O-glycosylation of podoplanin (PDPN) on lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) is critical for the separation of blood and lymphatic systems by interacting with platelet C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) during development. However, how O-glycosylation controls endothelial PDPN function and expression remains unclear. Here we report that core 1 O-glycan-deficient or desialylated PDPN was highly susceptible to proteolytic degradation by various proteases including metalloproteinases MMP-2/9. We found that the lymph contained activated MMP-2/9 and incubation of the lymph reduced surface levels of PDPN on core 1 O-glycan-deficient endothelial cells (ECs), but not on WT ECs. The lymph from mice with sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), which contained bacteria-derived sialidase, reduced PDPN levels on WT ECs. These reductions were rescued by metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001. Additionally, GM6001 treatment rescued the reduction of PDPN level on LECs in mice lacking endothelial core 1 O-glycan or CLP-treated mice. Furthermore, core 1 O-glycan-deficient or desialylated PDPN impaired platelet interaction under physiological flow. These data indicate that sialylated O-glycans of PDPN are essential for platelet adhesion and prevent PDPN from proteolytic degradation primarily mediated by metalloproteinases in the lymph.
Transcription factor prospero homeobox 1 (Prox-1) and podoplanin (PDPN), mucin-type transmembane protein, are both constantly expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and appear to function in an LEC-autonomous manner. Mice globally lacking PDPN (Pdpn(-/-)) develop abnormal and blood-filled lymphatic vessels that highly resemble those in inducible mice lacking Prox-1 (Prox1(-/-)). Prox1 has also been reported to induce PDPN expression in cultured ECs. Thus, we hypothesize that PDPN functions downstream of Prox1 and that its expression is regulated by Prox1 in LECs at the transcriptional level. We first identified four putative binding elements for Prox1 in the 5' upstream regulatory region of Pdpn gene and found that Prox1 directly binds to the 5' regulatory sequence of Pdpn gene in LECs by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. DNA pull down assay confirmed that Prox1 binds to the putative binding element. In addition, luciferase reporter assay indicated that Prox1 binding to the 5' regulatory sequence of Pdpn regulates Pdpn gene expression. We are therefore the first to experimentally demonstrate that Prox1 regulates PDPN expression at the transcriptional level in the lymphatic vascular system.
Circulating lymphocytes continuously enter lymph nodes for immune surveillance through specialized blood vessels named high endothelial venules, a process that increases markedly during immune responses. How high endothelial venules (HEVs) permit lymphocyte transmigration while maintaining vascular integrity is unknown. Here we report a role for the transmembrane O-glycoprotein podoplanin (PDPN, also known as gp38 and T1?) in maintaining HEV barrier function. Mice with postnatal deletion of Pdpn lost HEV integrity and exhibited spontaneous bleeding in mucosal lymph nodes, and bleeding in the draining peripheral lymph nodes after immunization. Blocking lymphocyte homing rescued bleeding, indicating that PDPN is required to protect the barrier function of HEVs during lymphocyte trafficking. Further analyses demonstrated that PDPN expressed on fibroblastic reticular cells, which surround HEVs, functions as an activating ligand for platelet C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2, also known as CLEC1B). Mice lacking fibroblastic reticular cell PDPN or platelet CLEC-2 exhibited significantly reduced levels of VE-cadherin (also known as CDH5), which is essential for overall vascular integrity, on HEVs. Infusion of wild-type platelets restored HEV integrity in Clec-2-deficient mice. Activation of CLEC-2 induced release of sphingosine-1-phosphate from platelets, which promoted expression of VE-cadherin on HEVs ex vivo. Furthermore, draining peripheral lymph nodes of immunized mice lacking sphingosine-1-phosphate had impaired HEV integrity similar to Pdpn- and Clec-2-deficient mice. These data demonstrate that local sphingosine-1-phosphate release after PDPN-CLEC-2-mediated platelet activation is critical for HEV integrity during immune responses.
TrkC is a dependence receptor and many reports have shown that neurotrophin-3 promotes cell survival by inhibiting TrkC-induced apoptosis in many cell lines. However, the identity of the adaptor protein involved in the NT-3/TrkC signaling pathway regulating cell death and survival remains unclear. The downstream of tyrosine kinase/docking protein (Dok) adaptor protein 5 is one substrate of the TrkC receptor. Because NT-3 and its receptor, TrkC, are strongly expressed by sensory neurons, we measured the expression of Dok5 and TrkC in the developing mouse spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We found that the number of cells positive for both Dok5 and TrkC decreases with DRG development. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining showed that Dok5 interacted with TrkC and partially colocalized with TrkC in DRG neurons. In HEK293T cells, TrkC triggered apoptosis, but NT-3 prevented TrkC-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, siRNA knockdown of Dok5 expression partially prevented the protection of NT-3 against TrkC-induced apoptosis by regulating the activity of caspase-3. Taken together, we concluded that Dok5 is necessary for NT-3 signaling to block TrkC-induced apoptosis.
Flexible heteroarotinoids (Flex-Hets) compounds regulate growth, differentiation and apoptosis in cancer cells. The hypothesis of this study was that the lead Flex-Het, SHetA2, inhibits angiogenesis by blocking cytokine release from cancer cells. SHetA2 altered secretion of thrombospondin-4 (TSP-4), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) proteins from normal and cancerous ovarian and renal cultures. Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) expression was inhibited in cancer, but not normal cultures. Endothelial tube formation was stimulated by conditioned media from cancer but not normal cultures, and SHetA2 reduced secretion of this angiogenic activity. SHetA2 directly inhibited endothelial cell tube formation and proliferation through G1 cell cycle arrest, but not apoptosis. Recombinant TP reversed SHetA2 anti-angiogenic activity. SHetA2 inhibition of in vivo angiogenesis was observed in Caki-1 renal cancer xenografts. In conclusion, SHetA2 inhibits angiogenesis through alteration of angiogenic factor secretion by cancer cells and through direct effects on endothelial cells.
The understanding of airborne pollen transportation is crucial for the reconstruction of the paleoenvironment. Under favorable conditions, a considerable amount of long-distance-transported pollen can be deposited far from its place of origin. In extreme arid regions, in most cases, such situations occur and increase the difficulty to interpret fossil pollen records. In this study, three sets of Cour airborne pollen trap were installed on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains to collect airborne Picea schrenkiana (spruce) pollen grains from July 2001 to July 2006. The results indicate that Picea pollen disperses extensively and transports widely in the lower atmosphere far away from spruce forest. The airborne Picea pollen dispersal period is mainly concentrated between mid-May and July. In desert area, weekly Picea pollen began to increase and peaked suddenly in concentration. Also, annual pollen indices do not decline even when the distance increased was probably related to the strong wind may pick up the deposited pollen grains from the topsoil into the air stream, leading to an increase of pollen concentration in the air that is irrelevant to the normal and natural course of pollen transport and deposition. This, in turn, may lead to erroneous interpretations of the pollen data in the arid region. This study provided insight into the shift in the Picea pollen season regarding climate change in arid areas. It is recorded that the pollen pollination period starts earlier and the duration became longer. The results also showed that the temperature of May and June was positively correlated with the Picea pollen production. Furthermore, the transport of airborne Picea pollen data is useful for interpreting fossil pollen records from extreme arid regions.
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