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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Effect of Biejiajian Pills on Wnt signal pathway molecules ?-catenin and GSK-3? and the target genes CD44v6 and VEGF in hepatocellular carcinoma cells].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To investigate the effect of Biejiajian Pills on the expressions of the signal molecules and target genes of Wnt signal pathway in HepG2 cells and explore the mechanisms by which Biejiajian pills suppress the invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma.
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[Development of ultrasonic power meter].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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This article describes the design and development of an ultrasonic power meter which is consist of an electronic balance, a practice target, an acoustic enclosures and a blocking. The electronic balance mounted on the blocking is linked with the practice target by connecting rod. By adjusting the blocking makes the practice target suspended above ultrasound probe, and then the ultrasonic power can be measured. After initial tests, the ultrasonic power meter performanced with good stability and high precision.
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Therapeutic activity of high-dose intratumoral IFN-? requires direct effect on the tumor vasculature.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Endogenous type I IFN production after innate immune recognition of tumor cells is critical for generating natural adaptive immune responses against tumors in vivo. We recently have reported that targeting low doses of IFN-? to the tumor microenvironment using tumor-specific mAbs can facilitate antitumor immunity, which could be augmented further with PD-L1/PD-1 blockade. However, sustained high doses of type I IFNs in the tumor microenvironment, which are potently therapeutic alone, may function through distinct mechanisms. In the current report, we demonstrate that high-dose intratumoral type I IFNs indeed exerted a profound therapeutic effect in the murine B16 model, which unexpectedly did not increase T cell responses. Moreover, bone marrow chimeras revealed a role for type I IFN signaling on nonhematopoietic cells, and most of the therapeutic effect was retained in mice deficient in T, B, and NK cells. Rather, the tumor vasculature was ablated with high-dose intratumoral IFN-?, and conditional deletion of IFN-?/?R in Tie2-positive vascular endothelial cells eliminated most of the antitumor activity. Therefore, the major component of the antitumor activity of sustained high doses of type I IFNs occurs through a direct antiangiogenic effect. Our data help resolve conditions under which distinct antitumor mechanisms of type I IFNs are operational in vivo.
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Efficient biotransformation of polysialogangliosides for preparation of GM1 by Cellulosimicrobium sp. 21.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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A new ganglioside transformed strain isolated from soil was identified as Cellulosimicrobium sp. 21. It produced a sialidase which transformed polysialo-gangliosides GD1 and GT1 into a monosialoterahexosylganglioside, i.e., ganglioside GM1. The sialidase had both NeuAc-?-2,3- and NeuAc-?-2,8-sialidase activity without producing asiolo-GM1. The optimum conditions were evaluated and it was found that the transformation was optimally performed at 30 °C and pH 7.0. The substrate should be added at the beginning of the reaction and the concentration of substrate was 3% (w/v). Under these optimum conditions, Cellulosimicrobium sp. 21 converted GD1 and GT1 into GM1 in inorganic medium in a 5 L bioreactor with the recovery rate of 69.3%. The product contained 50.3% GM1 and was purified on silica to give the product with 95% of GM1 with a recovery rate of 30.5%. Therefore, Cellulosimicrobium sp. 21 has potential to be applied in the production of GM1 in the pharmaceutical industry.
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Therapeutic Effects of Fucoidan in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Lesioned Rat Model of Parkinson's disease: Role of NADPH oxidase-1.
CNS Neurosci Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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To explore the effect of fucoidan treatment on oxidative stress-mediated dopaminergic neuronal damage and its potential mechanisms.
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[Investigation of skin prick test on patients with allergic rhinitis in Urumqi area].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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To investigate the geographic distribution of air-borne allergens which caused allergic rhinitis in Urumqi, and offer guide for prevention and treatment of the patients with allergic rhinitis.
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Differential diagnosis of eccrine spiradenoma: A case report.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Eccrine spiradenoma (ES) is a rare, benign adnexal neoplasm that may easily be mistaken for glomus lesions or angioleiomyoma due to its painfulness and florid vascularization. A 44-year-old male with a blue-colored, nodular tumor on the left knee, present for 10 years, was submitted for diagnosis. Dermatological examination was undertaken, followed by surgical excision of the subcutaneous lesion and histopathological examination of the tissue. Subjective symptoms included tenderness upon palpation and routine investigations were within normal limits. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor cells demonstrated positive staining for CK5/CK6, CK8/CK18, S100, as well as small vacuole-like positive for EMA, and was therefore diagnosed as ES. The results of the present study suggest that immunohistochemical assays may be helpful to clarify the diagnosis and differentiate ES from other painful subcutaneous tumors exhibiting similar clinical and histological presentations.
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Absolute immature platelet count helps differentiate thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura from hypertension-induced thrombotic microangiopathy.
Transfus. Apher. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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ADAMTS13 activity measurement is used in the diagnostic algorithm of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), but results may not be available before initiation of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). The immature platelet fraction (%-IPF) and the calculated absolute immature platelet count (A-IPC) represent a test of real-time thrombopoiesis, and can be performed in most laboratories using automated analyzers. Here we report on using A-IPC kinetics to exclude idiopathic TTP in a patient with severe hypertension, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure, which was confirmed by a normal ADAMTS13. The complete resolution of thrombocytopenia occurred once blood pressure was controlled favoring a diagnosis of hypertension-induced thrombotic microangiopathy.
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Preliminary clinical research on epiphyseal distraction in osteosarcoma in children.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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The feasibility of distal femur epiphysis preservation through epiphyseal distraction by external fixator in childhood osteosarcoma was explored.
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Circulating adiponectin and cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: evidence of sexual dimorphism.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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BackgroundThe pathogenesis of cardiovascular (CV) mortality, whose rate is increased in type 2 diabetes, is poorly understood.While high serum adiponectin is associated with increased CV mortality in the general population, no data are available in type 2 diabetes.We here investigated whether this counterintuitive association was observable also in diabetic patients and whether it was sex-specific.MethodsThree prospective cohorts were analyzed: 1) Gargano Heart Study (GHS; 359 patients, 58 events/1,934 person-years; py); 2) Health Professional Follow-up Study (HPFS; 833 men, 146 events/10,024 py); 3) Nurses¿ Health Study (NHS; 902 women, 144 events/15,074 py).ResultsIn GHS serum adiponectin predicted CV mortality in men (hazard ratio, HR, and 95% CI per standard deviation, SD, increment¿=¿1.54, 1.19-2.01), but not women (HR¿=¿0.98, 0.48-2.01).Circulating adiponectin predicted CV mortality in men from HPFS (HR¿=¿1.44, 1.21-1.72), but not in women from NHS (HR¿=¿1.08, 0.86-1.35), used as replication samples. In a pooled analysis, HRs were 1.47 (1.27-1.70) in 1,075 men and 1.07 (0.86-1.33) in 1,019 women (p for HRs heterogeneity across sexes¿=¿0.018).ConclusionsThis is the first report showing that high circulating adiponectin predicts increased CV mortality in men, but not in women with type 2 diabetes. Further studies are necessary to unravel the mechanisms through which adiponectin influences CV mortality in a sex-specific manner.
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Serum metabolomic profiling and incident CKD among African Americans.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Novel biomarkers that more accurately reflect kidney function and predict future CKD are needed. The human metabolome is the product of multiple physiologic or pathophysiologic processes and may provide novel insight into disease etiology and progression. This study investigated whether estimated kidney function would be associated with multiple metabolites and whether selected metabolomic factors would be independent risk factors for incident CKD.
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Combination of acellular nerve graft and schwann cells-like cells for rat sciatic nerve regeneration.
Neural Plast.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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To investigate the effect of tissue engineering nerve on repair of rat sciatic nerve defect.
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Internal Mammary Artery Perforator-Supercharged Prefabricated Cervicothoracic Flap for Face and Neck Reconstruction.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Prefabricated flap is an important technique to reconstruct massive face and neck skin defects. But its vascularization remains unpredictable and often leads to abnormal blood supply of the harvested flap, even necrosis. Flap supercharging and turbo supercharging techniques are effectively used to improve flap blood supply. However, few studies have been reported on the application of these techniques in prefabricated induced expanded flaps.
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Medium-term variability of the human serum metabolome in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.
OMICS
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Metabolomics is a systems biology tool providing small molecule signatures of disease etiology. In order to estimate the biologic variability of the human serum metabolome, this study calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for 178 stably-detected metabolites measured by untargeted chromatography/mass spectrometry. We studied a subsample of 60 participants (57% males, 70% Caucasians, aged 73.77±5.3 years) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study who provided two fasting serum samples 4-6 weeks apart. The median ICC across all metabolites was 0.60, and 82% of metabolites had at least fair variability (i.e., ICC>=?0.40). There was variation in the medium-term variability among metabolites, with those in the pathways of amino acid and lipid metabolism showing relatively high ICCs, and those in the carbohydrate pathway showing relatively low ICCs. The results of this study provide a valuable resource for future study design and outcome interpretation of mass spectrometry-based metabolomic studies in epidemiology.
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Lithium binaphtholate-catalyzed enantioselective enyne addition to ketones: access to enynylated tertiary alcohols.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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A new catalytic enantioselective enyne addition to ketones has been developed. In the presence of chiral lithium binaphtholate, the addition reaction proceeded smoothly to produce a series of enynylated tertiary alcohols in up to 96% yield and 94% enantiomeric excess. Convenient transformation of the adduct via Pauson-Khand cycloaddition reaction afforded the bicyclic product without detectable loss of enantioselectivity. Furthermore, catalytic asymmetric enyne addition to trifluoromethylketone was applied in the synthesis of the Efavirenz analogue.
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Distribution bias of the sequence matching between exons and introns in exon joint and EJC binding region in C. elegans.
J. Theor. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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We propose a mechanism that there are matching relations between mRNA sequences and corresponding post-spliced introns, and introns play a significant role in the process of gene expression. In order to reveal the sequence matching features, Smith-Waterman local alignment method is used on C. elegans mRNA sequences to obtain optimal matched segments between exon-exon sequences and their corresponding introns. Distribution characters of matching frequency on exon-exon sequences and sequence characters of optimal matched segments are studied. Results show that distributions of matching frequency on exon-exon junction region have obvious differences, and the exon boundary is revealed. Distributions of the length and matching rate of optimal matched segments are consistent with sequence features of siRNA and miRNA. The optimal matched segments have special sequence characters compared with their host sequences. As for the first introns and long introns, matching frequency values of optimal matched segments with high GC content, rich CG dinucleotides and high ?CG values show the minimum distribution in exon junction complex (EJC) binding region. High ?CG values in optimal matched segments are main characters in distinguishing EJC binding region. Results indicate that EJC and introns have competitive and cooperative relations in the process of combining on protein coding sequences. Also intron sequences and protein coding sequences do have concerted evolution relations.
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Expressions of oncogenes c-fos and c-myc in skin lesion of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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To explore the expressions of c-fos and c-myc in skin lesion of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC).
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Human metabolome associates with dietary intake habits among African Americans in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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The human metabolome is a measurable outcome of interactions among an individual's inherited genome, microbiome, and dietary intake. We explored the relationship between dietary intake and serum untargeted metabolomic profiles in a subsample of 1,977 African Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study in 1987-1989. For each metabolite, we conducted linear regression to estimate its relationships with each food group and food category. Potential confounding factors included age, sex, body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), energy intake, kidney function, and food groups. We used a modified Bonferroni correction to determine statistical significance. In total, 48 pairs of diet-metabolite associations were identified, including multiple novel associations. The food group "sugar-rich foods and beverages" was inversely associated with 5 metabolites in the 2-hydroxybutyrate-related subpathway and positively associated with 5 ?-glutamyl dipeptides. The hypothesized mechanism of these associations may be through oxidative stress. "Sugar-rich foods and beverages" were also inversely associated with 7 unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. These findings suggest that the contribution of a sugar-rich dietary pattern to increased cardiovascular disease risk may be partially attributed to oxidative stress and disordered lipid profiles. Metabolomics may reveal novel metabolic biomarkers of dietary intake and provide insight into biochemical pathways underlying nutritional effects on disease development.
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Heterogeneous arsenic enrichment in meta-sedimentary rocks in central Maine, United States.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Arsenic is enriched up to 28 times the average crustal abundance of 4.8mgkg(-1) for meta-sedimentary rocks of two adjacent formations in central Maine, USA where groundwater in the bedrock aquifer frequently contains elevated As levels. The Waterville Formation contains higher arsenic concentrations (mean As 32.9mgkg(-1), median 12.1mgkg(-1), n=38) than the neighboring Vassalboro Group (mean As 19.1mgkg(-1), median 6.0mgkg(-1), n=38). The Waterville Formation is a pelitic meta-sedimentary unit with abundant pyrite either visible or observed by scanning electron microprobe. Concentrations of As and S are strongly correlated (r=0.88, p<0.05) in the low grade phyllite rocks, and arsenic is detected up to 1944mgkg(-1) in pyrite measured by electron microprobe. In contrast, statistically significant (p<0.05) correlations between concentrations of As and S are absent in the calcareous meta-sediments of the Vassalboro Group, consistent with the absence of arsenic-rich pyrite in the protolith. Metamorphism converts the arsenic-rich pyrite to arsenic-poor pyrrhotite (mean As 1mgkg(-1), n=15) during de-sulfidation reactions: the resulting metamorphic rocks contain arsenic but little or no sulfur indicating that the arsenic is now in new mineral hosts. Secondary weathering products such as iron oxides may host As, yet the geochemical methods employed (oxidative and reductive leaching) do not conclusively indicate that arsenic is associated only with these. Instead, silicate minerals such as biotite and garnet are present in metamorphic zones where arsenic is enriched (up to 130.8mgkg(-1) As) where S is 0%. Redistribution of already variable As in the protolith during metamorphism and contemporary water-rock interaction in the aquifers, all combine to contribute to a spatially heterogeneous groundwater arsenic distribution in bedrock aquifers.
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Influences on domestic well water testing behavior in a Central Maine area with frequent groundwater arsenic occurrence.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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In 2001 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) adopted a new standard for arsenic (As) in drinking water of 10?g/L, replacing the old standard of 50?g/L. However, for the 12% of the U.S. population relying on unregulated domestic well water, including half of the population of Maine, it is solely the well owner's responsibility to test and treat the water. A mailed household survey was implemented in January 2013 in 13 towns of Central Maine with the goal of understanding the population's testing and treatment practices and the key behavior influencing factors in an area with high well-water dependency and frequent natural groundwater As. The response rate was 58.3%; 525 of 900 likely-delivered surveys to randomly selected addresses were completed. Although 78% of the households reported that their well has been tested, half of it was more than 5years ago. Among the 58.7% who believe they have tested for As, most do not remember the results. Better educated, higher income homeowners who more recently purchased their homes are most likely to have included As when last testing. While households agree that water and As-related health risks can be severe, they feel low personal vulnerability and there are low testing norms overall. Significant predictors of including As when last testing include: having knowledge that years of exposure increases As-related health risks (risk knowledge), knowing who to contact to test well water (action knowledge), believing that regular testing does not take too much time (instrumental attitude), and having neighbors who regularly test their water (descriptive norm). Homeowners in As-affected communities have the tendency to underestimate their As risks compared to their neighbors. The reasons for this optimistic bias require further study, but low testing behaviors in this area may be due to the influence of a combination of norm, ability, and attitude factors and barriers.
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[Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm:a clinicopathologic study of 7 cases].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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To improve the clinicopathological understanding of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN).
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Metabolomic patterns and alcohol consumption in African Americans in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Effects of alcohol consumption on health and disease are complex and involve a number of cellular and metabolic processes.OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between alcohol consumption habits and metabolomic profiles.DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the association of alcohol consumption habits measured by using a questionnaire with serum metabolites measured by using untargeted mass spectrometry in 1977 African Americans from the Jackson field center in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. The whole sample was split into a discovery set (n = 1500) and a replication set (n = 477). Alcohol consumption habits were treated as an ordinal variable, with nondrinkers as the reference group and quartiles of current drinkers as ordinal groups with higher values. For each metabolite, a linear regression was conducted to estimate its relation with alcohol consumption habits separately in both sets. A modified Bonferroni procedure was used in the discovery set to adjust the significance threshold (P < 1.9 × 10(-4)).RESULTS: In 356 named metabolites, 39 metabolites were significantly associated with alcohol consumption habits in both discovery and replication sets. In general, alcohol consumption was associated with higher levels of most metabolites such as those in amino acid and lipid pathways and with lower levels of ?-glutamyl dipeptides. Three pathways, 2-hydroxybutyrate-related metabolites, ?-glutamyl dipeptides, and lysophosphatidylcholines, which are considered to be involved in inflammation and oxidation, were associated with incident cardiovascular diseases.CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the largest metabolomic study thus far conducted in nonwhites. Metabolomic biomarkers of alcohol consumption were identified and replicated. The results lend new insight into potential mediating effects between alcohol consumption and future health and disease.
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Flow and sorption controls of groundwater arsenic in individual boreholes from bedrock aquifers in central Maine, USA.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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To understand the hydrogeochemical processes regulating well water arsenic (As) evolution in fractured bedrock aquifers, three domestic wells with [As] up to 478?g/L are investigated in central Maine. Geophysical logging reveals that fractures near the borehole bottom contribute 70-100% of flow. Borehole and fracture water samples from various depths show significant proportions of As (up to 69%) and Fe (93-99%) in particulates (>0.45?m). These particulates and those settled after a 16-day batch experiment contain 560-13,000mg/kg of As and 14-35% weight/weight of Fe. As/Fe ratios (2.5-20mmol/mol) and As partitioning ratios (adsorbed/dissolved [As], 20,000-100,000L/kg) suggest that As is sorbed onto amorphous hydrous ferric oxides. Newly drilled cores also show enrichment of As (up to 1300mg/kg) sorbed onto secondary iron minerals on the fracture surfaces. Pumping at high flow rates induces large decreases in particulate As and Fe, a moderate increase in dissolved [As] and As(III)/As ratio, while little change in major ion chemistry. The ?D and ?(18)O are similar for the borehole and fracture waters, suggesting a same source of recharge from atmospheric precipitation. Results support a conceptual model invoking flow and sorption controls on groundwater [As] in fractured bedrock aquifers whereby oxygen infiltration promotes the oxidation of As-bearing sulfides at shallower depths in the oxic portion of the flow path releasing As and Fe; followed by Fe oxidation to form Fe oxyhydroxide particulates, which are transported in fractures and sorb As along the flow path until intercepted by boreholes. In the anoxic portions of the flow path, reductive dissolution of As-sorbed iron particulates could re-mobilize As. For exposure assessment, we recommend sampling of groundwater without filtration to obtain total As concentration in groundwater.
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[Color stability of ceromer veneers/resin cements after accelerated ageing].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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To investigate the color stability of ceromer veneers/resin cements after accelerated ageing, and to provide the reference for clinical application and choice.
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Preparation and evaluation of bovine serum albumin immobilized chiral monolithic column for affinity capillary electrochromatography.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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A system of capillary silica monolith with bovine serum albumin (BSA) functionalized through two approaches for affinity monolithic capillary electrochromatography (AMCEC) was developed. Covalent immobilization conditions for two different Schiff base methods, which employed 3-glycidopropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTS) and 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTS) as starting materials, respectively, were investigated to obtain good and stable chiral separation. The BSA immobilized silica monoliths were evaluated in terms of morphology, electroosmotic flow, retention time, column efficiency and resolution of model compound (±)-tryptophan. The columns exhibited satisfactory run-to-run, column-to-column repeatability and maintained their enantioselectivity for more than 3months. Both developed methods can baseline separate tryptophan enantiomers, whereas shorter retention time, better column efficiency, and enantiomeric recognition between two pairs of drug enantiomers (pantoprazole and atenolol) were obtained by the GPTS method.
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The influence of the 'patient-to-patient model' on swallowing problems in patients with supraglottic laryngeal cancer.
ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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To evaluate the patient-to-patient model and swallowing problems in Chinese patients with supraglottic laryngeal cancer (SLC), and to find a solution to help SLC patients with swallowing problems.
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Uranium and radon in private bedrock well water in Maine: geospatial analysis at two scales.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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In greater Augusta of central Maine, 53 out of 1093 (4.8%) private bedrock well water samples from 1534 km(2) contained [U] >30 ?g/L, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for drinking water; and 226 out of 786 (29%) samples from 1135 km(2) showed [Rn] >4,000 pCi/L (148 Bq/L), the U.S. EPA's Alternative MCL. Groundwater pH, calcite dissolution and redox condition are factors controlling the distribution of groundwater U but not Rn due to their divergent chemical and hydrological properties. Groundwater U is associated with incompatible elements (S, As, Mo, F, and Cs) in water samples within granitic intrusions. Elevated [U] and [Rn] are located within 5-10 km distance of granitic intrusions but do not show correlations with metamorphism at intermediate scales (10(0)-10(1) km). This spatial association is confirmed by a high-density sampling (n = 331, 5-40 samples per km(2)) at local scales (?10(-1) km) and the statewide sampling (n = 5857, 1 sample per 16 km(2)) at regional scales (10(2)-10(3) km). Wells located within 5 km of granitic intrusions are at risk of containing high levels of [U] and [Rn]. Approximately 48?800-63?900 and 324?000 people in Maine are estimated at risk of exposure to U (>30 ?g/L) and Rn (>4000 pCi/L) in well water, respectively.
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STAT3, p-STAT3 and HIF-1? are associated with vasculogenic mimicry and impact on survival in gastric adenocarcinoma.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation is important for invasion and metastasis of tumor cells in gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). The present study aimed to investigate the association between signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), phosphor-STAT3 (p-STAT3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and VM formation in GAC, and discuss their clinical significance and correlation with the prognosis of patients with GAC. The expression levels of STAT3, p-STAT3, HIF-1? and VM were assessed in 60 cases of patients with GAC and 20 cases of patients with gastritis on tissue microarrays by immunohistochemical methods. The expression levels of STAT3, p-STAT3, HIF-1? and VM were higher in patients with GAC (particularly in poorly differentiated GAC) than in those with gastritis (P<0.05). The expression levels of STAT3, p-STAT3 and HIF-1? were higher in VM tissues compared with non-VM tissues (P<0.05). Positive correlations existed between STAT3, p-STAT3, HIF-1? and VM expression (P<0.05). The expression levels of STAT3, p-STAT3 and HIF-1?, VM, status of lymph node metastasis and tumor differentiation degree were associated with the overall survival time of patients with GAC (P<0.05). However, only p-STAT3 and VM expression were identified as the independent risk factors of GAC OS when analyzed with multivariate analysis. p-STAT3 and VM play a significant role in indicating the prognosis of patients with GAC. STAT3 activation may play a positive role in VM formation of GAC by the STAT3-p-STAT3-HIF-1?-VM effect axis.
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Endoscopic versus microscopic transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma surgery: a meta-analysis.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery has gradually come to be regarded as a preferred option in the treatment of pituitary adenomas because of its advantages of improved visualization and its minimal invasiveness. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the outcomes and complications of endoscopic and microscopic transsphenoidal surgery in the treatment of pituitary adenomas.
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Effect of suction on macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness during femtosecond lenticule extraction and femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis.
J Cataract Refract Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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To compare the effect of suction on macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness during femtosecond lenticule extraction and femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with the Visumax FS system.
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[Formation of para-Bombay phenotype caused by homozygous or heterozygous mutation of FUT1 gene].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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This study was aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay phenotype formation. The H antigen of these individuals were identified by serological techniques. The full coding region of alpha (1, 2) fucosyltransferase (FUT1) gene of these individuals was amplified by high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR product was identified by TOPO cloning sequencing. Analysis and comparison were used to explore the mechanisms of para-bombay phenotype formation in individuals. The results indicated that the full coding region of FUT1 DNA was successfully amplified by PCR and gel electrophoresis. DNA sequencing and analysis found that h1 (547-552delAG) existed in one chromosome and h4 (35C > T) existed in the other chromosome of NO.1 individual. Meantime, h1 (547-552delAG) was found in two chromosomes of NO.2 and NO.3 individual. It also means that FUT1 gene of NO.1 individual was h1h4 heterozygote, FUT1 gene of NO.2 and NO.3 individuals were h1h1 homozygote. It is concluded that homozygous and heterozygous mutation of FUT1 gene can lead to the formation of para-Bombay phenotype.
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A direct copper-promoted three-component entry to trifluoromethylketoximes.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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A new copper-promoted three-component method for constructing ketoximes has been developed. This transformation can be achieved using indoles/pyrroles with the in situ generated 2,2,2-trifluorodiazoethane and nitrite species under mild conditions, thus offering a direct pathway to (E)-3-indolyl/2-pyrrolyl trifluoromethylketoximes.
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Lymphomatoid papulosis misdiagnosed as pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta: Two case reports and a literature review.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to improve the level of diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP). Two cases of type B LyP were identified and the literature was reviewed to summarize the clinical outcomes and pathology of LyP and its treatment. The two patients exhibited symptoms with papulonodular lesions, the centers of which gradually underwent ulceration and necrosis. CD30, a helper T-cell marker specifically expressed in tumor cells was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining and the result showed that CD30-negative or only scattered CD30-positive cells were present. Therefore, a diagnosis of type B LyP was made. A fairly good curative effect was achieved following treatment with retinoic acid, glucocorticoids and immunomodulatory drugs. LyP is a type of low-level malignant lymphoma and is easily misdiagnosed as pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta and other diseases. In order to avoid under diagnosis and misdiagnosis, doctors should evaluate suspected patients by histopathological and immunohistochemical examination.
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Dissemination of well water arsenic results to homeowners in Central Maine: Influences on mitigation behavior and continued risks for exposure.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Private wells in the United States are unregulated for drinking water standards and are the homeowner's responsibility to test and treat. Testing for water quality parameters such as arsenic (As) is a crucial first step for homeowners to take protective actions. This study seeks to identify key behavioral factors influencing homeowners' decisions to take action after receiving well As test results. A January 2013 survey of central Maine households (n=386, 73% response) who were notified 3-7years earlier that their well water contained As above 10?g/L found that 43% of households report installing As treatment systems. Another 30% report taking other mitigation actions such as drinking bottled water because of the As, but the remaining 27% of households did not act. Well water As level appears to be a motivation for mitigation: 31% of households with well water level between 10 and 50?g/L did not act, compared to 11% of households with well water >50?g/L. The belief that the untreated water is not safe to drink (risk) and that reducing drinking water As would increase home value (instrumental attitude) were identified as significant predictors of mitigating As. Mitigating As exposure is associated with less worry about the As level (affective attitude), possibly because those acting to reduce exposure feel less worried about As. Use of a treatment system specifically was significantly predicted by confidence that one can maintain a treatment system, even if there are additional costs (self-efficacy). An assessment of As treatment systems used by 68 of these households with well water As >10?g/L followed up within August-November 2013 found that 15% of treatment units failed to produce water below As 10?g/L, suggesting that there are continued risks for exposure even after the decision is made to treat.
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Genetic determinants influencing human serum metabolome among African Americans.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Phenotypes proximal to gene action generally reflect larger genetic effect sizes than those that are distant. The human metabolome, a result of multiple cellular and biological processes, are functional intermediate phenotypes proximal to gene action. Here, we present a genome-wide association study of 308 untargeted metabolite levels among African Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Nineteen significant common variant-metabolite associations were identified, including 13 novel loci (p<1.6 × 10(-10)). These loci were associated with 7-50% of the difference in metabolite levels per allele, and the variance explained ranged from 4% to 20%. Fourteen genes were identified within the nineteen loci, and four of them contained non-synonymous substitutions in four enzyme-encoding genes (KLKB1, SIAE, CPS1, and NAT8); the other significant loci consist of eight other enzyme-encoding genes (ACE, GATM, ACY3, ACSM2B, THEM4, ADH4, UGT1A, TREH), a transporter gene (SLC6A13) and a polycystin protein gene (PKD2L1). In addition, four potential disease-associated paths were identified, including two direct longitudinal predictive relationships: NAT8 with N-acetylornithine, N-acetyl-1-methylhistidine and incident chronic kidney disease, and TREH with trehalose and incident diabetes. These results highlight the value of using endophenotypes proximal to gene function to discover new insights into biology and disease pathology.
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Intravascular fasciitis involving the flank of a 21-year-old female: a case report and review of the literature.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Intravascular fasciitis is an uncommon variant of nodular fasciitis, which is a reactive proliferative lesion of myofibroblasts. Since its identification in 1981, only 32 cases of intravascular fasciitis have been reported in the English literature. The lesion is commonly located in the head, neck, and extremities, with only three cases arising from the trunk. Here we report the fourth case involving the trunk (the flank area).
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Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, involving the skin, misdiagnosed as nasosinusitis and a fungal infection: A case report and literature review.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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The present study reports a case of extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, involving the skin. The clinical manifestations, pathological characteristics, treatment and prognosis of the case were analyzed to improve the clinical diagnosis and treatment for this disease. The patient was a 56-year-old male, presenting with dark red nodules and plaques that had been visible on the nose for half a year. Based on the skin lesions and histopathological and immunohistochemical examination results, the patient was diagnosed with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. This disease has unique histopathological and immunohistochemical features and a high malignancy. The condition tends to be misdiagnosed and has a poor prognosis, but seldom involves the skin. In the present case, only radiotherapy was performed, with no relapse occurring within 6 months.
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LL-37 attenuates inflammatory impairment via mTOR signaling-dependent mitochondrial protection.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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The human cationic antimicrobial protein LL-37 is a multifunctional host defense peptide with a wide range of immunomodulatory activities. Previous work has shown that LL-37 exerts both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects. The role of mitochondria in the skin inflammatory effects of LL-37 has not been well studied. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the immunomodulatory effect of LL-37 in HaCaT cells and to delineate the underlying mechanisms related to mitochondrial function. Immunohistochemistry results from tissue microarrays showed strong cytoplasmic LL-37 staining in inflammatory cells in chronic dermatic inflammation. Using exogenous LL-37 stimulation and LL-37 knockdown and overexpression, LL-37 was demonstrated to dramatically reduce the mRNA levels and protein secretion of inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-8, IL-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), which are induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The anti-inflammatory effects of LL-37 are dependent upon its ability to increase mitochondrial biogenesis and to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. Furthermore, we observed that LL-37 enhances the LPS-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin can neutralize the protective effects of LL-37 on mitochondria. In conclusion, these results suggest that high LL-37 expression levels correlate with chronic skin inflammation; mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in HaCaT cells during inflammation; and LL-37 attenuates inflammatory impairment by stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis and protecting mitochondrial function, which are dependent upon mTOR signaling. These findings provide new insights into targeting mitochondria with LL-37 to prevent skin inflammatory reactions.
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Dexamethasone alleviates motion sickness in rats in part by enhancing the endocannabinoid system.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Low-dose dexamethasone has been widely used for the prevention of nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy and surgical procedures and to treat motion sickness due to its minimal adverse effects, but the mechanisms underlying its anti-motion sickness effects are poorly understood. Previous studies have demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system is suppressed by motion sickness but stimulated by dexamethasone. The aim of the present study was to determine whether dexamethasone has an anti-motion sickness effect in rats and to elucidate the mechanism of this action. We used HPLC-MS/MS to measure the plasma concentrations of anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol+1-arachidonoylglycerol, and we employed real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and/or Western blot analysis to assay the expression of N-acylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine hydrolyzing phospholipase D, sn-1-selective diacylglycerol lipase, fatty acid hydrolase, monoacylglycerol lipase and endocannabinoid CB1 receptor in the dorsal vagal complex and stomach of rats exposed to a motion sickness protocol. The results showed that dexamethasone lowered the motion sickness index and restored the levels of endogenous cannabinoids and the expression of the endocannabinoid CB1 receptor, which declined after the induction of motion sickness, in the dorsal vagal complex and stomach.
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Design, synthesis and evaluation of the antidepressant and anticonvulsant activities of triazole-containing quinolinones.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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A series of 1-substituted-6-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-ones were designed, synthesized, and screened for their antidepressant and anticonvulsant activities. Interestingly, compounds 5i, 5j, 5m, and 5n led to significant reductions in the immobility time in the forced swimming test at a dose of 50 mg/kg, and exhibited higher levels of efficacy than the reference standard fluoxetine. In addition, compound 5i exhibited greater efficacy than fluoxetine in the tail suspension test. The results of an open field test further confirmed that compound 5i provided a good antidepressant effect. In the maximal electroshock seizure screen, compounds 5c and 5d showed moderate levels of anticonvulsant activity and protected 100% of the animals at a dose of 100 mg/kg. None of the synthesized compounds showed any neurotoxicity in the rotarod test at a dose of 100 mg/kg.
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Comparison of morphology and biocompatibility of acellular nerve scaffolds processed by different chemical methods.
J Mater Sci Mater Med
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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To investigate the morphological differences among acellular rat nerve scaffolds processed by different chemical methods and compare the biocompatibility between rat nerve grafts processed by different chemical methods and rat adipose-derived stem cells in vitro. Acellular rat sciatic nerve scaffolds processed by two different chemical methods (the Sondell method and the optimized method) and normal rat sciatic nerves were used as control. The structure and components of nerve scaffold were observed under microscopy, the degrees of decellularization and demyelination of nerve scaffold and integrity of nerve fiber tubes were assessed. The rat adipose-derived stem cells growth and adherence on scaffold were studied by scanning electron microscopy, the activity and adhesive ratio of rat adipose-derived stem cells in the nerve scaffold were compared. The basal lamina tubes and the extracellular matrix in the epineurium and perineurium in the nerve graft of optimized method were better preserved than the nerve graft of the Sondell method. After co-cultured with scaffolds, the difference of cell activity between three groups (two cell-scaffold combinations and control group) at the same observation time were not statistically significant (P > 0.05),the adhesive ratio of rat adipose-derived stem cells in the scaffold of the optimized method was better than that of the Sondell method. The scaffold of the optimized method is more effective than the scaffold of the Sondell method for peripheral nerve tissue engineering.
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Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using a heterogeneous catalyst from pyrolyzed rice husk.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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A solid acid catalyst was prepared by sulfonating pyrolyzed rice husk with concentrated sulfuric acid, and the physical and chemical properties of the catalyst were characterized in detail. The catalyst was then used to simultaneously catalyze esterification and transesterification to produce biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO). In the presence of the as-prepared catalyst, the free fatty acid (FFA) conversion reached 98.17% after 3h, and the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield reached 87.57% after 15 h. By contrast, the typical solid acid catalyst Amberlyst-15 obtained only 95.25% and 45.17% FFA conversion and FAME yield, respectively. Thus, the prepared catalyst had a high catalytic activity for simultaneous esterification and transesterification. In addition, the catalyst had excellent stability, thereby having potential use as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from WCO with a high FFA content.
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Intramedullary conus medullaris metastasis from prostate carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Intramedullary spinal cord metastases (ISCMs) are rare and account for 4-8.5% of central nervous system metastases. Only one case of biopsy-proven ISCM due to prostate cancer has previously been reported. The current study presents an additional unique case of a 74-year-old male who developed symptoms from an intramedullary conus medullaris metastasis as the first manifestation of prostate adenocarcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this scenario is even more rare and has not previously been reported. The tumor was radically resected, followed by androgen blockade treatment. The patient's neurological deficit significantly improved, with no tumor recurrence during the follow-up period. In addition, the present study provides an overview of the previous literature concerning ISCMs from prostate cancer, and discusses the treatment options.
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Activation of Erk and p53 regulates copper oxide nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity in keratinocytes and fibroblasts.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONP) have attracted increasing attention due to their unique properties and have been extensively utilized in industrial and commercial applications. For example, their antimicrobial capability endows CuONP with applications in dressings and textiles against bacterial infections. Along with the wide applications, concerns about the possible effects of CuONP on humans are also increasing. It is crucial to evaluate the safety and impact of CuONP on humans, and especially the skin, prior to their practical application. The potential toxicity of CuONP to skin keratinocytes has been reported recently. However, the underlying mechanism of toxicity in skin cells has remained unclear. In the present work, we explored the possible mechanism of the cytotoxicity of CuONP in HaCaT human keratinocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). CuONP exposure induced viability loss, migration inhibition, and G2/M phase cycle arrest in both cell types. CuONP significantly induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (extracellular signal-regulated kinase [Erk], p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK]) activation in dose- and time-dependent manners. U0126 (an inhibitor of Erk), but not SB 239063 (an inhibitor of p38) or SP600125 (an inhibitor of JNK), enhanced CuONP-induced viability loss. CuONP also induced decreases in p53 and p-p53 levels in both cell types. Cyclic pifithrin-?, an inhibitor of p53 transcriptional activity, enhanced CuONP-induced viability loss. Nutlin-3?, a p53 stabilizer, prevented CuONP-induced viability loss in HaCaT cells, but not in MEF cells, due to the inherent toxicity of nutlin-3? to MEF. Moreover, the experiments on primary keratinocytes are in accordance with the conclusions acquired from HaCaT and MEF cells. These data demonstrate that the activation of Erk and p53 plays an important role in CuONP-induced cytotoxicity, and agents that preserve Erk or p53 activation may prevent CuONP-induced cytotoxicity.
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Reduced expression of uroplakin 1A is associated with the poor prognosis of gastric adenocarcinoma patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and prognostic significance of Uroplakin1A (UPK1A) in gastric adenocarcinoma patients. Functional studies were also analyzed in vitro.
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Overexpression of S100A7 protects LPS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and stimulates IL-6 and IL-8 in HaCaT cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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S100A7 (or psoriasin) is distributed in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes of normal human epidermis, and it is overexpressed in many epidermal inflammatory diseases. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces mitochondrial function changes, which play important roles in multiple cellular mechanisms including inflammation. Although S100A7 expression is regulated by various factors in the human epidermis during inflammation, whether S100A7 interacts with mitochondria in keratinocytes is not clear.
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Active ammonia oxidizers in an acid soil are phylogenetically closely related to neutrophilic archaeon.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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All cultivated ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) within the Nitrososphaera cluster (former soil group 1.1b) are neutrophilic. Molecular surveys also indicate the existence of Nitrososphaera-like phylotypes in acid soil, but their ecological roles are poorly understood. In this study, we present molecular evidence for the chemolithoautotrophic growth of Nitrososphaera-like AOA in an acid soil with pH 4.92 using DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP). Soil microcosm incubations demonstrated that nitrification was stimulated by urea fertilization and accompanied by a significant increase in the abundance of AOA rather than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Real-time PCR analysis of amoA genes as a function of the buoyant density of the DNA gradient following the ultracentrifugation of the total DNA extracted from SIP microcosms indicated a substantial growth of soil AOA during nitrification. Pyrosequencing of the total 16S rRNA genes in the heavy DNA fractions suggested that archaeal communities were labeled to a much greater extent than soil AOB. Acetylene inhibition further showed that (13)CO2 assimilation by nitrifying communities depended solely on ammonia oxidation activity, suggesting a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle. Phylogenetic analysis of both (13)C-labeled amoA and 16S rRNA genes revealed that most of the active AOA were phylogenetically closely related to the neutrophilic strains Nitrososphaera viennensis EN76 and JG1 within the Nitrososphaera cluster. Our results provide strong evidence for the adaptive growth of Nitrososphaera-like AOA in acid soil, suggesting a greater metabolic versatility of soil AOA than previously appreciated.
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Enrichment of Arsenic in Surface Water, Stream Sediments and Soils in Tibet.
J Geochem Explor
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2013
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Groundwater in sedimentary deposits in China, Southern, and Southeast Asia down gradient from the Tibetan plateau contain elevated As concentrations on a regional scale. To ascertain the possibility of source region As enrichment, samples of water (n=86), stream sediment (n=77) and soil (n=73) were collected from the Singe Tsangpo (upstream of the Indus River), Yarlung Tsangpo (upstream of the Brahmaputra River) and other drainage basins in Tibet in June of 2008. The average arsenic concentration in stream waters, sediments and soils was 58±70 ?g/L (n=39, range 2-252 ?g/L), 42±40 mg/kg (n=37, range 12-227 mg/kg), and 44±27mg/kg (n=28, range 12-84 mg/kg) respectively for the Singe Tsangpo and was 11±17 ?g/L (n=30, range 2-83 ?g/L), 28±11 mg/kg (n=28, range 2-61 mg/kg), and 30±34 mg/kg (n=21, range 6-173 mg/kg) respectively for the Yarlung Tsangpo. A dug well contained 195 ?g/L of As. In addition to elevated As levels in surface and shallow groundwater of Tibet, hot spring and alkaline salt lake waters displayed very high As levels, reaching a maximum value of 5,985 ?g/L and 10,626 ?g/L As, respectively. The positive correlation between [As] and [Na]+[K] in stream waters indicates that these surface water arsenic enrichments are linked to the hot springs and/or salt lakes. Further, 24% of As in stream sediment is reductively leachable, with bulk As displaying a positive correlation with stream water As, suggesting sorption from stream water. In contrast, the fraction of reductively leachable As is negligible for soils and several rock samples, suggesting that As in them are associated with unweathered minerals. Whether the pronounced As anomaly found in Tibet affects the sedimentary As content in deltas downstream or not requires further study.
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Effect of pH on the Complexation of Kaempferol-4-glucoside with Three ?-Cyclodextrin Derivatives: Isothermal Titration Calorimetry and Spectroscopy Study.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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The utilization of kaempferol and its glycosides in food and pharmaceutical industries could be improved by the formation of inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins at different pH. This study explores the complexation of kaempferol-4-glucoside with sulfobutyl ether-?-cyclodextrin (SBE-?-CD), hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD), and methylated-?-cyclodextrin (M-?-CD) in phosphate buffer solutions of different pH using isothermal titration calorimetry, UV-vis absorption and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 298.2 K. Experimental results showed that kaempferol-4-glucoside binds with the three ?- cyclodextrins in the same 1:1 stoichiometry. The rank order of stability constants is SBE-?-CD > HP-?-CD > M-?-CD at the same pH level and pH 6.0 > pH 7.4 > pH 9.0 for the same cyclodextrin. The binding of kaempferol-4-glucoside with the three ?-cyclodextrin derivatives is synergistically driven by enthalpy and entropy at pH 6.0 and enthalpy-driven at pH 7.4 and 9.0. The possible inclusion mode was that in the cavity of ?-CD is included the planar benzopyranic-4-one part of the kaempferol-4-glucoside.
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Trace Detection of Specific Viable Bacteria Using Tetracysteine-Tagged Bacteriophages.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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Advanced methods are urgently needed to determine the identity and viability of trace amounts of pathogenic bacteria in a short time. Existing approaches either fall short in the accurate assessment of microbial viability or lack specificity in bacterial identification. Bacteriophages (or phages for short) are viruses that exclusively infect bacterial host cells with high specificity. As phages infect and replicate only in living bacterial hosts, here we exploit the strategy of using tetracysteine (TC)-tagged phage in combination with biarsenical dye to the discriminative detection of viable target bacteria from dead target cells and other viable but nontarget bacterial cells. Using recombinant M13KE-TC phage and Escherichia coli ER2738 as a model system, distinct differentiation between individual viable target cells from dead target cells was demonstrated by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. As few as 1% viable E. coli ER2738 can be accurately quantified in a mix with dead E. coli ER2738 by flow cytometry. With fluorescence microscopic measurement, specific detection of as rare as 1 cfu/mL original viable target bacteria was achieved in the presence of a large excess of dead target cells and other viable but nontarget bacterial cells in 40 mL artificially contaminated drinking water sample in less than 3 h. This TC-phage-FlAsH approach is sensitive, specific, rapid, and simple, and thus shows great potential in water safety monitoring, health surveillance, and clinical diagnosis of which trace detection and identification of viable bacterial pathogens is highly demanded.
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TAM Receptors Affect Adult Brain Neurogenesis by Negative Regulation of Microglial Cell Activation.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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TAM tyrosine kinases play multiple functional roles, including regulation of the target genes important in homeostatic regulation of cytokine receptors or TLR-mediated signal transduction pathways. In this study, we show that TAM receptors affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and loss of TAM receptors impairs hippocampal neurogenesis, largely attributed to exaggerated inflammatory responses by microglia characterized by increased MAPK and NF-?B activation and elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines that are detrimental to neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Injection of LPS causes even more severe inhibition of BrdU incorporation in the Tyro3(-/-)Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) triple-knockout (TKO) brains, consistent with the LPS-elicited enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, for example, IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and inducible NO synthase, and this effect is antagonized by coinjection of the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in wild-type but not TKO brains. Conditioned medium from TKO microglia cultures inhibits neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. IL-6 knockout in Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) double-knockout mice overcomes the inflammatory inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IL-6 is a major downstream neurotoxic mediator under homeostatic regulation by TAM receptors in microglia. Additionally, autonomous trophic function of the TAM receptors on the proliferating neuronal progenitors may also promote progenitor differentiation into immature neurons.
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Thermal response of DNA supramolecular polymers assembled with hydrophobic sticky ends.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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We report the self-assembly and thermal dissociation of DNA dumbbell conjugates having a perylenediimide (PDI) linker on each end separated by 6-16 A-T base pairs. In the presence of NaCl these dumbbells form one-dimensional supramolecular assemblies as a consequence of the hydrophobic association of their PDI sticky ends. The dependence of assembly formation on dumbbell concentration, salt concentration, and temperature can be conveniently monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy. The melting of these linear assemblies follows two limiting mechanisms, depending on the length of the dumbbells. Upon heating in the presence of salt, the assemblies formed by the longer dumbbells undergo a sequential transition from assembly to base-paired monomer to random coiled monomer, whereas the assemblies formed by the shorter dumbbells undergo disassembly and base-pair melting cooperatively. In all cases, the intramolecular hydrophobic association of the PDI chromophores is observed at elevated temperature. The thermal behavior of these one-dimensional assemblies is compared to that of other sticky-ended assemblies.
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Enhancement of fat graft survival by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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Adipose-derived stem cells can improve fat graft survival, but there is no literature reporting whether bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhance fat graft survival. The authors explored the feasibility of enhancing fat graft survival using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
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[The clinical efficacy of 0.1% bromfenac sodium hydrate ophthalmic solution after excimer laser in situ keratomileusis].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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To investigate the clinical efficacy and safty of 0.1% bromfenac sodium hydrate ophthalmic solution in myopia and astigmatism eyes after sub-Bowman keratomileusis (SBK) METHODS: A case control study. Number of patients with low to moderate myopia (-6.00 D ? spherical equivalent < -2.00 D) in the test and control groups was 17 cases (32 eyes) and 20 cases (40 eyes), respectively. Number of patients with high myopia (-11.00 D ? spherical equivalent < -6.00 D) in the test and control groups was 22 cases (42 eyes) and 15 cases (26 eyes) respectively. The first day after SBK, 0.1% bromfenac sodium hydrate eye drops was administrated 2 times/day in patients in the test group and continued for 10 and 14 days in low and high myopia, respectively. In the control group, 0.1% fluorometholone eye drops was used 4 times/day, then reduced gradually and continuously for 16 days. Visual acuity, computer refraction, intraocular pressure (IOP) and corneal topography examination were conducted at different postoperative period. Symptoms and related complications were recorded. Ranked data were statistically analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test and quantitative data were analyzed using independent samples t-test.
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Conditional deletion of PTEN in peripheral T cells augments TCR-mediated activation but does not abrogate CD28 dependency or prevent anergy induction.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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PTEN is thought to play a critical role in T cell activation by negatively regulating the PI3K signaling pathway important for cellular activation, growth, and proliferation. To directly eliminate PTEN in postthymic T cells for studies of functional effects, we used CAR transgenic × PTEN(flox/flox) mice, which enabled gene deletion using a Cre adenovirus in vitro. These mice were also immunized to generate stable Th1 clones that could have PTEN deleted when desired. PTEN-deleted T cells exhibited enhanced IL-2 production, proliferation, and Akt phosphorylation upon TCR/CD28 engagement, whereas T cell survival was not potentiated. Gene expression profiling revealed a small subset of induced genes that were augmented upon PTEN deletion. However, PTEN-deficient T cells still required CD28 costimulation for IL-2 production and remained susceptible to anti-CD3-induced anergy. The absence of PTEN within the CD8 T cell compartment led to markedly increased cytolytic activity following an allogeneic MLR in vitro, without increasing autologous MLR activity. Our results indicate that deletion of PTEN can augment the activation of postthymic T cells but does not mediate CD28 independence or anergy resistance. Nonetheless, PTEN inhibition may be a viable target for immune potentiation owing to increased cytokine production by activated CD4(+) cells and increased cytotoxicity by CD8(+) T cells.
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Dysmegakaryocytopoiesis and maintaining platelet count in patients with plasma cell neoplasm.
N Am J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Dysmegakaryocytopoiesis in patients with the plasma cell neoplasm (PCN) is rarely discussed in the literature. The puzzling phenomenon, which PCN patients maintaining normal platelet count even when the marrow is mostly replaced by plasma cells, is hardly explored.
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A Signal Transduction Pathway from TGF-?1 to SKP2 via Akt1 and c-Myc and its Correlation with Progression in Human Melanoma.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Both SKP2 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 2) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) play important roles in cancer metastasis through different mechanisms: TGF-?1 via induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and SKP2 via downregulating p27(kip1). Recent studies indicated that c-Myc and Akt1 were active players in metastasis. In this study we demonstrated a crosstalk between these pathways. Specifically, we found that TGF-?1 treatment increased SKP2 expression accompanied with increased phosphorylation of Akt1 and c-Myc protein accumulation during EMT. We demonstrated that Akt1 was required for TGF-?1-mediated SKP2 upregulation and that c-Myc transcription factor specifically bound to the promoter of SKP2 for its enhanced transcription. Analysis of 25 samples of normal human skin, nevi, and melanomas revealed a positive correlation between c-Myc and SKP2 accumulation. Furthermore, accumulation of SKP2 and c-Myc proteins was significantly higher in metastatic melanoma samples as compared with that in primary melanomas, which again was higher than that in normal skin or nevi. In summary, our results integrated TGF-?1 signals to SKP2 via Akt1 and c-Myc during EMT, and provided, to our knowledge, a previously unreported mechanistic molecular event for TGF-?1-induced metastasis in human melanoma.
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Associations between metabolomic compounds and incident heart failure among African Americans: the ARIC Study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Heart failure is more prevalent among African Americans than in the general population. Metabolomic studies among African Americans may efficiently identify novel biomarkers of heart failure. We used untargeted methods to measure 204 stable serum metabolites and evaluated their associations with incident heart failure hospitalization (n = 276) after a median follow-up of 20 years (1987-2008) by using Cox regression in data from 1,744 African Americans aged 45-64 years without heart failure at baseline from the Jackson, Mississippi, field center of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. After adjustment for established risk factors, we found that 16 metabolites (6 named with known structural identities and 10 unnamed with unknown structural identities, the latter denoted by using the format X-12345) were associated with incident heart failure (P < 0.0004 based on a modified Bonferroni procedure). Of the 6 named metabolites, 4 are involved in amino acid metabolism, 1 (prolylhydroxyproline) is a dipeptide, and 1 (erythritol) is a sugar alcohol. After additional adjustment for kidney function, 2 metabolites remained associated with incident heart failure (for metabolite X-11308, hazard ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.65, 0.86; for metabolite X-11787, hazard ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.37). Further structural analysis revealed X-11308 to be a dihydroxy docosatrienoic acid and X-11787 to be an isoform of either hydroxyleucine or hydroxyisoleucine. Our metabolomic analysis revealed novel biomarkers associated with incident heart failure independent of traditional risk factors.
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Imaging of the alphavirus capsid protein during virus replication.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Alphaviruses are enveloped viruses with highly organized structures. The nucleocapsid (NC) core contains a capsid protein lattice enclosing the plus-sense RNA genome, and it is surrounded by a lipid bilayer containing a lattice of the E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins. Capsid protein is synthesized in the cytoplasm and particle budding occurs at the plasma membrane (PM), but the traffic and assembly of viral components and the exit of virions from host cells are not well understood. To visualize the dynamics of capsid protein during infection, we developed a Sindbis virus infectious clone tagged with a tetracysteine motif. Tagged capsid protein could be fluorescently labeled with biarsenical dyes in living cells without effects on virus growth, morphology, or protein distribution. Live cell imaging and colocalization experiments defined distinct groups of capsid foci in infected cells. We observed highly motile internal puncta that colocalized with E2 protein, which may represent the transport machinery that capsid protein uses to reach the PM. Capsid was also found in larger nonmotile internal structures that colocalized with cellular G3BP and viral nsP3. Thus, capsid may play an unforeseen role in these previously observed G3BP-positive foci, such as regulation of cellular stress granules. Capsid puncta were also observed at the PM. These puncta colocalized with E2 and recruited newly synthesized capsid protein; thus, they may be sites of virus assembly and egress. Together, our studies provide the first dynamic views of the alphavirus capsid protein in living cells and a system to define detailed mechanisms during alphavirus infection.
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Metabolomics and incident hypertension among blacks: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Development of hypertension is influenced by genes, environmental effects, and their interactions, and the human metabolome is a measurable manifestation of gene-environment interaction. We explored the metabolomic antecedents of developing incident hypertension in a sample of blacks, a population with a high prevalence of hypertension and its comorbidities. We examined 896 black normotensives (565 women; aged, 45-64 years) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, whose metabolome was measured in serum collected at the baseline examination and analyzed by high-throughput methods. The analyses presented here focus on 204 stably measured metabolites during a period of 4 to 6 weeks. Weibull parametric models considering interval censored data were used to assess the hazard ratio for incident hypertension. We used a modified Bonferroni correction accounting for the correlations among metabolites to define a threshold for statistical significance (P<3.9 × 10(-4)). During 10 years of follow-up, 38% of baseline normotensives developed hypertension (n=344). With adjustment for traditional risk factors and estimated glomerular filtration rate, each +1SD difference in baseline 4-hydroxyhippurate, a product of gut microbial fermentation, was associated with 17% higher risk of hypertension (P=2.5 × 10(-4)), which remained significant after adjusting for both baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P=3.8 × 10(-4)). After principal component analyses, a sex steroids pattern was significantly associated with risk of incident hypertension (highest versus lowest quintile hazard ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.82; P for trend, 0.03), and stratified analyses suggested that this association was consistent in both sexes. Metabolomic analyses identify novel pathways in the pathogenesis of hypertension.
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The application of axial superficial temporal artery island flap for repairing the defect secondary to the removal of the lower eyelid basal cell carcinoma.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Our aim was to investigate the repair of the defect that follows excision of a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the lower eyelid. Skin projections of the superficial temporal artery and its frontal branches were marked using Doppler ultrasonography. The lesion was excised with 0.5-1.5cm margins. Frozen sections were taken to clarify the diagnosis. The frontal flap was designed according to the preoperative labelling, and was 0.5cm larger than the defect. The pedicle was 1.0-1.5cm longer than the distance between the pedicle and the defect, and the width of the pedicle was 3cm. If the lesion affected the full thickness of the lower eyelid, a conjunctival flap was sutured with the flap. A skin graft was applied when the defect was large. Such defects have been repaired successfully in 10 patients. There was no secondary defect or ectropion postoperatively. The superficial temporal artery frontal branch island flap is a satisfactory method for the repair of a defect secondary to a BCC of the lower eyelid.
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The effectiveness of educational interventions to enhance the adoption of fee-based arsenic testing in Bangladesh: a cluster randomized controlled trial.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Arsenic (As) testing could help 22 million people, using drinking water sources that exceed the Bangladesh As standard, to identify safe sources. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of household education and local media in the increasing demand for fee-based As testing. Randomly selected households (N = 452) were divided into three interventions implemented by community workers: 1) fee-based As testing with household education (HE); 2) fee-based As testing with household education and a local media campaign (HELM); and 3) fee-based As testing alone (Control). The fee for the As test was US$ 0.28, higher than the cost of the test (US$ 0.16). Of households with untested wells, 93% in both intervention groups HE and HELM purchased an As test, whereas only 53% in the control group. In conclusion, fee-based As testing with household education is effective in the increasing demand for As testing in rural Bangladesh.
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[Destrution of ossicular chain and its impact on hearing of patients with tympanosclerosis].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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To study the destruction ossicular chains impact on hearing of patients with tympanosclerosis.
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Cross-inhibition of chikungunya virus fusion and infection by alphavirus E1 domain III proteins.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Alphaviruses are small enveloped RNA viruses that include important emerging human pathogens, such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV). These viruses infect cells via a low-pH-triggered membrane fusion reaction, making this step a potential target for antiviral therapies. The E1 fusion protein inserts into the target membrane, trimerizes, and refolds to a hairpin-like conformation in which the combination of E1 domain III (DIII) and the stem region (DIII-stem) pack against a core trimer composed of E1 domains I and II (DI/II). Addition of exogenous DIII proteins from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) has been shown to inhibit E1 hairpin formation and SFV fusion and infection. Here we produced and characterized DIII and DI/II proteins from CHIKV and SFV. Unlike SFV DIII, both core trimer binding and fusion inhibition by CHIKV DIII required the stem region. CHIKV DIII-stem and SFV DIII-stem showed efficient cross-inhibition of SFV, Sindbis virus, and CHIKV infections. We developed a fluorescence anisotropy-based assay for the binding of SFV DIII-stem to the core trimer and used it to demonstrate the relatively high affinity of this interaction (Kd [dissociation constant], ?85 nM) and the importance of the stem region. Together, our results support the conserved nature of the key contacts of DIII-stem in the alphavirus E1 homotrimer and describe a sensitive and quantitative in vitro assay for this step in fusion protein refolding.
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[Next generation sequencing and stable isotope probing of active microorganisms responsible for aerobic methane oxidation in red paddy soils].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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This study is aimed to establish an unbiased profiling strategy for investigating the microorganisms responsible for aerobic methane oxidation by pyrosequencing the total soil microbial communities at DNA and RNA levels, and to link aerobic methane oxidation activity with taxonomic identity of active microorganisms by DNA/RNA SIP in red paddy soils.
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A covalent reporter of ?-lactamase activity for fluorescent imaging and rapid screening of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Bacterial resistance to antibiotics poses a great clinical challenge in fighting serious infectious diseases due to complicated resistant mechanisms and time-consuming testing methods. Chemical reaction-directed covalent labeling of resistance-associated bacterial proteins in the context of a complicated environment offers great opportunity for the in-depth understanding of the biological basis conferring drug resistance, and for the development of effective diagnostic approaches. In the present study, three fluorogenic reagents LRBL1-3 for resistant bacteria labeling have been designed and prepared on the basis of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The hydrolyzed probes could act as reactive electrophiles to attach the enzyme, ?-lactamase, and thus facilitated the covalent labeling of drug resistant bacterial strains. SDS electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry characterization confirmed that these probes were sensitive and specific to ?-lactamase and could therefore serve for covalent and localized fluorescence labeling of the enzyme structure. Moreover, this ?-lactamase-induced covalent labeling provides quantitative analysis of the resistant bacterial population (down to 5%) by high resolution flow cytometry, and allows single-cell detection and direct observation of bacterial enzyme activity in resistant pathogenic species. This approach offers great promise for clinical investigations and microbiological research.
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Genome-wide association study of a heart failure related metabolomic profile among African Americans in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.
Genet. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Both the prevalence and incidence of heart failure (HF) are increasing, especially among African Americans, but no large-scale, genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HF-related metabolites has been reported. We sought to identify novel genetic variants that are associated with metabolites previously reported to relate to HF incidence. GWASs of three metabolites identified previously as risk factors for incident HF (pyroglutamine, dihydroxy docosatrienoic acid, and X-11787, being either hydroxy-leucine or hydroxy-isoleucine) were performed in 1,260 African Americans free of HF at the baseline examination of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. A significant association on chromosome 5q33 (rs10463316, MAF = 0.358, P-value = 1.92 × 10(-10) ) was identified for pyroglutamine. One region on chromosome 2p13 contained a nonsynonymous substitution in N-acetyltransferase 8 (NAT8) was associated with X-11787 (rs13538, MAF = 0.481, P-value = 1.71 × 10(-23) ). The smallest P-value for dihydroxy docosatrienoic acid was rs4006531 on chromosome 8q24 (MAF = 0.400, P-value = 6.98 × 10(-7) ). None of the above SNPs were individually associated with incident HF, but a genetic risk score (GRS) created by summing the most significant risk alleles from each metabolite detected 11% greater risk of HF per allele. In summary, we identified three loci associated with previously reported HF-related metabolites. Further use of metabolomics technology will facilitate replication of these findings in independent samples.
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The effective mechanism of the polysaccharides from Panax ginseng on chronic fatigue syndrome.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Ginseng acidic polysaccharide WGPA isolated from the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer was fractionated into WGPA-A and WGPA-N by anion-exchange chromatography. The antifatigue activity of ginseng acidic polysaccharide WGPA has been reported in our previous research. This present study was designed to identify its active component and elucidate the mechanism for preventing chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). WGPA, WGPA-A and WGPA-N were orally administered to mice once daily for 15 days. The effects of these compounds on physiological biomarkers of oxidative stress and on the morphology of the mitochondria in striated skeletal muscle were assessed. The results of forced swimming test-induced indicated that WGPA and WGPA-A could lengthen the swimming time, while WGPA-N could not. In addition, malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase levels in serum were enhanced; while those of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were lowered. Interestingly, the structural degeneration of mitochondria were all ameliorated. These findings suggested that WGPA-A is the active component of WGPA, it might have potential therapeutic effects for CFS and the oxidative stress might be involved in the pathogenesis. Our results also provided essential data for a better understanding of the antifatigue effects of P. ginseng extracts.
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Intracranial choriocarcinoma occurrence in males: Two cases and a review of the literature.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Choriocarcinomas generally develop in females. Non-gestational choriocarcinoma in males is extremely rare. The present study describes two cases of young males who were diagnosed with intracranial choriocarcinoma. One case was of an aggressive choriocarcinoma with multiple metastases to the brain, but with an unidentified origin. The patient was admitted in the terminal stage of the cancer. Although a tumor resection was performed, the condition of the patient rapidly deteriorated and chemotherapy was not recommended. The patient succumbed nine days after the surgery. The second case was of a primary ventricular choriocarcinoma. The patient was hospitalized for acute hydrocephalus caused by a mass that was located in the ventricle. Following a tumor resection, the patient underwent a course of whole-brain and spinal radiotherapy. The patient was followed up for more than half a year and remained in a good condition. The present study describes the two cases and a comprehensive review of the literature that was performed to identify similar studies that document choriocarcinomas in males.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.