ions, follow the order found for the anions and vary from ?24 to ?47 kcal mol(-1). These values are smaller than the energy of addition of a Pd atom to a Pdn cluster (?58 kcal mol(-1)), which suggests kinetic stabilization of the NPs in phosphonium-based ILs rather than thermodynamic stabilization. The results are qualitatively similar to the trends found earlier for interactions between palladium clusters and components of imidazolium-based ILs, in spite of much larger contributions of the London dispersion forces to the binding of the [Bu(t)3PR](+) cations to the cluster (up to 80%) relative to the case of 1-R-3-methylimidazolium cations (up to 40%).
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The stability and electronic properties of novel three-dimensional graphene-MoS2 hybrid structure.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Three-dimensional (3D) hybrid layered materials receive a lot of attention because of their outstanding intrinsic properties and wide applications. In this work, the stability and electronic structure of three-dimensional graphene-MoS2 (3DGM) hybrid structures are examined based on first-principle calculations. The results reveal that the 3DGMs can easily self-assembled by graphene nanosheet and zigzag MoS2 nanoribbons, and they are thermodynamically stable at room temperature. Interestingly, the electronic structures of 3DGM are greatly related to the configuration of joint zone. The 3DGM with odd-layer thickness MoS2 nanoribbon is semiconductor with a small band gap of 0.01-0.25?eV, while the one with even-layer thickness MoS2 nanoribbon exhibits metallic feature. More importantly, the 3DGM with zigzag MoS2 nanoribbon not only own the large surface area and effectively avoid the aggregation between the different nanoribbons, but also can remarkably enhance Li adsorption interaction, thus the 3DGM have the great potential as high performance lithium ion battery cathodes.
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Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) Regulates Cell Migration in a Myosin Regulatory Light Chain Phosphorylation-independent Mechanism.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has long been implicated in the myosin phosphorylation and force generation required for cell migration. Here, we surprisingly found that the deletion of MLCK resulted in fast cell migration, enhanced protrusion formation, and no alteration of myosin light chain phosphorylation. The mutant cells showed reduced membrane tether force and fewer membrane F-actin filaments. This phenotype was rescued by either kinase-dead MLCK or five-DFRXXL motif, a MLCK fragment with potent F-actin-binding activity. Pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that the absence of MLCK led to attenuated formation of transmembrane complexes, including myosin II, integrins and fibronectin. We suggest that MLCK is not required for myosin phosphorylation in a migrating cell. A critical role of MLCK in cell migration involves regulating the cell membrane tension and protrusion necessary for migration, thereby stabilizing the membrane skeleton through F-actin-binding activity. This finding sheds light on a novel regulatory mechanism of protrusion during cell migration.
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Toward understanding the growth mechanism: tracing all stable intermediate species from reduction of Au(I)-thiolate complexes to evolution of Au?? nanoclusters.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Despite 20 years of progress in synthesizing thiolated gold nanoclusters (Au NCs), the knowledge of their growth mechanism still lags behind. Herein the detailed process from reduction of Au(I)-thiolate complex precursors to the eventual evolution of and focusing to the atomically precise Au25 NCs was revealed for the first time by monitoring the time evolution of Au(I) precursor and Au NC intermediate species with ESI-MS. A two-stage, bottom-up formation and growth process was proposed: a fast stage of reduction-growth mechanism, followed by a slow stage of intercluster conversion and focusing. Balanced reactions of formation for each identified NC were suggested, backed by theoretical calculations of the thermodynamic driving force. This work advances one step further toward understanding the mechanism of formation and growth of thiolated Au NCs.
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Obstructive sialadenitis of a transplanted submandibular gland: chronic inflammation secondary to ductal obstruction.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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To determine the pathological basis and clinical features of obstructive sialadenitis in transplanted submandibular glands (SMGs).
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Myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) regulates the contraction and relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and maintains blood pressure.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Myosin light chain phosphatase with its regulatory subunit, myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) modulates Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation of myosin light chain by myosin light chain kinase, which is essential for smooth muscle contraction. The role of MYPT1 in vascular smooth muscle was investigated in adult MYPT1 smooth muscle specific knock-out mice. MYPT1 deletion enhanced phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain and contractile force in isolated mesenteric arteries treated with KCl and various vascular agonists. The contractile responses of arteries from knock-out mice to norepinephrine were inhibited by Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) and protein kinase C inhibitors and were associated with inhibition of phosphorylation of the myosin light chain phosphatase inhibitor CPI-17. Additionally, stimulation of the NO/cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway still resulted in relaxation of MYPT1-deficient mesenteric arteries, indicating phosphorylation of MYPT1 by PKG is not a major contributor to the relaxation response. Thus, MYPT1 enhances myosin light chain phosphatase activity sufficient for blood pressure maintenance. Rho-associated kinase phosphorylation of CPI-17 plays a significant role in enhancing vascular contractile responses, whereas phosphorylation of MYPT1 in the NO/cGMP/PKG signaling module is not necessary for relaxation.
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Construction of acylhydrazidate-extended metal-organic frameworks.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Under hydrothermal conditions, the reactions of Ba(2+)/Zn(2+), aromatic polycarboxylic acids and N2H4 with or without oxalic acid were carried out, affording four new acylhydrazidate-extended metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [Ba(pmdh)] (pmdh = pyromellitdihydrazidate) 1, [Ba(sdpth)(H2O)2]·0.5H2O (sdpth = 4,4'-sulfoyldiphthalhydrazidate) 2, [Ba2(cpth)2(H2O)2] (cpth = 4-carboxylphthalhydrazidate) 3 and [Zn2(pdh)2(ox)]·H2O (ox = oxalate, pdh = pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylhydrazidate) 4. The acylhydrazidate molecules pmdh, sdpth, cpth and pdh in compounds 1-4 derived from the hydrothermal in situ acylation of N2H4 with aromatic polycarboxylic acids. X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis revealed that (i) in compound 1, the pmdh I molecules link the Ba(2+) ions into a two-dimensional (2D) layer with a (4,4) topology, and then the pmdh II molecules extend these layers into a three-dimensional (3D) network; (ii) in compound 2, the sdpth molecules link the Ba(2+) ions to form a one-dimensional (1D) square tube. Interestingly, the tubes are further linked into a 3D supramolecular network via the N-H···O interactions, creating synchronously big channels; (iii) in compound 3, the cpth I molecules link the Ba1 ions into a 3D network with a (10,3) topology. Ba2 and cpth II are distributed on the channels; (iv) in compound 4, Zn(2+) and pdh aggregate to form two types of Zn4(pdh)4 clusters. The ox molecules act as the secondary linkers, extending the Zn4(pdh)4 secondary building units (SBUs) into a 3D network with a 6(6) topology. The photoluminescence analysis indicates that compounds 3 and 4 emit green light with maxima at 495 nm for 3 (?(ex) = 397 nm), and 522 nm for 4 (?(ex) = 395 nm), respectively. At 77 K, the activated 2 and 4 can adsorb N2 in amounts of 58.31 cm(3) g(-1) for 2 and 38.38 cm(3) g(-1) for 4, respectively.
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Acid-free regioselective aminocarbonylation of alkenes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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An efficient method for the synthesis of N-aryl monosubstituted carboxamides via the Pd-catalyzed carbonylation of alkenes with CO and amines is described. Mechanistic insights for this highly selective reaction are provided.
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How UV photolysis accelerates the biodegradation and mineralization of sulfadiazine (SD).
Biodegradation
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Sulfadiazine (SD), one of broad-spectrum antibiotics, exhibits limited biodegradation in wastewater treatment due to its chemical structure, which requires initial mono-oxygenation reactions to initiate its biodegradation. Intimately coupling UV photolysis with biodegradation, realized with the internal loop photobiodegradation reactor, accelerated SD biodegradation and mineralization by 35 and 71 %, respectively. The main organic products from photolysis were 2-aminopyrimidine (2-AP), p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ABS), and aniline (An), and an SD-photolysis pathway could be identified using C, N, and S balances. Adding An or ABS (but not 2-AP) into the SD solution during biodegradation experiments (no UV photolysis) gave SD removal and mineralization rates similar to intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation. An SD biodegradation pathway, based on a diverse set of the experimental results, explains how the mineralization of ABS and An (but not 2-AP) provided internal electron carriers that accelerated the initial mono-oxygenation reactions of SD biodegradation. Thus, multiple lines of evidence support that the mechanism by which intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation accelerated SD removal and mineralization was through producing co-substrates whose oxidation produced electron equivalents that stimulated the initial mono-oxygenation reactions for SD biodegradation.
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Molecular and cellular basis of the regulation of lymphatic contractility and lymphatic absorption.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Lymphatic absorption is a highly regulated process driven by both an extrinsic mechanism (external force) and an intrinsic mechanism (lymphatic vessel contractility). The lymphatic muscle is a specialized smooth muscle with unique mechanical properties. To understand the molecular mechanism and relative contribution of smooth muscle contraction in lymphatic absorption, we analyzed mice with a smooth muscle-specific deletion of Mylk, a critical gene for smooth muscle contraction. Interestingly, the knockout mice were significantly resistant to anesthesia reagents. Upon injection in the feet with FITC-dextran, the mutant mice displayed a 2-fold delay of the absorption peak in the peripheral circulation. Examining the ear lymphatic vessels of the mutant mice revealed a reduction in the amount of fluid in the lumens of the lymphangions, suggesting an impairment of lymph formation. The Mylk-deficient lymphatic muscle exhibited a significant reduction of peristalsis and of myosin light chain phosphorylation in response to depolarization. We thus concluded that MLCK and myosin light chain phosphorylation are required for lymphatic vessel contraction. Lymphatic contractility is not an exclusive requirement for lymphatic absorption, and external force appears to be necessary for absorption.
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Recent advances in extracellular biopolymer flocculants.
Biotechnol. Adv.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Extracellular biopolymer flocculants (EBFs) are flocculating substances, consisting of polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids, which are secreted in the culture broth by many microorganisms. Some of EBFs have attracted much attention as biodegradable and nontoxic substitutes for conventional chemical flocculants. This paper reviews the recent development of EBFs. Aspects discussed include an introduction to conventional chemical flocculants and EBFs, isolation of novel bioflocculant-producing microorganisms, culture conditions, chemical structure and molecular weight of EBFs, the physico-chemical factors affecting flocculating activity, fermentation process design and recent and emerging application fields of EBFs.
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Dujardinascaris gigantea sp. n. (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the critically endangered crocodile Alligator sinensis Fauvel (Reptilia: Crocodylia).
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis Fauvel (Reptilia: Crocodylia) is considered as one of the most critically endangered species of the 23 extant crocodiles. However, our knowledge of the helminth parasites of this rare animal is completely lacking. During a helminthological survey of reptiles in China, we found a new ascaridoid nematode, Dujardinascaris gigantea sp. n. from A. sinensis. The morphology of D. gigantea sp. n. was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The new species was also characterised using molecular methods by sequencing and analysing the small ribosomal DNA (18S) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2).
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Applied anatomy of small branches of the portal vein in transverse groove of hepatic hilum.
Surg Radiol Anat
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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The objective of this study was to provide the morphological details on small branches of the portal vein in transverse groove of hepatic hilum.
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Balancing the rate of cluster growth and etching for gram-scale synthesis of thiolate-protected Au(25) nanoclusters with atomic precision.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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We report a NaOH-mediated NaBH4 reduction method for the synthesis of mono-, bi-, and tri-thiolate-protected Au25 nanoclusters (NCs) with precise control of both the Au core and thiolate ligand surface. The key strategy is to use NaOH to tune the formation kinetics of Au NCs, i.e., reduce the reduction ability of NaBH4 and accelerate the etching ability of free thiolate ligands, leading to a well-balanced reversible reaction for rapid formation of thermodynamically favorable Au25 NCs. This protocol is facile, rapid (?3?h), versatile (applicable for various thiolate ligands), and highly scalable (>1?g Au NCs). In addition, bi- and tri-thiolate-protected Au25 NCs with adjustable ratios of hetero-thiolate ligands were easily obtained. Such ligand precision in molecular ratios, spatial distribution and uniformity resulted in richly diverse surface landscapes on the Au NCs consisting of multiple functional groups such as carboxyl, amine, and hydroxy. Analysis based on NMR spectroscopy revealed that the hetero-ligands on the NCs are well distributed with no ligand segregation. The unprecedented synthesis of multi-thiolate-protected Au25 NCs may further promote the practical applications of functional metal NCs.
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Gastric hepatoid adenocarcinoma: A computed tomography report of six cases.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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We describe the computed tomography (CT) imaging findings in six cases (five males and one female; age range 61-78 years; mean age 67.3 years) with histologically proven hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach (HAS). Five of the six patients had elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein levels. The most common type of gross appearance HAS on CT is a polypoid mass (83%, 5/6). The most common contrast enhancement pattern was heterogeneous. All six patients had a regional lymphadenopathy larger than 6 mm in its short axis. Liver metastases (n = 3) were noted. Venous tumor thrombosis was identified in the portal vein (n = 2) of the regions near primary gastric tumors or metastatic masses. Our findings suggest in an elderly, male patients with a large heterogeneous enhancement tumor, the presence of distant metastases, regional lymphadenopathy and characteristically increased serum alpha-fetoprotein levels indicates a high likelihood of HAS.
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Lyme Borreliosis-associated Risk Factors in Residents of Beijing Suburbs: a Preliminary Case-control Study.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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A population-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate the relative factors in the environments, agricultural works, outdoor activities, and the effectiveness of Lyme borreliosis (LB)- associated personal protective measures in Beijing. Thirty-four cases and 272 controls were personally interviewed by well-trained interviewers. Venous blood samples were taken from each subject. Sowing or harvesting in summer (OR=2.571, 95% CI: 1.109-5.962), living in house with weeding in the yard (OR=2.247, 95% CI: 1.062-4.755), and residence at the plain area (OR=2.630, 95% CI: 1.050-6.588) were the independent relative factors for seropositive LB. Wearing long pants and clothes with cuffs was the only protective behavior against tick bite (OR=0.186, 95% CI: 0.041-0.846). The findings showed that local farmers were easily infected with LB and almost no protective measure was taken against LB infection. Infection with LB was easier in residents of plain regions. Pets raising and outdoor activities were not the risk factors for infection with LB. Further studies are needed to fully understand the risk of infection with LB in China.
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Relationship between local family physician supply and influenza vaccination after controlling for individual and neighborhood effects.
Am J Infect Control
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Family physicians (FPs) play an important role in influenza vaccination. We investigated how local FP supply is associated with influenza vaccination, controlling for both individual-level and county-level characteristics.
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Intervention effects of knowledge and skills of the public to respond to public health emergencies in Sichuan province, China.
Eval Rev
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Public health emergencies have a significant impact on the health of citizens, the local economy, and society as a whole. Currently, in many parts of China, there is a widespread lack of the knowledge and skills required for emergency preparedness and self-rescue. By carrying out targeted health education and intervention activities, and by popularizing the knowledge and skills in health emergencies, the abilities of citizens to respond to public health emergencies and protect themselves, reduce property damage, and eliminate unnecessary panic may be greatly improved.
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Enhanced conversion of carbohydrates to the platform chemical 5-hydroxymethylfurfural using designer ionic liquids.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a key platform chemical that may be obtained from various cellulosic (biomass) derivatives. Previously, it has been shown that ionic liquids (ILs) facilitate the catalytic conversion of glucose into HMF. Herein, we demonstrate that the careful design of the IL cation leads to new ionic solvents that enhance the transformation of glucose and more complex carbohydrates into HMF significantly. In?Situ NMR spectroscopy and computational modeling pinpoint the key interactions between the IL, catalyst, and substrate that account for the enhanced reactivities observed.
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Endothelial cells promote stem-like phenotype of glioma cells through activating the Hedgehog pathway.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Microenvironmental regulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) strongly influences the onset and spread of cancer. The way in which glioma cells interact with their microenvironment and acquire the phenotypes of CSCs remains elusive. We investigated how communication between vascular endothelial cells and glioma cells promoted the properties of glioma stem cells (GSCs). We observed that CD133(+) GSCs were located closely to Shh(+) endothelial cells in specimens of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In both in vitro and in vivo studies, we found that endothelial cells promoted the appearance of CSC-like glioma cells, as demonstrated by increases in tumourigenicity and expression of stemness genes such as Sox2, Olig2, Bmi1 and CD133 in glioma cells that were co-cultured with endothelial cells. Knockdown of Smo in glioma cells led to a significant reduction of their CSC-like phenotype formation in vitro and in vivo. Endothelial cells with Shh knockdown failed to promote Hedgehog (HH) pathway activation and CSC-like phenotype formation in co-cultured glioma cells. By examination of glioma tissue specimens from 65 patients, we found that the survival of glioma patients was closely correlated with the expression of both Shh by endothelial cells and Gli1 by perivascular glioma cells. Taken together, our study demonstrates that endothelial cells in the tumour microenvironment provide Shh to activate the HH signalling pathway in glioma cells, thereby promoting GSC properties and glioma propagation.
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Expression of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) gene of Dirofilaria immitis guided by transcriptomic screening.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) infections affect domestic dogs, cats, and various wild mammals with increasing incidence in temperate and tropical areas. More sensitive antibody detection methodologies are required to diagnose asymptomatic dirofilariasis with low worm burdens. Applying current transcriptomic technologies would be useful to discover potential diagnostic markers for D. immitis infection. A filarial homologue of the mammalian translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) was initially identified by screening the assembled transcriptome of D. immitis (DiTCTP). A BLAST analysis suggested that the DiTCTP gene shared the highest similarity with TCTP from Loa loa at protein level (97%). A histidine-tagged recombinant DiTCTP protein (rDiTCTP) of 40 kDa expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) showed immunoreactivity with serum from a dog experimentally infected with heartworms. Localization studies illustrated the ubiquitous presence of rDiTCTP protein in the lateral hypodermal chords, dorsal hypodermal chord, muscle, intestine, and uterus in female adult worms. Further studies on D. immitis-derived TCTP are warranted to assess whether this filarial protein could be used for a diagnostic purpose.
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Ultrathin rhodium nanosheets.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Despite significant advances in the fabrication and applications of graphene-like materials, it remains a challenge to prepare single-layered metallic materials, which have great potential applications in physics, chemistry and material science. Here we report the fabrication of poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-supported single-layered rhodium nanosheets using a facile solvothermal method. Atomic force microscope shows that the thickness of a rhodium nanosheet is <4?Å. Electron diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements suggest that the rhodium nanosheets are composed of planar single-atom-layered sheets of rhodium. Density functional theory studies reveal that the single-layered Rh nanosheet involves a ?-bonding framework, which stabilizes the single-layered structure together with the poly(vinylpyrrolidone) ligands. The poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-supported single-layered rhodium nanosheet represents a class of metallic two-dimensional structures that might inspire further fundamental advances in physics, chemistry and material science.
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Internal loop photo-biodegradation reactor used for accelerated quinoline degradation and mineralization.
Biodegradation
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Biofilm biodegradation was coupled with ultra-violet photolysis using the internal loop photobiodegradation reactor for degradation of quinoline. Three protocols-photolysis alone (P), biodegradation alone (B), and intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation (P&B)-were used for degradation of quinoline in batch and continuous-flow experiments. For a 1,000 mg/L initial quinoline concentration, the volumetric removal rate for quinoline was 38 % higher with P&B than with B in batch experiments, and the P&B kinetics were the sum of kinetics from the P and B experiments. Continuous-flow experiments with an influent quinoline concentration of 1,000 mg/L also gave significantly greater quinoline removal in P&B, and the quinoline-removal kinetics for P&B were approximately equal to the sum of the removal kinetics for P and B. P&B similarly increased the rate and extent of quinoline mineralization, for which the kinetics for P&B were nearly equal to the sum of kinetics for P and B. These findings support that the rate-limiting step for mineralization was transformation of quinoline, which was accelerated by the simultaneous action of photolysis and biodegradation.
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Occurrence of Hysterothylacium and Anisakis nematodes (Ascaridida: Ascaridoidea) in the tanaka's snailfish Liparis tanakae (Gilbert & Burke) (Scorpaeniformes: Liparidae).
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The tanaka's snailfish Liparis tanakae (Gilbert & Burke) (Scorpaeniformes: Liparidae) is an economically important marine fish species in China. However, the helminth parasites of this fish are still poorly known. During a helminthological survey of Chinese marine fishes from 2011 to 2012, we revealed that L. tanakae was heavily infected with third-stage larvae and adults of ascaridoid nematodes (total prevalence 100% and mean intensity 82.3 nematodes per fish). Four species of third-stage larvae Hysterothylacium liparis Li, Xu & Zhang, 2007, H. aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802), Hysterothylacium fabri (Rudolphi, 1819), and Anisakis pegreffii (Campana-Rouget & Biocca, 1955) and a single species of adults H. liparis were differentiated and identified by morphological and molecular methods. The detailed morphology of the four species of third-stage larvae was also studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The morphological and molecular characterization of the third-stage larvae of H. liparis was reported. Liparis tanakae represents a new host record for A. pegreffii and H. fabri. In addition, a new name, Hysterothylacium zhoushanense nom. nov. was also given to Hysterothylacium zhoushanensis Li, Liu & Zhang, 2012 to make the latinized specific epithet agree with this neuter generic name.
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Paxillin regulates vascular endothelial growth factor A-induced in vitro angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of paxillin in the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF?A)?induced adhesion, proliferation, migration and capillary formation of endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro. Human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) were used to evaluate these four processes in vitro. The HUVECs were either mock?transfected (control), transfected with scramble small interference RNA (siRNA) or transfected with siRNA specifically targeting paxillin. VEGF?A (20 ng/ml) was used to stimulate angiogenesis. The VEGF?A treatment significantly increased the adhesion, proliferation, migration and tube formation of the HUVECs in the control and scramble siRNA groups, whereas the siRNA?-mediated knockdown of paxillin inhibited these VEGF?A?induced effects. Paxillin is essential for VEGF?A?mediated angiogenesis in ECs and its inhibition may be a potential target for antiangiogenic therapies.
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Electrostatic and non-covalent interactions in dicationic imidazolium-sulfonium salts with mixed anions.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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A series of thioether-functionalised imidazolium salts have been prepared and characterized. Subsequent reaction of the thioether-functionalised imidazolium salts with iodomethane affords imidazolium-sulfonium salts composed of doubly charged cations and two different anions. Imidazolium-sulfonium salts containing a single anion type are obtained either by a solvent extraction method or by anion exchange. The imidazolium-sulfonium salts undergo a methyl-transfer reaction on exposure to water, giving rise to a new, singly charged imidazolium salt with iodide introduced at the 2-position of the imidazolium ring. Crystal structures of some of the imidazolium-sulfonium salts were determined by X-ray crystallography providing the topology of the interactions between the dications and the anions. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and quantum-chemical calculations were used to rationalise the relative strength of these interactions.
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Morphological variability and molecular characterisation of Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) pleuronectidis (Yamaguti, 1935) (Ascaridida: Cucullanidae) from the flatfish Pleuronichthys cornutus (Temminck & Schlegel) (Pleuronectiformes: Pleuronectidae) in the East China Sea.
Syst. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Cucullanid nematodes identified morphologically as Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) pleuronectidis (Yamaguti, 1935) were collected from the ridged-eye flounder Pleuronichthys cornutus (Temminck & Schlegel) (Pleuronectiformes: Pleuronectidae) in the East China Sea. Their examination using light microscopy and, for the first time, scanning electron microscopy, revealed several important, but previously unreported morphological features and the presence of remarkable morphological differences in the intestinal caecum and deirids among some individuals. Consequently, specimens of D. pleuronectidis were characterised using molecular methods by sequencing and analysing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA to test whether the present material with broad range of morphological variability, represents a complex of sibling species or a single species. The results of molecular analyses proved that the differences in the intestinal ceacum and deirids should be considered as intraspecific variation and that the nematode material collected from P. cornutus in the East China Sea represented a single species, D. pleuronectidis. These new morphological and genetic data contributed to an accurate diagnosis of this hitherto insufficiently known nematode and also indicated that a more rigorous study based on morphological and genetic data with broader representation of the Cucullanidae is required to assess whether the traditionally used diagnostic character of absence or presence of intestinal ceacum is of generic importance in distinguishing Dichelyne and Cucullanus.
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Hydrogen sulfide improves spatial memory impairment and decreases production of A? in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined both by its progressive cognitive deterioration and hallmark increase in neuronal A? plaque formation. However, many of the underlying neurobiological facets of this disease are still being elucidated. Previous research has demonstrated that production of neuronal hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is significantly decreased in patients with AD. Moreover, systemic plasma H2S levels are negatively correlated with its severity. However, how a decrease in H2S production might be correlated with either the etiology or pathophysiology of AD remains unknown. To better understand the role of H2S in AD, we examined both levels of H2S and the expression and activity H2S-synthesizing enzyme (cystathionine beta synthase or CBS) in an APP/PS1 transgenic mouse line at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. After intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of an H2S donor (NaHS) into APP/PS1 mice, application of exogenous H2S resulted in improved spatial learning and memory acquisition in APP/PS1 mice. H2S administration also led to significant decrease in extracellular levels of A?40 and A?42, the expression of BACE1 and PS1, and a significant increase of ADAM17 expression. Similarly, an increase in non-amyloidogenic C83 fragment generation and a decrease in amyloidogenic C99 fragment generation were also observed. Thus, NaHS application resulted in a shift from the plaque-forming beta pathway to the non-plaque forming alpha pathway of APP cleavage in 6 and 12 month APP/PS1 mice. These results indicate the importance of H2S to AD severity and that administration of exogenous H2S can promote a non-amyloidogenic processing of APP.
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Cervical spondylotic myelopathy caused by single-level vertebral spontaneous fusion.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To evaluate the clinical features, imaging characteristics, surgical options, and clinical outcomes of patients with Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) caused by single-level vertebral spontaneous fusion (SLVSF).
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Is CD133 expression a prognostic biomarker of non-small-cell lung cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The clinical and prognostic significance of CD133 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains controversial. To clarify a precise determinant of the clinical significance of CD133, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association of CD133 with prognosis and clinicopathological features of NSCLC patients.
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Anterior fusion technique for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a retrospective analysis of surgical outcome of patients with different number of levels fused.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The anterior approach for multilevel CSM has been developed and obtained favorable outcomes. However, the operation difficulty, invasiveness and operative risks increase when multi-level involved. This study was to assess surgical parameters, complications, clinical and radiological outcomes in the treatment of 2-, 3- and 4-level CSM.
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[Effects of Bmi1 gene on endothelial cells promoting glioma stem cell-like phenotype].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To explore the effects of B-cell specific Maloney leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi1) gene on endothelial cells promoting glioma stem cell (GSC)-like phenotype.
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UV Photolysis for Accelerating Pyridine Biodegradation.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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Pyridine, a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compound, is slowly biodegradable, and coupling biodegradation with UV photolysis is a potential means to accelerate its biotransformation and mineralization. The initial steps of pyridine biodegradation involve mono-oxygenation reactions that have molecular oxygen and an intracellular electron carrier as cosubstrates. We employed an internal circulation baffled biofilm reactor for pyridine biodegradation following three protocols: direct biodegradation (B), biodegradation after photolysis (P+B), and biodegradation with succinic acid added (B+S). Succinic acid was the main UV-photolysis product from pyridine, and its catabolic oxidation generates internal electron carriers that may accelerate the initial steps of pyridine biodegradation. Compared with direct biodegradation of pyridine (B), the removal rate for the same concentration of photolyzed pyridine (P+B) was higher by 15 to 43%, depending on the initial pyridine concentrations (increasing through the range of 130 to 310 mg/L). Adding succinic acid alone (B+S) gave results similar to P+B, which supports that succinic acid was the main agent for accelerating the pyridine biodegradation rate. In addition, protocols P+B and B+S were similar in terms of increasing pyridine mineralization over 10 h: 84% and 87%, respectively, which were higher than with protocol B (72%). The positive impact of succinic acid-whether added directly or produced via UV photolysis-confirms that its catabolism, which produced intracellular electron carriers, accelerated the initial steps of pyridine biotransformation.
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Eliciting health state utilities for Dupuytrens contracture using a discrete choice experiment.
Acta Orthop
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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Background and purpose An internet-based discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted to elicit preferences for a wide range of Dupuytrens contracture (DC)-related health states. An algorithm was subsequently developed to convert these preferences into health state utilities that can be used to assess DCs impact on quality of life and the value of its treatments. Methods Health state preferences for varying levels of DC hand severity were elicited via an internet survey from a sample of the UK adult population. Severity levels were defined using a combination of contractures (0, 45, or 90 degrees) in 8 proximal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints of the index, middle, ring, and little fingers. Right-handed, left-handed, and ambidextrous respondents indicated which hand was preferable in each of the 10 randomly-selected hand-pairings comparing different DC severity levels. For consistency across comparisons, anatomically precise digital hand drawings were used. To anchor preferences onto the traditional 0-1 utility scale used in health economic evaluations, unaffected hands were assigned a utility of 1.0 whereas the utility for a maximally affected hand (i.e., all 8 joints set at 90 degrees of contracture) was derived by asking respondents to indicate what combination of attributes and levels of the EQ-5D-5L profile most accurately reflects the impact of living with such hand. Conditional logistic models were used to estimate indirect utilities, then rescaled to the anchor points on the EQ-5D-5L. Results Estimated utilities based on the responses of 1,745 qualified respondents were 0.49, 0.57, and 0.63 for completely affected dominant hands, non-dominant hands, or ambidextrous hands, respectively. Utility for a dominant hand with 90-degree contracture in t h e metacarpophalangeal joints of the ring and little fingers was estimated to be 0.89. Separately, reducing the contracture of metacarpophalangeal joint for a little finger from 50 to 12 degrees would improve utility by 0.02. Interpretation DC is associated with substantial utility decre- ments. The algorithms presented herein provide a robust and flexible framework to assess utility for varying degrees of DC severity.
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Amide bond formation via C(sp(3))-H bond functionalization and CO insertion.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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An efficient method for the synthesis of amides via Pd-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of C(sp(3))-H bonds with CO and amines is described. The route efficiently provides substituted phenyl amides from alkanes.
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Plastin polymorphisms predict gender and stage-specific colon cancer recurrence after adjuvant chemotherapy.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Tumor recurrence after curative resection remains a major problem in patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may serve as useful molecular markers to predict clinical outcomes in these patients and identify targets for future drug development. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that the plastin genes, PLS3 and LCP1, are overexpressed in colon cancer cells and play an important role in tumor cell invasion, adhesion and migration. Hence, we hypothesized that functional genetic variations of plastin may direct effects on the progression and prognosis of locally advanced CRC. We tested whether functional tagging polymorphisms of PLS3 and LCP1 predict time to tumor recurrence (TTR) in 732 patients (training set: 234; validation set: 498) with stage II/III CRC. The PLS3 rs11342 and LCP1 rs4941543 polymorphisms were associated with a significantly increased risk for recurrence in the training set. PLS3 rs6643869 showed a consistent association with TTR in the training and validation set, when stratified by gender and tumor location. Female patients with the PLS3 rs6643869 AA genotype had the shortest median TTR compared to those with any G allele in the training set [1.7 vs. 9.4 years; HR 2.84(95% CI=1.32-6.1); p=0.005] and validation set [3.3 vs. 13.7 years; HR 2.07 (95%CI=1.09-3.91); p=0.021]. Our findings suggest that several SNPs of the PLS3 and LCP1 genes could serve as gender and/or stage-specific molecular predictors of tumor recurrence in stage II/III CRC patients as well as potential therapeutic targets.
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Synthesis, structural characterization and photoluminescence property of three Zn(2+)/Mn(2+)-acylhydrazidate complexes and two acylhydrazide molecules.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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By employing the hydrothermal in situ acylation of N2H4 with aromatic polycarboxylic acids, three new acylhydrazidate-containing complexes [Zn(N2H4)(dphkh)]·H2O (dphkh = 4,4-diphthalhydrazidatoketone hydrazone) 1, [Zn(npth)2] (npth = naphthalhydrazidate) 2 and [Mn(mpdh)2(H2O)2]·2H2O 4, and two new acylhydrazide molecules [bpth]·0.5H2O (bpth = 3,3-biphthalhydrazide) 3 and [(chpth)2] (chpth = 4-chloro-5-hydrazinophthalhydrazide) 5 were obtained. It is noteworthy that (i) compound 1 is a layered Zn(2+) coordination polymer with a mixed ligand of dphkh and N2H4. The nucleophilic addition of the keto spacer with N2H4 also occurred, forming the ketone hydrazone; (ii) compound 2 is a unique example of a npth-extended coordination polymer, exhibiting a double-chain structure; (iii) apart from the acylation of N2H4 with dcpha (dcpha = 4,5-dichlorophthalic acid), one Cl was substituted by N2H4, generating a new monoacylhydrazide molecule of compound 5. The solid-state photoluminescence analysis revealed that compounds 1 and 5 exhibit strong luminescence with the maximum at 490 nm for 1 and 535 nm for 5, whereas compounds 2 and 3 show weaker emissions with the peaks at 510 nm for 2 and 440 nm for 3.
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Progression of periodontal inflammation in adolescents is associated with increased number of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum.
Int J Paediatr Dent
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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The study aims to evaluate the change of related subgingival periodontopathogens among different stage of gingivitis in adolescent and assess the relationship between periodontopathogens and the progression of periodontal inflammation.
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Morphology, ultrastructure and molecular characterisation of Spiroxys japonica Morishita, 1926 (Spirurida: Gnathostomatidae) from Pelophylax nigromaculatus (Hallowell) (Amphibia: Ranidae).
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Gnathostomatid nematodes identified morphologically as Spiroxys japonica Morishita, 1926 were collected from the dark-spotted frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus (Hallowell) (Amphibia: Ranidae) in China. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology of this species in detail. Previously unreported morphological features are revealed and others corrected. In addition, adult nematodes of S. japonica collected from P. nigromaculatus and Spiroxys hanzaki Hasegawa, Miyata & Doi, 1998 collected from Andrias japonicus (Temminck) (Caudata: Cryptobranchidae) in China and Japan, respectively, and the third-stage larva of S. japonica collected from Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw) (Anura: Ranidae) in Japan, were characterised using molecular methods by sequencing and analysing ribosomal [large ribosomal DNA (18S) and internal transcribed space] and mitochondrial [cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1] target regions, respectively. The new morphological and genetic data contributes to a more accurate diagnosis of this hitherto little known nematode genus.
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[Status of household disaster preparedness and affecting factors among the general public of four counties in Shaanxi].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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To investigate the status of household disaster preparedness in 4 counties of Shaanxi province and explore the affecting factors.
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Prognostic role of lemur tyrosine kinase-3 germline polymorphisms in adjuvant gastric cancer in Japan and the United States.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Lemur tyrosine kinase-3 (LMTK3) was recently identified as an estrogen receptor (ER)-? modulator related to endocrine therapy resistance, and its polymorphisms rs9989661 (T>C) T/T genotype and rs8108419 (G>A) G/G or A/G genotype predicted improved outcomes in breast cancer. Because different predominant ER distributions link to breast and gastric cancer and little is known of the prognostic role of LMTK3 in gastric cancer, this study was carried out to clarify the prognostic role of these polymorphisms in gastric cancer. One-hundred and sixty-nine Japanese and 137 U.S. patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma were enrolled. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood or tissue, and all samples were analyzed by PCR-based direct DNA sequencing. Overall, these polymorphisms were not associated with survival in both cohorts. When gender was considered, in multivariate analysis, harboring rs9989661 T/T genotype was associated with disease-free survival [HR, 4.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.08-9.18; P < 0.0001] and overall survival (OS; HR, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.65-8.24; P = 0.0014) in the Japanese males and time to recurrence (HR, 7.29; 95% CI, 1.07-49.80; P = 0.043) in the U.S. females. Meanwhile, harboring rs8108419 G/G genotype was associated with OS in the Japanese females (HR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.08-8.56; P = 0.035) and the U.S. males (HR, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.31-8.80; P = 0.012). The prognostic role of these polymorphisms may be negative in gastric cancer. These findings suggest that the estrogen pathway may play a prognostic role in patients with gastric cancer but this may be dependent on the regional differences both in physiology and genetic alterations of gastric cancer.
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How strong is hydrogen bonding in ionic liquids? Combined X-ray crystallographic, infrared/Raman spectroscopic, and density functional theory study.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Hydrogen bonding in ionic liquids based on the 1-(2-hydroxylethyl)-3-methylimidazolium cation ([C?OHmim](+)) and various anions ([A](-)) of differing H-bond acceptor strength, viz. hexafluorophosphate [PF6](-), tetrafluoroborate [BF?](-), bis(trifluoromethanesulfonimide) [Tf?N](-), trifluoromethylsulfonate [OTf](-), and trifluoroacetate [TFA](-), was studied by a range of spectroscopic and computational techniques and, in the case of [C?OHmim][PF6], by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The first quantitative estimates of the energy (E(HB)) and the enthalpy (-?H(HB)) of H-bonds in bulk ILs were obtained from a theoretical analysis of the solid-state electron-density map of crystalline [C?OHmim][PF6] and an analysis of the IR spectra in crystal and liquid samples. E(HB) for OH···[PF6](-) H-bonds amounts to ~3.4-3.8 kcal·mol(-1), whereas weaker H-bonds (2.8-3.1 kcal·mol(-1)) are formed between aromatic C2H group of imidazolium ring and the [PF6](-) anion. The enthalpy of the OH···[A](-) H-bonds follows the order: [PF6] (2.4 kcal·mol(-1)) < [BF?] (3.3 kcal·mol(-1)) < [Tf?N] (3.4 kcal·mol(-1)) < [OTf] (4.7 kcal·mol(-1)l) < [TFA] (6.2 kcal·mol(-1)). The formation of aggregates of self-associated [C?OHmim](+) cations is present in liquid [C?OHmim][PF6], [C?OHmim][BF?], and [C?OHmim][Tf?N], with the energy of the OH···OH H-bonds amounting to ~6 kcal·mol(-1). Multiple secondary interactions in the bulk ILs influence their structure, vibrational spectra, and H-bond strength. In particular, these interactions can blue-shift the stretching frequencies of the CH groups of the imidazolium ring in spite of red-shifting CH···[A](-) H-bonds. They also weaken the H-bonding in the IL relative to the isolated ion pairs, with these anticooperative effects amounting to ca. 50% of the E(HB) value.
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Secretory cell expansion with aging: Risk for pelvic serous carcinogenesis.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Recent advances suggest that precancerous lesions of pelvic serous carcinoma (PSC) originate from tubal secretory cells. The purpose of our study was to determine if increased number of secretory cells shows difference in age and location and to examine their association with serous neoplasia.
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A literature review of cost-effectiveness analyses of prostate-specific antigen test in prostate cancer screening.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer in American men, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is its common screening procedure. In May 2012, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommended against PSA-based screening. These recommendations contradict the current recommendations of other organizations such as the American Urological Association. The authors conducted a systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane to examine the published literature reporting the cost-effectiveness of PSA-based screening. The authors found ten studies each for US and non-US jurisdiction population. All reviewed studies concluded PSA-based screening to be cost effective in younger men (?60 years of age) and at higher PSA levels (?3 ng/ml). Further cost-effectiveness analyses reflecting latest clinical practice and current perspectives regarding adverse outcomes of potentially unnecessary treatment are required, especially from the US government perspective.
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Nanometallic chemistry: deciphering nanoparticle catalysis from the perspective of organometallic chemistry and homogeneous catalysis.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Nanoparticle (NP) catalysis is traditionally viewed as a sub-section of heterogeneous catalysis. However, certain properties of NP catalysts, especially NPs dispersed in solvents, indicate that there could be benefits from viewing them from the perspective of homogeneous catalysis. By applying the fundamental approaches and concepts routinely used in homogeneous catalysis to NP catalysts it should be possible to rationally design new nanocatalysts with superior properties to those currently in use.
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A cross-sectional study of the clinical characteristics of hospitalized children with community-acquired pneumonia in eight eastern cities in China.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Community-acquired pneumonia in children is common in China. To understand current clinical characteristics and practice, we conducted a cross-sectional study to analyze quality of care on childhood pneumonia in eight eastern cities in China.
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[HMGB1/SREBP-1 mediated IFN-gamma-induced lipid deposition in mouse mesangial cells].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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To explore the possible mechanism of lipid deposition induced by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma).
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Adjustable patella grapple versus cannulated screw and cable technique for treatment of transverse patellar fractures.
J Orthop Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Although the cannulated screw and cable (CSC) tension band technique is an effective method for fixation of transverse patellar fractures, it has shortcomings, such as extensive soft tissue damage, osseous substance damage, and complex manipulation. We conducted a retrospective comparison of the adjustable patella grapple (APG) technique and the CSC tension band technique.
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New Cd2+, Pb2+ complexes with acylhydrazidate molecules from in situ acylation reactions.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Through employing the hydrothermal in situ acylation of N2H4 with aromatic dicarboxylic acids, four new acylhydrazidate-coordinated complexes, [Cd2(pth)4(phen)2(H2O)2]·H2O (pth = phthalhydrazidate; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) 1, [Cd3(dcpth)6(phen)2(H2O)2] (dcpth = 4,5-dichlorophthalhydrazidate) 2, [Cd(pdh)2(H2O)2] (pdh = pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylhydrazidate) 3 and [Pb(sdpth)(phen)] (sdpth = 4,4-sulfoyldiphthalhydrazidate) 4, were obtained. X-ray analysis revealed that (i) isomerization and deprotonation of acylhydrazide molecules also occurred; (ii) compound 2 possesses a one-dimensional (1-D) double-chain structure, in which dcpth exhibits three types of coordination modes; (iii) compound 4 shows a 1-D castellated single-chain structure; (iv) the adjacent uncoordinated acylamino groups form a hydrogen-bonded dimer, via which compounds 2-4 self-assemble into different two-dimensional (2-D) supramolecular networks. In the solid state, only compound 3 emits green light (?(em) = 525 nm), while in an aqueous solution, compounds 1, 3 and 4 all emit light. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the emission at 470 nm for compound 1 corresponds to a charge transfer within the phen molecule, whereas the emission at 400 nm for compound 3 corresponds to a charge transfer within the pdh molecule.
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Identification of neglected cestode Taenia multiceps microRNAs by illumina sequencing and bioinformatic analysis.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Worldwide, but especially in developing countries, coenurosis of sheep and other livestock is caused by Taenia multiceps larvae, and zoonotic infections occur in humans. Infections frequently lead to host death, resulting in huge socioeconomic losses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of a large number of animal genes by imperfectly binding target mRNAs. To date, there have been no reports of miRNAs in T. multiceps.
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Glioma stem cells enhance endothelial cell migration and proliferation via the Hedgehog pathway.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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The aim of the present study was to determine the possible mechanism underlying the enhanced migration and proliferation of endothelial cells caused by glioma stem cells (GSCs). Tumor spheres enriched in GSCs derived from the mouse GL261 glioma cell line, and the brain microvessel endothelial cell line, b.END3, were used in this study. A Transwell co-culture system, RNAi experiments, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) proliferation, Transwell migration and wound-healing assays were used in this study to determine the migration and proliferation ability, as well as the Hedgehog (HH) pathway-related gene expression in the b.END3 cells. Based on the results, it was demonstrated that the migration and proliferation of the endothelial cells were enhanced following co-culture with GSCs. The gene expression of the HH pathway-related genes, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and Hedgehog-interacting protein (Hhip) was altered in the endothelial cells when co-cultured with GSCs. Overexpression of glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 indicated activation of the HH pathway. Following knockdown of smoothened (Smo) in the endothelial cells, the migration and proliferation abilities of the cells were inhibited. GSCs have little effect on enhancing these behaviors in endothelial cells following Smo-knockdown. Further investigation revealed that Shh levels in the supernatant of the co-culture system were elevated, indicating the importance of secreted Shh from the endothelial cells. In conclusion, GSCs enhanced the migration and proliferation of the endothelial cells in vitro, which was likely associated with the activation of the HH pathway in the endothelial cells, caused by the increased secretion of Shh.
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New thiocyanatocadmates templated by multi-dentate N-heterocyclic/diamine molecules.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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With diverse multi-dentate N-heterocyclic/diamine molecules as the cations, the reactions between Cd(2+) and SCN(-) in C2H5OH/H2O solution acidified by H2SO4 created five new thiocyanatocadmates [H2(bim)][Cd(SCN)2(H2O)2]SO4 (bim = 2,2-biimidazole) 1, [H2(pympip)]2[Cd2(SCN)4(SO4)2(H2O)4]·2H2O (pympip = 1-(2-pyrimidyl)piperazine) 2, [H2(tdpy)]2[Cd3(SCN)10] (tdpy = 4,4-thiodipyridine) 3, [H2(badpm)][Cd(SCN)4] (badpm = 4,4-biaminodiphenylmethane) 4 and [H2(pdma)][Cd2(SCN)4(SO4)] (pdma = 1,4-phenylenedimethanamine) 5. It is noteworthy that (i) in compounds 1, 2 and 5, SO4(2-) was incorporated into the organically templated thiocyanatocadmate frameworks; (ii) compound is a rare example, in which two types of chained thiocyanatocadmates are found, and (iii) compound shows an interesting layer structure, constructed up from the ribboned thiocyanatocadmates by ?2-mode SO4(2-). Photoluminescence analysis revealed that compounds 1, 2 and 5 in solid state emit blue light with the maximum at 425 nm for 1, 405 nm for 2 and 445 nm for 5, respectively.
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Genetic variability of Echinococcus granulosus from the Tibetan plateau inferred by mitochondrial DNA sequences.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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To analyse genetic variability and population structure, 84 isolates of Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda: Taeniidae) collected from various host species at different sites of the Tibetan plateau in China were sequenced for the whole mitochondrial nad1 (894 bp) and atp6 (513 bp) genes. The vast majority were classified as G1 genotype (n=82), and two samples from human patients in Sichuan province were identified as G3 genotype. Based on the concatenated sequences of nad1+atp6, 28 different haplotypes (NA1-NA28) were identified. A parsimonious network of the concatenated sequence haplotypes showed star-like features in the overall population, with NA1 as the major haplotype in the population networks. By AMOVA it was shown that variation of E. granulosus within the overall population was the main pattern of the total genetic variability. Neutrality indexes of the concatenated sequence (nad1+atp6) were computed by Tajimas D and Fus Fs tests and showed high negative values for E. granulosus, indicating significant deviations from neutrality. FST and Nm values suggested that the populations were not genetically differentiated.
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Altered contractile phenotypes of intestinal smooth muscle in mice deficient in myosin phosphatase target subunit 1.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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The regulatory subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase, MYPT1, has been proposed to control smooth muscle contractility by regulating phosphorylation of the Ca(2+)-dependent myosin regulatory light chain. We generated mice with a smooth muscle-specific deletion of MYPT1 to investigate its physiologic role in intestinal smooth muscle contraction.
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Histological complete response after neoadjuvant XELOX in advanced gastric carcinoma.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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We report on a case of a 65-year-old Chinese male with locally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma achieving pathological complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy with capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX) regimen. He underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy, which revealed a 6x5cm gastric ulcer. Biopsy of gastric ulcer revealed adenocarcinoma. Further workups with abdominal enhancement computed tomography (CT) staged his cancer as T4N2M0. He received 2 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with XELOX without severe toxicity. Afterwards, he underwent curative surgery consisting of total gastrectomy with extended D2 lymph node dissections and a Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy. On microscopic examination, no tumor cells were detected in the ulcer scar of the resected stomach and in the regional lymph nodes. The benefit of XELOX regimen as neoadjuvant chemotherapy in gastric cancer is worth further investigation.
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Occludin is required for TRPV1-modulated paracellular permeability in the submandibular gland.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Occludin plays an important role in maintaining tight junction barrier function in many types of epithelia. We previously reported that activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) in rabbit submandibular gland promoted salivary secretion, partly by an increase in paracellular permeability. We have now explored the role of occludin in TRPV1-modulated paracellular permeability in a rat submandibular gland cell line SMG-C6. Both TRPV1 and occludin were expressed in SMG-C6 cells, and capsaicin induced redistribution of occludin, but not claudin-3, claudin-4 or E-cadherin, from the cell membrane into the cytoplasm. Capsaicin also decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and increased the Trypan Blue and FITC-dextran flux. Capsazepine (CPZ), a TRPV1 antagonist, inhibited the capsaicin-induced occludin redistribution and TER decrease. Moreover, occludin knockdown by shRNA suppressed, whereas occludin re-expression restored, the TER response to capsaicin. Mechanistically, TRPV1 activation increased ERK1/2 and MLC2 phosphorylation. PD98059, an ERK1/2 kinase inhibitor, abolished the capsaicin-induced MLC2 phosphorylation, whereas ML-7, an MLC2 kinase inhibitor, did not affect ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting that ERK1/2 is the upstream signaling molecule of MLC2. Capsaicin also induced F-actin reorganization, which was abolished by CPZ, PD98059 and ML-7, indicating that TRPV1 activation altered F-actin organization in an ERK1/2- and MLC2-dependent manner. Furthermore, either PD98059 or ML-7 could abolish the capsaicin-induced TER response and occludin redistribution, whereas knockdown of ERK1/2 further confirmed that the TRPV1-modulated paracellular permeability was ERK1/2 dependent. Taken together, these results identified a crucial role of occludin in submandibular epithelial cells, and more importantly, demonstrated that occludin was required to mediate TRPV1-modulated paracellular permeability.
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Decreased adiponectin level is associated with aggressive phenotype of tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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Circulating adiponectin levels are inversely associated with risk of various obesity-related cancers. However, the effect of adiponectin on carcinogenesis and progression of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) remains unknown. We measured serum adiponectin levels in 59 patients with TSCC and 50 healthy controls. Expression of adiponectin and its receptors in paired tumor and paracancerous specimens were determined by immunohistochemical staining (n = 37) and western blot (n = 30), respectively. Serum adiponectin level was lower in patients than in controls (5.0 ± 2.4 vs 8.4 ± 3.5 ?g/mL, P < 0.01), and was inversely associated with histological grade and lymph node metastasis but not tumor size. Local adiponectin levels in tumor tissue gradually decreased as tumor-node-metastasis stage increased, while the expression of adiponectin receptors was unchanged. In addition, serum adiponectin levels in the TSCC patients without metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, or without smoking and drinking habits, were still lower than in controls. Furthermore, adiponectin inhibited the migration, but not proliferation, of SCC15 cells in vitro. These results indicate that a decreased adiponectin level is associated with risk of TSCC. Hypoadiponectinemia might be used as a biomarker to predict an aggressive phenotype of TSCC.
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Struma ovarii simulating ovarian sertoli cell tumor: a case report with literature review.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Struma ovarii, as a monodermal variant of ovarian teratoma, constitutes about less than 3% of ovarian teratomas. It is difficult to be macroscopically recognized. Multiple appearances under microscope serve as another reason to mislead the accurate pathologic evaluation. Here, we report an unusual case of struma ovarii occurred in a 77 years old woman, which is currently known as the oldest age for this disease. The frozen section morphologically showed sex cord like elements and was suspicious for a sex-cord stromal tumor, probably a Sertoli cell tumor. Final pathological diagnosis was confirmed as struma ovarii based on the typical morphologic thyroid follicles and immunohistochemical staining results.
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UV photolysis for accelerated quinoline biodegradation and mineralization.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
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Sequentially and intimately coupled photolysis with biodegradation were evaluated for their ability to accelerate quinoline-removal and quinoline-mineralization kinetics. UV photolysis sequentially coupled to biodegradation significantly improved biomass-growth kinetics, which could be represented well by the Aiba self-inhibition model: UV photolysis increased the maximum specific growth rate (? max) by 15 %, and the inhibition constant (K SI) doubled. An internal loop photo-biodegradation reactor (ILPBR) was used to realize intimately coupled photolysis with biodegradation. The ILPBR was operated with batch experiments following three protocols: photolysis alone (P), biodegradation alone (B), and intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation (P&B). For P&B, the maximum quinoline removal rate (r max) increased by 9 %, K SI increased by 17 %, and the half-maximum-rate concentration (K S) decreased by 55 %, compared to B; the composite result was a doubling of the quinoline-biodegradation rate for most of the concentration range tested. The degree of mineralization was increased by both forms of photolysis coupled to biodegradation, and the impact was greater for intimate coupling (18 % increase) than sequential coupling (5 %). The benefits of UV photolysis were greater with intimate coupling than with sequential coupling due to parallel transformation by biodegradation and photolysis.
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Identification of Dirofilaria immitis miRNA using illumina deep sequencing.
Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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The heartworm Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in dogs and cats, which also infects a wide range of wild mammals and humans. The complex life cycle of D. immitis with several developmental stages in its invertebrate mosquito vectors and its vertebrate hosts indicates the importance of miRNA in growth and development, and their ability to regulate infection of mammalian hosts. This study identified the miRNA profiles of D. immitis of zoonotic significance by deep sequencing. A total of 1063 conserved miRNA candidates, including 68 anti-sense miRNA (miRNA*) sequences, were predicted by computational methods and could be grouped into 808 miRNA families. A significant bias towards family members, family abundance and sequence nucleotides was observed. Thirteen novel miRNA candidates were predicted by alignment with the Brugia malayi genome. Eleven out of 13 predicted miRNA candidates were verified by using a PCR-based method. Target genes of the novel miRNA candidates were predicted by using the heartworm transcriptome dataset. To our knowledge, this is the first report of miRNA profiles in D. immitis, which will contribute to a better understanding of the complex biology of this zoonotic filarial nematode and the molecular regulation roles of miRNA involved. Our findings may also become a useful resource for small RNA studies in other filarial parasitic nematodes.
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Development of palladium surface-enriched heteronuclear Au-Pd nanoparticle dehalogenation catalysts in an ionic liquid.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Heteronuclear Au-Pd nanoparticles were prepared and immobilized in the functionalized ionic liquid [C(2)OHmim][NTf(2)]. The structural and electronic properties of the nanoparticles were characterized by a range of techniques and the surface of the nanoparticles was found to be enriched in Pd. Moreover, the extent of Pd enrichment is easily controlled by varying the ratio of Au and Pd salts used in the synthesis. The heteronuclear nanoparticles were found to be effective catalysts in dehalogenation reactions with no activity observed for the pure Au nanoparticles and only limited activity for the pure Pd nanoparticles. The activity of the heteronuclear nanoparticles may be attributed to charge transfer from Pd to Au and consequently to more efficient reductive elimination.
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A study on the effect of aqueous extract of lobelia chinensis on colon precancerous lesions in rats.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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This paper studies the effects of Lobelia chinensis on colon precancerous lesions and on colonic epithelial proliferation and apoptosis in DMH-induced rats. After two weeks of feeding, 50 Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, namely the normal group, model group, Lobelia chinensis low-dose group, medium-dose group and high-dose group. Lobelia chinensis was made into ACF model, and administered to experimental groups for 10 consecutive weeks. Control group was given equivalent amount of normal saline. After feeding for 10 weeks, the rats in each group were sacrificed and the changes in colonic ACF number of rats in experimental groups were observed, and the inhibition rates were calculated. The results showed that among the rats fed for 24 h and 48 h, the number of apoptotic cells in colonic crypts of rats in DMH group did not differ significantly from the control group, while the difference was obvious between the control group and Lobelia chinensis treatment groups. The medium and high doses, that is, 0.45 g/kg and 1.35 g/kg can significantly inhibit ACF formation (P<0.01). The inhibition rates of low, medium and high doses were 8.12%, 59.42% and 65.44%, respectively.
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[Research advances on treatment of hepatitis C infection based on RNA interference and microRNA modulation].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2011
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Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major global health problems, approximately 170 million people are infected worldwide. The chronic HCV infection is associated with a high risk of developing liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver failure. Unfortunately, there is still no effective vaccine or antibodies available for the prevention of infection. RNA interference (RNAi) represents a promising new approach to combat viral infections, and recent developments in the field of gene therapy have increased the feasibility of clinical applications. RNAi techniques have made rapid progress in the basic understanding of HCV biology and revealed numerous new viral and host-cell factors as potential targets for therapy. Together with the improvement of gene delivery technique and the discovery of the critical role of microRNA (miRNA) in HCV infection, RNAi and miRNA-based antiviral strategies hold great promise for the future. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of current developments of therapeutic targets of RNAi, liver-targeted delivery systems and the potential applications of miRNAs in treatment of hepatitis C infection.
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[Effect of parasympathectomy on the salivary secretion of submandibular gland in rats].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
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To investigate the effect of parasympathectomy on secretion of submandibular glands and the feasibility of treatment for xerostomia in rats.
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Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of surgical trans-sacral axial L5/S1 interbody fusion.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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Trans-sacral axial L5/S1 interbody fusion (AxiaLIF), a novel surgical procedure, recently adopted in clinical practice, has excellent clinical outcomes. However, there is inadequate data on the feasibility of the approach in all adult patients and the optimal surgical approach is currently unclear; therefore, further studies are required. In order to enhance the surgical approach for AxiaLIF, prospective anatomical imaging optimization is necessary. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to achieve an optimal procedural setting.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.