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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Achieving balanced intermixed and pure crystalline phases in PDI-based non-fullerene organic solar cells via selective solvent additives.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Herein, balanced intermixed and pure crystalline phases in N,N'-bis(1-ethylpropyl)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (EP-PDI)-based non-fullerene organic solar cells (OSCs) were achieved via selective solvent additives (SAs). Poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl]] (PTB7) and 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophen]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (F-DTS) possessing different compatibilities with EP-PDI were selected as model systems to investigate the guideline of SAs selection for different non-fullerene-based systems. According to the solubility parameter difference (??) between EP-PDI and SAs, five different SAs were divided into two types: (I) strong intermolecular interactions with EP-PDI molecules (with ?? values less than 5 MPa(1/2)), (II) weak intermolecular interactions with EP-PDI molecules (with large ?? values). For PTB7:EP-PDI system with large and obvious phase separation, the introduction of type (II) SAs provided extra interactions with EP-PDI molecules, thus effectively reducing EP-PDI aggregate domains and increasing intermixed fractions. The incorporation of type (II) SAs resulted in a greater yield of dissociated polarons, and the final device efficiency increased from 0.02% to 1.65%. On the contrary, for finely mixed F-DTS:EP-PDI systems, type (I) SAs were considerably more effective because of the fact that the required pure crystalline phases were readily induced by the unfavorable interactions. The charge transport pathways optimized by type (I) SAs improved device efficiency from 0.18% to 2.82%. Hence, by processing selective SAs, the fraction of intermixed and pure crystalline phases for PDI-based non-fullerene OSCs can be well regulated; therefore, the final performance for both systems can be significantly improved.
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Association Study of TGFBR2 and miR-518 Gene Polymorphisms With Age at Natural Menopause, Premature Ovarian Failure, and Early Menopause Among Chinese Han Women.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Age at natural menopause (ANM), a highly heritable phenotype, has been identified to be closely associated with major hormone-related diseases, including breast cancer and gynecological cancers. We previously identified an important role for the transforming growth factor, ? receptor II (TGFBR2) gene polymorphisms in breast cancer susceptibility among Asian women. Considering the important role of ANM in breast carcinogenesis, we hypothesized that TGFBR2 signals were involved in the formation of natural menopause.In a population-based study of 1844 Chinese women, we evaluated the effect of the genetic polymorphisms of TGFBR2 and miR-518 to determine if they are associated with ANM, premature ovarian failure (POF), and early menopause (EM) risk.No significant differences in the distribution of body mass index, education levels, smoking, drinking, and hypertension were detected between POF and EM cases and controls except for POF cases that were older (P?=?0.015) than controls and more likely to have dyslipidemia (P?=?0.002). The results showed that miR-518 rs7256241 was significantly associated with ANM. The carriers of minor allele G of rs7256241 have significantly higher ANM than those of the major allele homozygotes TT (??=?0.385, P?=?0.035). TGFBR2 rs3773661 was significantly associated with POF, with odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of 0.66 (0.47-0.94) associated with per minor allele C (P?=?0.023). The quartiles of genetic risk score were significantly associated with POF (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.02-1.58; Ptrend?=?0.034). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these findings and no significant interactions were detected.This study provides evidence to implicate TGFBR2 and miR-518 gene polymorphisms as novel susceptibility factors for ANM, POF, and EM in Asians. Further research on these genetic regions will enhance our understanding of the genetic basis of natural menopause.
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Effects of fetal microwave radiation exposure on offspring behavior in mice.
J. Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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The recent rapid development of electronic communication techniques is resulting in a marked increase in exposure of humans to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This has raised public concerns about the health hazards of long-term environmental EMF exposure for fetuses and children. Some studies have suggested EMF exposure in children could induce nervous system disorders. However, gender-dependent effects of microwave radiation exposure on cognitive dysfunction have not previously been reported. Here we investigated whether in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz microwave throughout gestation (Days 3.5-18) affected behavior, using the open field test (OFT), elevated-plus maze (EPM), tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and Morris water maze (MWM). We found that mice showed less movement in the center of an open field (using the OFT) and in an open arm (using the EPM) after in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz radiation, which suggested that the mice had increased anxiety-related behavior. Mice demonstrated reduced immobility in TST and FST after in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz radiation, which suggested that the mice had decreased depression-related behavior. From the MWM test, we observed that male offspring demonstrated decreased learning and memory, while females were not affected in learning and memory, which suggested that microwaves had gender-dependent effects. In summary, we have provided the first experimental evidence of microwaves inducing gender-dependent effects.
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The cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17) and Treg cytokine (TGF-beta1) levels in adults with immune thrombocytopenia.
Pharmazie
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Previous studies have indicated that autoimmune diseases might be caused by an imbalance of T helper cells (Th), cytokines, and regulatory T cells (Treg) cytokines. We measured the plasma concentrations of Th1-associated cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-2), Th2 -associated cytokines (IL-4, IL-10), Th17-associated cytokine (IL-17) and Treg -associated cytokine (TGF-beta1) in adult patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and evaluated their clinical relevance. Plasma IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and TGF-beta1 concentrations of 52 ITP patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method (ELISA). Concentration of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) were significantly higher in ITP patients compared to controls (P < 0.05). However, concentrations of Th1 cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-2), Th17 cytokine (IL-17) and Treg cytokine (TGF-beta1) were lower in ITP patients (P < 0.05). Concentration of IL-17 was significantly higher in chronic ITP patients compared to severe ITP patients (P < 0.05), and no significant difference of cytokine concentration among the other subgroups in ITP patients was found. Among the ITP patients, concentration of IFN-gamma correlated positively and significantly with PAIgG (r = 0.48, P = 0.02). A significant correlation was neither found between other cytokine levels and platelet count, nor between cytokine levels and megakaryocytes number, nor between cytokines levels and PAIgG or GPIIb/IIIa and/or GPIb/IX autoantibodies. The present study demonstrates that an imbalance of Th and Treg cytokines may mediate the pathogenesis of ITP.
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Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Exosome Protein Content Changes Induced by Hepatitis B Virus in Huh-7 Cells Using SILAC Labeling and LC-MS/MS.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection could cause hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV-mediated pathogenesis is only partially understood, but X protein (HBx) reportedly possesses oncogenic potential. Exosomes are small membrane vesicles with diverse functions released by various cells including hepatocytes, and HBV harnesses cellular exosome biogenesis and export machineries for virion morphogenesis and secretion. Therefore, HBV infection might cause changes in exosome contents with functional implications for both virus and host. In this work, exosome protein content changes induced by HBV and HBx were quantitatively analyzed by SILAC/LC-MS/MS. Exosomes prepared from SILAC-labeled hepatoma cell line Huh-7 transfected with HBx, wildtype, or HBx-null HBV replicon plasmids were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Systematic analyses of MS data and confirmatory immunoblotting showed that HBx overexpression and HBV, with or without HBx, replication in Huh-7 cells indeed caused marked and specific changes in exosome protein contents. Furthermore, specific changes in protein contents were also detected in exosomes purified from HBV-infected patients' sera compared with control sera negative for HBV markers. These results illustrate a new aspect of interactions between HBV and the host and provide the foundation for future research into roles played by exosomes in HBV infection and pathogenesis.
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How could haloalkaliphilic microorganisms contribute to biotechnology?
Can. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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Haloalkaliphiles are microorganisms requiring Na(+) concentrations of at least 0.5 mol·L(-1) and an alkaline pH of 9 for optimal growth. Their unique features enable them to make significant contributions to a wide array of biotechnological applications. Organic compatible solutes produced by haloalkaliphiles, such as ectoine and glycine betaine, are correlated with osmoadaptation and may serve as stabilizers of intracellular proteins, salt antagonists, osmoprotectants, and dermatological moisturizers. Haloalkaliphiles are an important source of secondary metabolites like rhodopsin, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and exopolysaccharides that play essential roles in biogeocycling organic compounds. These microorganisms also can secrete unique exoenzymes, including proteases, amylases, and cellulases, that are highly active and stable in extreme haloalkaline conditions and can be used for the production of laundry detergent. Furthermore, the unique metabolic pathways of haloalkaliphiles can be applied in the biodegradation and (or) biotransformation of a broad range of toxic industrial pollutants and heavy metals, in wastewater treatment, and in the biofuel industry.
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Impact of reclaimed water irrigation on soil health in urban green areas.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Rapid increase of reclaimed water irrigation in urban green areas requires investigating its impact on soil health conditions. In this research, field study was conducted in 7 parks in Beijing with different histories of reclaimed water irrigation. Twenty soil attributes were analyzed to evaluate the effects of reclaimed water irrigation on the soil health conditions. Results showed that soil nutrient conditions were ameliorated by reclaimed water irrigation, as indicated by the increase of soil organic matter content (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), and available phosphorus (AP). No soil salinization but a slight soil alkalization was observed under reclaimed water irrigation. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil was insignificant. It was also observed that reclaimed water irrigation could significantly improve the soil microorganism activities. Overall, the soil health conditions were improved with reclaimed water irrigation, and the improvement increased when the reclaimed water irrigation period became longer.
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Complete genome sequence of virulent bacteriophage SHOU24, which infects foodborne pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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A novel lytic Vibrio parahaemolyticus phage (SHOU24) belonging to the family Siphoviridae was isolated from aquatic market sewage. The phage is only able to infect V. parahaemolyticus containing a tdh gene. SHOU24 has a linear genome of 77,837 bp with a G+C content of 46.0 %. In total, 88 predicted proteins have homologues in databases, and the majority of the core genes share high sequence similarity with genes from unrelated viruses and bacteria. Genes related to lysogeny and host lysis were not detected. However, the detection method, the results of a one-step growth experiment and analysis using the Phage Classification Tool Set (PHACTS) indicate that SHOU24 is lytic. A bioinformatics analysis showed that SHOU24 is not closely related to other Vibrio phages.
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HMGB1 gene polymorphism is associated with hypertension in Han Chinese population.
Clin. Exp. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Abstract Background: High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) acts as a proinflammatory cytokine by activating pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the receptor of AGE (AGER) with oxidative injury. Animal study proved that HMGB1 contributed to the pathogenesis of experimental pulmonary hypertension (HT) via activation of TLR4. The aim of this study is to test whether HMGB1 harbor genetic susceptibility to HT in a Chinese population. Methods: A case-control study comprising 2012 HT cases and 2210 controls was used to evaluate the association of three tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (tagSNPs) in HMGB1 gene with HT and blood pressure. Logistic regression model was used to adjust confounding factor for HT and general linear model (GLM) was applied to compare blood pressure levels between genotypes in cases and controls. Results: Single locus analysis showed that there was no statistical association of three tagSNPs with HT after adjustment for the covariates. Further stratification analysis found that rs2249825 was significantly associated with HT in ?55 years groups, ORs (95% CI) of additive model and dominant model were 1.208 (1.029-1.417) and 1.212 (1.020-1.441), and p values were 0.021 and 0.029, respectively. Quantitative trait analysis indicated that DBP had a linear decrease with the variations of rs2249825 in both untreated HT group (p?=?0.002) and control group (p?=?0.034) respectively. Conclusions: Our finding suggests that rs2249825 of HMGB1 genetic polymorphisms are significantly associated with HT and diastolic blood pressure, and the genetic effect on HT is modulated by age.
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Colloidal self-assembly of catalytic copper nanoclusters into ultrathin ribbons.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Metal nanoclusters (NCs) with diameter below 2?nm are promising catalysts in oxygen reduction reactions (ORR). However, the high surface energy of ultra-small clusters leads to structural instability, shedding doubt on practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate a self-assembly method to improve the durability of catalytic metal NCs, employing copper?NCs capped by 1-dodecanethiol (DT) to form free-standing ribbons in colloidal solution. By tuning the cooperation between the dipolar attraction between Cu?NCs and the van der Waals attraction between DT, the thickness of ribbons is adjusted to a single?NC scale. Such free-standing ribbons exhibit excellent catalytic activity and durability in ORR.
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Fabrication of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells via an ethanol-based sol-gel route using SnS2 as Sn source.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 semiconductor is a promising absorber layer material in thin film solar cells due to its own virtues. In this work, high quality Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin films have been successfully fabricated by an ethanol-based sol-gel approach. Different from those conventional sol-gel approaches, SnS2 was used as the tin source to replace the most commonly used SnCl2 in order to avoid the possible chlorine contamination. In addition, sodium was found to improve the short-circuit current and fill factor rather than the open-circuit voltage due to the decrease of the thickness of small-grained layer. The selenized Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin films showed large densely packed grains and smooth surface morphology, and a power conversion efficiency of 6.52% has been realized for Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin film solar cell without antireflective coating.
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Association between SNPs in miRNA-machinery genes and chronic hepatitis B in the Chinese Han population.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA-machinery genes can influence their generation and maturation, then expression and structure. To explore the relationship between three SNPs (rs3757 in DGCR8, rs636832 in AGO1, rs7813 in GEMIN4) in miRNA-machinery genes and chronic hepatitis B, we genotyped the SNPs by high resolution melting method (HRM) in a case-control study of 332 unrelated chronic hepatitis B patients and 352 unrelated healthy controls in Western China. Interestingly, the rs636832 was significantly associated with the susceptibility of CHB (genotype: AA/GA/GG: p=0.010; allele: A/G: OR=0.727, 95% CI=0.575-0.920, p=0.008). The minor allele A of rs636832 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of CHB. Additionally, the dominant model AG+GG vs. AA showed a risk of 1.442-fold (p=0.018) with CHB. Further exploration for the association between rs636832 and HBV-DNA load in 329 cases showed no significant difference (genotype: p=0.321; allele: p=0.148). Neither did the association between rs636832 and the status of HBsAg and HbeAg (HBsAg: genotype p=0.337, allele p=0.436; HBeAg: genotype p=0.861, allele p=0.822). Our study first provided the evidence that rs636832 in AGO1 was associated with chronic HBV infection susceptibility in Chinese Han population. Further epidemiological and functional studies in larger populations are warranted to verify our results.
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Construction of photoelectrochemical thrombin aptasensor via assembling multilayer of graphene-CdS nanocomposites.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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A photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensor for highly sensitive and specific detection of thrombin was developed by using graphene-CdS nanocomposites multilayer as photoactive species and electroactive mediator hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride ( [Formula: see text] ) as signal enhancer. Graphene-CdS nanocomposites (G-CdS) were synthesized by one-pot reduction of oxide graphene and CdCl2 with thioacetamide. The photoactive multilayer was prepared by alternative assembly of the negatively charged 3-mercaptopropionic acid modified graphene-CdS nanocomposites (MPA-G-CdS) and the positively charged polyethylenimine (PEI) on ITO electrode. This layer-by-layer assembly method enhanced the stability and homogeneity of the photocurrent readout of G-CdS. Thrombin aptamer was covalently bound to the multilayer by using glutaraldehyde as cross-linking. Electroactive mediator [Formula: see text] could interact with the DNA phosphate backbone and thus facilitated the electron transfer between G-CdS multilayer and electrode and enhanced the photocurrent. Hybridizing of a long complementary DNA with thrombin aptamer could increase the adsorption amount of [Formula: see text] , which in turn boosted the signal readout. In the presence of target thrombin, the affinity interaction between thrombin and its aptamer resulted in the long complementary DNA releasing from the G-CdS multilayer and decreasing of photocurrent signal. On the basis of G-CdS multilayer as the photoactive species, [Formula: see text] as an electroactive mediator, and aptamer as a recognition module, a high sensitive PEC aptasensor for thrombin detection was proposed. The thrombin aptasensor displayed a linear range from 2.0pM to 600.0pM and a detection limit of 1.0pM. The present strategy provided a promising ideology for the future development of PEC biosensor.
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism association with antidepressant efficacy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Asia Pac Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Previous studies of the association of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism with antidepressant efficacy are inconsistent. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis.
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Design, Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Novel NO-Releasing Benzimidazole Hybrids as Potential Antihypertensive Candidate.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Two series of novel NO-releasing benzimidazole derivatives (8a-e, 9a-g) were designed and synthesized by coupling nitro ester and furoxan NO-donor moieties with benzimidazole biphenyl skeleton. The NO-releasing assay indicated that all the target compounds had different level of NO-releasing ability. Furthermore, the isolated organ assay (rat aortic strips) was used to evaluate the antagonism of Ang II-induced vasoconstriction ability. It was observed that the pA2 values of compounds 8e and 9e were better than that of lead compound 6. Moreover, the pharmacological investigation showed that the antagonism of Ang II-induced pressure response by oral administration of compound 8e was obviously superior to that of lead compound 6, and comparable to that of the positive control losartan. These results suggested that NO-releasing hybrids may provide a promising approach for the discovery of novel antihypertensive agents.
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Age, estimated glomerular filtration rate and ejection fraction score predicts contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease: insight from the TRACK-D study.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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The occurrence of contrast induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) has a pronounced impact on morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to appraise the diagnostic efficacy of age, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and ejection fraction (AGEF) score (age/EF(%)+1 (if eGFR was <60 ml × min(-1)× 1.73 m(-2))) as an predictor of CIAKI in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and concomitant chronic kidney disease (CKD).
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Critical role of RIG-I-like receptors in inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Clin Respir J
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Viral infection is a significant cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute exacerbation of COPD. Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), including RIG-I and melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA-5), are important pattern recognition receptors for viral elimination.
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Overactivated neddylation pathway as a therapeutic target in lung cancer.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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A number of oncoproteins and tumor suppressors are known to be neddylated, but whether the neddylation pathway is entirely activated in human cancer remains unexplored.
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Micro-contact printing of graphene oxide nanosheets for fabricating patterned polymer brushes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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A robust strategy is developed to fabricate micro-patterned graphene oxide (GO) films on a hydroxylated surface via micro-contact printing induced supramolecular self-assembly. Existing photoactive sites on the surface of GO allow further amplification by growing polymer brushes via self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization (SIPGP).
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CD36-mediated hematoma absorption following intracerebral hemorrhage: negative regulation by TLR4 signaling.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Promoting hematoma absorption is a novel therapeutic strategy for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); however, the mechanism of hematoma absorption is unclear. The present study explored the function and potential mechanism of CD36 in hematoma absorption using in vitro and in vivo ICH models. Hematoma absorption in CD36-deficient ICH patients was examined. Compared with patients with normal CD36 expression, CD36-deficient ICH patients had slower hematoma adsorption and aggravated neurologic deficits. CD36 expression in perihematomal tissues in wild-type mice following ICH was increased, whereas the hematoma absorption in CD36(-/-) mice was decreased. CD36(-/-) mice also showed aggravated neurologic deficits and increased TNF-? and IL-1? expression levels. The phagocytic capacity of CD36(-/-) microglia for RBCs was also decreased. Additionally, the CD36 expression in the perihematoma area after ICH in TLR4(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice was significantly increased, and hematoma absorption was significantly promoted, which was significantly inhibited by an anti-CD36 Ab. In vitro, TNF-? and IL-1? significantly inhibited the microglia expression of CD36 and reduced the microglia phagocytosis of RBCs. Finally, the TLR4 inhibitor TAK-242 upregulated CD36 expression in microglia, promoted hematoma absorption, increased catalase expression, and decreased the H2O2 content. These results suggested that CD36 mediated hematoma absorption after ICH, and TLR4 signaling inhibited CD36 expression to slow hematoma absorption. TLR4 inhibition could promote hematoma absorption and significantly improve neurologic deficits following ICH.
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Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference targeting the long noncoding RNA HOTAIR inhibits proliferation and invasion of endometrial carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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The overexpression of long noncoding RNA HOTAIR is associated with various aggressive solid carcinomas. However, its relationship with endometrial carcinoma has not been reported. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of the long noncoding RNA HOTAIR in endometrial carcinoma, its relationship with the carcinoma's clinicopathologic features, and the biological function of HOTAIR in regulating endometrial cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and in vivo.
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Drug resistance and virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli from Shanghai, China.
J. Antibiot.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the major cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs). In the present study, 198 E. coli isolates from patients with UTIs in Shanghai in 2008 were examined by susceptibility testing, with an extremely high number (153/198) showing multidrug resistance (MDR). And, the expression of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) reached 48.5% (96/198). The resistance rates to penicillins, fluoroquinolone, folate pathway inhibitors and first- and second-generation cephalosporins were high. Molecular analyses showed that the CTX-M-9 group (70/96) was the most common CTX-M group among UPEC, followed by the CTX-M-1 group (27/96). Phylogenetic group D accounted for 42.4% (84/198) of the isolates, exhibiting the highest ESBLs (50/84) and MDR (75/84) rates. Virulence genes were present in a significantly high proportion in the phylogenetic group B2 isolates, except for the afaBC gene. The ESBL-producing strains analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were clustered into six groups at a cutoff of 67%. Notably, the findings that afaBC was specific to phylogenetic group D and PFGE group I and was correlated with the CTX-M-9 group were different from a previous report. In conclusion, knowledge of antimicrobial resistance data and virulence factors may enable clinicians to tailor empirical antibiotic treatments for UTIs.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 2 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ja.2014.72.
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3'UTR shortening identifies high-risk cancers with targeted dysregulation of the ceRNA network.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) interactions form a multilayered network that regulates gene expression in various biological pathways. Recent studies have demonstrated novel roles of ceRNA interactions in tumorigenesis, but the dynamics of the ceRNA network in cancer remain unexplored. Here, we examine ceRNA network dynamics in prostate cancer from the perspective of alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) and reveal the principles of such changes. Analysis of exon array data revealed that both shortened and lengthened 3'UTRs are abundant. Consensus clustering with APA data stratified cancers into groups with differing risks of biochemical relapse and revealed that a ceRNA subnetwork enriched with cancer genes was specifically dysregulated in high-risk cancers. The novel connection between 3'UTR shortening and ceRNA network dysregulation was supported by the unusually high number of microRNA response elements (MREs) shared by the dysregulated ceRNA interactions and the significantly altered 3'UTRs. The dysregulation followed a fundamental principle in that ceRNA interactions connecting genes that show opposite trends in expression change are preferentially dysregulated. This targeted dysregulation is responsible for the majority of the observed expression changes in genes with significant ceRNA dysregulation and represents a novel mechanism underlying aberrant oncogenic expression.
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Common variants in TGFBR2 and miR-518 genes are associated with hypertension in the Chinese population.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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An animal study reported that TGF-?1 maturation was linked to the homeostasis of blood pressure and elastogenesis of essential hypertension (EH). Recent advances require further research of TGF-?1 receptor in EH.
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Experimental and theoretical investigation on the compression mechanism of FeF3 up to 62.0?GPa.
Acta Crystallogr B Struct Sci Cryst Eng Mater
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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VF3-type FeF3 is generally considered as a perovskite with a completely vacant A site. The high-pressure structural evolution of FeF3 has been studied by both X-ray diffraction and theoretical simulation up to 62.0?GPa. Experimental and theoretical results demonstrate that VF3-type FeF3 is stable up to 50?GPa. The structural evolution presents three features at different pressure ranges. At P < 10?GPa, the volume reduction is dominated by the FeF6 octahedral rotation, and a small octahedral strain develops upon compression, which represents an elongation of FeF6 octahedra along the c axis. Between 10 and 25?GPa, the volume reduction is mainly attributed to the Fe-F bond length decreasing, and the octahedral strain gradually disappears. Between 25 and 50?GPa, an octahedral elongation along the a axis quickly develops, resulting in a substantial structural distortion. Structural instability is predicted at P > 51?GPa on the basis of a soft mode occurring in phonon calculations. The pressure-volume relationship is described by a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation-of-state with B0 = 14?(1)?GPa, B0' = 17?(1) by experiment and B0 = 10.45?(1)?GPa, B'10 = 12.13?(1) by calculation.
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Synthesis and Evaluation of Salicylanilide Derivatives as Potential Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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Two series of novel salicylanilide were synthesized as potential epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. The enzyme inhibitory activity against EGFR of all compounds was carried out, and their antiproliferative activities against the A549 and A431 cell lines were also evaluated. Of the compounds studied, majority of them exhibited high antiproliferative activities compared with gefitinib; especially, 12a and 12b exhibited stronger inhibitory activity against EGFR with IC50 values of 10.4 ± 2.25 and 15.4 ± 2.33 nm, respectively, which were comparable to the positive control of gefitinib (IC50  = 12.1 ± 2.21 nm). Compound 12b also showed outstanding inhibitory activity against A431 and A549 cell lines with the IC50 values of 0.42 ± 0.43 ?m and 0.57 ± 0.43 ?m, which was better than the positive controls. In the molecular modeling study, compound 12b was bound into the active pocket of EGFR with two hydrogen bond and with minimum binding free energy ?Gb  = -25.1125 kcal/mol. The result also suggested that compound 12b could bind the EGFR kinase well.
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Tumor suppressor candidate gene, NDRG2 is frequently inactivated in human glioblastoma multiforme.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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N?myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is highly expressed in numerous normal tissues, while it is marginally expressed or undetectable in various tumors, including lung and colon cancer. In order to investigate the expression of NDRG2 in human glioma and its downstream regulatory mechanisms, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses were used to assess NDRG2 mRNA and protein expression in different grades of human glioma and adjacent normal tissues. The methylation status of the NDRG2 promoter region was also determined using bisulfite sequencing. NDRG2 mRNA expression was observed to be significantly lower in glioma tissues than in adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was found between the glioma tumor grade and NDRG2 expression (P<0.05), at the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, the methylation rate of the NDRG2 promoter region was 46.3% in the glioma tissues compared with 18.2% in the adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05). These findings show that NDRG2 expression is downregulated in human glioma and that the level of NDRG2 expression negatively correlates with the glioma grade. Furthermore, these findings indicate that NDRG2 downregulation may be due to aberrant methylation of the NDRG2 promoter region and subsequent transcriptional inactivation.
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Immune complex formation in human diabetic retina enhances toxicity of oxidized LDL towards retinal capillary pericytes.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Recently it has been shown that levels of circulating oxidized LDL immune complexes (ox-LDL-ICs) predict the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). This study aimed to investigate whether ox-LDL-ICs are actually present in the diabetic retina, and to define their effects on human retinal pericytes versus ox-LDL. In retinal sections from people with type 2 diabetes, costaining for ox-LDL and IgG was present, proportionate to DR severity, and detectable even in the absence of clinical DR. In contrast, no such staining was observed in retinas from nondiabetic subjects. In vitro, human retinal pericytes were treated with native LDL, ox-LDL, and ox-LDL-IC (0-200 mg protein/l), and measures of viability, receptor expression, apoptosis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stresses, and cytokine secretion were evaluated. Ox-LDL-IC exhibited greater cytotoxicity than ox-LDL toward retinal pericytes. Acting through the scavenger (CD36) and IgG (CD64) receptors, low concentrations of ox-LDL-IC triggered apoptosis mediated by oxidative and ER stresses, and enhanced inflammatory cytokine secretion. The data suggest that IC formation in the diabetic retina enhances the injurious effects of ox-LDL. These findings offer new insights into pathogenic mechanisms of DR, and may lead to new preventive measures and treatments.
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Depiction of transplant renal vascular anatomy and complications: unenhanced MR angiography by using spatial labeling with multiple inversion pulses.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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To evaluate the ability to depict anatomy and complications of renal vascular transplant with unenhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography with spatial labeling with multiple inversion pulses (SLEEK) and to compare the results with color Doppler (CD) ultrasonography (US), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and intraoperative findings.
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Supramolecular metallogels with complex of phosphonate substituted carbazole derivative and aluminum(III) ion as gelator.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Supramolecular metallogels can be gained from the phosphonate substituted 4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)biphenyl (PCBP) in the presence of aluminum chloride in alcohols, which can donate oxygen to aid proton transfer in the aluminum organophosphorus complexes. Inside the metallogels, three-dimensional fiber networks with nanofibers entangling and intersecting with each other inside are formed. The nanofibers show layered structures with a period thickness of 0.82 nm. As the content of aluminum(III) increases, the size of the fibers becomes smaller and the fibers pack more densely. It makes the transparent gel become turbid but nevertheless improves the stability of the metallogels. NMR, FT-IR and fluorescence spectroscopy show that the coordination interactions between the phosphonate groups of PCBP molecules and aluminum(III) ions as well as the ?-? interactions among PCBP molecules are involved during the gel formation process.
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Wireless sensor networks for heritage object deformation detection and tracking algorithm.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Deformation is the direct cause of heritage object collapse. It is significant to monitor and signal the early warnings of the deformation of heritage objects. However, traditional heritage object monitoring methods only roughly monitor a simple-shaped heritage object as a whole, but cannot monitor complicated heritage objects, which may have a large number of surfaces inside and outside. Wireless sensor networks, comprising many small-sized, low-cost, low-power intelligent sensor nodes, are more useful to detect the deformation of every small part of the heritage objects. Wireless sensor networks need an effective mechanism to reduce both the communication costs and energy consumption in order to monitor the heritage objects in real time. In this paper, we provide an effective heritage object deformation detection and tracking method using wireless sensor networks (EffeHDDT). In EffeHDDT, we discover a connected core set of sensor nodes to reduce the communication cost for transmitting and collecting the data of the sensor networks. Particularly, we propose a heritage object boundary detecting and tracking mechanism. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that our EffeHDDT method outperforms the existing methods in terms of network traffic and the precision of the deformation detection.
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Nanowire shish-kebab structures and molecular orientation control of all-conjugated diblock copolymers.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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Herein we propose a facile strategy to prepare nanowires and nanowire "shish-kebab" (NWSK) structures by controlling the crystallization behavior of all-conjugated rod-rod diblock copolymers poly[(p-phenylene)-block-(3-hexylthiophene)]s (PPP-b-P3HT (BmTn)) with varying main chain lengths. Depending on the block length and ratio (i.e., PPP/P3HT, abbreviated as B/T), nanowires with low B/T ratios (copolymers with long P3HT blocks; B8T32 and B14T34) and NWSKs with high B/T ratios (copolymers with long PPP blocks; B29T9 and B39T18) were formed for PPP-b-P3HT all-conjugated diblock copolymers. The formation of nanowires is governed by a strong interchain ?-? stacking similar to the P3HT homopolymer, with an edge-on orientation of the P3HT moiety, whereas NWSKs are formed as a result of the particular face-on molecular orientation of PPP moiety. As the length of the P3HT moiety was increased (the block ratio of PPP/P3HT reduced), the NWSKs were transformed into nanowires gradually because of the decreasing density of "kebabs". For diblock copolymers with high PPP/P3HT ratios, the transition of the molecular orientation from face-on to edge-on was obtained by thermal annealing.
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Entropy-driven pattern formation of hybrid vesicular assemblies made from molecular and nanoparticle amphiphiles.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Although an analogy has been drawn between them, organic molecular amphiphiles (MAMs) and inorganic nanoparticle (NP) amphiphiles (NPAMs) are significantly different in dimension, geometry, and composition as well as their assembly behavior. Their concurrent assembly can synergetically combine the inherent properties of both building blocks, thus leading to new hybrid materials with increasing complexity and functionality. Here we present a new strategy to fabricate hybrid vesicles with well-defined shape, morphology, and surface pattern by coassembling MAMs of block copolymers (BCPs) and NPAMs comprising inorganic NPs tethered with amphiphilic BCPs. The assembly of binary mixtures generated unique hybrid Janus-like vesicles with different shapes, patchy vesicles, and heterogeneous vesicles. Our experimental and computational studies indicate that the different nanostructures arise from the delicate interplay between the dimension mismatch of the two types of amphiphiles, the entanglement of polymer chains, and the mobility of NPAMs. In addition, the entropic attraction between NPAMs plays a dominant role in controlling the lateral phase separation of the two types of amphiphiles in the membranes. The ability to utilize multiple distinct amphiphiles to construct discrete assemblies represents a promising step in the self-assembly of structurally complex functional materials.
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Cooperative effects of solvent and polymer acceptor co-additives in P3HT:PDI solar cells: simultaneous optimization in lateral and vertical phase separation.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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In this work, solvent chloronaphthalene (CN) and polymer acceptor an alternating copolymer of perylene diimide and carbazole (PCPDI) were utilized as co-additives to optimize the nanoscale phase-separated morphology and photovoltaic properties of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells based on the poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT)/N,N'-bis(1-ethylpropyl)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (EP-PDI) system. The domain size of EP-PDI molecules together with that of P3HT distinctly decreased by adding a 0.75 vol% CN additive. The optimized lateral phase separation increased the donor-acceptor interfacial area and facilitated the exciton dissociation process, leading to 5-fold enhancement of short-circuit current (JSC). Furthermore, when PCPDI was employed as a co-additive, acceptor materials (including PCPDI and EP-PDI) were prone to aggregation towards the top surface of blend films, improving vertical phase separation of active layers. PCPDI incorporation, which improved the percolation pathways for electron carriers, suppressed the crystallinity of P3HT distinctly. Thus, much more balanced charge transport was achieved by PCPDI addition, which resulted in almost 1-fold enhancement of open-circuit voltage (VOC) by reducing nongeminate recombination. As a consequence, cooperative effects of CN and PCPDI additives improved the nanoscale phase-separated morphology in lateral and vertical directions simultaneously, achieving the enhancement in both VOC and JSC.
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Synergistic suppression effect on tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma by combining oncolytic adenovirus carrying XAF1 with cisplatin.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The potent anticancer efficacy of oncolytic viruses has been verified in Clinic in recent years. Cisplatin (DDP) is one of most common chemotherapeutic drugs, but is accompanied by side effects and drug resistance. Our previous studies have shown the strategy of cancer -targeting gene-viro-therapy (CTGVT) mediated by the oncolytic virus ZD55 containing the XAF1 cDNA (ZD55-XAF1), which exhibited potent antitumor effects in various tumor cells and no apparent toxicities on normal cells. In the study, the CTGVT strategy is broadened by combining DDP with ZD55-XAF1 for growth inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.
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Mechanisms of pathogenesis in allergic asthma: role of interleukin-23.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease characterized by intense leukocyte and eosinophilic infiltration accompanied by mucus hypersecretion and tissue hyperresponsiveness. Recent evidence suggests that T-helper (Th)2 cells and their cytokine products orchestrate the pathology of asthma. In addition, Th17 cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of antigen-induced airway inflammation. The Th17 related cytokine interleukin (IL)-23 plays important roles in many immunological diseases, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease. Several reports describe the role of IL-23 in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma in both human and mice. IL-23 leads to neutrophil infiltration in the airway of asthmatic mice, which is characteristic of severe asthma resulting from Th17 development and subsequently IL-17 secretion. IL-23 can also promote eosinophil infiltration in the airway, which is a hallmark of allergic asthma. These studies suggest that IL-23 could be a promoting factor in the development of allergic asthma and likewise would be a target for asthma therapy. In support of this view, trials of anti-IL-23 therapy have been attempted in human and mouse asthma models with encouraging outcomes. This review presents the role of IL-23 in asthma according to recent clinical trials and animal model studies. The proposed mechanisms of IL-23-induced airway inflammation and the agents currently being tested that target IL-23 related pathways are discussed.
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CRP gene polymorphism contributes genetic susceptibility to dyslipidemia in Han Chinese population.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker that statistically predicts future cardiovascular risk, has been reported to be associated with plasma lipid level changes. Whether CRP genetic variants affect lipid metabolism is of importance to investigate. A community-based study population including 2,731 adult subjects aged 18-62 years was used to evaluate the association of CRP gene with dyslipidemia and five tagging SNPs (tagSNPs) were genotyped. Multiple logistic regression was applied to further evaluate relationships between the SNPs and lipid metabolism abnormality and general linear model was applied to compare plasma lipid levels between genotypes. Association analyses indicated that recessive model of SNPs rs876537 and rs4285692 had significant association with elevated HDL after adjustment for covariates. Odds ratio (OR) of rs876537 were 0.60 for HDL > 1.54 versus 1.04-1.54 mmol/L (P = 0.011), as well as, ORs were 0.617 for HDL > 1.83 versus ?1.35 mmol/L (P = 0.002) and 0.724 for HDL = 1.59-1.83 versus ?1.35 mmol/L (P = 0.028) respectively. OR of rs4285692 was 0.634 for HDL > 1.83 versus ?1.35 mmol/L (P = 0.027). Further stratification analysis found significant associations of rs10737175 with elevated HDL (>1.54 vs. 1.04-1.54 mmol/L, OR 0.629 and P = 0.027) and elevated TG (?1.70 vs. <1.70 mmol/L, ORs of additive and dominant models were 0.628, 0.545 and P values were 0.006, 0.003 respectively) in female. rs4285692 was significantly associated with elevated LDL (?3.37 vs. <3.37 mmol/L), ORs equaled to 1.532, 2.281 for additive model and recessive model and P values were 0.028, 0.024 respectively in male. Furthermore, quantitative trait analysis indicated the variation T to C of rs876537 significantly affect decreased plasma HDL level (P = 0.014). Our findings suggest that CRP genetic polymorphisms independently had positive association with the risk of HDL, LDL and TG elevating and further replication in other large population and biological function research would be warranted.
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Association study of common variations of FBN1 gene and essential hypertension in Han Chinese population.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Fibrillin-1 (FBN1) was reported to have impact on the physiological arterial stiffness and vascular remodeling with hypertension of recent years. In the previous study we reported the association of four functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FBN1 gene and hypertension. Here, we further investigate the association of four tagging SNPs (tagSNPs) which covered remain genetic variation blocks of FBN1 gene with hypertension, blood pressure and efficacy of antihypertensive in a South Han Chinese population. A case-control study including 2,012 hypertension cases and 2,116 controls age- and sex-matched controls was conducted from a community-based population and four candidate tagSNPs of the FBN1 gene were genotyped. Association analysis by multiple logistic regression was conducted for allele, genotype and haplotype and hypertension, blood pressure trait and control status with antihypertensive. General linear model was applied to compare blood pressure levels between genotypes. The association of rs17361868 and hypertension was statistically significant and that was further observed in female, ?55 years, non-smoking and non-drinking populations (P < 0.05). Significant association of rs668842, rs11635140 and hypertension were observed in <55 years population as well as the later in female and non-smoking populations respectively. Haplotype G-T constructed of rs668842 and rs11635140 was significantly associated with hypertension comparing to reference haplotype A-C (P = 0.022). Normally distributed square root of TGF-?1 (pg/ml) of hypertension cases (148.56 ± 66.46) was significantly higher than that of control (128.52 ± 65.11), P = 0.008. Furthermore, TGF-?1 was significantly correlated with SBP (r = 0.135, P = 0.018) and DBP (r = 0.154, P = 0.007) respectively whereas no statistical difference of blood pressure or TGF-?1 was observed between genotypes. Remarkably, rs17361868 were significantly associated with the status of blood pressure in the patients taking three of the antihypertensive drugs, Zhen Ju Jiang Ya tablets, Jiang Ya tablet and compound reserpine (P < 0.05). The present study provides further association evidence of FBN1 gene polymorphisms and hypertension, antihypertensive efficacy. Further replication of these results via association or prospective studies conducted in other populations is warranted.
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Spinal cord demyelination combined with hyperhomocysteinemia: a case report.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been recognized as an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease. Here we report a patient who suffered from spinal cord demyelination combined with HHcy. The patient was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of acute myelitis. However, hormone therapy was ineffective. Further investigations revealed that he had HHcy and a homozygous mutation of the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) c.677C>T, which is a key enzyme involved in homocysteine metabolism. In view of these findings, we treated the patient with B vitamins and his symptoms gradually improved. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging performed 3 months after onset showed near recovery of the lesion. To our knowledge, similar reports are rare.
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Identification of essential proteins based on ranking edge-weights in protein-protein interaction networks.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Essential proteins are those that are indispensable to cellular survival and development. Existing methods for essential protein identification generally rely on knock-out experiments and/or the relative density of their interactions (edges) with other proteins in a Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network. Here, we present a computational method, called EW, to first rank protein-protein interactions in terms of their Edge Weights, and then identify sub-PPI-networks consisting of only the highly-ranked edges and predict their proteins as essential proteins. We have applied this method to publicly-available PPI data on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Yeast) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) for essential protein identification, and demonstrated that EW achieves better performance than the state-of-the-art methods in terms of the precision-recall and Jackknife measures. The highly-ranked protein-protein interactions by our prediction tend to be biologically significant in both the Yeast and E. coli PPI networks. Further analyses on systematically perturbed Yeast and E. coli PPI networks through randomly deleting edges demonstrate that the proposed method is robust and the top-ranked edges tend to be more associated with known essential proteins than the lowly-ranked edges.
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Full text clustering and relationship network analysis of biomedical publications.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Rapid developments in the biomedical sciences have increased the demand for automatic clustering of biomedical publications. In contrast to current approaches to text clustering, which focus exclusively on the contents of abstracts, a novel method is proposed for clustering and analysis of complete biomedical article texts. To reduce dimensionality, Cosine Coefficient is used on a sub-space of only two vectors, instead of computing the Euclidean distance within the space of all vectors. Then a strategy and algorithm is introduced for Semi-supervised Affinity Propagation (SSAP) to improve analysis efficiency, using biomedical journal names as an evaluation background. Experimental results show that by avoiding high-dimensional sparse matrix computations, SSAP outperforms conventional k-means methods and improves upon the standard Affinity Propagation algorithm. In constructing a directed relationship network and distribution matrix for the clustering results, it can be noted that overlaps in scope and interests among BioMed publications can be easily identified, providing a valuable analytical tool for editors, authors and readers.
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Sox9 regulates hyperexpression of Wnt1 and Fzd1 in human osteosarcoma tissues and cells.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor that has poor prognosis. Molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression remain largely unknown. Sox9, one of the Sox family transcription factors, is closely associated with the development of a variety of malignant tumors. This study investigates the expression of Sox9, Wnt1 and Fzd1 in human osteosarcoma tissues and cells and the role of Sox9 in the proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells. Immunohistochemical analyses for Sox9, Wnt1, Fzd1, and Ki-67 proteins were performed in human primary osteosarcoma tissues from 48 patients. The small interfering RNA (siRNA) of Sox9 was transfected into human osteosarcoma MG63 cells. At 24 and 48 h after transfection with Sox9 siRNA, the expression of Wnt1 and Fzd1 was analyzed by RT-qPCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence techniques. Cell proliferation was assayed by CCK-8 method, and Ki-67 protein expression was analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that the expressions of Sox9, Wnt1, Fzd1, and Ki-67 proteins in human osteosarcoma tissues were higher than those in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Hyperexpressions of Sox9, Wnt1, Fzd1, and Ki-67 proteins occurred more frequently in human osteosarcoma tissues with an advanced clinical stage (IIb/III). Sox9 siRNA reduced both mRNA and protein expression levels of Wnt1 and Fzd1, which result in the distinct inhibition of MG63 cell proliferation. Our study suggests that Sox9 siRNA inhibits the proliferation capability of human osteosarcoma cells by down-regulating the expression of Wnt1 and its receptor Fzd1, which may provide new gene targets for the clinical treatment of osteosarcoma.
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Accurate image analysis of the retina using hessian matrix and binarisation of thresholded entropy with application of texture mapping.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this paper, we demonstrate a comprehensive method for segmenting the retinal vasculature in camera images of the fundus. This is of interest in the area of diagnostics for eye diseases that affect the blood vessels in the eye. In a departure from other state-of-the-art methods, vessels are first pre-grouped together with graph partitioning, using a spectral clustering technique based on morphological features. Local curvature is estimated over the whole image using eigenvalues of Hessian matrix in order to enhance the vessels, which appear as ridges in images of the retina. The result is combined with a binarized image, obtained using a threshold that maximizes entropy, to extract the retinal vessels from the background. Speckle type noise is reduced by applying a connectivity constraint on the extracted curvature based enhanced image. This constraint is varied over the image according to each region's predominant blood vessel size. The resultant image exhibits the central light reflex of retinal arteries and veins, which prevents the segmentation of whole vessels. To address this, the earlier entropy-based binarization technique is repeated on the original image, but crucially, with a different threshold to incorporate the central reflex vessels. The final segmentation is achieved by combining the segmented vessels with and without central light reflex. We carry out our approach on DRIVE and REVIEW, two publicly available collections of retinal images for research purposes. The obtained results are compared with state-of-the-art methods in the literature using metrics such as sensitivity (true positive rate), selectivity (false positive rate) and accuracy rates for the DRIVE images and measured vessel widths for the REVIEW images. Our approach out-performs the methods in the literature.
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Substrate-induced effects on the optical properties of individual ZnO nanorods with different diameters.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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We present the influence of a substrate on the properties of well-dispersed individual ZnO nanorods (NRs) with different diameters, especially on the photoluminescence (PL) properties. The studied ZnO NRs were partially supported by the quartz substrate and partially suspended in air. Continuous redshift and intensity decrease of the near band-edge emission (NBE) were observed along the suspended segment of the ZnO NRs due to the increasing temperature under UV laser excitation, suggesting that the presence of the substrate can effectively enhance the heat-sinking capability of ZnO NRs. Based on the PL measurements on individual suspended ZnO NRs with diameters from 86 nm to 2.35 ?m, the redshift of NBE along the suspended segment was more obvious for ZnO NRs with a smaller diameter, indicating that the thermal conductive ability increases as diameter increases. Additionally, by combining the experimental and simulation results, we found that the presence of the substrate also quenched the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of the ZnO NRs with a diameter above about 350 nm due to the symmetry breaking induced by the quartz substrate which has a larger refractive index compared with air. Our studies confirm that the substrate significantly influences the properties of ZnO NRs. To fully utilize the potential properties of nanomaterials for applications in nanodevices, the substrate-induced effects should be considered thoughtfully.
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A microcontact printing induced supramolecular self-assembled photoactive surface for patterning polymer brushes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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A facile and robust strategy for creating micropatterned polymer brushes via the combination of a micro-contact printing (?CP) induced supramolecular self-assembled photoactive surface with subsequent self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization (SIPGP) is reported. The results contribute to polymeric functionalization on a wide range of hydroxylated surfaces or graphene based materials.
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Inflammation in intracerebral hemorrhage: From mechanisms to clinical translation.
Prog. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10-15% of all strokes and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Currently, no effective medical treatment is available to improve functional outcomes in patients with ICH. Potential therapies targeting secondary brain injury are arousing a great deal of interest in translational studies. Increasing evidence has shown that inflammation is the key contributor of ICH-induced secondary brain injury. Inflammation progresses in response to various stimuli produced after ICH. Hematoma components initiate inflammatory signaling via activation of microglia, subsequently releasing proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines to attract peripheral inflammatory infiltration. Hemoglobin (Hb), heme, and iron released after red blood cell lysis aggravate ICH-induced inflammatory injury. Danger associated molecular patterns such as high mobility group box 1 protein, released from damaged or dead cells, trigger inflammation in the late stage of ICH. Preclinical studies have identified inflammatory signaling pathways that are involved in microglial activation, leukocyte infiltration, toll-like receptor (TLR) activation, and danger associated molecular pattern regulation in ICH. Recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of ICH-induced inflammatory injury have facilitated the identification of several novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of ICH. This review summarizes recent progress concerning the mechanisms underlying ICH-induced inflammation. We focus on the inflammatory signaling pathways involved in microglial activation and TLR signaling, and explore potential therapeutic interventions by targeting the removal of hematoma components and inhibition of TLR signaling.
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Acid sphingomyelinase plays a key role in palmitic acid-amplified inflammatory signaling triggered by lipopolysaccharide at low concentrations in macrophages.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Periodontal disease is more prevalent and severe in patients with diabetes than in nondiabetic patients. In addition to diabetes, a large number of studies have demonstrated an association between obesity and chronic periodontal disease. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been well understood. Since plasma free fatty acids (FAs) are elevated in obese patients and saturated FAs such as palmitic acid (PA) have been shown to increase host inflammatory response, we sought to find out how PA interacts with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an important pathological factor involved in periodontal disease, to enhance inflammation. We found that whereas low concentration of LPS (1 ng/ml) stimulated interleukin (IL)-6 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, PA further augmented it fourfold. Besides IL-6, PA amplified the stimulatory effect of LPS on a large amount of Toll-like receptor (TLR)4-mediated expression of proinflammatory signaling molecules such as IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-like 2 and proinflammatory molecules, including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and colony-stimulating factor. We also observed that PA augmented TLR4 but not TLR2 signal, and the augmentation was mediated by nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathways. To further elucidate the regulatory mechanism whereby PA amplifies LPS signal, our studies showed that PA and LPS synergistically increased hydrolysis of sphingomyelin by stimulating acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) activity, which contributed to a marked increase in ceramide production and IL-6 upregulation. Taken together, this study has demonstrated that PA markedly augments TLR4-mediated proinflammatory signaling triggered by low concentration of LPS in macrophages, and ASMase plays a key role in the augmentation.
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Synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of quinoxaline derivatives as aldose reductase inhibitors.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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ARIs for diabetes: A series of 2-(3-benzyl-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid derivatives were designed and synthesized as inhibitors of aldose reductase (AR), a novel target for the treatment of diabetes complications. Most of the derivatives proved to be potent and selective, with IC50 values in the low nanomolar to micromolar range.
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Uniaxial alignment of triisopropylsilylethynyl pentacene via zone-casting technique.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Uniaxially aligned triisopropylsilylethynyl pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) crystals over a large area were fabricated using zone-casting technique. The array of TIPS-pentacene displayed a high orientation degree with a dichroic ratio (DR) of 0.80. The crystals were arranged with c axis perpendicular to the substrate and the long axis of the ribbon corresponded to the a axis of TIPS-pentacene. The properties of the solutions and the processing parameters were shown to influence the formation of the oriented TIPS-pentacene crystalline array. Solvent with a low boiling point (such as chloroform) favoured the orientation of the ribbon-like crystals. The concentration of the solution should be appropriate, ensuring the crystallization velocity of TIPS-pentacene matching with the receding of the meniscus. Besides, we proved that the casting speed should be large enough to induce a sufficient concentration gradient. The orientation mechanism of TIPS-pentacene was attributed to a synergy of the ordered nuclei and a match between the crystallization velocity and the casting speed. Field effect transistors (FETs) based on the oriented TIPS-pentacene crystalline array showed a mobility of 0.67 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).
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Polymer-regulated epitaxial crystallization of methanofullerene on mica.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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This work focuses on both the structure manipulation and the crystallizing mechanism investigation of the well-known methanofullerene, [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). PCBM crystals with two novel structures, i.e., five-fold twinned and cubic crystals are obtained by the introduction of the mica substrate and the polymer blenders (P3HT and PS) into PCBM thin films under thermal annealing. The morphology and nanostructure of these crystals have been well investigated with AFM, TEM and XRD techniques. The roles of the mica substrate and the polymer blenders have been studied by varying the annealing temperature, the substrate, the polymer benders and the blending ratio. It has been proved that both the PCBM intermolecular and PCBM-mica interactions influence the PCBM crystallization process. The mica substrate has been proved to have the epitaxial effect on PCBM crystallization. The polymer blenders have been suggested to weaken the PCBM intermolecular interaction and limit PCBM molecular diffusion.
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Wnt Signaling is altered by spinal cord neuronal dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis transgenic mice.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of the motor neurons in the cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. The etiology and mechanisms of selective motor neuron loss in ALS remain unknown. Wnt signaling is involved in neurodegenerative processes but little is known about the kinetic changes in Wnt signaling during ALS progression. In this study we used transcriptional microarray analysis to examine the expression of Wnt signaling components in the spinal cords of ALS transgenic SOD1(G93A) mice at different stages. We found that ALS onset led to the upregulation of Wnt signaling components and target genes involved in growth regulation and proliferation. We also determined the expression of Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (Wif1) and Wnt4 in the spinal cord of ALS transgenic mice at different stages by Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. The protein levels of Wif1 and Wnt4 in the spinal cords of ALS transgenic mice were upregulated compared to those in wild-type mice. Moreover, the expression of Wif1 and Wnt4 in mature GFAP+ astrocytes was increased at the end stage of ALS. Our findings demonstrate that Wnt signaling is altered by spinal cord neuronal dysfunction in adult ALS transgenic mice, which provides new insight into ALS pathogenesis.
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Raman spectra exploring breast tissues: comparison of principal component analysis and support vector machine-recursive feature elimination.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Raman spectroscopy was explored to diagnose normal, benign, and malignant human breast tissues based on principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine-recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE), and SVM-RFE results were compared with PCA.
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PMTED: a plant microRNA target expression database.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are identified in nearly all plants where they play important roles in development and stress responses by target mRNA cleavage or translation repression. MiRNAs exert their functions by sequence complementation with target genes and hence their targets can be predicted using bioinformatics algorithms. In the past two decades, microarray technology has been employed to study genes involved in important biological processes such as biotic response, abiotic response, and specific tissues and developmental stages, many of which are miRNA targets. Despite their value in assisting research work for plant biologists, miRNA target genes are difficult to access without pre-processing and assistance of necessary analytical and visualization tools because they are embedded in a large body of microarray data that are scattered around in public databases.
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Downregulation of Beclin 1 and impairment of autophagy in a small population of colorectal cancer.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Autophagy is a highly conserved mechanism for degradation and recycling of long-lived proteins and damaged organelle to maintain cell homeostasis. Deregulation of autophagy has been associated with tumorigenesis. Beclin 1 is an essential autophagy protein and its upregulation has been observed in most colorectal cancer tissues. However, there is a small population of colorectal cancers with downregulation of Beclin 1.
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Self-assembly of Au15 into single-cluster-thick sheets at the interface of two miscible high-boiling solvents.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Wet (nano)blanket: The self-assembly of Au nanoclusters into single-cluster-thick nanosheets is performed in two miscible high-boiling solvents with a slight polarity difference, which generates microphase separation and acts as a soft template to direct the self-assembly in a two-dimensional orientation.
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[Clinical characteristics of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo secondary to sudden deafness].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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To retrospectively analyze the clinical characteristics of the benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) secondary to the sudden deafness (SD) and to explore pathogenetic mechanism.
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Fibrillar morphology of derivatives of poly(3-alkylthiophene)s by solvent vapor annealing: effects of conformational transition and conjugate length.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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A fibrillar morphology was obtained, compared to the featherless pristine films, via solvent annealing the films of a series of derivatives of poly(3-alkylthiophene)s (P3ATs): poly(3-dodecylthiophene) (P3DDT), poly(3,3-didodecyl-quaterthiophene) (PQT12), and poly(2,5-bis(3-dodecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (pBTTT12). Among the solvents used, including dichloromethane, chloroform, tetrahydrofuran, and carbon disulfide (CS2), CS2 was the best to induce fibril formation because its solubility parameter is closest to those of the P3AT derivatives. It was found that higher critical CS2 vapor pressures were needed to form crystal nuclei with increasing conjugation length and molecular weight of the P3AT derivatives; i.e., the critical vapor pressures for P3DDT 13.9k and PQT12 15.5k were 59.0% and 80.7%, respectively, and there were no nuclei of fibrils for pBTTT12 15.6k with the highest conjugation length, even at a CS2 vapor pressure of 98.3%. Meanwhile, at the highest vapor pressure, the fibril density decreased with increasing conjugation length and molecular weight of the P3AT derivatives. This is attributed to the rod-like conformation prevailing for polymers with larger conjugation length and higher molecular weight during solvent annealing, making the conformational transition toward coils more difficult and hindering diffusion of molecules. The results presented here are expected to be helpful for the design and processing of conjugated semiconductor polymers.
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Prokaryotic phylogenies inferred from whole-genome sequence and annotation data.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Phylogenetic trees are used to represent the evolutionary relationship among various groups of species. In this paper, a novel method for inferring prokaryotic phylogenies using multiple genomic information is proposed. The method is called CGCPhy and based on the distance matrix of orthologous gene clusters between whole-genome pairs. CGCPhy comprises four main steps. First, orthologous genes are determined by sequence similarity, genomic function, and genomic structure information. Second, genes involving potential HGT events are eliminated, since such genes are considered to be the highly conserved genes across different species and the genes located on fragments with abnormal genome barcode. Third, we calculate the distance of the orthologous gene clusters between each genome pair in terms of the number of orthologous genes in conserved clusters. Finally, the neighbor-joining method is employed to construct phylogenetic trees across different species. CGCPhy has been examined on different datasets from 617 complete single-chromosome prokaryotic genomes and achieved applicative accuracies on different species sets in agreement with Bergeys taxonomy in quartet topologies. Simulation results show that CGCPhy achieves high average accuracy and has a low standard deviation on different datasets, so it has an applicative potential for phylogenetic analysis.
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Inhibition of protein kinase C ?II isoform rescues glucose toxicity-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction: role of mitochondria.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Hyperglycemia leads to cytotoxicity in the heart. Although theories were postulated for glucose toxicity-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction including oxidative stress, the mechanism involved still remains unclear. Recent evidence has depicted a role of protein kinase C (PKC) in diabetic complications while high concentrations of glucose stimulate PKC. This study examined the role of PKC?II in glucose toxicity-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) aberrations.
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Role of Wnt1 and Fzd1 in the spinal cord pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-transgenic mice.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by chronic progressive degeneration of motor neurons resulting in muscular atrophy, paralysis, and ultimately death. We have investigated the expression of Wnt1 and Fzd1 in the spinal cords of SOD1G93A ALS transgenic mice, SOD1G93A-transfected N2a cells, and primary cultured astrocytes from SOD1G93A transgenic mice. In addition, we provided further insight into the role of Wnt1 and Fzd1 in the pathogenesis of ALS transgenic mice and discuss the mechanisms underlying the Wnt signal pathway which may be useful in the treatment of ALS. The results indicate the involvement of Wnt1 and Fzd1 in the pathogenesis and development of ALS.
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Clinical effects of Xinmailong therapy in patients with chronic heart failure.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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In the last 100 years, intensive studies have been done on the identification of the systematic approaches to find the cure for the chronic heart failure, however the mystery remains unresolved due to its complicated pathogenesis and ineffective early diagnosis. The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the potential effects of the traditional chinese medicine, Xinmailong, on the chronic heart failure (CHF) patients as compared to the standard western medical treatment available so far. In our study, we selected two groups of voluntary CHF patients at the Xiangya Hospital, which were allowed to administrate Xinmailong or standard treatments, respectively. Another group of voluntary healthy individuals were recruited as the control group. The treatment effectiveness was measured by five symptomatic factors, i.e. angiotensin II (Ang_II), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs_CRP), Left Ventricular End Systolic Volume Index (LVESVI), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT_proBNP), between the control group and the CHF patients at different stages of drug administration and in different treatment groups. The timeline for the full dose administration was set to 15 days and five measurements as indicated above were taken on every 0, 7th and 15th day of the drug administration respectively. In the conducted study, similar symptomatic measurements were observed on day 0 in both treatment groups, and slight improvements were observed on 7th day. It was observed that after a full course of drug administration for 15 days, both of the treatment groups achieved statistically significant improvements in all the five measures, but Xinmailong was found to be more (almost double) statistically significant as compared with the available drug treatments for chronic heart failure.
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A novel multi-stage feature selection method for microarray expression data analysis.
Int J Data Min Bioinform
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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With the development of genome research, finding method to classify cancer and detect biomarkers efficiently has become a challenging problem. In this paper, a novel multi-stage method for feature selection is proposed which considers all kinds of genes in the original gene set. The method eliminates the irrelevant, noisy and redundant genes and selects a subset of relevant genes at different stages. The proposed method is examined on microarray datasets of Leukemia, Prostate, Colon, Breast, Nervous and DLBCL by different classifiers and the best accuracies of the method in these datasets are 100%, 98.04%, 100%, 89.74%, 100% and 98.28%, respectively.
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Biodegradation of nicosulfuron by a Talaromyces flavus LZM1.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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The fungal strain LZM1 was isolated from activated sludge and found to be capable of utilizing nicosulfuron as the sole nitrogen source for growth. Based on morphological and internal transcribed spacer evaluations, LZM1 was identified as a Talaromyces flavus strain. Under optimum conditions (pH 6.1, 29°C), T. flavus LZM1 degraded 100% of the initially added nicosulfuron (100 mg L(-1)) within 5d. T. flavus LZM1 was also found to be highly efficient in degrading tribenuron methyl, chlorsulfuron, bensulfuron methyl, ethametsulfuron methyl, cinosulfuron, and rimsulfuron. Metabolites from nicosulfuron degradation were identified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and a possible degradation pathway was deduced. These results show that T. flavus LZM1 may possess potential to be used in bioremediation of nicosulfuron-contaminated environments.
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MD-2 is involved in the stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression by interferon-? and high glucose in mononuclear cells - a potential role of MD-2 in Toll-like receptor 4-independent signalling.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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We reported recently that treatment of diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist Rs-LPS, a lipopolysaccharide isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, inhibited atherosclerosis. Since it is known that Rs-LPS antagonizes TLR4 by targeting TLR4 co-receptor MD-2, this finding indicates that MD-2 is a potential target for the treatment of atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined if MD-2 is involved in the gene expression regulated by signalling pathways independent of TLR4. Given that interferon-? (IFN?) and hyperglycaemia play key roles in atherosclerosis, we determined if MD-2 is involved in IFN-? and high-glucose-regulated gene expression in mononuclear cells. Results showed that IFN-? and high glucose synergistically stimulated matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1), a proteinase essential for vascular tissue remodelling and atherosclerosis, in U937 mononuclear cells, but Rs-LPS inhibited the MMP-1 stimulation. To provide more evidence for a role of MD-2 in IFN-?-stimulated MMP-1, studies using antibodies and small interfering RNA demonstrated that MD-2 blockade or knockdown attenuated the effect of IFN-? on MMP-1. Furthermore, studies using PCR arrays showed that MD-2 blockade had a similar effect as IFN-? receptor blockade on the inhibition of IFN-?-stimulated pro-inflammatory molecules. Although these findings indicate the involvement of MD-2 in IFN-? signalling, we also observed that MD-2 was up-regulated by IFN-? and high glucose. We found that MD-2 up-regulation by IFN-? played an essential role in the synergistic effect of IFN-? and LPS on MMP-1 expression. Taken together, these findings indicate that MD-2 is involved in IFN-? signalling and IFN-?-augmented MMP-1 up-regulation by LPS.
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A clinical study of the effects of lead poisoning on the intelligence and neurobehavioral abilities of children.
Theor Biol Med Model
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Lead is a heavy metal and important environmental toxicant and nerve poison that can destruction many functions of the nervous system. Lead poisoning is a medical condition caused by increased levels of lead in the body. Lead interferes with a variety of body processes and is toxic to many organs and issues, including the central nervous system. It interferes with the development of the nervous system, and is therefore particularly toxic to children, causing potentially permanent neural and cognitive impairments. In this study, we investigated the relationship between lead poisoning and the intellectual and neurobehavioral capabilities of children.
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Transcriptome analysis of tomato flower pedicel tissues reveals abscission zone-specific modulation of key meristem activity genes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Tomato flower abscises at the anatomically distinct abscission zone that separates the pedicel into basal and apical portions. During abscission, cell separation occurs only at the abscission zone indicating distinctive molecular regulation in its cells. We conducted a transcriptome analysis of tomato pedicel tissues during ethylene promoted abscission. We found that the abscission zone was the most active site with the largest set of differentially expressed genes when compared with basal and apical portions. Gene Ontology analyses revealed enriched transcription regulation and hydrolase activities in the abscission zone. We also demonstrate coordinated responses of hormone and cell wall related genes. Besides, a number of ESTs representing homologs of key Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem activity genes were found to be preferentially expressed in the abscission zone, including WUSCHEL (WUS), KNAT6, LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN PROTEIN 1(LBD1), and BELL-like homeodomain protein 1 (BLH1), as well as tomato axillary meristem genes BLIND (Bl) and LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (Ls). More interestingly, the homologs of WUS and the potential functional partner OVATE FAMILIY PROTEIN (OFP) were subsequently down regulated during abscission while Bl and AGL12 were continuously and specifically induced in the abscission zone. The expression patterns of meristem activity genes corroborate the idea that cells of the abscission zone confer meristem-like nature and coincide with the course of abscission and post-abscission cell differentiation. Our data therefore propose a possible regulatory scheme in tomato involving meristem genes that may be required not only for the abscission zone development, but also for abscission.
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Ginsenoside Rd blocks AIF mitochondrio-nuclear translocation and NF-?B nuclear accumulation by inhibiting poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 after focal cerebral ischemia in rats.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Our previous clinical and basic studies have demonstrated that ginsenoside Rd (GS-Rd) has remarkable neuroprotective effects after cerebral ischemia but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. In our latest studies, we revealed that GS-Rd could prevent mitochondrial release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and reduce inflammatory response following transient focal ischemia in rats. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is required for both AIF release from mitochondria and NF-?B-mediated inflammation. Here, we investigated whether GS-Rd could act on PARP-1 and subsequently affect AIF translocation and NF-?B activation. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with GS-Rd (10 mg/kg) 30 min before surgery with the right middle cerebral artery occlusion, and at different time points following cerebral ischemia, brain tissues were collected for western blotting analysis. Our results showed that GS-Rd significantly attenuated ischemia-triggered increased levels of Poly(ADP-ribose), an enzymatic product catalyzed by PARP-1, but not altered the expression of PARP-1 per se. Meanwhile, GS-Rd pretreatment reduced AIF mitochondrio-nuclear translocation and inhibited NF-?B p65 subunit nuclear accumulation after cerebral ischemia. Therefore, our findings provide the first evidence that GS-Rd can inhibit PARP-1 activity and sequential AIF translocation and NF-?B nuclear accumulation, which may be responsible for GS-Rds neuroprotection against both neuronal cell death and inflammation after ischemic stroke.
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Comparison of the 308-nm excimer laser with the 308-nm excimer lamp in the treatment of vitiligo--a randomized bilateral comparison study.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Vitiligo is an acquired pigment disorder characterized by areas of depigmented skin resulting from the loss of epidermal melanocytes. Recently, several investigations have documented the benefits of excimer phototherapy (e.g., using the 308-nm excimer laser or the 308-nm excimer lamp) for the treatment of vitiligo.
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Computational prediction of human salivary proteins from blood circulation and application to diagnostic biomarker identification.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Proteins can move from blood circulation into salivary glands through active transportation, passive diffusion or ultrafiltration, some of which are then released into saliva and hence can potentially serve as biomarkers for diseases if accurately identified. We present a novel computational method for predicting salivary proteins that come from circulation. The basis for the prediction is a set of physiochemical and sequence features we found to be discerning between human proteins known to be movable from circulation to saliva and proteins deemed to be not in saliva. A classifier was trained based on these features using a support-vector machine to predict protein secretion into saliva. The classifier achieved 88.56% average recall and 90.76% average precision in 10-fold cross-validation on the training data, indicating that the selected features are informative. Considering the possibility that our negative training data may not be highly reliable (i.e., proteins predicted to be not in saliva), we have also trained a ranking method, aiming to rank the known salivary proteins from circulation as the highest among the proteins in the general background, based on the same features. This prediction capability can be used to predict potential biomarker proteins for specific human diseases when coupled with the information of differentially expressed proteins in diseased versus healthy control tissues and a prediction capability for blood-secretory proteins. Using such integrated information, we predicted 31 candidate biomarker proteins in saliva for breast cancer.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.