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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Assembly of three coordination polymers based on a sulfonic-carboxylic ligand showing high proton conductivity.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Three new coordination polymers (CPs)/metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with different structures have been synthesized using 4,8-disulfonyl-2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (H4L) and metal ions, Cu(2+), Ca(2+) and Cd(2+). The Cu compound features a one-dimensional chain structure, further extending into a 2D layer network through H-bond interactions. Both the Ca and Cd compounds show 3D frameworks with (4,4)-connected PtS-type topology and (3,6)-connected bct-type topology, respectively. These CPs/MOFs all exhibit proton conduction behavior, especially for the Cu compound with a proton conductivity of 3.46 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 368 K and 95% relative humidity (RH). Additionally, the activation energy (Ea) has also been investigated to deeply understand the proton-conduction mechanism.
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Affinity of the interface between hydroxyapatite (0001) and Titanium (0001) surfaces: A first principles investigation.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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A basic understanding of the affinity between the hydroxyapatite (HA) and ?-Ti surfaces is obtained through electronic structure calculations by first-principles method. The surface energies of HA(0001), HA , HA , and Ti(0001) surfaces have been calculated. The HA(0001) presents the most thermodynamically stable of HA. The HA/Ti interfaces were constructed by two kinds of interface models, the single interface (denoted as SI) and the double-interface (denoted as DI). Two methods, the full relaxation and the UBER, were applied to determine the interfacial separation and the atomic arrangement in the interfacial zone. The works of adhesion of interfaces with various stoichiometric HA surfaces were evaluated. For the HA(0001)/Ti(0001) interfaces, the work of adhesion is strongly depended on the chemical environment of the HA surface. The values are -2.33, -1.52, and -0.80 J/m2 for the none-, single-, and double-Ca terminated HA/Ti interfaces, respectively. The influence of atomic relaxation on the work of adhesion and interface separation is discussed. Full relaxation results -1.99 J/m2 work of adhesion and 0.220 nm separation between HA and Ti for the DI of 1-Ca-HA/Ti interface, while they are -1.14 J/m2 and 0.235 nm by partial relaxation. Analysis of electronic structure reveals that charge transfer between HA and Ti slabs occurs during the formation of the HA/Ti interface. The transfer generates the Ti-O or Ti-Ca bonds across the interface and drives the HA/Ti interface system to metallic characteristic. The energetically favorable interfaces are formed when the outmost layer of HA comprises more O atoms at the interface.
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Effect of ketoconazole and diltiazem on the pharmacokinetics of apixaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Apixaban is an orally active inhibitor of coagulation factor Xa and is eliminated by multiple pathways, including renal and non-renal elimination. Non-renal elimination pathways consist of metabolism by cytochrome P450 [CYP] enzymes, primarily CYP3A4, as well as direct intestinal excretion. Two single-sequence studies evaluated the effect of ketoconazole (a strong dual inhibitor of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein [P-gp]) and diltiazem (a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and a P-gp inhibitor) on apixaban pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects.
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Genetic and phenotypic characterization of Candida albicans strains isolated from infectious disease patients in Shanghai.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Candida albicans, as an opportunistic pathogen, can cause superficial and life-threatening candidiasis in immunocompromised individuals. The formation of surface-associated biofilms and the appearance of drug resistance pose a significant challenge for clinical intervention. In this study, a total of 104 hospital-acquired C. alibcans clinical isolates collected from sterile sites and mucosal lesions of 92 infectious disease patients in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center were analyzed. The resistance rate to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole were 12.5%, 15.4% and 11.5% respectively. MLST analysis identified 63 diploid sequence types (DSTs) with a decentralized phylogeny, of which 37 DSTs (58.7%) had not been reported in the online MLST database. Loss of heterozygosity was observed in ACC1 and ADP1 sequences obtained from six sequential isolates from a patient receiving antifungal treatment, which exemplified the effect of microevolution on C. albicans genetic alterations. The biofilm formation capability, an important virulence trait of C. albicans, was variable among strains isolated from different anatomical sites (p=0.0302) and affected by genotypes (p=0.0185). The mRNA level of the azole antifungal target ERG11 gene and efflux pump genes (CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1) were detected in 9%-18.1% of azole-resistant and susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) isolates. Twelve mutations encoding distinct amino acid substitutions in ERG11 were found in azole-resistant and S-DD isolates. Among them, A114S, Y132H and Y257H substitution in the ERG11 gene may be primarily related to azole resistance. Taken together, we observed a high level of diversity within C. albicans isolates. Multiple inter-related underlying mechanisms, including genetic and environmental factors, may account for high surface adhesion or azole resistance in clinical C. albicans infection.
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The impact of China¿s national essential medicine system on improving rational drug use in primary health care facilities: an empirical study in four provinces.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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BackgroundThe National Essential Medicine System (NEMS) is a new policy in China launched in 2009 to improve the appropriate use of medications. This study aims to examine the outcomes of the NEMS objectives in terms of the rational use of medicines in primary health care facilities in China.MethodsA total of 28,651 prescriptions were collected from 146 township health centers in four provinces of China by means of a field survey conducted in 2010¿2011. Indicators of rational drug use were extracted and compared using a pre/post design and then evaluated with regard to the World Health Organization (WHO) Standard Guidelines and data from previous research.ResultsThe average number of drugs per prescription decreased from 3.64 to 3.46 (p <¿0.01) between 2009 and 2010. Little effect was found for the NEMS on the average number of antibiotics per prescription, but the percentage of prescriptions including antibiotics decreased from 60.26 to 58.48% (p <¿0.01). Prescriptions for injections or adrenal corticosteroids also decreased, to 40.31 and 11.16% of all prescriptions, respectively. All these positive issues were also recorded in 2011. However, each of the above values remained higher than WHO standards. The percentage of drugs prescribed from the Essential Drug List increased after the implementation of the NEMS (p <¿0.01). Where the available data allowed changes in costs to be assessed, the average expense per prescription increased significantly, from 25.77 to 27.09 yuan (p <¿0.01).ConclusionsThe NEMS effectively improved rational medicine use in China. However, polypharmacy and the over-prescription of antibiotics and injections remain common. There is still a large unfinished agenda requiring policy improvements. Treatment guidelines, intensive support supervision, and continuing training for both professionals and consumers are the essential actions that need to be taken.
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LC-MS/MS determination of apixaban (BMS-562247) and its major metabolite in human plasma: an application of polarity switching and monolithic HPLC column.
Bioanalysis
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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apixaban (BMS-562247) (Eliquis(®)) is a novel, orally active, selective, direct, reversible inhibitor of the coagulation factor Xa (FXa). A sensitive and reliable method was developed and validated for the measurement of apixaban (BMS-562247) and its major circulating metabolite (BMS-730823) in human citrated plasma for use in clinical testing.
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Orientation- and passivation-dependent stability and electronic properties of ?-Si3N4 nanobelts.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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The energetic stability and electronic properties of unpassivated, hydrogen (-H) and hydroxyl (-OH) passivated ?-Si3N4 nanobelts orientating along the [101], [210], [011], [100], [001], and [110] directions are investigated by first-principles calculations. Calculations show that the energetic stabilities of ?-Si3N4 nanobelts depend weakly upon orientations of nanobelts, but sensitively on passivation treatments. The most stable nanobelt is the OH cluster partially passivated ?-Si3N4, followed by the H atom fully passivated and the unpassivated systems. All the unpassivated nanobelts show metallic characteristics due to the presence of dangling bonds of surficial atoms in nanobelts, while all the passivated nanobelts exhibit semiconducting characteristics. The valence band maximum (VBM) and the conduction band minimum (CBM) mainly originate from the surface N-2p and Si-3p states, respectively. For ?-Si3N4 nanobelts orientating along [101], [210], [011] and [110] directions, the OH passivated systems exhibit a much smaller band gap than the H passivated systems, while the [100] and [001] orientated nanobelts exhibit the opposite band-gap properties.
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Cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis resulted in the isolation of three new triterpene glycosides, 3?-[(?-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-19?,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (1), 2?,3?,19?,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (2), and 3?-[(?-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-19?-hydroxyurs-12,20(30)-dien-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (3). All the triterpene glycosides exhibited the significant cytotoxic potential with low IC50 values (IC50 < 5.0 ?M) against six tumor cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa, HepG2, SGC-7901, NCI-H460, and BGC-823).
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Spectrum-Effect Relationships as a Systematic Approach to Traditional Chinese Medicine Research: Current Status and Future Perspectives.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Component fingerprints are a recognized method used worldwide to evaluate the quality of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). To foster the strengths and circumvent the weaknesses of the fingerprint technique in TCM, spectrum-effect relationships would complementarily clarify the nature of pharmacodynamic effects in the practice of TCM. The application of the spectrum-effect relationship method is crucial for understanding and interpreting TCM development, especially in the view of the trends towards TCM modernization and standardization. The basic requirement for using this method is in-depth knowledge of the active material basis and mechanisms of action. It is a novel and effective approach to study TCMs and great progress has been made, but to make it more accurate for TCM research purposes, more efforts are needed. In this review, the authors summarize the current knowledge about the spectrum-effect relationship method, including the fingerprint methods, pharmacodynamics studies and the methods of establishing relationships between the fingerprints and pharmacodynamics. Some speculation regarding future perspectives for spectrum-effect relationship approaches in TCM modernization and standardization are also proposed.
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Up-Regulation of Glis2 Involves in Neuronal Apoptosis After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Adult Rats.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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The novel Krüppel-like zinc finger protein Gli-similar 2 (Glis2), one member of the transcription factors, is involved in controlling the flow of genetic information and the modulation of diverse cellular activities. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated its important roles in adult development and several diseases. However, information regarding the regulation and possible function of Glis2 in the central nervous system is still limited. In this study, we explored the roles of Glis2 during the pathophysiological process of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). An ICH rat model was established and assessed by behavioral tests. Expression of Glis2 was significantly up-regulated in brain areas surrounding the hematoma following ICH. Immunofluorescence showed that Glis2 was strikingly increased in neurons, but not astrocytes or microglia. Up-regulation of Glis2 was found to be accompanied by the increased expression of active caspase-3 and Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2 in vivo and vitro studies. Moreover, knocking down Glis2 by RNA-interference in PC12 cells reduced active caspase-3 and Bax expression while increased Bcl-2. Collectively, we speculated that Glis2 might exert pro-apoptotic function in neurons following ICH.
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Meta-analysis of the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D polymorphism and aortic aneurysm risk.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D polymorphism has been indicated to be correlated with aortic aneurysm (AA) susceptibility, but study results are still debatable. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted.
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Single-Stage Multiple-Tract Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in the Treatment of Staghorn Stones under Total Ultrasonography Guidance.
Urol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of single-stage multiple-tract percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in the treatment of staghorn stones solely guided by ultrasonography (US). Patients and Methods: From May 2007 to July 2012, 55 single-stage multiple-tract PCNL procedures were performed (53 patients, of whom 2 had bilateral stones). Caliceal puncture and dilatation were performed under US guidance in all cases. The procedure was evaluated for access success, length of postoperative hospital stay, complications (modified Clavien system), and stone clearance. Results: The mean (±SD) operating time was 84.87 ± 24.9 min, with a mean (±SD) postoperative hospital stay of 5.2 ± 1.31 days. The patients experienced a mean (±SD) decrease in hemoglobin level of 8.23 ± 2.39 g/l and the stone-free rate after single-stage surgery was 78.18%. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy was indicated in 2 cases as an auxiliary treatment. There were 10 grade 1 (62.5%) and 6 grade 2 (37.5%) complications; however, there were no complications above grade 3. Conclusion: Total US-guided single-stage multiple-tract PCNL for treating staghorn calculi in selected cases is safe, feasible, and may be performed with an acceptable morbidity and with the advantage of preventing radiation hazards and damage to adjacent organs. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Local coding based matching kernel method for image classification.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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This paper mainly focuses on how to effectively and efficiently measure visual similarity for local feature based representation. Among existing methods, metrics based on Bag of Visual Word (BoV) techniques are efficient and conceptually simple, at the expense of effectiveness. By contrast, kernel based metrics are more effective, but at the cost of greater computational complexity and increased storage requirements. We show that a unified visual matching framework can be developed to encompass both BoV and kernel based metrics, in which local kernel plays an important role between feature pairs or between features and their reconstruction. Generally, local kernels are defined using Euclidean distance or its derivatives, based either explicitly or implicitly on an assumption of Gaussian noise. However, local features such as SIFT and HoG often follow a heavy-tailed distribution which tends to undermine the motivation behind Euclidean metrics. Motivated by recent advances in feature coding techniques, a novel efficient local coding based matching kernel (LCMK) method is proposed. This exploits the manifold structures in Hilbert space derived from local kernels. The proposed method combines advantages of both BoV and kernel based metrics, and achieves a linear computational complexity. This enables efficient and scalable visual matching to be performed on large scale image sets. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed LCMK method, we conduct extensive experiments with widely used benchmark datasets, including 15-Scenes, Caltech101/256, PASCAL VOC 2007 and 2011 datasets. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the relatively efficient LCMK method.
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Clinical and renal biopsy findings predicting outcome in renal thrombotic microangiopathy: a large cohort study from a single institute in China.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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The current study aimed to investigate the spectrum of etiologies and associated disorders of renal biopsy-proven thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) patients.
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The role of red blood cell distribution width in mortality and cardiovascular risk among patients with coronary artery diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
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Red cell distribution width (RDW) might be a novel biomarker that reflects multiple physiological impairments related to atherosclerosis and coronary artery diseases (CAD). We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association of RDW between all-cause mortality and fatal/non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in CAD patients.
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[Influence of different original processing methods on quality of Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma from Shandong].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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In this paper the contents of rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, crytotanshinone, tanshinone II(A) in samples of different original processed Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were determined by HPLC. Different processing methods have varied influences on four active ingredients in Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Sun-drying reduced the content of crytotanshinone, tanshi-none II(A) and rosmarinic acid, integralsamples were better than those cut into segments. Oven dry method had great influence on water--soluble ingredients, high temperature (80-100 degrees C) could easily cause big loss of rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B. The role of traditional processing method "fahan: was complicated, the content of rosmarinic acid decreased, crytotanshinone and tanshinone II(A) increased, and salvianolic acid B showed no difference after "fahan". Drying in the shade and oven dry under low temperatrure (40-60 degrees C) were all effective to keep active ingredients of Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and, there was no difference between integral samples and samples cut into segments. Therefore, considering comprehensively the content of active ingredients in Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and processing costing etc., shade-drying or oven dry underlow temperature (40-60 degrees C) should be the most suitable original processing method.
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Prognostic Role of SIRT1 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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To determine the clinical significance of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) and its association with P53 and Yes-associated protein 2 (YAP2) expression.
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Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory tirucallane triterpenoids from Dysoxylum binectariferum.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Four new tirucallane triterpenoids 1-4 along with two known compounds 5 and 6 were isolated from the stem bark of Dysoxylum binectariferum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY) analyses. The isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro for anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic potential against eight tumor cell lines. Compounds 1-6 exhibited significant selective inhibition of Cox-1 and selectively significant cytotoxic against five tumor cell lines (A-549, HCT15, HepG2, SGC-7901 and SK-MEL-2), especially against HepG2 cell lines with IC50 value of 7.5-9.5?M.
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Microbial transformation of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol by Mucor spinosus.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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Microbial transformation of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (1) by Mucor spinosus afforded two new and eight known metabolites. The structures of the metabolites were identified as 12-oxo-20(S)-protopanaxatriol (2), 23,24-en-25-methoxyl-20(S)-protopanaxatriol (3), 29-hydroxyl-20(S)-protopanaxatriol (4), 20(S),24(S)-epoxy-dammaran-3?,6?,12?,25-triol (5), 12-oxo-27-hydroxyl-20(S)-protopanaxatriol (6), 12-oxo-26-hydroxyl-20(S)-protopanaxatriol (7), 12-oxo-23?-hydroxyl-20(S)-protopanaxatriol (8), 12-oxo-11?-hydroxyl-20(S)-protopanaxatriol (9), 12-oxo-15?-hydroxyl-20(S)-protopanaxatriol (10), and 12-oxo-25,26-en-15?-hydroxyl-20(S)-protopanaxatriol (11). Among them, 3 and 11 are new compounds. The metabolites 3, 10 and 11 showed the more potent inhibitory effects against seven cell lines than the substrate.
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Expression and clinical significance of microRNA-152 in supragalottic laryngeal carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs of endogenous origin that play an important role in tumor development. Here, we examined the role of miR-152 in supragalottic laryngeal carcinoma. The expression of miR-152 was assessed by real-time PCR in tissues from 83 patients with supragalottic laryngeal carcinoma in relation to clinicopathological parameters. Cell viability was assessed by thiazolyl blue assay in Hep-2 cells transfected with miR-152 mimics or a negative control. MiR-152 was significantly downregulated in supragalottic laryngeal carcinoma tissues (t?=?12.65, p?
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A high efficiency, high quality and low cost internal regulated bioanalytical laboratory to support drug development needs.
Bioanalysis
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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In the recent past, we have seen an increase in the outsourcing of bioanalysis in pharmaceutical companies in support of their drug development pipeline. This trend is largely driven by the effort to reduce internal cost, especially in support of late-stage pipeline assets where established bioanalytical assays are used to analyze a large volume of samples. This article will highlight our perspective of how bioanalytical laboratories within pharmaceutical companies can be developed into the best partner in the advancement of drug development pipelines with high-quality support at competitive cost.
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Impact of losartan and angiotensin II on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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The present study aimed to investigate the impact of losartan and angiotensin II (AngII) on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), secreted by rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Rat VSMCs were isolated and cultured in different concentrations of AngII and losartan for 24 h and western blot analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed to observe the subsequent impact on the gene and protein expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1. AngII was shown to promote the protein and gene expression of MMP-9 in VSMCs in a concentration-dependent manner. No effect was observed on the expression of TIMP-1, therefore, an increase in the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio was observed. Losartan was shown to be able to inhibit MMP-9 protein and gene expression in a concentration-dependent manner, whilst promoting an increase in TIMP-1 expression, thus decreasing the ratio of MMP-9/TIMP-1. The combined action of losartan and AngII resulted in the same directional changes in MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression as observed for losartan alone. The comparison of AngII, losartan and the combinatory effect on the expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in VSMCs indicated that losartan inhibited the effects of AngII, therefore reducing the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio, which may contribute to the molecular mechanism of losartan in preventing atherosclerosis. In atherosclerosis, the development of the extracellular matrix of plaque is closely correlated with the evolution of AS. The balance between MMPs and TIMPs is important in maintaining the dynamic equilibrium between the ECM, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is involved in the pathologenesis of AS, and in which AngII has a central role.
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Synthesis and luminescence resonance energy transfer based on noble metal nanoparticles and the NaYF?:Tb³? shell.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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A core-shell hybrid nanostructure was prepared by combining NaYF4 doped with the lanthanide dopant Tb(3+) as shell layer materials and noble metal nanoparticles (Au and Ag) as cores. For the core-shell system, the luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) was demonstrated, in which noble metal nanoparticles as fluorescence quenchers can absorb the emission energy of the ?-NaYF4:Tb(3+) donor. The morphology, structure, composition and properties of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, respectively. In the Au/Ag@NaYF4:Tb(3+) system, it is observed that the plasmonic absorption bands of gold or silver nanoparticles overlap with the emission bands of (5)D4?(7)F(j) (j = 6, 5) transition of the Tb(3+) ions, and the emission intensity of the (5)D4?(7)F5 transition is clearly attenuated. The photoluminescence decay curve measurements show that the lifetimes of the (5)D4?(7)F6 and (5)D4?(7)F5 transitions of Tb(3+) are slightly decreased in the presence of gold or silver cores. The quenching efficiency of the gold and silver nanoparticles implies that the efficiency of energy transfer is highly dependent on the extent of spectral overlap in the LRET system.
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Methodology and application for health risk classification of chemicals in foods based on risk matrix.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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The method has been developed to accurately identify the magnitude of health risks and provide scientific evidence for implementation of risk management in food safety. It combines two parameters including consequence and likelihood of adverse effects based on risk matrix. Score definitions and classification for the consequence and the likelihood of adverse effects are proposed. The risk score identifies the intersection of consequence and likelihood in risk matrix represents its health risk level with different colors: 'low', 'medium', 'high'. Its use in an actual case is shown.
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Flotillin-1 expression in human clear-cell renal cell carcinoma is associated with cancer progression and poor patient survival.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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The present study was designed to elucidate the expression levels and the proliferative effect of flotillin-1, an integral membrane protein encoded by the FLOT1 gene, in human clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Flotillin has been implicated in other types of cancer, but the role of flotillin in RCC has not been established. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to determine FLOT1 protein expression levels in RCC samples from 182 patients who underwent nephrectomy. FLOT1 mRNA expression levels were analyzed using reverse-transcription (RT) and RT-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The association between FLOT1 expression levels in the tumor samples and patient survival time was examined using Kaplan?Meier analysis. To demonstrate the proliferative effect of FLOT1 on RCC cells, a FLOT1 vector was transfected into four RCC cell lines and FLOT1 expression was inhibited using small interfering RNA. The proliferative ability of the RCC cells was investigated using a WST-1 assay and xenograft experiments with BALB/C nude mice. The results demonstrated that FLOT1 expression levels were significantly higher in RCC cell samples from patients than in healthy renal tissue, and the expression levels were associated with tumor stage, size and histological grade. In addition, FLOT1 significantly enhanced the proliferation of RCC cell lines in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that FLOT1, which is upregulated in RCC, is involved in RCC cell proliferation, tumorigenesis and progression. Therefore, FLOT1 is an independent prognostic marker and therapeutic target for patients with clear-cell RCC.
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(99)mTc-3PRGD2 scintimammography in palpable and nonpalpable breast lesions.
Mol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic performance of 99mTc-3(poly-(ethylene glycol),PEG)4-RGD2 (99mTc-3PRGD2) scintimammography (SMM) in patients with either palpable or nonpalpable breast lesions and compare SMM to mammography to assess the possible incremental value of SMM in breast cancer detection. We also investigated the ?v?3 expression in malignant and benign breast lesions. Ninety-four patients with 110 lesions were included in this study. Mammograms were evaluated according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) by a specialized imaging radiologist. Prone SMM was performed 1 hour after injection of 99mTc-3PRGD2. Scintigraphic images were interpreted independently by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians using a three-point system, and the kappa value was calculated to determine the interreader agreement. The McNemar test was used to compare SMM and mammography with respect to sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Diagnostic values for breast cancer detection were evaluated for each lesion. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate integrin ?v?3 expression. Histopathology revealed 46 malignant lesions and 64 benign lesions. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of SMM were 83%, 73%, 77%, 69%, and 85%, respectively. The kappa value between the two reviewers was 0.63. The diagnostic values of SMM were higher than those of mammography in evaluating overall breast lesions. A sensitivity of 91% was achieved when SMM and mammography results were combined with 60% of all false-negative mammography findings classified as true-positive results by SMM. Integrin ?v?3 expression was positively identified using SMM imaging. SMM is a promising tool to avoid unnecessary biopsies when used in addition to mammography and can be used to image ?v?3 expression in breast cancer with good image quality.
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Anti-C1q autoantibodies from active lupus nephritis patients could inhibit the clearance of apoptotic cells and complement classical pathway activation mediated by C1q in vitro.
Immunobiology
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Anti-C1q antibodies are prevalent in patients with active lupus nephritis and were found to be closely associated with renal involvement and predictive for a flare of nephritis. However, the pathogenesis of anti-C1q antibodies involved in human lupus nephritis remains unclear. C1q, which plays a key role in apoptotic cell and immune complex removal, is a very important functional molecule in the pathogenesis of SLE. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of anti-C1q autoantibodies from active lupus nephritis patients on the bio-functions of C1q in vitro. We purified IgG autoantibodies against C1q from lupus nephritis patients, and found that they could recognize C1q bound on early apoptotic cells at 30?g/ml, and could significantly decrease the phagocytosis by macrophages of early apoptotic cells opsonized by 50?g/ml C1q in comparison with normal IgG. Levels of circulating immune complexes of the ten patients were measured by a circulating immune complexes (CIC)-C1q Enzyme Immunoassay Kit. Anti-C1q autoantibodies affinity purified by microtiter plates could significantly inhibit the deposition of C3c on CIC-C1q in a dose dependent manner in comparison with IgG from 10 healthy blood donors. The binding of opsonized immune complexes to RBCs was significantly inhibited by anti-C1q autoantibodies purified by microtiter plates in a dose dependent manner. Our observations suggest that serum anti-C1q autoantibodies from active lupus nephritis patients could interfere with some biological function of C1q in vitro.
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A stable, pillar-layer metal-organic framework containing uncoordinated carboxyl groups for separation of transition metal ions.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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A 3D pillar-layer framework (1) with uncoordinated carboxyl groups exhibits exceptional stability. It can effectively and selectively adsorb Cu(2+) ions and has been applied as a chromatographic column for separating Cu(2+)/Co(2+) ions.
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[Treatment and prognosis of 117 patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma of the bladder].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of advanced urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (AUCB).
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Silencing of Src by siRNA inhibits laryngeal carcinoma growth through the Src/PI-3 K/Akt pathway in vitro and in vivo.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the expression, function, and possible mechanism of Src in the Hep-2 cell line. We used Src-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) to inhibit the expression of Src in Hep-2 cells. RT-PCR and Western blot were applied to evaluate the expression level of Src after RNA interference, and the MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to observe the expression of PI-3 K and Akt. siRNA can downregulate the expression of Src in Hep-2 cells. Downregulation of Src decreased PI-3 K and Akt expression. We found that Src knockdown inhibits the proliferation of Hep-2 cells and the growth of laryngeal carcinoma in vivo. This study has demonstrated that Src participates in the regulation of apoptosis through the Src/PI-3 K/Akt signaling pathway in the Hep-2 cell line. Silencing of Src by siRNA is a viable approach in laryngeal carcinoma treatment.
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Dissociation of functional and anatomical brain abnormalities in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients.
Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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Schizophrenia patients and their unaffected siblings share similar brain functional and structural abnormalities. However, no study is engaged to investigate whether and how functional abnormalities are related to structural abnormalities in unaffected siblings. This study was undertaken to examine the association between functional and anatomical abnormalities in unaffected siblings.
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Gd@C82(OH)22 nanoparticles constrain macrophages migration into tumor tissue to prevent metastasis.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Macrophages can be recruited to tumor tissues and play a supportive role in the invasion microenvironment. Since nanoparticles can be easily endocytosed by this kind of cell, the advances in nanotechnology offer a new sight to target macrophages in tumor tissues for diminishing harmful phenotypes. In the xenograft mouse model, we found that metallofullerol Gd@C82(OH)22 can not only reduced the macrophage density in the tumor tissue, but also decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 produced by this kind of cell. To verify the phenomenon, a macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 was employed in the experiment, in vivo. Gd@C82(OH)22 nanoparticles can be engulfed by macrophages and the quantity was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Fluorescent staining result showed that the particle induced the cells to adopt an elongated spindle morphology. The morphology alteration implied that the cells undergo mesenchymal migration, which is assisted by matrix metalloproteinase-9 to break down the extracellular matrix. But the reverse transcription PCR and western blots results indicated that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 was reduced after the treatment of Gd@C82(OH)22. Thus, transwell migration assay indicated that macrophages were constrained to migrate through the collagen matrix.
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Induction of apoptosis in human peritoneal mesothelial cells by gastric cancer cell supernatant promotes peritoneal carcinomatosis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of gastric cancer cell supernatant on human peritoneal mesothelial cell viability and apoptosis and to investigate the mechanism of action of gastric cancer in a mesothelial cell line (HMrSV5). Cell viability was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay. Mesothelial cells treated with gastric cancer cell supernatant were stained with acridine orange/ethidium bromide and subjected to fluorescence microscopy. C57BL/6 mice were used to establish a cancer invasion model. Morphological changes and exfoliation occurred, and naked areas appeared in both cultured mesothelial cells and the parietal peritoneum after treatment with gastric cancer cell supernatant. Cell supernatant from gastric cancer cells induced apoptosis of mesothelial cells in a time-dependent manner. Obvious morphological changes of cell apoptosis were detected, such as condensation of chromatin, nuclear fragmentations, and apoptotic ladders. These findings demonstrate that gastric cancer cells induce apoptosis of human peritoneal mesothelial cells through supernatants in early peritoneal metastasis.
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Cytotoxic triterpenoids from Saussurea phyllocephala.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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Three new triterpenoids, 11?-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-ene-3?-palmitate (1), 28-hydroxy-20-oxo-30-norlupane-3?-palmitate (2), and 1?,11?,28-tyrihydroxy oleana-9(11),12-dien-3?-palmitate (3), together with three known compounds were isolated from the 95 % EtOH extract of Saussurea phyllocephala. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY) analyses. All the triterpenoids were in vitro evaluated for their cytotoxic activities. Compound 1-3 exhibited the significant cytotoxic activities with low IC50 values (IC50 < 4.0 ?M) against six tumor cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa, HepG2, SGC-7901, NCI-H460 and BGC-823).
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Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids from Alstonia rupestris with cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activities.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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A chemical investigation of the 80% EtOH extract of the aerial plant of Alstonia rupestris afforded four new monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, 6,7-epoxy-8-oxo-vincadifformine (1), 11-acetyl-6,7-epoxy-8-oxo-vincadifformine (2), 11-hydroxy-14-chloro-15-hydroxy-vincadifformine (3), and perakine N1,N4-dioxide (4), together with two known compounds, 11-hydroxy-6,7-epoxy-8-oxovincadifformine (5) and vinorine N1,N4-dioxide (6). Structural elucidation of all the compounds was performed by spectral methods such as 1D- and 2D-NMR, IR, UV, and HRESIMS. Alkaloids 1, 2 and 5 showed significant cytotoxicities against all the tested tumor cell lines of the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with IC50 value less than 20 ?M and antimicrobial activities against two fungi (Alternaria alternata and Phytophthora capsici). Alkaloids 4 and 6 exhibited the activity against bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.
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Homologous black-bright-blood and flexible interleaved imaging sequence (HOBBI) for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the vessel wall.
Magn Reson Med
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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To present a HOmologous Black-Bright-blood and flexible Interleaved imaging (HOBBI) sequence for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the vessel wall.
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Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression in rat spinal cord injury model.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), a member of the matrix metalloproteinases family, plays an integral role in extracellular matrix degradation and has been reportedly involved in the regulation of the brain or spinal cord traumatic neurovascular remodeling. Although the critical involvement of MMP-1 in the metastasis of tumors has been extensively documented, the role of MMP-1 in the pathology of neurological diseases remains largely elusive. In the present study, we established an adult rat spinal cord injury (SCI) model and investigated a potential role of MMP-1 in the pathological process of SCI. Using Western blot analysis, we identified notable expression change of MMP-1 after SCI. Immunohistochemistry showed that MMP-1 was distributed widely in rat spinal cord. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed that MMP-1 immunoreactivity was predominantly increased in neurons and astrocytes following SCI. Moreover, after injury, colocalization of MMP-1/active caspase-3 in neurons (NeuN-positive), and colocalization of MMP-1/PCNA in astrocytes (GFAP-positive) were clearly observed. We also examined the protein expression of PCNA, active caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax and found that the expression of the proteins was closely correlated with that of MMP-1. Taken together, our findings indicate that MMP-1 might play an important role in the regulation of neuronal apoptosis and astrocyte proliferation after SCI.
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A novel highly sensitive and selective fluorescent sensor for imaging copper (II) in living cells.
J Fluoresc
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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In this work, we designed and synthesized a novel quinolin-based derivative which exhibited signaling behaviors for Cu(2+). Upon the addition of Cu(2+) to the solution of the molecule, it displayed an obvious fluorescence quenching in a linear fashion due to the formation of a 1:1 metal-ligand complex. This fluorescent sensor exhibited a rare sensitivity toward Cu(II) (the level of magnitude could be 6?×?10(-8)), a rapid response (<10 s) and also high selectivity toward Cu(2+) over other metal ions such as Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Ba(2+), Fe(3+), Mn(2+), Hg(2+), Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Cr(3+), Co(2+), Zn(2+) and Al(3+). Simultaneously, the cell imaging experiments and filter paper test demonstrated its extensive applicability.
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Carbon dioxide insufflation improves the intubation depth and total enteroscopy rate in single-balloon enteroscopy: a randomised, controlled, double-blind trial.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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The total enteroscopy rate of single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) using air insufflation is not satisfactory, and whether carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation increases the total enteroscopy rate of SBE is unknown. This randomised controlled trial aimed to determine whether CO2 insufflation facilitates the intubation depth and total enteroscopy rate of SBE.
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Visual learning alters the spontaneous activity of the resting human brain: an fNIRS study.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) has been widely used to investigate spontaneous brain activity that exhibits correlated fluctuations. RSFC has been found to be changed along the developmental course and after learning. Here, we investigated whether and how visual learning modified the resting oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) functional brain connectivity by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We demonstrate that after five days of training on an orientation discrimination task constrained to the right visual field, resting HbO functional connectivity and directed mutual interaction between high-level visual cortex and frontal/central areas involved in the top-down control were significantly modified. Moreover, these changes, which correlated with the degree of perceptual learning, were not limited to the trained left visual cortex. We conclude that the resting oxygenated hemoglobin functional connectivity could be used as a predictor of visual learning, supporting the involvement of high-level visual cortex and the involvement of frontal/central cortex during visual perceptual learning.
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Concentration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in foods and its dietary exposure in China.
Int J Hyg Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a common plasticizer used in food contact materials that has been reported as an endocrine disruptor. In the present study, DEHP concentrations were analyzed in foods in order to determine dietary exposure among the Chinese population, including the general population (aged 2-100) and four age group, that is children aged 2-6, adolescent aged 7-12, young people aged 13-17 and adults aged 18 years old and above. 1704 food samples were collected during 2011-2012 and categorized into 12 food groups which covered major foods in China. Food consumption data were taken from China National Nutrient and Health Survey which was performed in 2002 and includes data from 68,959 subjects. Mean concentrations of DEHP were combined with individual food consumption data to estimate dietary exposure. It was found that DEHP levels in foods ranged from not detected to 3.41 mg/kg, with highest mean values in meat (0.23 mg/kg) and vegetable oils (0.21 mg/kg). Mean dietary intakes of DEHP in the general population, children, and adults were 2.34, 4.51, 2.03 ?g/kg bw per day, respectively. The 97.5% intakes in these populations were 5.22, 8.43, 3.64 ?g/kg bw per day, respectively. The main food sources of DEHP dietary intake were cereals (39.44%), drinking water (16.94%) and meat (15.81%) in children, and cereals (44.57%), meat (15.70%) and drinking water (12.28%) for adults. These findings suggested that dietary exposure to DEHP among Chinese population was lower than tolerable daily intake of DEHP and there are no health concerns based on generally accepted exposure limits.
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Regioselective electrophilic aromatic bromination: theoretical analysis and experimental verification.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Electrophilic aromatic bromination is the most common synthetic method used to prepare aryl bromides, which are very useful intermediates in organic synthesis. To understand the experimental results in electrophilic aromatic brominations, ab initio calculations are used here for a tentative analysis of the positional selectivity. The calculated results agree well with the corresponding experimental data, and the reliability of the resulting positional selectivity was verified by the corresponding experimental data.
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Alkaloids from Lycoris aurea and their cytotoxicities against the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Phytochemical investigation of the 80% EtOH extract of the bulbs of Lycoris aurea led to the isolation of six new alkaloids, 2-demethyl-isocorydione (1), 8-demethyl-dehydrocrebanine (2), 1-hydroxy-anhydrolycorin-7-one (3), (+)-1,2-dihydroxy-anhydrolycorine N-oxide (4), 5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-2-hydroxyphenanthridine (5), and (+)-8-hydroxy-homolycorine-?-N-oxide (6), and together with two known compounds, isocorydione (7) and anhydrolycorin-7-one (8). Structural elucidation of all the compounds was performed by spectral methods such as 1D and 2D ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) NMR spectroscopy, in addition to high resolution mass spectrometry. All the alkaloids were in vitro evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against seven tumor cell lines of the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and anti-inflammatory activities. Compounds 1, 2, 6, and 7 exhibited significant cytotoxicities against all the tested cell lines. Moreover, alkaloids 1, 2, and 7 possessed selective inhibition of Cox-2 (>85%).
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MicroRNA-126 modulates the tumor microenvironment by targeting calmodulin-regulated spectrin-associated protein 1 (Camsap1).
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Plasma miRNAs have been reported as biomarkers for various diseases. In this study, we investigated whether plasma concentrations of miR-126 may be useful as biomarkers for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). We examined the function and mechanism of miR-126 in LSCC by using cell biology and molecular pathology techniques such as western blotting, quantitative PCR, IHC and IF. The expression of Camsap1 mRNA and protein is higher in cancer tissues compared to that in normal tissues. Both miR-126 and Camsap1 were related with the prognosis of LSCC patients. We found that miR-126 was able to inhibit LSCC partly by suppressing Camsap1 expression. In addition, Camsap1 expression induced microtubule formation and aggregation. This mechanism possibly explains why loss of miR-126 is frequently associated with tumor metastasis.
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Radiofrequency ablation or microwave ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma by comparing with radiofrequency ablation alone.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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To compare radiofrequency ablation (RFA) or microwave ablation (MWA) and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) with RFA or MWA monotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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A perceptual learning deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia as revealed by visual texture discrimination training.
Dyslexia
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Learning to read involves discriminating between different written forms and establishing connections with phonology and semantics. This process may be partially built upon visual perceptual learning, during which the ability to process the attributes of visual stimuli progressively improves with practice. The present study investigated to what extent Chinese children with developmental dyslexia have deficits in perceptual learning by using a texture discrimination task, in which participants were asked to discriminate the orientation of target bars. Experiment l demonstrated that, when all of the participants started with the same initial stimulus-to-mask onset asynchrony (SOA) at 300?ms, the threshold SOA, adjusted according to response accuracy for reaching 80% accuracy, did not show a decrement over 5?days of training for children with dyslexia, whereas this threshold SOA steadily decreased over the training for the control group. Experiment 2 used an adaptive procedure to determine the threshold SOA for each participant during training. Results showed that both the group of dyslexia and the control group attained perceptual learning over the sessions in 5?days, although the threshold SOAs were significantly higher for the group of dyslexia than for the control group; moreover, over individual participants, the threshold SOA negatively correlated with their performance in Chinese character recognition. These findings suggest that deficits in visual perceptual processing and learning might, in part, underpin difficulty in reading Chinese.
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Increased counts and degranulation of duodenal mast cells and eosinophils in functional dyspepsia- a clinical study.
Med Glas (Zenica)
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Immune factors, especially mast cells and eosinophils, play an important role in the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia. However, the role of these cells in the duodenum has not been fully understood in patients with functional dyspepsia. We aimed to investigate the infiltration and activation of mast cells and eosinophils in the duodena of subjects with functional dyspepsia.
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Gender differences in the use of health care in China: cross-sectional analysis.
Int J Equity Health
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Differences between women and men in education, employment, political and economic empowerment have been well-documented in China due to the long traditional culture that male is superior to female. This study is to explore whether the similar gender differences exist in the use of health care by analyzing hospital admission, duration of hospitalization and medical expense of both genders in a Chinese hospital.
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PI3K Regulation of RAC1 Is Required for Kras-Induced Pancreatic Tumorigenesis in Mice.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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New drug targets are urgently needed for the treatment of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Nearly all PDAs contain oncogenic mutations in the KRAS gene. Pharmacological inhibition of KRAS has been unsuccessful, leading to a focus on downstream effectors that are more easily targeted with small molecule inhibitors. We investigated the contributions of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) to KRAS-initiated tumorigenesis.
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Up-regulation of podoplanin involves in neuronal apoptosis in LPS-induced neuroinflammation.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Podoplanin (PDPN) is a mucin-type transmembrane sialoglycoprotein expressed in multiple tissues in adult animals, including the brain, lungs, kidney, and lymphoid organs. Studies of this molecule have demonstrated its great importance in tumor metastasis, platelet aggregation, and lymphatic vessel formation. However, information regarding its regulation and possible function in the central nervous system is still limited. In this study, we performed a neuroinflammatory model by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lateral ventral injection in adult rats and detected increased expression of PDPN in the brain cortex. Immunofluorescence indicated that PDPN was located in the neurons, but not astrocytes. Moreover, there was a concomitant up-regulation of active caspase-3, cyclin D1, and CDK4 in vivo and vitro studies. In addition, the expression of these three proteins in cortical primary neurons was decreased after knocking down PDPN by siRNA. Collectively, all these results suggested that the up-regulation of PDPN might be involved in neuronal apoptosis in neuroinflammation after LPS injection.
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Pilocarpine-induced epilepsy is associated with actin cytoskeleton reorganization in the mossy fiber-CA3 synapses.
Epilepsy Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Dramatic structural changes have been demonstrated in the mossy fiber-CA3 synapses in the post status epilepticus (SE) animals, suggesting a potential reorganization of filamentous actin (F-actin) network occurring in the hippocampus. However, until now the long-term effects of SE on the synaptic F-actin have still not been reported. In this study, phalloidin labeling combined with confocal microscopy and protein analyses were adopted to investigate the effects of pilocarpine treatment on the F-actin in the C57BL/6 mice. As compared to the controls, there was ? 43% reduction in F-actin density in the post SE mice. Quantitative analysis showed that the labeling density and the puncta number were significantly decreased after pilocarpine treatment (p<0.01, n=5 mice per group, Student's t-test). The puncta of F-actin in the post SE group tended to be highly clustered, while those in the controls were generally distributed evenly. The mean puncta size of F-actin puncta was 0.73±0.19?m(2) (n=1102 puncta from 5 SE mice) in the experimental group, significantly larger than that in the controls (0.51±0.10?m(2), n=1983 puncta from 5 aged-matched control mice, p<0.01, Student's t-test). These observations were well consistent with the alterations of postsynaptic densities in the same region, revealed by immunostaining of PSD95, suggesting the reorganization of F-actin occurred mainly postsynaptically. Our results are indicative of important cytoskeletal changes in the mossy fiber-CA3 synapses after pilocarpine treatment, which may contribute to the excessive excitatory output in the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit.
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A new type of double-chain based 3D lanthanide(III) metal-organic framework demonstrating proton conduction and tunable emission.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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A new type of 3D lanthanide(III) metal-organic framework directly constructed by double-chain motifs was synthesized. It shows a proton conductivity of 1.6 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 75 °C at 97% RH, and tunable emission including white light.
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Effects of the National Essential Medicine System in reducing drug prices: an empirical study in four Chinese provinces.
J Pharm Policy Pract
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The rapid increase in drug expenditure has become a major source of public criticism in China. In 2009, the National Essential Medicine System (NEMS) was launched in China to control drug prices and improve access to medicines. This study investigated whether and to what extent the prices of essential medicines were reduced after the introduction of NEMS.
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99mTc-3P4-RGD2 scintimammography in the assessment of breast lesions: comparative study with 99mTc-MIBI.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To compare the potential application of (99m)Tc-3P-Arg-Gly-Asp ((99m)Tc-3P4-RGD2) scintimammography (SMM) and (99m)Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ((99m)Tc-MIBI) SMM for the differentiation of malignant from benign breast lesions.
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Reading performance is enhanced by visual texture discrimination training in Chinese-speaking children with developmental dyslexia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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High order cognitive processing and learning, such as reading, interact with lower-level sensory processing and learning. Previous studies have reported that visual perceptual training enlarges visual span and, consequently, improves reading speed in young and old people with amblyopia. Recently, a visual perceptual training study in Chinese-speaking children with dyslexia found that the visual texture discrimination thresholds of these children in visual perceptual training significantly correlated with their performance in Chinese character recognition, suggesting that deficits in visual perceptual processing/learning might partly underpin the difficulty in reading Chinese.
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Deep bottleneck features for spoken language identification.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A key problem in spoken language identification (LID) is to design effective representations which are specific to language information. For example, in recent years, representations based on both phonotactic and acoustic features have proven their effectiveness for LID. Although advances in machine learning have led to significant improvements, LID performance is still lacking, especially for short duration speech utterances. With the hypothesis that language information is weak and represented only latently in speech, and is largely dependent on the statistical properties of the speech content, existing representations may be insufficient. Furthermore they may be susceptible to the variations caused by different speakers, specific content of the speech segments, and background noise. To address this, we propose using Deep Bottleneck Features (DBF) for spoken LID, motivated by the success of Deep Neural Networks (DNN) in speech recognition. We show that DBFs can form a low-dimensional compact representation of the original inputs with a powerful descriptive and discriminative capability. To evaluate the effectiveness of this, we design two acoustic models, termed DBF-TV and parallel DBF-TV (PDBF-TV), using a DBF based i-vector representation for each speech utterance. Results on NIST language recognition evaluation 2009 (LRE09) show significant improvements over state-of-the-art systems. By fusing the output of phonotactic and acoustic approaches, we achieve an EER of 1.08%, 1.89% and 7.01% for 30 s, 10 s and 3 s test utterances respectively. Furthermore, various DBF configurations have been extensively evaluated, and an optimal system proposed.
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Prevalence and trend of major transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors in Western China, 2005 through 2010.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) in blood donations is important for evaluating blood safety and potential risks to the population. This study investigated the prevalence of TTIs among blood donors in Western China and suggested measures for policy-makers.
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Immunotoxicological evaluation of corn genetically modified with Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ah gene by a 30-day feeding study in BALB/c mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study was to investigate the immunotoxicological potential of corn genetically modified (GM) with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ah gene in BALB/c mice. Female BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: the negative control group, the parental corn group, the GM corn group and the positive control group with 10 mice per group. Mice in the GM corn group and the parental corn group were fed with diets containing 70% corresponding corn for 30 days. Mice in the negative control group and the positive control group were fed with AIN93G diet, administered with saline or 200 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (CY) via intraperitoneal injection 24 h before the termination of the study, respectively. At the end of the study, the immunotoxicological effects of the GM corn were evaluated through immunopathology parameters including body and organ weights, hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, histological examination, peripheral blood lymphocytes phenotype; humoral immunity including antibody plaque-forming cell, serum immunoglobulin, cytokine and half hemolysis value; cellular immunity such as mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte reaction, delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction; non-specific immunity including phagocytic activities of phagocytes, natural killer cell activity. A single dose of cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg bw) was found to have significant adverse effects on immunopathology, cellular immunity, and humoral immunity in mice. The corn genetically modified with Bt Cry1Ah gene is considered consistent with the parental corn in terms of immunopathology, humoral immunity, cellular immunity and non-specific immunity. No adverse immunotoxicological effects of GM corn with Bt Cry1Ah gene were found when feeding mice for 30 days.
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Associations of educational attainment, occupation, social class and major depressive disorder among Han Chinese women.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is higher in those with low levels of educational attainment, the unemployed and those with low social status. However the extent to which these factors cause MDD is unclear. Most of the available data comes from studies in developed countries, and these findings may not extrapolate to developing countries. Examining the relationship between MDD and socio economic status in China is likely to add to the debate because of the radical economic and social changes occurring in China over the last 30 years.
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Using focus groups to design a psychoeducation program for patients with schizophrenia and their family members.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The purpose of this project was to determine what factors to be considered in planning a psychoeducation program to better meet the needs of patients with schizophrenia and their family members.
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Roles of PINK1, mTORC2, and mitochondria in preserving brain tumor-forming stem cells in a noncanonical Notch signaling pathway.
Genes Dev.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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The self-renewal versus differentiation choice of Drosophila and mammalian neural stem cells (NSCs) requires Notch (N) signaling. How N regulates NSC behavior is not well understood. Here we show that canonical N signaling cooperates with a noncanonical N signaling pathway to mediate N-directed NSC regulation. In the noncanonical pathway, N interacts with PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) to influence mitochondrial function, activating mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2)/AKT signaling. Importantly, attenuating noncanonical N signaling preferentially impaired the maintenance of Drosophila and human cancer stem cell-like tumor-forming cells. Our results emphasize the importance of mitochondria to N and NSC biology, with important implications for diseases associated with aberrant N signaling.
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The effects of C60(C(COOH)2)2-FITC on proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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As manufactured nanoparticles, fullerene nanoparticles were used as the model to research the manufactured nanoparticles entering into cells and hence have been rapidly developed for biomedical uses. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have become the most widely used seeding cells in tissue engineering because they are readily obtained without ethical problems and are multipotent with regard to adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineages. Because of their favorable biological and cellular activities, C60 carboxyl derivatives are among the most widely studied C60 derivatives. FITC labeled C60(C(COOH)2)2 nanoparticles were charactered by FTIR, ESI-MS, XPS and DLS. The effects of C60(C(COOH)2)2-FITC on proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in vitro were observed. The fullerene nanoparticles are quickly internalized by the cells and they had low toxicity to proliferation of hMSCs. The C60(C(COOH)2)2 nanoparticles could promote cell proliferation, enhance osteoclast differentiation of hMSCs.
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A phase II trial of oxaliplatin plus S-1 as a first-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced gastric cancer.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Palliative chemotherapy has been shown to have a survival benefit for patients with recurrent or metastatic gastric cancer. We conducted a Phase II trial to determine the efficacy and safety of S-1 plus oxaliplatin (SOX regimen) as first-line chemotherapy for patients with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic gastric cancer.
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Concentrated sodium chloride catheter lock solution - a new effective alternative method for hemodialysis patients with high bleeding risk.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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Abstract Background: Locking catheter with heparin may increase bleeding risk of some hemodialysis (HD) patients. Hence, the security and effectivity of 10% concentrated sodium chloride (CSC) used as an alternative method for patients with high bleeding risk need to be investigated. Methods: Seventy-two patients inserted temporary central venous catheters were divided into two groups randomly. A total of 3125 U/mL heparin saline (HS) was used in HS group and 10% CSC in CSC group to lock catheters. Heparin-free HD was used for the first time and plasma specimens were collected to test coagulation indicators before catheter-locking (at the end of HD) and at 30?min after it. Then, blood flow velocities (BFVs), incidences of catheter thrombosis, etc. were followed up at each time of HD. Results: Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of two groups had no difference at the end of heparin-free HD (27.100 [25.675-28.950] vs. 27.250 [25.150-29.575] second, p?=?0.933), but at 30?minutes after using different catheter lock solutions, APTT of HS group was obviously longer than CSC group (50.100 [41.275-65.400] vs. 27.500 [25.525-29.875] second, p??0.05). But catheters thrombosis incidence and urokinase usage of HS group were less than CSC group (p?
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A multifunctional proton-conducting and sensing pillar-layer framework based on [24-MC-6] heterometallic crown clusters.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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3D pillar-layer framework with [24-MC-6] heterometallic crown clusters exhibits proton conductivity and selective sensing of acetone as well as Cu(2+) ions.
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Correlation of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 subcellular localization and lymph node metastases of colorectal neoplasms.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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In colorectal neoplasms, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a primarily cytoplasmic protein, but it is also expressed on the cell membrane and in the nucleus. NDRG1 is involved in various stages of tumor development in colorectal cancer, and it is possible that the different subcellular localizations may determine the function of NDRG1 protein. Here, we attempt to clarify the characteristics of NDRG1 protein subcellular localization during the progression of colorectal cancer. We examined NDRG1 expression in 49 colorectal cancer patients in cancerous, non-cancerous, and corresponding lymph node tissues. Cytoplasmic and membrane NDRG1 expression was higher in the lymph nodes with metastases than in those without metastases (P<0.01). Nuclear NDRG1 expression in colorectal neoplasms was significantly higher than in the normal colorectal mucosa, and yet the normal colorectal mucosa showed no nuclear expression. Furthermore, our results showed higher cytoplasmic NDRG1 expression was better for differentiation, and higher membrane NDRG1 expression resulted in a greater possibility of lymph node metastasis. These data indicate that a certain relationship between the cytoplasmic and membrane expression of NDRG1 in lymph nodes exists with lymph node metastasis. NDRG1 expression may translocate from the membrane of the colorectal cancer cells to the nucleus, where it is involved in lymph node metastasis. Combination analysis of NDRG1 subcellular expression and clinical variables will help predict the incidence of lymph node metastasis.
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Biotransformation of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol by Aspergillus niger AS 3.1858.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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The biotransformation of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (1) by Aspergillus niger AS 3.1858 was conducted. Seven metabolites 26-hydroxyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (2); 23, 24-en-25-hydroxyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (3); 25, 26-en-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (4); (E)-20, 22-en-25-hydroxyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (5); 25, 26-en-24(R)-hydroxyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (6); 25, 26-en-24(S)-hydroxyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (7); and 23, 24-en-25-ethoxyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (8) were afforded. Among them, 6, 7, and 8 are new compounds. The chemical structures of these metabolites were elucidated based on extensive spectral data including 2D NMR and HRMS. In addition, the cytotoxicity of substrate and all transformed products was evaluated by MTT assay using a panel of seven human tumor cell lines (Du-145, Hela, K562, K562/ADR, SH-SY5Y, HepG2, and MCF-7 cells) and one normal cell line Vero.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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