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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Analysis of cervical cancer incidence and mortality in cancer registries of Zhejiang province, 2000 to 2009].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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To investigate the cervical cancer incidence and mortality in cancer registries of Zhejiang province during 2000 to 2009.
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Lycopene attenuates colistin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice via activating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Nephrotoxicity is the major dose-limiting factor for the clinical use of colistin against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of lycopene on colistin-induced nephrotoxicity in a mouse model. Fifty mice were randomly divided into 5 groups: the control (saline), lycopene (20 mg/kg/day orally, colistin (15 mg/kg/day intravenously), colistin (15 mg/kg/day) + 5 mg/kg/day lycopene, and colistin (15 mg/kg/day) + 20 mg/kg/day lycopene; all mice were treated for 7 days. At 12 h after the last dose, blood was collected for measurements of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine. The kidney tissue samples were obtained for examination of biomarkers of oxidative stress and apoptosis, histopathological assessment, and qRT-PCR analysis. Colistin treatment significantly increased concentrations of BUN and serum creatinine, tubular apoptosis/necrosis, lipid peroxidation, HO-1 activity; while decreased endogenous antioxidant biomarkers glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Notably, changes of all biomarkers were attenuated in the kidneys of mice treated with colistin by lycopene (5 or 20 mg/kg). Lycopene treatment, especially in the colistin + lycopene 20 mg/kg group, significantly down-regulated the expression of NF-?B mRNA (p<0.01) but up-regulated the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 mRNA (both p<0.01) in the kidney, compared with those in the colistin group. Our data demonstrated that co-administration of 20 mg/kg/day lycopene can protect against colistin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. This effect may be attributed to the anti-oxidative property of lycopene and its ability to activate the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.
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A diet with lactosucrose supplementation ameliorates trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Chronic intestinal inflammation contributes to an increased risk of colon cancer. Lactosucrose (LS), a kind of functional trisaccharide, can modulate immunity and promote microbe growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LS on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis in rats. Rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: the normal group, TNBS group, LS group, and salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP) group for five weeks. LS supplementation ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis. LS supplementation increased IL-10 production and suppressed the secretion of IL-12 in the colon, as compared to the TNBS group. LS decreased the production of TLR-2 protein and nuclear NF-?B p65 protein, as well as mRNA levels, as compared with colitic rats. These results indicate that chronic feeding of LS inhibited TNBS-induced chronic inflammation. LS has potential nutraceutical intervention to combat colitis.
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Ionic liquids composed of phosphonium cations and organophosphate, carboxylate, and sulfonate anions as lubricant antiwear additives.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Oil-soluble phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) have recently been reported as potential ashless lubricant additives. This study is to expand the IL chemistry envelope and to achieve fundamental correlations between the ion structures and ILs' physiochemical and tribological properties. Here we present eight ILs containing two different phosphonium cations and seven different anions from three groups: organophosphate, carboxylate, and sulfonate. The oil solubility of ILs seems largely governed by the IL molecule size and structure complexity. When used as oil additives, the ranking of effectiveness in wear protection for the anions are organophosphate > carboxylate > sulfonate. All selected ILs outperformed a commercial ashless antiwear additive. Surface characterization from the top and the cross-section revealed the nanostructures and compositions of the tribo-films formed by the ILs. Some fundamental insights were achieved: branched and long alkyls improve the IL's oil solubility, anions of a phosphonium-phosphate IL contribute most phosphorus in the tribo-film, and carboxylate anions, though free of P, S, N, or halogen, can promote the formation of an antiwear tribo-film.
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Decreased Interleukin-37 Expression in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease and Upregulation Following Immunosuppressive Treatment.
J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Interleukin-37 (IL-37) is emerging as an important inhibitor of immune response. This study was set up to investigate the expression of IL-37 in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease and to explore its possible regulatory role during inflammation. Twenty-four untreated active VKH patients, 10 VKH patients receiving corticosteroids and cyclosporin A (CsA), and 35 healthy controls were included in this study. IL-37 expression in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from these 3 groups was assayed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry. Cytokines in the supernatants of stimulated PBMCs and CD4(+) T cells were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activation were measured by flow cytometry. VKH patients showed a decreased IL-37 and IL-27 expression and increased IL-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) levels in PBMC culture supernatants. IL-37 significantly inhibited the production of IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?, but induced IL-27 expression. VKH patients treated with corticosteroids combined with CsA showed a regression of the intraocular inflammation, and treatment was associated with an enhanced IL-37 production. IL-37 did not affect the production of IL-17, interferon-gamma (IFN-?), or IL-10 from CD4(+) T cells. The present study suggests that a decreased IL-37 expression in VKH patients is associated with a reduced control of the inflammatory response. Treatment of VKH patients with corticosteroids and CsA is associated with an increased expression of IL-37, which suggests that corticosteroids and CsA may partly exert their immunosuppressive effect by upregulating IL-37 production.
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Biphasic regulation of autophagy by miR-96 in prostate cancer cells under hypoxia.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Autophagy favors cell survival under hypoxia, and increasing evidence revealed that microRNAs regulate autophagy. We report here hypoxia increased the expression of miR-96 in prostate cancer cells, and miR-96 stimulated autophagy by suppressing MTOR. We found that inhibition of miR-96 abolished hypoxia-induced autophagy. Paradoxically, ectopic over-expression of miR-96 to a certain threshold, also abolished the hypoxia-induced autophagy. Further studies have shown that high levels of miR-96 inhibited autophagy through suppressing ATG7, a key autophagy-associated gene. Importantly, the miR-96 expression level threshold was determined, and the effects of miR-96 on autophagy on either side of the threshold were opposite. These data demonstrate hypoxia-induced autophagy is at least partially regulated by miR-96; miR-96 can promote or inhibit autophagy by principally inhibiting MTOR or ATG7 depending on the expression levels of miR-96. Our observation might reveal a novel regulatory mode of autophagy by microRNAs under hypoxia.
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Carrier-suppressed return-to-zero to non-return-to-zero format conversion based on a single fiber Bragg grating with knife-shaped spectra.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We propose a novel carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (CSRZ) to non-return-to-zero (NRZ) conversion scheme based on a single custom-designed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with a knife-shaped spectrum. The structure of the FBG is designed and synthesized using a discrete layer-peeling inverse scattering technique. It is shown that such an FBG can replace the combination of interferometer and the cascaded filter that is invariably employed in the reported schemes for CSRZ to NRZ format conversion. Simulation results show that conversion of 40 Gbit/s CSRZ into NRZ signals results in a Q factor that is 4.5 dB greater than the previously reported schemes.
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Effects of Lettuce Glycoside B in Ameliorating Pulmonary Fibrosis Induced by Irradiation Exposure and its Anti-Oxidative Stress Mechanism.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The present research assessed the effects of lettuce glycoside B (LGB), a compound separated and purified from Pterocypsela laciniata, on irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and explored the mechanism involved. Animal model of irradiation exposure inducing pulmonary fibrosis was established by Co irradiator. Rats were intraperitoneally treated with LGB (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) once per day for a month. Lung index data were analyzed. The levels of fibrosis were assessed by hydroxyproline (Hyp) of pulmonary and lung tissue sections after irradiation exposure. Alveolitis and fibrosis levels were calculated from semi-quantitative analysis of hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome lung section staining. The serum levels of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were also evaluated. Antioxidant enzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured in serum. Moreover, we also measured serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, a marker of oxidative stress. Treatment with LGB significantly reduced mortality rates and lung index scores and MDA content, enhanced SOD and other antioxidant enzymes activity, and regulated serum levels of TGF-?1, IL-6, and TNF-?. These results demonstrated that LGB significantly inhibited irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, the results suggested promising clinical effect of LGB therapies for treating irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis.
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Abraxane® versus Taxol® for patients with advanced breast cancer: A prospective time and motion analysis from a Chinese health care perspective.
J Oncol Pharm Pract
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Abraxane® and Taxol® are both effective drugs for the treatment of advanced stage breast cancer. However, each agent possesses unique drug delivery characteristics with the former not requiring premedication and having a considerably shorter recommended infusion time (i.e. 30?min vs. 2-4?h). To measure the overall efficiency and cost-saving potential associated with Abraxane® relative to Taxol®, a time and motion study was undertaken in breast cancer patients treated in China.
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Clinical treatment and prognostic observation for different pathological infiltrations in 537 patients with unilateral retinoblastoma.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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The use of post-enucleation adjuvant therapy to decrease the extraocular relapse rate is frequently considered, but there is much controversy about the indications for adjuvant therapy. The aim of this retrospective study was to observe the treatment and prognosis for different degrees of invasion of eye tissue in retinoblastoma (RB) and identify the indications for post-enucleation adjuvant therapy.
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The cost-effectiveness of OM-85 in managing respiratory tract infections in China.
J Med Econ
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Abstract Objectives: To demonstrate the health economic impact of OM-85, a bacterial lysates based immunostimulant, for its approved indications in China. Methods: A cost-effectiveness decision tree model was constructed comparing OM-85 with the best supportive care/placebo therapy for managing the acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and rhinosinusitis in the Chinese population. Clinical efficacy and adverse events (AE) data were included in the model based on a thorough literature review. All localized direct treatment costs, including drug cost, AE costs, and medical treatment costs for underlining diseases were included from a Chinese third party payer perspective. A Key Opinion Leaders (KOL) survey was conducted with 20 senior physicians specialized in respiratory, ENT, allergy, and immunology fields from tertiary hospitals in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Shenyang, and Wuhan to validate the local treatment costs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated based on the above efficacy and cost information. Results: OM-85 is a cost-effective therapy when compared with placebo (standard care). OM-85 can treat/prevent one additional full episode exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and one additional full episode exacerbation of rhinosinusitis with only additional costs of RMB 653 and RMB 1182.84, respectively. In comparison, each acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis will cost RMB 4510.10, and each acute exacerbation of rhinosinuisitis will cost RMB 1807.21 in a Chinese clinical management setting. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed and the ICER result was demonstrated to be consistent. Conclusions: OM 85 reduces acute exacerbations among patients with chronic bronchitis and chronic rhinosinusitis when compared with Placebo (standard care). From a Chinese payer perspective, OM 85 is a cost-effective therapy in the clinical management of both chronic bronchitis and rhinosinusitis in the adult population.
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[Effects of cell-mediated immunity induced by intramuscular chitosan-pJME/ GM-CSF nano-DNA vaccine in BAlb/c mice].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the immune adjuvant effect and mechanism induced by chitosan nanoparticles carrying pJME/GM-CSF. In this study, plasmid DNA (pJME/GM-CSF) was encapsulated in chitosan to prepare chitosan-pJME/GM-CSF nanoparticles using a complex coacervation process. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the type of infiltrating cells at the site of intramuscular injection. The phenotype and functional changes of splenic DCs were measured by flow cytometry after different immunogens were injected intramuscularly. The killing activity of CTLs was assessed using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. The preparation of chitosan-pJME/GM-CSF nanoparticles matched the expected theoretical results. Our results also found that, after pJME/GM-CSF injection, the incoming cells were a mixture of macrophages, neutrophils, and immature DCs. Meanwhile, pJME/GM-CSF increased the expression of MHC class II molecules on splenic DCs, and enhanced their Ag capture and presentation functions. Cell-mediated immunity was induced by the vaccine. Furthermore, chitosan-pJME/GM-CSF nanoparticles outperformed the administration of standard pJME/GM-CSF in terms of DC recruitment, antigen processing and presentation, and vaccine enhancement. These findings reveal that chitosan could be used as delivery vector for DNA vaccine intramuscular immunizations, and enhance pJME/GM-CSF-induced cellular immune responses.
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Identification of TRIML2, a Novel p53 Target, that Enhances p53-SUMOylation and Regulates the Transactivation of Pro-apoptotic Genes.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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The tumor suppressor protein p53, encoded by TP53, inhibits tumorigenesis by inducing cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis. Several genetic polymorphisms exist in TP53, including a proline to arginine variant at amino acid 72 (P72 and R72, respectively); this polymorphism alters p53 function. In general, the P72 variant shows increased ability to induce cell cycle arrest, while the R72 variant possesses increased ability to induce apoptosis, relative to P72. At present, the underlying mechanisms for these functional differences are not fully understood. Toward elucidating the molecular basis for these differences a gene expression microarray analysis was conducted on normal human fibroblast cells that are homozygous for P72 and R72 variants, along with subclones of these lines that express a p53 short hairpin (shp53). Approximately three dozen genes were identified whose transactivation is affected by the codon 72 polymorphism. One of these is the tripartite motif family-like 2 (TRIML2) gene, which is preferentially induced by the R72 variant. Importantly, the accumulated data indicate that TRIML2 interacts with p53, and facilitates the modification of p53 with SUMO2. TRIML2 also enhances the ability of p53 to transactivate a subset of pro-apoptotic target genes associated with prolonged oxidative stress, including PIDD, PIG3 (TP53I3) and PIG6 (PRODH). These data indicate that TRIML2 is part of a feed-forward loop that activates p53 in cells expressing the R72 variant, particularly after prolonged stress. Implications: The defined actions of TRIML2, in part, explain the underlying molecular basis for increased apoptotic potential of the R72 variant of p53.
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A retro Diels-Alder route to diphosphorus chemistry: molecular precursor synthesis, kinetics of P2 transfer to 1,3-dienes, and detection of P2 by molecular beam mass spectrometry.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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The transannular diphosphorus bisanthracene adduct P2A2 (A = anthracene or C14H10) was synthesized from the 7-phosphadibenzonorbornadiene Me2NPA through a synthetic sequence involving chlorophosphine ClPA (28-35%) and the tetracyclic salt [P2A2Cl][AlCl4] (65%) as isolated intermediates. P2A2 was found to transfer P2 efficiently to 1,3-cyclohexadiene (CHD), 1,3-butadiene (BD), and (C2H4)Pt(PPh3)2 to form P2(CHD)2 (>90%), P2(BD)2 (69%), and (P2)[Pt(PPh3)2]2 (47%), respectively, and was characterized by X-ray diffraction as the complex [CpMo(CO)3(P2A2)][BF4]. Experimental and computational thermodynamic activation parameters for the thermolysis of P2A2 in a solution containing different amounts of CHD (0, 4.75, and 182 equiv) have been obtained and suggest that P2A2 thermally transfers P2 to CHD through two competitive routes: (i) an associative pathway in which reactive intermediate [P2A] adds the first molecule of CHD before departure of the second anthracene, and (ii) a dissociative pathway in which [P2A] fragments to P2 and A prior to addition of CHD. Additionally, a molecular beam mass spectrometry study on the thermolysis of solid P2A2 reveals the direct detection of molecular fragments of only P2 and anthracene, thus establishing a link between solution-phase P2-transfer chemistry and production of gas-phase P2 by mild thermal activation of a molecular precursor.
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Rationale and Applications of Survival Tree and Survival Ensemble Methods.
Psychometrika
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Classification and Regression Trees (CART), and their successors-bagging and random forests, are statistical learning tools that are receiving increasing attention. However, due to characteristics of censored data collection, standard CART algorithms are not immediately transferable to the context of survival analysis. Questions about the occurrence and timing of events arise throughout psychological and behavioral sciences, especially in longitudinal studies. The prediction power and other key features of tree-based methods are promising in studies where an event occurrence is the outcome of interest. This article reviews existing tree algorithms designed specifically for censored responses as well as recently developed survival ensemble methods, and introduces available computer software. Through simulations and a practical example, merits and limitations of these methods are discussed. Suggestions are provided for practical use.
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[Levator muscle gravis following injection of lidocaine: a case report].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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An allergic reaction was occurred in a 17-years old girl who was undergoing local anesthesia before tonsillectomy. Ptosis was observed in right side of patient shortly after injection of lidocaine to right palate. Then the patient feel grasp and cough, accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The patient was placed in supine position. Dexamethasone and epinephrine was administrated intramuscularly, symptoms were relieved 10 minutes later.
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The relationship between the plant-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 and alternative oxidase in tomato basal defense against Tobacco mosaic virus.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen attack. The SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense, which is pathogenesis-related protein-independent but involves an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1)-mediated RNA silencing mechanism and/or an alternative oxidase (AOX)-associated defense pathway. However, the relationship between these two viral defense-related pathways remains unclear. In this study, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) inoculation onto Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) leaves induced a rapid induction of the SlAOX1a transcript level as well as the total and CN-resistant respiration at 0.5 dpi, followed by an increase in SlRDR1 gene expression at 1 dpi in the upper uninoculated leaves. Silencing SlRDR1 using virus-induced gene silencing system significantly reduced SlRDR1 expression and tomato defense against TMV but had no evident effect on SlAOX1a transcription. Conversely, silencing SlAOX1a not only effectively reduced the AOX1a transcript level, but also blocked the TMV-induced SlRDR1 expression and decreased the basal defense against TMV. Furthermore, the application of an exogenous AOX activator on empty vector-silenced control plants greatly induced the accumulation of SlRDR1 and SlAOX1a transcript and reduced TMV viral RNA accumulation, but failed to have such effects on SlRDR1-silenced plants. Moreover, RDR1-overexpressed transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants enhanced defense against TMV than the empty vector-transformed plants, but these effects were not affected by the exogenous AOX activator or inhibitor. These results indicate that RDR1 is involved in the AOX-mediated defense pathway against TMV infection and plays a crucial role in enhancing RNA silencing to limit virus systemic spread.
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A critical role for interferon regulatory factor 9 in cerebral ischemic stroke.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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The failure of past efforts to develop effective stroke treatments is at least partially because these treatments often interfered with essential physiological functions, even though they are targeted toward pathophysiological events, such as inflammation, excitotoxicity, and oxidative stress. Thus, the direct targeting of endogenous neuroprotective or destructive elements holds promise as a potential new approach to treating this devastating condition. Interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9), a transcription factor that regulates innate immune responses, has been implicated in neurological pathology. Here, we provide new evidence that IRF9 directly mediates neuronal death in male mice. In response to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), IRF9 accumulated in neurons. IRF9 deficiency markedly mitigated both poststroke neuronal death and neurological deficits, whereas the neuron-specific overexpression of IRF9 sensitized neurons to death. The histone deacetylase Sirt1 was identified as a novel negative transcriptional target of IRF9 both in vivo and in vitro. IRF9 inhibits Sirt1 deacetylase activity, culminating in the acetylation and activation of p53-mediated cell death signaling. Importantly, both the genetic and pharmacological manipulation of Sirt1 effectively counteracted the pathophysiological effects of IRF9 on stroke outcome. These findings indicate that, rather than activating a delayed innate immune response, IRF9 directly activates neuronal death signaling pathways through the downregulation of Sirt1 deacetylase in response to acute I/R stress.
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Inhibition of autophagy promotes caspase-mediated apoptosis by tunicamycin in HepG2 cells.
Toxicol. Mech. Methods
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Abstract Tunicamycin (TM) causes accumulation of unfolded protein in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen and introduces from elsewhere ER stress. This study was to assess the apoptosis and autophagy effect induced by TM on HepG2 cells and the role of autophagy in the system. The viability of HepG2 cells was significantly inhibited by TM in a dose-dependent manner detected by MTT assay. Then, the apoptotic morphology change, increasing apoptotic cell rate suggested that apoptosis was induced by TM in a time- and dose-dependent manner. To further determine the involvement of caspase-dependent pathway in TM-induced apoptosis, we discover that the activity of caspase-3/7, 8, 9 and cleavage of PARP markedly increased after TM treatment and the apoptosis was effectively attenuated by using caspase-9 and pan caspase inhibitor. Moreover, provided the rising stained acidic vacuoles and an increased level of LC3II and activation of Beclin1, we concluded that autophagy could be triggered by TM in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, the inhibition of autophagy efficiently promoted TM-induced cell death identified by MTT assay. Meanwhile, the apoptotic cell rate and caspase-3 activation increased significantly after autophagy blockage. In conclusion, we found that TM initiated apoptosis and autophagy both in a time- and dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells; and inhibition of autophagy may promote TM-induced cell death through enhancing apoptosis.
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Diversity of Bacterial Manipulation of the Host Ubiquitin Pathways.
Cell. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Ubiquitination is generally considered as a eukaryotic protein modification, which is catalyzed by a three-enzyme cascade and is reversed by deubiquitinating enzymes. Ubiquitination directs protein degradation and regulates cell signaling, thereby plays key roles in many cellular processes including immune response, vesicle trafficking and cell cycle. Bacterial pathogens inject a series of virulent proteins, named effectors, into the host cells. Increasing evidence suggests that many effectors hijack the host ubiquitin pathways to benefit bacterial infection. This review summarizes the known functions and mechanisms of effectors from human bacterial pathogens including enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), Salmonella, Shigella, Chlamydia and Legionella, highlighting the diversity in their mechanisms for manipulating the host ubiquitin pathways. Many effectors adopt the molecular mimicry strategy to harbor similar structures or functional motifs with those of the host E3 ligases and deubiquitinases. On the other hand, a few of effectors evolve novel structures or new enzymatic activities to modulate various steps of the host ubiquitin pathways. The diversity in the mechanisms enhances the efficient exploitation of the host ubiquitination signaling by bacteria.
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Stimulation effect of chitosan on the immunity of radiotherapy patients suffered from lung cancer.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Water soluble chitosan (WSC), with low molecular weight, has many special biological, chemical, and physical properties, such as antifungal activity, antibacterial activity, and antitumor activity. In this study, the WSC was prepared by hydrolysis of the original chitosan with commercial cellulase, and the effect of WSC on the immunity of radiotherapy patients suffered from lung cancer (RPSFLC) was investigated. Oral administration of WSC increased CD3, CD4, CD4/CD8 ration, NK cells, IL-6, and TNF-? levels compared with the control group. The results indicate that oral administration of WSC can enhance the immunity of RPSFLC, and therefore oral administration of WSC may be used as an adjuvant therapy for them.
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Expression of T?R-2, Smad3 and Smad7 in the vaginal anterior wall of postpartum rats with stress urinary incontinence.
Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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The objective of this study is to quantify and evaluate the expression of several important proteins in TGF-?1/Smad pathway in the anterior vaginal wall in postpartum rats with stress urinary incontinence (SUI).
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Metabolomic analysis of amino acid and fat metabolism in rats with L-tryptophan supplementation.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Tryptophan (TRP) is an important precursor for several neurotransmitters and metabolic regulators, which play a vital role in regulating nutrient metabolism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tryptophan supplementation on the biochemical profiles, intestinal structure, liver structure and serum metabolome in rats. Rats received daily intragastric administration of either tryptophan at doses of 200 mg/kg body weight per day or saline (control group) for 7 days. TRP supplementation had a tendency to decrease the body weight of rats (P > 0.05). The levels of urea and CHO in serum were decreased in the TRP-supplemented group rats compared with control group rats (P < 0.05). TRP supplementation increased the villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunum compared to control group rats (P < 0.05). Metabolic effects of tryptophan supplementation include: (1) increases in the serum concentrations of lysine, glycine, alanine, glutamate, glutamine, citrulline, methionine, tyrosine, 1-methylhistidine, and albumin, and decreases in the concentrations of serum branched-chain amino acid (isoleucine, valine and leucine); (2) decreases in the serum concentrations of formate and nitrogenous products (trimethylamine, TMAO, methylamine and dimethylamine), and in the contraction of trimethylamine in feces; (3) decreases in serum levels of lipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, together with the elevated ratio of acetoacetate to ?-hydroxybutyrate. The results indicate that tryptophan supplementation reduced the catabolism of dietary amino acids and promoted protein synthesis in rats, promoted the oxidation of fatty acid and reduced fat deposition in the body of rats.
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Novel function of PITH domain-containing 1 as an activator of internal ribosomal entry site to enhance RUNX1 expression and promote megakaryocyte differentiation.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Altered gene expression coincides with leukemia development and may affect distinct features of leukemic cells. PITHD1 was significantly downregulated in leukemia and upregulated upon PMA induction in K562 cells undergoing megakaryocyte differentiation. We aimed to study the function of PITHD1 in megakaryocyte differentiation.
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A reversible conversion between a skyrmion and a domain-wall pair in a junction geometry.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Skyrmions are expected to be a key component of the next-generation of spintronics: known as 'skyrmionics'. On the other hand, there is a well-established memory device encoded by a sequence of domain walls. Here we show a conversion is possible between a skyrmion and a domain-wall pair by connecting wide and narrow nanowires, enabling the information transmission between a skyrmion device and a domain-wall device. Our results will be the basis of a hybrid device made of skyrmions and domain walls, where the encoded information in domain walls is converted into skyrmions, and then read out by converting the skyrmions back to domain walls after a functional control of the skyrmions. Such a device has the potential to outperform domain-wall racetrack memory because of the combined advantages of domain walls and skyrmions for spintronics application.
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Genome-wide association analysis of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome identifies two new susceptibility loci at 1p31.2 and 10q21.3.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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To identify new genetic risk factors for Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome, we conducted a genome-wide association study of 2,208,258 SNPs in 774 cases and 2,009 controls with follow-up in a collection of 415 cases and 2,006 controls and a further collection of 349 cases and 1,588 controls from a Han Chinese population. We identified three loci associated with VKH syndrome susceptibility (IL23R-C1orf141, rs117633859, P(combined) = 3.42 × 10(-21), odds ratio (OR) = 1.82; ADO-ZNF365-EGR2, rs442309, P(combined) = 2.97 × 10(-11), OR = 1.37; and HLA-DRB1/DQA1, rs3021304, P(combined) = 1.26 × 10(-118), OR = 2.97). The five non-HLA genes were all expressed in human iris tissue. IL23R was also expressed in the ciliary body, and EGR2 was expressed in the ciliary body and choroid. The risk G allele of rs117633859 in the promoter region of IL23R exhibited low transcriptional activation in a cell-based reporter assay and was associated with diminished IL23R mRNA expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
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Sequential combination therapy of ovarian cancer with degradable N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer paclitaxel and gemcitabine conjugates.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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For rapid and effective clinical translation, polymer-based anticancer therapeutics need long circulating conjugates that produce a sustained concentration gradient between the vasculature and solid tumor. To this end, we designed second-generation backbone-degradable diblock N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer carriers and evaluated sequential combination therapy of HPMA copolymer-paclitaxel and HPMA copolymer-gemcitabine conjugates against A2780 human ovarian carcinoma xenografts. First, extensive in vitro assessment of administration sequence impact on cell cycle, viability, apoptosis, migration, and invasion revealed that treatment with paclitaxel conjugate followed by gemcitabine conjugate was the most effective scheduling strategy. Second, in an in vivo comparison with first-generation (nondegradable, molecular weight below the renal threshold) conjugates and free drugs, the second-generation degradable high-molecular weight conjugates showed distinct advantages, such as favorable pharmacokinetics (three- to five-times half-life compared with the first generation), dramatically enhanced inhibition of tumor growth (complete tumor regression) by paclitaxel and gemcitabine conjugate combination, and absence of adverse effects. In addition, multimodality imaging studies of dual-labeled model conjugates confirmed the efficacy of second-generation conjugates by visualizing more than five-times enhanced tumor accumulation, rapid conjugate internalization, and effective intracellular release of payload. Taken together, the results indicate that the second-generation degradable HPMA copolymer carrier can provide an ideal platform for the delivery of a range of antitumor compounds, which makes it one of the most attractive candidates for potential clinical application.
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Effect of a high strength chemical industry wastewater on microbial community dynamics and mesophilic methane generation.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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A high strength chemical industry wastewater was assessed for its impact on anaerobic microbial community dynamics and consequently mesophilic methane generation. Cumulative methane production was 251 mL/g total chemical oxygen demand removed at standard temperature and pressure at the end of 30 days experimental period with a highest recorded methane percentage of 80.6% of total biogas volume. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) analysis revealed that acetic acid was the major intermediate VFAs produced with propionic acid accumulating over the experimental period. Quantitative analysis of microbial communities in the test and control groups with quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction highlighted that in the test group, Eubacteria (96.3%) was dominant in comparison with methanogens (3.7%). The latter were dominated by Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales while Methanosarcinaceae in test groups increased over the experimental period, reaching a maximum on day 30. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile was performed, targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Eubacteria and Archaea, with the DNA samples extracted at 3 different time points from the test groups. A phylogenetic tree was constructed for the sequences using the neighborhood joining method. The analysis revealed that the presence of organisms resembling Syntrophomonadaceae could have contributed to increased production of acetic and propionic acid intermediates while decrease of organisms resembling Pelotomaculum sp. could have most likely contributed to accumulation of propionic acid. This study suggested that the degradation of organic components within the high strength industrial wastewater is closely linked with the activity of certain niche microbial communities within eubacteria and methanogens.
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Phytochemical compositions of volatile oil from Blumea balsamifera and their biological activities.
Pharmacogn Mag
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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This research, extract compositions of volatile oil in Blumea balsamifera (Linn.) DC by steam distillation method. The gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer technology (GC-MS) was used to separate and determine chemical components of volatile oil. Meanwhile, the percentage of the chemical components was determined in the volatile oil by peak area normalization method. At the same time, we determine and evaluate antitumor, antibacterial, and antioxidation activities of chemical components of volatile oil in Blumea balsamifera of the aromatic plant.
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Characterization and partial genomic analysis of a lytic Myoviridae bacteriophage against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from dairy cows with mastitis in Mid-east of China.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Using bacteriophages as a tool to the control of pathogens is a complementary to antibiotic therapy. We have isolated a lytic bacteriophage, designated vB_SauM_JS25, from sewage effluent on a dairy farm in Jiangsu, Mid-east of China for use as a biocontrol agent against Staphylococcus aureus infections. Phage vB_SauM_JS25 was morphologically classified as Myoviridae. The phage showed broad host ranges within S. aureus strains, lysing 51 of 56 strains (91.1 %). Its latent period and burst size were approximately 20 min and 21 PFU/cell, respectively. Phage vB_SauM_JS25 was able to survive in a pH range between 6 and 9. However, a treatment of 70 or 80 °C for 10 min completely inactivated the phage. Moreover, morphologic analysis of vB_SauM_JS25 revealed that it was closely related to other Myoviridae phages infecting Staphylococcus species. The bacteriolytic activity of phage vB_SauM_JS25 at a multiplicity infection (MOI) 1 indicted its efficiency for reducing bacterial growth. These findings suggest that phage vB_SauM_JS25 could be considered a potential therapeutic or prophylactic candidate against S. aureus infection.
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Transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells for improving placental perfusion in preeclamptic rats.
Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Effective treatments for preeclampsia are currently unavailable. As endothelial progenitor cell-transplantation may improve ischemia, it is an important undertaking to study the role of endothelial progenitor cells for improving the symptom of preeclampsia.
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Identification of 19 phthalic acid esters in dairy products by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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A detection method for 19 kinds of phthalic acid ester compounds analyzed by n-hexane/ether/acetonitrile 1:7:8 v/v/v mixed solvent extraction, quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe purification and internal standard method of quantitative gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was established. This method can effectively remove interference materials such as lipids, fatty acids and pigments from dairy products. The 19 kinds of phthalic acid ester compounds were within a 0.025-0.2 mg/kg range, the recovery rate was 65.2-125.7%, relative standard deviation was 7.9-15.4% (n = 6), and the limit of detection was 0.005-0.02 mg/kg. Concentrations of the 19 kinds of phthalic acid ester compounds ranged between 0.01-0.12 mg/kg in 10 dairy materials and 20 dairy products. The established method is simple, rapid, accurate and highly sensitive. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Factors related to children's caries: a structural equation modeling approach.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Dental caries among preschool children is highly prevalent in many less-developed countries.
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H2O2 mediates the crosstalk of brassinosteroid and abscisic acid in tomato responses to heat and oxidative stresses.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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The production of H2O2 is critical for brassinosteroid (BR)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stress tolerance in plants. In this study, the relationship between BR and ABA in the induction of H2O2 production and their roles in response to heat and paraquat (PQ) oxidative stresses were studied in tomato. Both BR and ABA induced increases in RBOH1 gene expression, NADPH oxidase activity, apoplastic H2O2 accumulation, and heat and PQ stress tolerance in wild-type plants. BR could only induced transient increases in these responses in the ABA biosynthetic mutant notabilis (not), whereas ABA induced strong and prolonged increases in these responses in the BR biosynthetic mutant d (^im) compared with wild-type plants. ABA levels were reduced in the BR biosynthetic mutant but could be elevated by exogenous BR. Silencing of RBOH1 compromised BR-induced apoplastic H2O2 production, ABA accumulation, and PQ stress responses; however, ABA-induced PQ stress responses were largely unchanged in the RBOH1-silenced plants. BR induces stress tolerance involving a positive feedback mechanism in which BR induces a rapid and transient H2O2 production by NADPH oxidase. The process in turn triggers increased ABA biosynthesis, leading to further increases in H2O2 production and prolonged stress tolerance. ABA induces H2O2 production in both the apoplastic and chloroplastic compartments.
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Comparative DNA methylome analysis of endometrial carcinoma reveals complex and distinct deregulation of cancer promoters and enhancers.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Aberrant DNA methylation is a hallmark of many cancers. Classically there are two types of endometrial cancer, endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC), or Type I, and uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC), or Type II. However, the whole genome DNA methylation changes in these two classical types of endometrial cancer is still unknown.
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Chloroplastic thioredoxin-f and thioredoxin-m1/4 play important roles in brassinosteroids-induced changes in CO2 assimilation and cellular redox homeostasis in tomato.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Chloroplast thioredoxins (TRXs) and glutathione function as redox messengers in the regulation of photosynthesis. In this work, the roles of chloroplast TRXs in brassinosteroids (BRs)-induced changes in cellular redox homeostasis and CO2 assimilation were studied in the leaves of tomato plants. BRs-deficient d (^im) plants showed decreased transcripts of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-x, while exogenous BRs significantly induced CO2 assimilation and the expression of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-x. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the chloroplast TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-y genes individually increased membrane lipid peroxidation and accumulation of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin dimers, and decreased the activities of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes and the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in the leaves. Furthermore, partial silencing of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-y resulted in decreased expression of genes involved in the Benson-Calvin cycle and decreased activity of the associated enzymes. Importantly, the BRs-induced increase in CO2 assimilation and the increased expression and activities of antioxidant- and photosynthesis-related genes and enzymes were compromised in the partially TRX-f- and TRX-m1/4-silenced plants. All of these results suggest that TRX-f and TRX-m1/4 are involved in the BRs-induced changes in CO2 assimilation and cellular redox homeostasis in tomato.
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Assessment of in vivo microstructure alterations in gray matter using DKI in internet gaming addiction.
Behav Brain Funct
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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The aim of the current study was to investigate the utility of diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) in the detection of gray matter (GM) alterations in people suffering from Internet Gaming Addiction (IGA).
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Perfusion culture-induced template-assisted assembling of cell-laden microcarriers is a promising route for fabricating macrotissues.
Biotechnol J
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Mass transfer limitation in conventional top-down tissue engineering makes it impossible to fabricate large size viable tissue replacements. In the present study, we aimed at performing a systemic investigation of the assembling process in perfusion culture for fabricating centimeter-scale macrotissues from cell-laden microcarriers following a bottom-up modular approach. Cells (human fibroblasts, human mesenchymal stem cells, or HepG2 cells) were seeded onto microcarriers (Cytopore-2 or CultiSpher S) in spinner flasks and cultured for 14 days and subsequently transferred to a perfusion chamber for assembling. It was found that growth of different cells on different microcarriers varied and aggregation of cell-laden microcarriers was favored with CultiSpher S. After perfusion culture for 14 days, while all microtissues could assemble into integral macrotissues, macrotissues of HepG2 cells were structurally most inferior and the assembling of cell-laden CultiSpher S led to a significant shrinkage. By designing perfusion chamber and using agar-based templates, tubular, disc, and alphabetic letter-shaped macrotissues could be easily fabricated, suggesting template-assisted assembling. Importantly, it was revealed that there existed both optimal perfusion culture time (21 days) and packing condition (1/4 compression) for the assembling of microtissues. This study lays a solid foundation for future applications of this microtissue assembling technique in tissue engineering.
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Dopaminergic Neuron-Like Cells Derived from Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Lmx1? and Neurturin Overexpression for Autologous Cytotherapy in Hemiparkinsonian Rhesus Monkeys.
Curr Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells hold great potential for cytotherapeutics of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease. The neurotrophic factor neurturin can rescue dopaminergic neurons damaged during the disease process. Lmx1? can promote mesencephalic dopaminergic differentiation during embryogenesis. In this study, we tested a cytotherapeutic strategy combining NTN/Lmx1? gene therapy and cell transplantation to ameliorate disease progression in hemiparkinsonian rhesus. Rhesus BMSCs were prepared for autologous grafting by transfection with recombinant adenoviral vectors expressing secreted NTN and Lmx1?, and cultured in the presence of induce factors, particularly the Lmx1? regulatory factor sonic hedgehog, to guide dopaminergic differentiation. These induced rh-BMSCs exhibited gene/protein expression phenotypes resembling nigral dopaminergic neurons. They survived and retained dopaminergic function following stereotaxic injection into the MPTP-lesioned right-side substantia nigra as indicated by SPECT measurement of DAT activity. Injected cells preserved and supplemented the remaining endogenous population of dopamine neurons (TH-positive cell ipsilateral/contralateral ratio was 56.81% ± 7.28% vs. 3.86%±1.22% in vehicle-injected controls; p<0.05). Cell injection also partially restored motor function and reduce apomorphine-evoked rotation (p<0.05). Moreover, function recovery occurred earlier than in previous studies on injected BMSCs. Our findings demonstrate a promising strategy for restoration of PD-associated motor dysfunction by transplantation of autologous BMSCs overexpressing NTN/Lmx1?
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The shanghai aging study: study design, baseline characteristics, and prevalence of dementia.
Neuroepidemiology
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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To establish a prospective cohort to enumerate the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among residents aged ?60 in an urban community of Shanghai, China.
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LIMK1 Regulates Human Trophoblast Invasion/Differentiation and Is Down-Regulated in Preeclampsia.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Successful human pregnancy requires extensive invasion of maternal uterine tissues by the placenta. Invasive extravillous trophoblasts derived from cytotrophoblast progenitors remodel maternal arterioles to promote blood flow to the placenta. In the pregnancy complication preeclampsia, extravillous trophoblasts invasion and vessel remodeling are frequently impaired, likely contributing to fetal underperfusion and maternal hypertension. We recently demonstrated in mouse trophoblast stem cells that hypoxia-inducible factor-2 (HIF-2)-dependent Lim domain kinase 1 (LIMK1) expression regulates invasive trophoblast differentiation by modulating the trophoblast cytoskeleton. Interestingly, in humans, LIMK1 activity promotes tumor cell invasion by modulating actin and microtubule integrity, as well as by modulating matrix metalloprotease processing. Here, we tested whether HIF-2? and LIMK1 expression patterns suggested similar roles in the human placenta. We found that LIMK1 immunoreactivity mirrored HIF-2? in the human placenta in utero and that LIMK1 activity regulated human cytotrophoblast cytoskeletal integrity, matrix metallopeptidase-9 secretion, invasion, and differentiation in vitro. Importantly, we also found that LIMK1 levels are frequently diminished in the preeclampsia setting in vivo. Our results therefore validate the use of mouse trophoblast stem cells as a discovery platform for human placentation disorders and suggest that LIMK1 activity helps promote human placental development in utero.
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A modified method for MRF segmentation and bias correction of MR image with intensity inhomogeneity.
Med Biol Eng Comput
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Markov random field (MRF) model is an effective method for brain tissue classification, which has been applied in MR image segmentation for decades. However, it falls short of the expected classification in MR images with intensity inhomogeneity for the bias field is not considered in the formulation. In this paper, we propose an interleaved method joining a modified MRF classification and bias field estimation in an energy minimization framework, whose initial estimation is based on k-means algorithm in view of prior information on MRI. The proposed method has a salient advantage of overcoming the misclassifications from the non-interleaved MRF classification for the MR image with intensity inhomogeneity. In contrast to other baseline methods, experimental results also have demonstrated the effectiveness and advantages of our algorithm via its applications in the real and the synthetic MR images.
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S-1-based vs non-S-1-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a meta-analysis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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To assess the efficacy and tolerability of S-1-based vs non-S-1-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer (AGC).
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Effects of silencing RIP1 with siRNA on the biological behavior of the LoVo human colon cancer cell line.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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The present study aimed to investigate the effects of silencing RIP1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the biological behavior of the LoVo human colorectal carcinoma cell line and to provide evidence for the feasibility of colorectal cancer gene therapy. LoVo cells were divided into the RIP1 siRNA group, the blank control group and the negative control group. Chemically synthesized siRNA targeting RIP1 (RIP1 siRNA) was transfected into LoVo cells. Following transfection of the RIP1-targeted siRNA into the LoVo cells, the expression of the RIP1 gene was effectively inhibited. The results demonstrated that RIP1 effectively regulated the malignant biological behavior of the LoVo colon cancer cell line. Furthermore, the proliferation, motility and invasiveness of LoVo cells were inhibited by siRNA knockdown of RIP1. The results revealed that the RIP1 gene has an important role in the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma cells.
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Hydrogen peroxide mediates abscisic acid-induced HSP70 accumulation and heat tolerance in grafted cucumber plants.
Plant Cell Environ.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Root-shoot communications play important roles in plant stress responses. Here, we examined the roles of root-sourced signals in the shoot response to heat in cucumber plants. Cucumber plants grafted onto their own roots and luffa roots were exposed to aerial and root-zone heat to examine their tolerance by assessing the levels of oxidative stress, PSII photoinhibition, accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), H2 O2 and heat shock protein (HSP) 70 using immunoblotting, chlorophyll fluorescence, immunoassay, CeCl3 staining and Western blotting, respectively. Grafting onto the luffa rootstock enhanced the shoot tolerance to the heat. This enhanced tolerance was associated with increased accumulation of ABA and apoplastic H2 O2 , RBOH transcripts and HSP70 expression and a decrease in oxidative stress in the shoots. The increases in the ABA and H2 O2 concentrations in the shoots were attributed to an increase in ABA transport from roots and an increase in ABA biosynthesis in the shoots when the root-zone and shoots were heat stressed, respectively. Inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation compromised luffa rootstock-induced HSP70 expression and heat tolerance. These results suggest that, under heat stress, ABA triggers the expression of HSP70 in an apoplastic H2 O2 -dependent manner, implicating the role of an ABA-dependent H2 O2 -driven mechanism in a systemic response involving root-shoot communication.
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The sub/supra-optimal temperature-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and oxidative damage in cucumber leaves are alleviated by grafting onto figleaf gourd/luffa rootstocks.
Physiol Plant
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Shoot-root communication is involved in plant stress responses, but its mechanism is largely unknown. To determine the role of roots in stress tolerance, cucumber (Cucumis sativus) shoots from plants with roots of their own or with figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia, a chilling-tolerant species) or luffa (Luffa cylindrica (L.) M. Roem., a heat-tolerant species) rootstocks were exposed to low (18/13°C), optimal (27/22°C) and high (36/31°C) temperatures, respectively. Grafting onto figleaf gourd and luffa rootstocks significantly alleviated chilling and heat-induced reductions, respectively, in biomass production and CO2 assimilation capacity in the shoots, while levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were decreased. Figleaf gourd and luffa rootstocks upregulated a subset of stress-responsive genes involved in signal transduction (MAPK1 and RBOH), transcriptional regulation (MYB and MYC), protein protection (HSP45.9 and HSP70), the antioxidant response (Cu/Zn-SOD, cAPX and GR), and photosynthesis (RBCL, RBCS, RCA and FBPase) at low and high growth temperatures, respectively, and this was accompanied by increased activity of the encoded enzymes and reduced glutathione redox homeostasis in the leaves. Moreover, Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) expression in cucumber leaves was strongly induced by the luffa rootstock at the high growth temperature but slightly induced by the figleaf gourd rootstock at low or high growth temperatures. These results indicate that rootstocks could induce significant changes in the transcripts of stress-responsive and defense-related genes, and the ROS scavenging activity via unknown signals, especially at stressful growth temperatures, and this is one of mechanisms involved in the grafting-induced stress tolerance.
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Communication preference moderates the effect of a tailored intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening among African Americans.
Patient Educ Couns
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Test the impact of tailoring CRC screening messages for African Americans (AAs) using novel theoretical variables and to examine moderating effect of communication preferences.
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H3K36 histone methyltransferase Setd2 is required for murine embryonic stem cell differentiation toward endoderm.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Setd2 is known as a histone-H3K36-specific methyltransferase. However, its role in physiological function remains unclear. In this study, we show that Setd2 mainly regulates differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) toward primitive endoderm. Furthermore, we show that downregulated endoderm-related genes in Setd2(-/-) mESCs are associated with an aberrantly low level of Erk activity and that enforced expression of Fgfr3 can rescue the defective Erk pathway in Setd2(-/-) mESCs. Interestingly, the transcriptional initiation of Fgfr3 is directly regulated through histone H3K36me3 modification in its distal promoter region by Setd2. These results indicate that Setd2 controls the primitive endoderm differentiation of mESCs by regulating the Fgfr3-Erk signaling.
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Case-control resting-state fMRI study of brain functioning among adolescents with first-episode major depressive disorder.
Shanghai Arch Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Adolescent depression results in severe and protracted suffering for affected individuals and their family members, but the underlying mechanism of this disabling condition remains unclear.
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Dynamics of propionic acid degradation in a two-phase anaerobic system.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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This paper reports on propionic acid (HPr) degradation in a laboratory scale two-phase anaerobic system, where HPr was accumulated in the acidogenic reactor and degraded in the methanogenic reactor. Batch tests using biomass from the two-phase anaerobic system showed HPr degradation was rarely detectable in the acidogenic reactor when HPr concentration ranged from 639 to 4531mgHPrL(-1) and at pH 4.50 to 6.50. Biomass from the methanogenic reactor could, however, successfully degrade HPr at its initial concentration of up to 4585mgHPrL(-1) at pH 6.40-7.30. ATP results showed that differences in the degradation ability of HPr by the acidogenic and methanogenic biomass may be related with their respective different biomass activities. Results from pyrosequencing showed that the predominant propionic acid oxidizing bacteria (POB) in the methanogenic reactor were Smithella (2.68%) and Syntrophobacter (0.35%); while poor degradation of HPr in the acidogenic reactor may be associated with the low abundance of POB (0.02% Desulfacinum and 0.08% Desulfobulbus). This might have been induced by the long-term unfavorable environment for POB growth in the acidogenic reactor.
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GABAA receptor overexpression in the lateral hypothalamic area attenuates gastric ischemia?reperfusion injury in rats.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Excessive activation of the greater splanchnic nerve (GSN) has previously been determined to contribute to the progression of gastric ischemia?reperfusion (GI?R) injury. The present study was designed to estimate the protective effects of GABAA receptor (GABAAR) overexpression in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) against GI?R injury. The GI?R injury model was induced in rats by clamping the celiac artery for 30 min and then reperfusing for 1 h. Microinjection of recombinant adenoviral vectors overexpressing GABAAR (Ad?GABAAR) or control adenoviral vectors (Ad?Con) into the LHA was conducted in GI?R and normal control rats. Significant protective effects were observed on day 2 after Ad?GABAAR treatment in the GI?R injury rats. Ad?GABAAR treatment reduced plasma norepinephrine levels, plasma angiotensin II levels and peripheral GSN activity, but increased the gastric mucosal blood flow, as compared with Ad?Con treatment. These results indicate that adenoviral vector?induced GABAAR overexpression in the LHA blunts GSN activity and subsequently alleviates the effects of gastric injury in GI?R rats.
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Comparison of single-stage and two-phase anaerobic sludge digestion systems - Performance and microbial community dynamics.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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This study compared reactor performance and the respective microbial community dynamics in the conventional single-stage and 2-phase anaerobic digestion (AD) systems, treating municipal sludge to generate methane. The 2-phase system's COD and VS reduction, and methane production could be maintained throughout the three HRTs tested (p=0.05), which was associated with an increase in organic loading (30d=1.5gCODL(-1)d(-1), 20d=2.2gCODL(-1)d(-1) and 10d=3.5gCODL(-1)d(-1)); but this was not so in the single-stage system where it deteriorated at HRT of 10d (p=0.05) due to impairment of particulate COD reduction. qPCR, DGGE and the subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that microbial adaptation occurred as the seed sludge formed a different community in each reactor at 30d HRT; however, no further significant microbial shift occurred at lower HRTs. The presence of specific hydrolytic and acidogenic Flavobacteriales and Clostriales in the acidogenic reactor may have allowed for enhanced hydrolysis and acidogenesis, leading to higher organic loading tolerance at 10d HRT. Methanogenic activity in the acidogenic reactor may have been performed by Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinaceae. Operation of the acidogenic reactor at neutral pH may have to be considered to ensure the cultivation of propionate oxidising bacteria, which could in turn, prevent reactor "souring" during high load conditions.
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From sphere to polyhedron: a hypothesis on the formation of high-index surfaces in nanocrystals.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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The morphology of tetrahexahedral nanocrystals could be understood on the basis of a hypothesis that the atoms or molecules on or near spherical surfaces can migrate till reaching their equilibrium positions. Such migration of atoms/molecules is shown to be closely related to the formation of high-index surfaces in nanopolyhedrons. On account of this hypothesis, a theoretical calculation about the indices of the surfaces in tetrahexahedrons is found in good agreement with the empirical results. A group of high-index surfaces for nanocrystals that can be formed under certain environments are thus predicted. This study may provide a novel idea for preparing the catalysts at nanoscale.
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Advanced ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric methods for simultaneous screening and quantification of triterpenoids in Poria cocos.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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A sensitive, precise and accurate method was developed to screen and quantify triterpenoids based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS). An exact neutral loss scan of 62.0004 Da (CH2O3) was used to selectively detect triterpenoids in Poria cocos, followed by a survey scan for exact masses of precursor and fragment ions of these triterpenoids. The developed method was applied to quantify seven major triterpenoids in 40 P. cocos samples of different origins within 18 min, and a total of 31 triterpenoids were unequivocally or tentatively identified. Principal component analysis of these samples showed a clear separation of three groups, and ten triterpenoids play key roles in differentiating these samples were obtained from the OPLS-DA variable influence on projection (VIP) plot and then unequivocally or tentatively identified. The developed method can be applied for rapid bitterness evaluation, quality control and authenticity establishment of P. cocos.
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Role of H2O2 dynamics in brassinosteroid-induced stomatal closure and opening in Solanum lycopersicum.
Plant Cell Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential for plant growth and development; however, their roles in the regulation of stomatal opening or closure remain obscure. Here, the mechanism underlying BR-induced stomatal movements is studied. The effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the stomatal apertures of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were measured by light microscopy using epidermal strips of wild type (WT), the abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient notabilis (not) mutant, and plants silenced for SlBRI1, SlRBOH1 and SlGSH1. EBR induced stomatal opening within an appropriate range of concentrations, whereas high concentrations of EBR induced stomatal closure. EBR-induced stomatal movements were closely related to dynamic changes in H(2)O(2) and redox status in guard cells. The stomata of SlRBOH1-silenced plants showed a significant loss of sensitivity to EBR. However, ABA deficiency abolished EBR-induced stomatal closure but did not affect EBR-induced stomatal opening. Silencing of SlGSH1, the critical gene involved in glutathione biosynthesis, disrupted glutathione redox homeostasis and abolished EBR-induced stomatal opening. The results suggest that transient H(2)O(2) production is essential for poising the cellular redox status of glutathione, which plays an important role in BR-induced stomatal opening. However, a prolonged increase in H(2)O(2) facilitated ABA signalling and stomatal closure.
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Capacitance effect on the oscillation and switching characteristics of spin torque oscillators.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We have studied the capacitance effect on the oscillation characteristics and the switching characteristics of the spin torque oscillators (STOs). We found that when the external field is applied, the STO oscillation frequency exhibits various dependences on the capacitance for injected current ranging from 8 to 20 mA. The switching characteristic is featured with the emerging of the canted region; the canted region increases with the capacitance. When the external field is absent, the STO free-layer switching time exhibits different dependences on the capacitance for different injected current. These results help to establish the foundation for capacitance-involved STO modeling.
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Comparison of characteristics of chronic kidney diseases between Tibet plateau and plain areas.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The purpose of the current study was to investigate the pathological characteristics of chronic kidney diseases in the Tibet plateau and the plain.
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An iteration normalization and test method for differential expression analysis of RNA-seq data.
BioData Min
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Next generation sequencing technologies are powerful new tools for investigating a wide range of biological and medical questions. Statistical and computational methods are key to analyzing massive and complex sequencing data. In order to derive gene expression measures and compare these measures across samples or libraries, we first need to normalize read counts to adjust for varying sample sequencing depths and other potentially technical effects.
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Ectopic osteogenesis of macroscopic tissue constructs assembled from human mesenchymal stem cell-laden microcarriers through in vitro perfusion culture.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We had previously demonstrated the feasibility of preparing a centimeter-sized bone tissue construct by following a modular approach. In the present study, the objectives were to evaluate osteogenesis and tissue formation of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells-laden CultiSpher S microcarriers during in vitro perfusion culture and after subcutaneous implantation. Microtissues were prepared in dynamic culture using spinner flasks in 28 days. In comparison with 1-week perfusion culture, microtissues became more obviously fused, demonstrating significantly higher cellularity, metabolic activity, ALP activity and calcium content while maintaining cell viability after 2-week perfusion. After subcutaneous implantation in nude mice for 6 and 12 weeks, all explants showed tight contexture, suggesting profound tissue remodeling in vivo. In addition, 12-week implantation resulted in slightly better tissue properties. However, in vitro perfusion culture time exerted great influence on the properties of corresponding explants. Degradation of microcarriers was more pronounced in the explants of 2-week perfused macrotissues compared to those of 1-week perfusion and directly implanted microtissues. Moreover, more blood vessel infiltration and bone matrix deposition with homogeneous spatial distribution were found in the explants of 2-week perfused macrotissues. Taken together, in vitro perfusion culture time is critical in engineering bone tissue replacements using such a modular approach, which holds great promise for bone regeneration.
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IL-1RA +2018 polymorphism and the susceptivity to pneumoconiosis: a Meta-analysis.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It has been reported that host genetic factors may play a crucial role in pneumoconiosis susceptibility. The present study aimed to study the association between IL-1RA +2018 polymorphism and pneumoconiosis by Meta-analysis.
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Disrupted brain functional network in internet addiction disorder: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is increasingly recognized as a mental health disorder, particularly among adolescents. The pathogenesis associated with IAD, however, remains unclear. In this study, we aim to explore the encephalic functional characteristics of IAD adolescents at rest using functional magnetic resonance imaging data. We adopted a graph-theoretic approach to investigate possible disruptions of functional connectivity in terms of network properties including small-worldness, efficiency, and nodal centrality on 17 adolescents with IAD and 16 socio-demographically matched healthy controls. False discovery rate-corrected parametric tests were performed to evaluate the statistical significance of group-level network topological differences. In addition, a correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationships between functional connectivity and clinical measures in the IAD group. Our results demonstrate that there is significant disruption in the functional connectome of IAD patients, particularly between regions located in the frontal, occipital, and parietal lobes. The affected connections are long-range and inter-hemispheric connections. Although significant alterations are observed for regional nodal metrics, there is no difference in global network topology between IAD and healthy groups. In addition, correlation analysis demonstrates that the observed regional abnormalities are correlated with the IAD severity and behavioral clinical assessments. Our findings, which are relatively consistent between anatomically and functionally defined atlases, suggest that IAD causes disruptions of functional connectivity and, importantly, that such disruptions might link to behavioral impairments.
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MicroRNA expression signatures of stage, grade, and progression in clear cell RCC.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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Clear cell RCC is the most common, and more likely to metastasize, of the three main histological types of RCC. Pathologic stage is the most important prognostic indicator and nuclear grade can predict outcome within stages of localized RCC. Epithelial tumors are thought to accumulate a series of genetic and epigenetic changes as they progress through well-defined clinical and histopathological changes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of mRNA expression from many human genes and miRNA expression is dysregulated in cancer. To better understand the contribution of dysregulated miRNA expression to the progression and biology of ccRCC, we examined the differences in expression levels of 723 human miRNAs through a series of analyses by stage, grade, and disease progression status in a large series of 94 ccRCC. We found a consistent signature that included significant upregulation of miR-21-5p, 142-3p, let-7g-5p, let-7i-5p and 424-5p, as well as downregulation of miR-204-5p, to be associated with ccRCC of high stage, or high grade, or progression. Discrete signatures associated with each of stage, grade, or progression were also identified. The let-7 family was significantly downregulated in ccRCC compared with normal renal parenchyma. Expression of the 6 most significantly differentially expressed miRNAs between ccRCC was verified by stem-loop qRT-PCR. Pathways predicted as targets of the most significantly dysregulated miRNAs included signaling, epithelial cancers, metabolism, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Our studies help to further elucidate the biology underlying the progression of ccRCC and identify miRNAs for potential translational application.
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[Preparation and characterization of the recombinant hFGF21-containing lentiviral].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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To package the lentiviral particles carrying human fibroblast growth factor 21 (hFGF21) and identify the morphological characteristics and transduction capability for the target gene of human embryo kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells.
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RBOH1-dependent H2O2 production and subsequent activation of MPK1/2 play an important role in acclimation-induced cross-tolerance in tomato.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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H2O2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play important functions in plant stress responses, but their roles in acclimation response remain unclear. This study examined the functions of H2O2 and MPK1/2 in acclimation-induced cross-tolerance in tomato plants. Mild cold, paraquat, and drought as acclimation stimuli enhanced tolerance to more severe subsequent chilling, photooxidative, and drought stresses. Acclimation-induced cross-tolerance was associated with increased transcript levels of RBOH1 and stress- and defence-related genes, elevated apoplastic H2O2 accumulation, increased activity of NADPH oxidase and antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione redox state, and activation of MPK1/2 in tomato. Virus-induced gene silencing of RBOH1, MPK1, and MPK2 or MPK1/2 all compromised acclimation-induced cross-tolerance and associated stress responses. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that acclimation-induced cross-tolerance is largely attributed to RBOH1-dependent H2O2 production at the apoplast, which may subsequently activate MPK1/2 to induce stress responses.
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Signatures of positive selection in LY96 gene in vertebrates.
J. Biosci.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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As a secreted glycoprotein that binds to the extracellular domain of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Lymphocyte Antigen 96 (LY96), also called myeloid differentiation 2 (MD2), is required for the activation of TLR4 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and plays an important role in innate immunity, which is the first line of defence against microbial infections. Previous studies have proposed that mammalian toll-like receptors (TLRs) have evolved under diversifying selection due to their role in pathogen detection. Given the fact that LY96 is highly functionally linked to TLR4, it would be interesting to test whether LY96 is under the intense pressure of natural selection. To investigate the natural selection hypothesis, we compared the coding sequences from 13 vertebrates and evaluated the molecular evolution of LY96 gene in these species. Result shows that natural selection at exon 4 has indeed played a role in shaping the function of LY96 in the course of evolution. In addition to the study of Nakajima, we found the two branch nodes with Ka/Ks ratios greater than 1: the one leading to cow and pig and the other to rabbit and the primates.
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Preparation and antibacterial activity of oligosaccharides derived from dandelion.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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In this study, we prepared oligosaccharides from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) by hydrolysis with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and investigated their antibacterial activity. The optimum hydrolysis conditions, as determined using the response surface methodology, were as follows: reaction time, 5.12h; reaction temperature, 65.53°C and H2O2 concentration, 3.16%. Under these conditions, the maximum yield of the oligosaccharides reached 25.43%. The sugar content in the sample was 96.8%, and the average degree of polymerisation was approximately 9. The oligosaccharides showed high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, indicating that dandelion-derived oligosaccharides have the potential to be used as antibacterial agents.
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IL-18 levels in the semen of male infertility: Semen analysis.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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This study investigated the relationship between interleukin (IL)-18 levels and male infertility. Semen samples from 57 infertile and normal males were subjected to semen analysis. The pH of the semen samples from normal and abnormal groups showed no significant difference (p>0.05). However, semen volume, density, forward movement percentage, activity, survival rate, and normal morphology rate of the sperms in the normal group were significantly higher than those of the abnormal group (p<0.01). The IL-18 levels of semen in the abnormal group (810.91pg/mL) were higher than that of the normal group (402.74pg/mL; p<0.01). Analyses indicate that seminal fluid IL-18 positively correlates with IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-?. Seminal IL-18 level does not affect bacterial colony count. Results indicate that IL-18 may be important in male reproduction.
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The preparation of VEGFR1/CD3 bi-specific antibody and its specific cytotoxicity against VEGFR1-positive breast cancer cells.
Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2013
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Bi-specific antibody (BsAb) has been proved to be a very effective anti-tumor approach because of its distinctive advantages of immune-mediated cytotoxicity. In order to enhance the ability to recruit and activate T lymphocytes for tumor-specific killing, we constructed and prepared a recombinant human single chain Fv bi-specific antibody (BsAb) targeting VEGFR1 and CD3, named VEGFR1/CD3 BsAb. The VEGFR1/CD3 BsAb was expressed in CHO-K1 cells and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The CD3 and VEGFR1 binding activity of VEGFR1/CD3 BsAb was confirmed by flow cytometry. T lymphocyte activation and proliferation induced by VEGFR1/CD3 BsAb were also demonstrated in vitro. Notably, our VEGFR1/CD3 BsAb presented powerful and specific killing effect against VEGFR1-positive human breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 through activating T lymphocyte at very low concentration, indicating it will be a valuable antibody drug for treatment of VEGFR1-positive cancers in future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Triclosan-loaded poly(amido amine) dendrimer for simultaneous treatment and remineralization of human dentine.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2013
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In order to treat dental caries of damaged dentine, triclosan-loaded carboxyl-terminated poly(amido amine) dendrimer (PAMAM-COOH) is prepared and characterized. While being incubated in artificial saliva, triclosan-loaded PAMAM-COOH formulation can induce in situ remineralization of hydroxyapatite (HA) on etched dentine, and the regenerated HA has a similar crystal structure with natural dentine. It can also release the encapsulated triclosan for a long period. The interesting drug release profiles are controlled by both dendrimer encapsulation capability and the mineralization degree, which are ideal to obtain multifunctional properties of long-term release of anti-bacterial drug for local treatment during the remineralization process. The triclosan-loaded G4-COOH provides a general strategy to cure dental caries and repair damaged dentine at the same time, which forms a potential restorative material for dental repair.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.