LASP1 is an actin-binding protein associated with actin assembly dynamics in cancer cells. Here we report that LASP1 is overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) where it promotes invasion and metastasis. We found that LASP1 overexpression in PDAC cells was mediated by HIF-1? through direct binding to a hypoxia response element in the LASP1 promoter. HIF-1? stimulated LASP1 expression in PDAC cells in vitro and mouse tumor xenografts in vivo. Clinically, LASP1 overexpression in PDAC patient specimens was associated significantly with lymph node metastasis and overall survival. Overall, our results defined LASP1 as a direct target gene for HIF-1? upregulation that is critical for metastatic progression of PDAC.
The prognosis and management of hepatic fibrosis are closely related to the stage of the disease. The limitations of liver biopsy, which is the gold standard for treatment, include its invasiveness and sampling error. Ultrasound elasticity might be the most promising imaging technology for the noninvasive and accurate assessment of hepatic fibrosis. Real-time tissue elastography (RTE) measures the relative stiffness of the tissue in the region of interest caused by the heartbeat. Many studies have verified that RTE is useful for the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC).
To study the changes of expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in rat dental pulp cells, which were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
The Qinbai Qingfei concentrated pellets by traditional Chinese medicine theoryand party and group, the rats were given the drugs group, comparison of pharmacokinetics parameters changes of baicalin , discusses the rationality of Qinbai prescription. The rats were gavaged monarch drug group (Huang Qincu extract, mainly forbaicalin), and official medicine group, adjuvant group, medicine group and Qinbai group (Quan Fangzu) the content of baicalin equal as the monarch drug group, in the 28 h collection in rat plasma at different time point, application of HPLC determination of baicalin glycosides in rat plasmaconcentration time curve, with 3P97 practical pharmacokinetics program to process the data Based on the data analysis, baicalin in rat plasma of Qinbai group Cmax is 4 times as big as monarch druggroup, AUC is 6 times as big as monarch drug group; the content of baicalin in plasma of rats the highest is Qinbai group, the minister drug group, adjuvant group, medicine group of baicalin in rat plasma content of less than the Qinbai group, but was significantly higher than that of monarch drug group; the medicine group is slightly higher than that adjuvant the content of baicalin in plasma of rats. The pharmacokinetic results show that the measured plasma concentration in rats that Qinbai can significantly increase Cmax and AUC of baicalin, other components of qinbai can promoted the baicalin absorption in vivo. It showed that the reasonable of Qinbai compound compatibility. The minister drug can promote the absorption of baicalin in vivo.
Helicobacter pylori infection is highly prevalent worldwide. The association between obesity and H. pylori infection is controversial in the literature. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori infection and its relation with body mass index (BMI) in a Chinese population.
In recent years, diabetes and its associated complications have become a major public health concern. The cardiovascular risk increases significantly in diabetes patients. It is a complex disease characterized by multiple metabolic derangements and is known to impair cardiac function by disrupting the balance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants at the cellular level. The subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and accompanying oxidative stress are hallmarks of the molecular mechanisms responsible for cardiovascular disease. Protein thiols act as redox-sensitive switches and are believed to be a key element in maintaining the cellular redox balance. The redox state of protein thiols is regulated by oxidative stress and redox signaling and is important to cellular functions. The potential of the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase enzymes (thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems) in defense against oxidative stress has been noted previously. Increasing evidence demonstrates that glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1), a cytosolic enzyme responsible for the catalysis of protein deglutathionylation, plays distinct roles in inflammation and apoptosis by inducing changes in the cellular redox system. This study investigates whether and how Grx1 protects coronary artery vascular endothelial cells against high glucose (HG) induced damage. Results indicate that the activation of eNOS/NO system is regulated by Grx 1 and coupled with inhibition of JNK and NF-?B signaling pathway which could alleviate the oxidative stress and apoptosis damage in coronary arteries endothelial cells induced by HG.
The study was designed to explore the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the regulation of myocardial collagen remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and its possible mechanisms. We treated nine-week-old male SHRs and age- and sex-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) with NaHS (90 ?mol·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 9 weeks. At 18 weeks, plasma H2S, tail arterial pressure, morphology of the heart, myocardial ultrastructure and collagen volume fraction (CVF), myocardial expressions of collagen I and III protein and procollagen I and III mRNA, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), TGF-? type I receptor (T?R-I), type II receptor (T?R-II), p-Smad2and 3, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP)-1 proteins were determined. TGF-?1-stimulated cultured cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) were used to further study the mechanisms. The results showed that compared with WKYs, SHRs showed a reduced plasma H2S, elevated tail artery pressure and increased myocardial collagen, TGF-?1, T?R-II, p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 expressions. However, NaHS markedly decreased tail artery pressure and inhibited myocardial collagen, TGF-?1, T?R-II, p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 protein expressions. But H2S had no effect on the expressions of MMP-13 and TIMP-1. Hydralazine reduced blood pressure, but had no effect on myocardial collagen, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 expressions and TGF-?1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. H2S prevented activation of the TGF-?1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway and abnormal collagen synthesis in CFs. In conclusion, the results suggested that H2S could prevent myocardial collagen remodeling in SHR. The mechanism might be associated with inhibition of collagen synthesis via TGF-?1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway.
The EACH study assessed the efficacy of oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin (the FOLFOX4 regimen) compared with doxorubicin alone in terms of overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and safety in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We present the results of this study in Chinese patients.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a number of genetic variants associated with risk of bladder cancer in populations of European descent. Here, we assessed association of two of these variants, rs11892031 (2q37.1 region) and rs401681 (5p15.33 region) in a Chinese case-control study, which included 367 bladder cancer cases and 420 controls. We found that the AC genotype of rs11892031 was associated with remarkably decreased risk of bladder cancer (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.09-0.81; p = 0.019), compared with the AA genotype of rs11892031; and that CT/CC genotypes of rs401681 were associated with significantly increased risk of bladder cancer (adjusted OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.10-2.91; p = 0.02), compared with the TT genotype of rs401681. We further conducted stratification analysis to examine the correlation between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11892031/rs401681 and tumor grade/stage. Results showed that heterogeneity in ORs of tumor categories was not significant for either rs11892031 or rs401681 (p > 0.05), indicating that the two SNPs seemingly do not associate with tumor grade and stage of bladder cancer in our study population. The present study suggests that the SNPs rs11892031 and rs401681 are associated with bladder cancer risk in a Chinese population. Future analyses will be conducted with more participants recruited in a case-control study.
Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), a cell survival signal, is involved in carcinogenesis. Polymorphism of NF-?B1 is associated with cancer by several studies. This study aims to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis of studies and determine the association between the NF-?B1-94ins/del ATTG promoter polymorphism and cancer. Twenty-five case-control studies (7,281 cases and 10,039 controls) were included. We used odds ratios (ORs) to assess the strength of the association, and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) to identify precision of the estimate. Overall, NF-?B1-94ins/del ATTG promoter polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased susceptibility to cancer in overall population under homozygote (for DD vs. WW: OR?=?0.74, 95 % CI?=?0.58-0.96), recessive (for DD vs. WD+WW: OR?=?0.82, 95 % CI?=?0.69-0.99), dominant (for DD+WD vs. WW: OR?=?0.84, 95 % CI?=?0.71-1.00), and allele (for D vs. W: OR?=?0.88, 95 % CI?=?0.78-0.98) model. Subgroup analysis for ethnicity found that NF-?B1-94ins/del ATTG promoter polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased susceptibility to cancer in Asians (for DD vs. WW: OR?=?0.54, 95 % CI?=?0.40-0.74; for WD vs. WW: OR?=?0.75, 95 % CI?=?0.69-0.81; for DD vs. WD+WW: OR?=?0.70, 95 % CI?=?0.55-0.90; for DD+WD vs. WW; OR?=?0.66, 95 % CI?=?0.56-0.78; for D vs. W: OR?=?0.75, 95 % CI?=?0.65-0.86), but the association was not found in Caucasians. The findings suggest that NF-?B1-94ins/delATTG promoter polymorphism is significantly associated with decreased susceptibility to cancer in overall and Asian population.
Abstract Objective: To assess the effect and safety of NB-UVB for vitiligo using an evidence-based approach. Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the treatment of vitiligo with NB-UVB were identified by searching PubMed and the Cochrane Library. The primary outcome was re-pigmentation degree. Results: A total of seven RCTs involving 232 participants with vitiligo were included in this systematic review. The methodological qualities of included studies were generally moderate. Two trials compared narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) with UVA control, showing no significant differences between two methods on the number of patients who achieved >60% re-pigmentation [relative risk (RR)?=?2.50, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.11-56.97, p?>?0.05]. Two trials compared NB-UVB with psoralens plus UVA (PUVA) control, and no difference was seen between the two treatments on the number of patients who achieved >50 re-pigmentation (RR?=?1.16, 95% CI: 0.64-2.11, p?>?0.05) or >75% re-pigmentation (RR?=?2.00, 95% CI: 0.89-4.48, p?>?0.05). Three trials compared NB-UVB with 308-nm excimer light/laser (EL) control, and again no significant difference was found between the two methods (p?>?0.05). The adverse events of NB-UVB in the included studies were slight and tolerated. Conclusion: NB-UVB showed equivalent efficacies to UVA, PUVA or 308-nm EL control in the treatment of vitiligo. Side effects of NB-UVB were acceptable. More RCTs were needed to validate the results.
Small 21- to 24-nucleotide (nt) ribonucleic acids (RNAs), notably the microRNA (miRNA), are emerging as a posttranscriptional regulation mechanism. Salt stress is one of the primary abiotic stresses that cause the crop losses worldwide. In saline lands, root growth and function of plant are determined by the action of environmental salt stress through specific genes that adapt root development to the restrictive condition. To elucidate the role of miRNAs in salt stress regulation in Medicago, we used a high-throughput sequencing approach to analyze four small RNA libraries from roots of Zhongmu-1 (Medicago sativa) and Jemalong A17 (Medicago truncatula), which were treated with 300?mM NaCl for 0 and 8?h. Each library generated about 20?million short sequences and contained predominantly small RNAs of 24-nt length, followed by 21-nt and 22-nt small RNAs. Using sequence analysis, we identified 385 conserved miRNAs from 96 families, along with 68 novel candidate miRNAs. Of all the 68 predicted novel miRNAs, 15 miRNAs were identified to have miRNA*. Statistical analysis on abundance of sequencing read revealed specific miRNA showing contrasting expression patterns between M. sativa and M. truncatula roots, as well as between roots treated for 0 and 8?h. The expression of 10 conserved and novel miRNAs was also quantified by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The miRNA precursor and target genes were predicted by bioinformatics analysis. We concluded that the salt stress related conserved and novel miRNAs may have a large variety of target mRNAs, some of which might play key roles in salt stress regulation of Medicago.
Recent study showed that inflammation was related to lung cancer. However, the exact cause of lung inflammation leading to carcinogenesis is unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that regulate the activity of targeted mRNAs by inflammatory response in many diseases. MiR-451 was reported to relate to the development of lung cancer and metastasis of glioma. But the effect of miR-451 on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of lung cancer is not really clear. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of the occurrence and development of lung cancer, we investigated the effect of human miR-451 on the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis in lung cancer cell line A549. The miR-451 expression construct was generated into pGenesil-1.1 and transfected into A549 cells. Results showed that the recombinant vectors were verified by sequencing. And miR-451 was over-expressed in A549 by real-time RT PCR. Furthermore, the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of the cells in miR-451 group were inhibited significantly compared with those in control and A549 groups by MTT assay, Transwell invasion assay, and wound-healing assay. And the lung cancer metastasis factors (MMP-2, MMP-9, VEGF, and CXCR4) were decreased in miR-451 group by Western blot. Moreover, it was proved that inflammation-related gene-PSMB8 was a target for miR-451 by bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay. And the protein expressions of PSMB8 and NOS2 were decreased in miR-451 group compared with those in control and A549 groups. Therefore, our findings indicated that miR-451 related to PSMB8/NOS2 inflammatory factors may suppress the development and migration of lung cancer, providing evidence for the role of miR-451 in lung cancer.
We have previously investigated bovine serum albumin (BSA) uptake to poly(ethylenimine) (PEI)-grafted Sepharose FF. It was found that there was a critical ionic capacity (cIC; 600mmol/L) for BSA, above which the protein adsorption capacity and uptake kinetics increased drastically. In this work, two poly(ethylenimine) (PEI)-grafted resins with IC values of 271mmol/L (FF-PEI-L270) and 683mmol/L (FF-PEI-L680), which were below and above the cIC, respectively, were chosen to investigate the breakthrough and linear gradient elution (LGE) behaviors of BSA. Commercially available anion exchanger, Q Sepharose FF, was used for comparison. The DBC values of FF-PEI-L680 were much higher in the entire residence time range (2-10min) than the other two resins due to its high static adsorption capacity and uptake kinetics. At a residence time of 5.0min, the DBC of FF-PEI-L680 (104mg/mL) was about seven times that of FF-PEI-L270 and three times that of Q Sepharose FF. A rise-fall trend of the DBCs with increasing ionic strength (IS) was found for all the three resins studied, indicating the presence of electrostatic exclusion for protein uptake at low IS. With increasing NaCl concentration from 20 to 200mmol/L, FF-PEI-L680 kept very high DBC values (64-114mg/mL). In addition, FF-PEI-L270 showed more favorable adsorption properties than Q Sepharose FF at 100-300mmol/L NaCl. These results proved that the three-dimensional grafting ion exchange layer on the PEI resins enhanced their tolerance to IS. In the study of LGE, the three resins showed similar elution behaviors and no distinct peak tailings were observed. The salt concentrations at the elution peaks (IR) were in the order of FF-PEI-L680>FF-PEI-L270>Q Sepharose FF, indicating that the elution for the PEI resins needed higher salt concentrations, which was also an appearance of the salt-tolerant feature of the PEI resins. When protein loading amount was increased to the value equivalent to the DBC at 10% breakthrough, the adsorbed BSA could be eluted at lower salt concentrations. The chromatographic study has provided new insights into the practical application of the PEI-based anion exchangers.
Designing a lithium ion battery (LIB) with a three-dimensional device structure is crucial for increasing the practical energy storage density by avoiding unnecessary supporting parts of the cell modules. Here, we describe the superior secondary battery performance of the bulk all-solid-state LIB cell and a multilayered stacked bipolar cell with doubled cell potential of 6.5?V, for the first time. The bipolar-type solid LIB cell runs its charge/discharge cycle over 200 times in a range of 0.1-1.0 C with negligible capacity decrease despite their doubled output cell potentials. This extremely high performance of the bipolar cell is a result of the superior battery performance of the single cell; the bulk all-solid-state cell has a charge/discharge cycle capability of over 1500 although metallic lithium and LiFePO? are employed as anodes and cathodes, respectively. The use of a quasi-solid electrolyte consisting of ionic liquid and Al?O? nanoparticles is considered to be responsible for the high ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability at the interface between the electrodes and the electrolyte. This paper presents the effective applications of SiO?, Al?O?, and CeO? nanoparticles and various Li(+) conducting ionic liquids for the quasi-solid electrolytes and reports the best ever known cycle performances. Moreover, the results of this study show that the bipolar stacked three-dimensional device structure would be a smart choice for future LIBs with higher cell energy density and output potential. In addition, our report presents the advantages of adopting a three-dimensional cell design based on the solid-state electrolytes, which is of particular interest in energy-device engineering for mobile applications.
Adipose and endothelial dysfunction is tightly associated with cardiovascular diseases in obesity and insulin resistance. Because perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds vessels directly and influences vessel functions through paracrine effect, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) show similarities in modulation of metabolic pathway, we hypothesized that activation of AMPK and SIRT1 in PVAT might regulate the endothelial function in pathological settings. Thus, in this study, we focused on the regulation of AMPK and SIRT1 activities implicated in adipocytokine expression and endothelial homeostasis under inflammatory conditions by using salicylate, metformin, AICA riboside (AICAR) and resveratrol as AMPK activating agents. We prepared conditioned medium (CM) by stimulating PVAT with palmitic acid (PA) and observed the effects of AMPK activating agents on adipocytokine expression and vessel vasodilation in rats. Moreover, we explored the effects of resveratrol and metformin in fructose-fed rats. We observed that PA stimulation induced inflammation and dysregulation of adipocytokine expression accompanied with reduced AMPK activity and SIRT1 abundance in PVAT. AMPK activating agents inhibited NF-?B p65 phosphorylation and suppressed gene expression of pro-inflammatory adipocytokines, and upregulated adiponectin and PPAR? expression in PVAT in an AMPK/SIRT1-interdependent manner. Meanwhile, CM stimulation impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to acetylcholine (ACh). Pretreatment of CM with AMPK-activating agents enhanced eNOS phosphorylation in the aorta and restored the loss of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, whereas this action was abolished by co-treatment with AMPK inhibitor compound C or SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide. Long-term fructose-feeding in rats induced dysregulation of adipocytokine expression in PVAT and the loss of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, whereas these alterations were reversed by oral administration of resveratrol and metformin. Altogether, pharmacological activation of AMPK beneficially regulated adipocytokine expression in PVAT and thus ameliorated endothelial dysfunction against inflammatory insult in an AMPK/SIRT1-interdependent manner.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia, and aggregation of amyloid ?-proteins (A?) into soluble oligomers and fibrils has been implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. Herein we developed acidulated serum albumin for the inhibition of A?42 fibrillogenesis. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was modified with diglycolic anhydride, leading to the coupling of 14.5 more negative charges (carboxyl groups) on average on each protein surface. The acidulated BSA (A-BSA) was characterized and confirmed to keep the tertiary structure and stability of BSA. Extensive biophysical and biological analyses showed that A-BSA significantly inhibited A?42 fibrillogenesis and mitigated amyloid cytotoxicity. As compared to the A?42-treated group (cell viability, 50%), the cell viability increased to 88% by the addition of equimolar A-BSA. The inhibitory effect was remarkably higher than that of BSA at the same concentration. On the basis of the experimental findings, a mechanistic model was proposed. The model considers that A?42 is bound to the A-BSA surface by hydrophobic interactions, but the widely distributed negative charges on the A-BSA surface give rise to electrostatic repulsions to the bound A?42 that is also negatively charged. The two well-balanced opposite forces make A?42 adopt extended conformations instead of the ?-sheet structure that is necessary for the on-pathway fibrillogenesis, even when the protein is released off the surface. Thus, A-BSA greatly slows down the fibrillation and changes the fibrillogenesis pathway, leading to the formation of less toxic aggregates. The findings and the mechanistic model offer new insights into the development of more potent inhibitors of A? fibrillogenesis and cytotoxicity.
Stem cell factor (SCF), a ligand of c-kit, is a hematopoietic growth factor. Uncontrolled activity of SCF/c-kit signaling pathway contributes to the formation of a variety of human malignancies. In this study, we determined whether SCF expression could risk-stratify patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection. HCC tissues from 160 patients were collected during curative resection and stained with SCF and CD34, a marker for microvessel density (MVD), using immunohistochemistry. Two statistical analyses were performed: an independent continuous and a multivariate categorical analysis, with test/validation set-defined cut points, and Kaplan-Meier estimated outcome measures of overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS). We found that higher levels of SCF confer worse OS (continuous P = 0.014; and categorical P = 0.009), and RFS (continuous P = 0.002; categorical P = 0.003) of patients with HCC. SCF varies independently from MVD-CD34, tumor node metastasis, histologic grade, age and gender, and retains prognostic significance when analysed as a categorical variable in a multivariate analysis . We confirmed that MVD-CD34 is also an independent prognostic marker for patients with HCC. The levels of SCF and CD34 showed a positive and significant correlation (P < 0.0001) and double low expression confers superior OS (median = 48 months) and RFS (median = 24 months), whereas double high expression confers shortest RFS (median = 10.5 months) compared with single measurements. The prognostic values of SCF and CD34 were independently determined in this study and we propose that both of them are independent prognostic markers for HCC.
The objective of this study was to explore the effects and underlying mechanism of estrogen-related receptor ? (ERR?) on the proliferation of endometrial carcinoma cells. Ishikawa cells, human endometrial cancer cells, were treated with estrogen. Immunofluorescence was used to observe the expression of ERR?. Stable transfection with the plasmid containing ERR? shRNA was carried out to knock down the expression of ERR? in Ishikawa cells. MTT assays were performed to analyze the proliferation of Ishikawa cells. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2 and activated protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathways was identified using specific phosphorylated antibodies against ERK1/2 and AKT. PD98059, a MEK inhibitor, and LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, were used in the inhibition experiments. ERR? could translocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in Ishikawa cells after exposure to estrogen. Knockdown of ERR? inhibited estrogen-induced proliferation of Ishikawa cells. More interestingly, knockdown of ERR? abolished the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in the Ishikawa cells treated with estrogen. Inhibition of AKT in Ishikawa cells with LY294002 resulted in a significant reduction in the levels of phospho-ERK1/2, whereas inhibition of ERK1/2 with PD98059 exerted no effects on AKT activation. Our data showed that ERR? mediated the effects of estrogen on the proliferation of endometrial cancer cells through the activation AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, which indicated that ERR? plays a key role in endometrial cancer.
A one-pot transition metal-free methodology for constructing pharmacologically active dibenzodiazepine derivatives was developed. Fluoro-, bromo- and nitro-substituted aryl aldehydes were applied to this reaction efficiently.
Quercetin, luteolin, and epigallocatechin gallate are flavonoids abundant in edible and medicinal plants with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. This study explored the action of these flavonoids on glucose disposal in adipocytes. Quercetin, luteolin, and epigallocatechin gallate enhanced glucose consumption with the positive regulation of AMP-activated kinase phosphorylation, and the AMP-activated kinase inhibitor compound C abolished their effects on glucose consumption. Luteolin and epigallocatechin gallate, but not quercetin, increased sirtuin 1 abundance, and their regulation of glucose consumption was also attenuated by co-treatment with sirtuin 1 inhibitor nicotinamide. Quercetin, luteolin, and epigallocatechin gallate suppressed nuclear factor-?B activation by inhibition of p65 phosphorylation with beneficial regulation of adipokine expression, whereas these actions were diminished by coincubation with compound C. The sirtuin 1 inhibitor nicotinamide attenuated the effects of luteolin and EGCG on p65 phosphorylation and adipokine expression without any influence on the activity of quercetin. Results of Western blot and fluorescence microscopy also showed that quercetin, luteolin, and epigallocatechin gallate increased Akt substrate of 160?kDa phosphorylation and promoted 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake by adipocytes under basal and inflammatory conditions. These findings suggested that quercetin, luteolin, and epigallocatechin gallate inhibited inflammation and promoted glucose disposal in adipocytes with the regulation of AMP-activated kinase and/or sirtuin 1.
The cytologic assessment of pleural effusions to distinguish carcinoma cells from reactive mesothelial cells is particularly challenging. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of monoclonal antibody (MOC-31) and calretinin in pleural fluid of patients with lung cancer to significantly improve the diagnostic accuracy.
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been reported to be effective in the treatment of esophageal and esophagogastric junction cancers. The aim of this study was to detect the frequency of EGFR mutation and expression in Chinese patients with esophageal, esophagogastric junction and gastric cancers, and to clarify the value of EGFR mutation and expression in predicting the efficacy of TKI in the treatment of these tumors.
The benefit of docetaxel-based therapy in the second-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still unclear. The goal of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy and toxicity of docetaxel-based doublet compared with docetaxel alone for patients with advanced NSCLC who failed to improve with first-line treatment.
In this study we investigated if Wnt/?-catenin signaling in mesenchymal progenitor cells plays a role in bone fracture repair and if DKK1-Ab promotes fracture healing through activation of ?-catenin signaling. Unilateral open transverse tibial fractures were created in CD1 mice and in ?-catenin(Prx1ER) conditional knockout (KO) and Cre-negative control mice (C57BL/6 background). Bone fracture callus tissues were collected and analyzed by radiography, micro-CT (?CT), histology, biomechanical testing and gene expression analysis. The results demonstrated that treatment with DKK1-Ab promoted bone callus formation and increased mechanical strength during the fracture healing process in CD1 mice. DKK1-Ab enhanced fracture repair by activation of endochondral ossification. The normal rate of bone repair was delayed when the ?-catenin gene was conditionally deleted in mesenchymal progenitor cells during the early stages of fracture healing. DKK1-Ab appeared to act through ?-catenin signaling to enhance bone repair since the beneficial effect of DKK1-Ab was abrogated in ?-catenin(Prx1ER) conditional KO mice. Further understanding of the signaling mechanism of DKK1-Ab in bone formation and bone regeneration may facilitate the clinical translation of this anabolic agent into therapeutic intervention.
The enhanced dispersing capability of these bolaamphiphiles can be attributed to the large aromatic perylene core. The aqueous dispersion efficiency of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is investigated by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence emission and Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. It is found that the tetrachloroperylene backbone moieties could interact with SWCNT via synergistic ?-? and hydrophobic interactions, and the dispersing properties are closely related to the hydrophilic part of bolaamphiles. This study not only demonstrates tetrachloroperylene derivatives are able to stabilize SWCNTs, but also provides the possibility to understand the structure-property relationship between SWCNTs and tetrachloroperylene-based surfactants.
Virus-like particle (VLP) of murine polyomavirus (MPV) is a T = 7d icosahedral capsid that self-assembles from 72 capsomeres (Caps), each of which is a pentamer of major coat protein VP1. VLP has great potential in vaccinology, gene therapy, drug delivery, and materials science. However, its application is hindered by high cost downstream processes, leading to an urgent demand of a highly efficient affinity ligand for the separation and purification of Cap by affinity chromatography. Herein a biomimetic design strategy of an affinity peptide ligand of Cap has been developed on the basis of the binding structure of the C-terminus of minor coat protein (VP2-C) on the inner surface of Cap. The molecular interactions between VP2-C and Cap were first examined using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations coupled with the molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) method, where V283, P285, D286, W287, L289, and Y296 of VP2-C were identified as the hot spots. An affinity peptide library (DWXLXLXY, X denotes arbitrary amino acids except cysteine) was then constructed for virtual screening sequently by docking with AUTODOCK VINA, binding structure comparison, and final docking with ROSETTA FlexPepDock. Ten peptide candidates were selected and further confirmed by MD simulations and MM/PBSA, where DWDLRLLY was found to have the highest affinity to Cap. In DWDLRLLY, six residues are favorable for the binding, including W2, L4, L6 and Y8 inheriting from VP2-C, and R5 and L7 selected in the virtual screening. This confirms the high efficiency and accuracy of the biomimetic design strategy. DWDLRLLY was then experimentally validated by a one-step purification of Cap from crude cell lysate using affinity chromatography with the octapeptide immobilized on Sepharose gel. The purified Caps were observed to self-assemble into VLP with consistent structure of authentic MPV.
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 is a very important drug metabolizing enzyme. Although the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP2C19 G681A and G636A have been suggested that they may increase the incidence of cardiovascular events, the relationship between SNPs in CYP2C19 and cerebral ischemic stroke (CIS) are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the distribution of G681A and G636A polymorphisms in CYP2C19 gene and the risk of CIS in Chinese.
Low efficiency and poor stability are two major obstacles limiting the manufacturing of renewable and cost-effective polymer solar cell (PSCs). To address these problems, solution-processed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) doped with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles ((PEDOT:PSS):Fe3O4), and above (PEDOT:PSS):Fe3O4 thin film aligned by an external magnetostatic field ([(PEDOT:PSS):Fe3O4] W/H) were used as the anode buffer layer for PSCs, respectively. As compared with PSCs with PEDOT:PSS as an anode buffer layer, 38.5% enhanced efficiency and twice improved stability are observed from PSCs incorporated with [(PEDOT:PSS):Fe3O4] W/H anode buffer layer. It was found that enhanced efficiency and improved stability resulted from a combination of reduced acidity of PEDOT:PSS and enhanced electrical conductivity that originated from generated counterions and the paramagnetism of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles by an external magnetostatic field.
Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat AECOPD as adjunctive therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the TCM formula Xuan Bai Cheng Qi as an adjuvant therapy for AECOPD patients with the syndrome type of phlegm-heat obstructing the lungs.
The phase 3 ICOGEN trial established the non-inferiority of icotinib to gefitinib in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and this led to the approval of icotinib for NSCLC by the China Food and Drug Administration. A phase 4 study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of icotinib in a broad range of patients with advanced NSCLC across China.
Summary.- Stamps (2013) reported that the visual permeability of a boundary strongly influenced perceived enclosure, while boundary depth had almost no effect. Specifically, Stamps found that perceived enclosure demonstrates a highly negative correlation with distal permeability, a moderately negative correlation with proximate permeability, and a very low positive correlation with distal distance. The present comment suggests that environmental properties may affect physical perception, mental processes, and human behavior - not only in a physical but also in a social environment.
A novel composite cryogel monolith was developed by coating poly(glycidyl methacrylate) nanoparticles (NPs) onto the pore wall surface of poly(acrylamide) cryogel. The NPs-coated column was double-modified with poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and diethylaminoethyl in sequence. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the dense coating of the NPs on the cryogel surface, but the NPs-coating did not result in distinct changes of the column porosity and permeability. The rough pore wall surface and extended polymer chains offered more binding sites, so the dynamic binding capacity of the composite cryogel bed for bovine serum albumin reached 11.7mg/mL bed volume at a flow rate of 6cm/min, which was 4.2 times higher than that of the cryogel bed modified with PEI without coating NPs (2.8mg/mL). The binding capacity as well as column efficiency decreased only slightly with increasing flow rate from 0.6 to 12cm/min. The results indicated that the strategy of NPs-coating incorporating with double ion-exchanger modifications is promising for enhancing cryogel capacities, and the novel material would be useful for high-speed protein chromatography.
Efficient loading of immunoglobulin G in mixed-mode chromatography is often a serious bottleneck in the chromatographic purification of immunoglobulin G. In this work, a mixed-mode ligand, 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl) aniline, was coupled to Sepharose Fast Flow to fabricate AN SepFF adsorbents with ligand densities of 15-64 mmol/L, and the chromatographic performances of these adsorbents were thoroughly investigated to identify a feasible approach to improve immunoglobulin G purification. The results indicate that a critical ligand density exists for immunoglobulin G on the AN SepFF adsorbents. Above the critical ligand density, the adsorbents showed superior selectivity to immunoglobulin G at high salt concentrations, and also exhibited much higher dynamic binding capacities. For immunoglobulin G purification, both the yield and binding capacity increased with adsorbent ligand density along with a decrease in purity. It is difficult to improve the binding capacity, purity, and yield of immunoglobulin G simultaneously in AN SepFF chromatography. By using tandem AN SepFF chromatography, a threefold increase in binding capacity as well as high purity and yield of immunoglobulin G were achieved. Therefore, the tandem chromatography demonstrates that AN SepFF adsorbent is a practical and feasible alternative to MEP HyperCel adsorbents for immunoglobulin G purification.
In an earlier work, we have developed a biomimetic design strategy based on the human IgG (hIgG)-Protein A interactions and identified an affinity ligand for hIgG, FYWHCLDE, which ranked top one in a pool of 14 potential candidates. Herein, two more octapeptides, FYCHWALE and FYCHTIDE, were identified, and the binding and purification of hIgG on the affinity columns packed with the three octapeptide-modified Sepharose gels were extensively studied and compared to find more effective octapeptide-based affinity ligands. It was found that all the three ligands bound hIgG and Fc fragment but barely bound Fab fragment, and the binding to hIgG and Fc was mainly by electrostatic interactions. The optimum binding pH values for the three ligands were different from each other, but kept in the range of 5.0-6.0. Ligand binding competition revealed that the binding sites on hIgG for the three octapeptides were similar to those for Protein A. Adsorption isotherms revealed that hIgG binding capacity was in the range of 64-104mg/mL drained gel in the order of FYWHCLDE>FYCHWALE>FYCHTIDE. Then, purifications of hIgG and human monoclonal antibody from human serum and cell culture supernatant, respectively, were achieved with the three affinity columns at high purities and recovery yields. Finally, the molecular basis for the binding affinity of the peptides for the Fc fragment of hIgG was elucidated by molecular dynamics simulations.
Cancer is a complex invasive genetic disease that causes significant mortality rate worldwide. Protein-based biopharmaceuticals have significantly extended the lives of millions of cancer patients. This article reviews the biological function and application of targeted anticancer biopharmaceuticals. We first discuss the specific antigens and core pathways that are used in the development of targeted cancer therapy. The innovative monoclonal antibodies, non-antibody proteins, and small molecules targeting these antigens or pathways are then reviewed. Finally, the current challenges in anticancer biopharmaceuticals development and the potential solutions to address these challenges are discussed.
The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is explained in the language of engineering cybernetics (EC), an engineering science with the tradition of rigor and long history of practice. The inherent connection is articulated between EC, as a science of interrelations, and the Chinese conception of Wuxing. The combined cybernetic model of Wuxing seems to have significant explaining power for the TCM and could potentially facilitate better communications of the insights of the TCM to the West. In disturbance rejection, an engineering concept, a great metaphor, is found to show how the TCM is practiced, using the liver cancer pathogenesis and treatment as a case study. The results from a series of experimental studies seem to lend support to the cybernetic model of Wuxing and the principles of disturbance rejection.
The M protein, encoded by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF6 gene, is considered to be one of the most conserved PRRSV proteins. In recent decades, highly specific monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) have been exploited to provide reliable diagnoses for many diseases. In this study, two different Mab clones targeting the linear epitopes on the PRRSV M protein were generated and characterized. Both Mabs showed binding activity against the native PRRSV virion and recombinant M protein when analyzed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot. The targeted epitope of each Mab was mapped by serial truncation of the M protein to generate overlapping fragments. Fine epitope mapping was then performed using a panel of expressed polypeptides. The polypeptide sequences of the two epitopes recognized by Mabs 1C8 and 3F7 were (3)SSLD(6) and (155)VLGGRKAVK(163), respectively, with the former being a newly identified epitope on the M protein. In both cases, these two epitopes were finely mapped for the first time. Alignments of Mab epitope sequences revealed that the two epitopes on the M protein were highly conserved between the North American-type strains. These Mabs, along with their mapped epitopes, are useful for the development of diagnostic and research tools, including immunofluorescence, ELISA and Western blot.
The altered expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is associated with a number of cancer types. The study of the association between the miRNA profile and cancer may be useful to identify potential biomarkers of certain types of cancer. In the present study, 19 miRNAs were identified by high-throughput sequencing in the serum of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. A network analysis was performed based on a computational approach to identify associations between CRC and miRNAs. The present study may be useful to identify cancer-specific signatures and potentially useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of CRC. The network analysis of miRNA-target genes may aid in identifying altered miRNA regulatory networks that are involved in tumor pathogenesis.
Twenty-one-day-old female Wistar rats were treated daily with orally administered soy isoflavones (SIFs) at concentrations of 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight from weaning until sexual maturity (3 mo.), and ovarian follicle development was evaluated. At the end of the treatment period, the ultrastructure of the ovarian granulosa cells was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The apoptotic cell death of ovarian granulosa cells was detected using TUNEL staining. The mRNA expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bcl2, Bax, and Fas were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The protein expression levels of caspase-3, Bcl2, Bax, and Fas were determined by western blotting. Our data showed that exposure to SIFs resulted in morphological changes consistent with ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis. The percentage of TUNEL-positive granulosa cells was increased. The mRNA expression levels of the apoptosis-related genes caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bax, and Fas increased significantly. The protein levels of Bax, Fas, and cleaved caspase-3 were also increased. These results indicate that the exposure of rats to modest doses of SIFs from weaning until sexual maturity can affect ovarian follicle development by inducing apoptosis. The mechanism of SIF-induced alterations in ovarian follicle development may involve the activation of Fas-mediated and Bcl2/Bax-mediated apoptotic signaling pathways.
The antioxidant vitamin E has been extensively employed to treat chronic liver diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vitamin E supplementation in lowering alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and chronic hepatitis C (CHC).
Nanomaterial-based 'chemical nose' sensor with sufficient sensing specificity is a useful analytical tool for the detection of toxicologically important substances in complicated biological systems. A sensor array containing three quaternized magnetic nanoparticles (q-MNPs)-fluorescent polymer systems has been designed to identify and quantify bacteria. The bacterial cell membranes disrupt the q-MNP-fluorescent polymer, generating unique fluorescence response array. The response intensity of the array is dependent on the level of displacement determined by the relative q-MNP-fluorescent polymer binding strength and bacteria cells-MNP interaction. These characteristic responses show a highly repeatable bacteria cells and can be differentiated by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Based on the array response matrix from LDA, our approach has been used to measure bacteria with an accuracy of 87.5% for 10(7) cfu mL(-1) within 20 min. Combined with UV-vis measurement, the method can be successfully performed to identify and detect eight different pathogen samples with an accuracy of 96.8%. The measurement system has a potential for further applications and provides a facile and simple method for the rapid analysis of protein, DNA, and pathogens.
Accumulating researches show that thyroid hormone (TH) inhibits Sertoli cells (SCs) proliferation and stimulates their functional maturation in prepubertal rat testis, confirming that TH plays a key role in testicular development. However, the mechanism under the T3 regulation of piglet SC proliferation remains unclear. In the present study, in order to investigate the possible mechanism of T3 on the suppression of SC proliferation, the expression pattern of TR?1 and cell cycle-related molecules, effect of T3 on SC proliferation, and the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway on the T3-mediated SC proliferation in piglet testis were explored. Our results demonstrated that TR?1 was expressed in all tested stages of SCs and decreased along with the ages. T3 inhibited the proliferation of SCs in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and T3 treatment downregulated the expressions of cell cycling molecules, such as cyclinA2, cyclinD1, cyclinE1, PCNA, and Skp2, but upregulated the p27 expression in SCs. Most importantly, the suppressive effects of T3 on SC proliferation seemed dependent on the inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and pre-stimulation of PI3K could enhance such suppressive effects. Together, our findings demonstrate that TH inhibits the proliferation of piglet SCs via the suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Zinc finger proteins comprise a large family and function in various developmental processes. CCCH type zinc finger protein is one kind of zinc finger protein, which function is little known. MsZFN gene encoding a CCCH type zinc finger protein was first discovered by its elevated transcript level in a salt-induced alfalfa SSH cDNA library. The previous experiment had showed that MsZFN protein was localized to the nucleus and little is known about the function of MsZFN protein and its homologous proteins in other plants including model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. In the current study, we found that MsZFN transcript levels increased in alfalfa under continuous dark conditions and that expression was strongest in leaves and weakest in unopened flowers under light/dark conditions. Expression of MsZFN in transgenic Arabidopsis plants resulted in late flowering phenotypes under long day conditions. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays indicated that MsZFN protein can interact with itself. Transcript analyses of floral regulatory genes in MsZFN(+) transgenic Arabidopsis showed enhanced expression of the flowering repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C and decreased expression of three key flowering time genes, FLOWERING LOCUS T, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS and GIGANTEA. These results suggest that MsZFN primarily controls flowering time by repressing flowering genes expression under long day conditions.
Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is a member of the genus Arterivirus within the family Arteriviridae. N and GP3 proteins are the immunodominance regions of the PRRSV viral proteins. To identify the B-cell linear antigenic epitopes within HP-PRRSV N and GP3 proteins, two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against N and GP3 proteins were generated and characterized, designated as 3D7 and 1F10 respectively. The mAb 3D7 recognized only HuN4-F112 not the corresponding virulent strain (HuN4-F5). It also recognized two other commercial vaccines (JXA1-R and TJM-F92), but not two other HP-PRRSV strains (HNZJJ-F1 and HLJMZ-F2). The B-cell epitope recognized by the mAb 3D7 was localized to N protein amino acids 7-33. Western blot showed that the only difference amino acid between HuN4-F112-N and HuN4-F5-N did not change the mAb 3D7 recognization to N protein. The epitope targeted by the mAb 1F10 was mapped by truncated proteins. We found a new epitope (68-76aa) can be recognized by the mAb. However, the epitope could not be recognized by the positive sera, suggesting the epitope could not induce antibody in pigs. These results should extend our understanding of the antigenic structure of the N protein and antigen-antibody reactions of the GP3 protein in different species.
The success of recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) for human papillomavirus and hepatitis B demonstrates the potential of VLPs as safe and efficacious vaccines. With new modular designs emerging, the effects of antigen module insertion on the self-assembly and structural integrity of VLPs should be clarified so as to better enabling improved design. Previous work has revealed insights into the molecular energetics of a VLP subunit, capsomere, comparing energetics within various solution conditions known to drive or inhibit self-assembly. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations coupled with the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method were performed to examine the molecular interactions and energetics in a modular capsomere of a murine polyomavirus (MPV) VLP designed to protect against influenza. Insertion of an influenza antigenic module is found to lower the binding energy within the capsomere, and a more active state is observed in Assembly Buffer as compared with that in Stabilization Buffer, which has been experimentally validated through measurements using differential scanning calorimetry. Further in-depth analysis based on free-energy decomposition indicates that destabilized binding can be attributed to electrostatic interaction induced by the chosen antigen module. These results provide molecular insights into the conformational stability of capsomeres and their abilities to be exploited for antigen presentation, and are expected to be beneficial for the biomolecular engineering of VLP vaccines.
Knowledge from basic plant ecology suggests that impact of one plant species on another is driven by either competition for the same limiting resources, or by unique plant traits. These processes might be context specific, explaining a differential impact of exotic plant invaders in the native vs. introduced range. With the help of a conceptual framework, we aimed at identifying the relationship between invader biomass and impact in the invasive Centaurea stoebe by conducting pairwise competition experiments with 15 European (old) and 15 North American (new) neighboring species. Old neighbors grew larger and could use available soil moisture more efficiently for growth than new neighbors. Interestingly, biomass of C. stoebe explained a substantial amount of the variation in biomass of the coevolved neighbors, but not of the new "naive" neighbors. Thus, impact in the home range appears to be driven by competition for the same limiting resources, but by other factors in the introduced range, possibly by exploitation of resources that are not used by the new neighbors or by interference competition. This distinction has important consequences for the management of invasive species, as in our study ecosystem recovery is less likely after simple biomass reduction.
A novel fungal l-asparaginase gene from Rhizomucor miehei termed RmAsnase was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Its deduced amino acid sequence shared only 57% identity with those of other reported l-asparaginases. The purified l-asparaginase homodimer had a molecular mass of 133.7 kDa, a high specific activity of 1,985 U/mg, and very low glutaminase activity. RmAsnase was optimally active at pH 7.0 and 45 °C and was stable at this temperature for 30 min. The final level of acrylamide in biscuits and bread was decreased by about 81.6% and 94.2%, respectively, upon treatment with 10 U RmAsnase per mg flour. Moreover, this l-asparaginase was found to potentiate a lectins induction of leukemic K562 cell apoptosis, allowing lowering of the drug dosage and shortening of the incubation time. Overall, our findings suggest that RmAsnase possesses remarkable potential for the food industry and in chemotherapeutics for leukemia.
The efficacy of pemetrexed in the second-line treatment of Chinese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been shown to be similar to that of docetaxel in a recent study; additionally, pemetrexed was associated with much better safety and toxicity profiles. Here, the survival without common toxicity criteria grade 3/4 toxicity (SWT) data from a post hoc analysis of this recent prospective NSCLC study in Chinese patients is reported. This post hoc analysis differs from the main study; it focuses on the nonsquamous population to align with the current approval for pemetrexed in China.
P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a kind of ATP-binding cassette transporter, can export candidates through a channel at the two transmembrane domains (TMDs) across the cell membranes using the energy released from ATP hydrolysis at the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Considerable evidence has indicated that human P-gp undergoes large-scale conformational changes to export a wide variety of anti-cancer drugs out of the cancer cells. However, molecular mechanism of the conformational transmission of human P-gp from the NBDs to the TMDs is still unclear. Herein, targeted molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the atomic detail of the conformational transmission of human P-gp. It is confirmed that the conformational transition from the inward- to outward-facing is initiated by the movement of the NBDs. It is found that the two NBDs move both on the two directions (x and y). The movement on the x direction leads to the closure of the NBDs, while the movement on the y direction adjusts the conformations of the NBDs to form the correct ATP binding pockets. Six key segments (KSs) protruding from the TMDs to interact with the NBDs are identified. The relative movement of the KSs along the y axis driven by the NBDs can be transmitted through ?-helices to the rest of the TMDs, rendering the TMDs to open towards periplasm in the outward-facing conformation. Twenty eight key residue pairs are identified to participate in the interaction network that contributes to the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs of human P-gp. In addition, 9 key residues in each NBD are also identified. The studies have thus provided clear insight into the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs in human P-gp.
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR-?) plays important roles in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype. Both KLF4 and PPAR-? are involved in VSMC proliferation and differentiation. However, the actual relationship between KLF4 and PPAR-? in VSMCs is not clear. In this study, we found that PPAR-? agonist pioglitazone increases KLF4 protein levels but does not influence KLF4 gene transcription. PPAR-? overexpression increases, while PPAR-? knockdown reduces KLF4 expression, suggesting that the increase in KLF4 protein levels induced by pioglitazone is PPAR-?-dependent. Further study showed that pioglitazone enhances KLF4 protein stability through reducing KLF4 ubiquitination. Furthermore, we demonstrated that stabilization of KLF4 by pioglitazone was related to the activation of Akt signaling pathway. Taken together, we revealed that PPAR-? agonist pioglitazone stabilizes KLF4 protein via activating Akt signaling and reducing KLF4 ubiquitination, providing further insights into PPAR-? and KLF4 in regulating each others expression in VSMCs.
Background : To observe the impact of application of bio-amniotic membrane immersed in 5-fluorouracil solution in trabeculectomy on the retina in a rabbit model. Materials and Methods : Healthy white New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups with 20 in each group. Bio-amniotic membranes of 4 × 5 mm immersed in either physiological saline/water for 10 min, or 25 mg/mL 5-fluorouracil solution for 5 and 10 min, respectively, were applied on rabbit eyes during trabeculectomy. At 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of postoperation, five rabbits from each group were examined with electroretinogram (ERG). After being examined for eye pressure and bleb morphology, rabbits were sacrificed by air embolism and their retinas were collected and examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, 5-fluorouracil amount in bio-amniotic membranes was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: Each bio-amniotic membrane could absorb 59.004 ?g and 75.828 ?g 5-fluorouracil after being immersed in 5-fluorouracil solution for 5 and 10 min, respectively. Application of these bio-amniotic membranes in trabeculectomy could promote the formation of well-functioning bleb and maintain intraocular pressure, although it had no effect on retina structures as examined with ERG and TEM. Conclusion: Application of 5-FU soaked bio-amniotic membrane in rabbit eye trabeculectomy is effective and safe.
The widely used pseudorabies virus (PRV) Bartha-K61 vaccine has played a key role in the eradication of PRV. Since late 2011, however, a disease characterized by neurologic symptoms and a high number of deaths among newborn piglets has occurred among Bartha-K61-vaccinated pigs on many farms in China. Clinical samples from pigs on 15 farms in 6 provinces were examined. The PRV gE gene was detectable by PCR in all samples, and sequence analysis of the gE gene showed that all isolates belonged to a relatively independent cluster and contained 2 amino acid insertions. A PRV (named HeN1) was isolated and caused transitional fever in pigs. In protection assays, Bartha-K61 vaccine provided 100% protection against lethal challenge with SC (a classical PRV) but only 50% protection against 4 challenges with strain HeN1. The findings suggest that Bartha-K61 vaccine does not provide effective protection against PRV HeN1 infection.
Pin1 (peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1) belongs to peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) and is a novel promising anticancer target. Based on the lead structure of benzophenone, a series of novel diarylether derivatives containing a pyrimidine ring were designed and synthesized. The inhibitory activities on Pin1 of compounds 5a-5d and 6a-6i were evaluated by a protease-coupled enzyme assay. Of all the evaluated compounds, 6 compounds displayed inhibitory activities. Molecular docking was performed using FlexX algorithm to explore the binding mode of the active molecules.
This study aimed to explore potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the x-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and cleft lip and palate transmembrane protein 1-like (CLPTM1L) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) susceptibility in non-smoker Chinese patients.
We demonstrated revertible shifts of surface-dependent localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in CuS nanodisks. Oleylamine (OYA) served as a solvent and surface ligand covering on CuS nanodisks during the thermolysis of single-source precursor copper ethylxanthate (Cu(ex)2). When OYA ligand was unloaded and reloaded on the surface of CuS nanodisks, the wavelength of LSPRs blue-shifted due to more oxygen exposure and then reverted through surface repassivation. The surface-dependent shift of LSPRs was dominated by the concentration of free holes in CuS nanodisks, which was modulated by the coverage and exchange of surface ligands, and the oxygen exposure dose and time. The semiconductor nanocrystals with tunable LSPRs have great potential in advanced plasmonics.
Deficient leptin signaling causes infertility via reduced activity of GnRH neurons, causing a hypogonadal state in both rodents and humans. Because GnRH neurons do not express leptin receptors, leptins effect on GnRH neurons must be indirect. Neurons within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus that coexpress AGRP and NPY are considered to be important intermediate neurons involved in leptin regulation of GnRH neurons. Previously, we reported that the absence of AGRP and haploinsufficiency of MC4R in leptin receptor mutant (Lepr(db/db)) females result in restoration of fertility and lactation despite the persistence of obesity and insulin resistance. The overarching hypothesis in the present study is that the absence or reduction of leptins inhibition of AGRP/NPY neurons leads to suppression of GnRH release in cases of leptin signaling deficiency. Since TAC2 (NKB)-TAC3R signaling plays a role in puberty maturation and is modulated by metabolic status, the other aim of this study is to test whether TAC2/NKB neurons in ARC regulated by melanocortinergic signals herein affect leptins action on puberty and reproduction. Our data showed that AGRP deficiency in Lepr(db/db) females restores normal timing of vaginal opening and estrous cycling, although uterine weight gain and mammary gland development are morphologically delayed. Nonetheless, Agrp(-/-) Lepr(db/db) females are fertile and sustain adequate nutrition of pups with lactation to weaning age. AGRP deficiency results in advanced vaginal opening in wild-type female mice. The postpubertal increase in hypothalamic TAC2 mRNA was not observed in Lepr(db/db) females, whereas AGRP deficiency restored it in Lepr(db/db) females. Additionally, MC4R activation with MTII induced FOS expression in TAC2 neurons, supporting the concept of melanocortinergic regulation of TAC2 neurons. These studies suggest that AGRP imposes an inhibitory effect on puberty and that TAC2 neurons may transmit melanocortinergic inhibition of GnRH neurons.
Our previous study demonstrated that BM-cyclin 1, a traditional anti-mycoplasma drug, could effectively reverse the multidrug resistance (MDR) of C-A120 cells. The present study aims to explore the reversal effect of BM-cyclin 1 on MDR and its mechanisms in BALB/C nude mice bearing C-A120 cells. Immunoblotting analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to study the change in multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) induced by BM-cyclin 1. We found that the expression levels of MRP2 protein and mRNA in C-A120 cells treated with BM-cyclin 1 were reduced significantly. Chemical colorimetry revealed no significant change in the level of glutathione (GSH). In the xenograft model, the inhibitory rate of C-A120 cells growth in BM-cyclin 1 plus adriamycin (ADM) group was 52%, which was significantly higher than in control group (P<0.01). The immunoblotting and RT-PCR results conclusively demonstrated that BM-cycin 1 could significantly reduce the expression of MRP2 in transplanted tumor. In conclusion, BM-cyclin 1 could effectively reverse the MDR of C-A120 cells in vivo by suppressing the expression of MRP2.
Type II citrullinaemia, also known as citrin deficiency, is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder, which is caused by pathogenic mutations in the SLC25A13 gene on chromosome 7q21.3. One of the clinical manifestations of type II citrullinaemia is neonatal intrahepatic cholestatic hepatitis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD, OMIM# 605814). In this study, a 5-month-old female Chinese neonate diagnosed with type II citrullinaemia was examined. The diagnosis was based on biochemical and clinical findings, including organic acid profiling using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and the patients parents were unaffected. Approximately 14 kb of the exon sequences of the SLC25A13 and two relative genes (ASS1 and FAH) from the proband and 100 case-unrelated controls were captured by array-based capture method followed by high-throughput next-generation sequencing. Two single-nucleotide mutations were detected in the proband, including the previous reported c.1177+1G>A mutation and a novel c.754 G>A mutation in the SLC25A13 gene. Sanger sequence results showed that the patient was a compound heterozygote for the two mutations. The novel mutation (c.754 G>A), which is predicted to affect the normal structure and function of citrin, is a candidate pathogenic mutation. Target sequence capture combined with high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies is proven to be an effective method for molecular genetic testing of type II citrullinaemia.
The innate immune response to viruses is initiated when specialized cellular sensors recognize viral danger signals. Here we show that truncated forms of viral genomes that accumulate in infected cells potently trigger the sustained activation of the transcription factors IRF3 and NF-?B and the production type I IFNs through a mechanism independent of IFN signaling. We demonstrate that these defective viral genomes (DVGs) are generated naturally during respiratory infections in vivo even in mice lacking the type I IFN receptor, and their appearance coincides with the production of cytokines during infections with Sendai virus (SeV) or influenza virus. Remarkably, the hallmark antiviral cytokine IFN? is only expressed in lung epithelial cells containing DVGs, while cells within the lung that contain standard viral genomes alone do not express this cytokine. Together, our data indicate that DVGs generated during viral replication are a primary source of danger signals for the initiation of the host immune response to infection.
microRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested to play a vital role in regulating tumor progression and invasion. However, the expression of miR-27a in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and its effect on the tumorigenesis of ESCC are unclear. In the present study, we found that miR-27a was downregulated in esophageal carcinoma cell lines and ESCC specimens with lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-27a binds to the 3-untranslated region (UTR) of KRAS and inhibits the expression of the KRAS protein. miR-27a levels were inversely correlated with levels of KRAS mRNA and protein in ESCC specimens. Both in vitro and in vivo assays revealed that miR-27a attenuated ESCC proliferation, invasion and tumor growth in nude mice. miR-27a exerts its tumor suppressor function through inhibition of the KRAS-related ERK pathways. Our findings suggest, for the first time, that miR-27a suppresses tumorigenesis of ESCC by targeting KRAS.
ABSTRACT. In this study, a rapid and simple method which combines drop coating deposition and Raman spectroscopy (DCDR) was developed to characterize the dry embryo culture media (ECM) droplet. We demonstrated that Raman spectra obtained from the droplet edge presented useful and characteristic signatures for protein and amino acids assessment. Using a different analytical method, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, we further confirmed that Na, K, and Cl were mainly detected in the central area of the dry ECM droplet while sulphur, an indicative of the presence of macromolecules such as proteins, was mainly found at the periphery of the droplet. In addition, to reduce sample preparation time, different temperatures for drying the droplets were tested. The results showed that drying temperature at 50°C can effectively reduce the sample preparation time to 6 min (as compared to 50 min for drying at room temperature, ?25°C) without inducing thermal damage to the proteins. This work demonstrated that DCDR has potential for rapid and reliable metabolomic profiling of ECM in clinical applications.
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