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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Accuracy of real-time tissue elastography for the evaluation of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a prospective multicenter study.
Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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The prognosis and management of hepatic fibrosis are closely related to the stage of the disease. The limitations of liver biopsy, which is the gold standard for treatment, include its invasiveness and sampling error. Ultrasound elasticity might be the most promising imaging technology for the noninvasive and accurate assessment of hepatic fibrosis. Real-time tissue elastography (RTE) measures the relative stiffness of the tissue in the region of interest caused by the heartbeat. Many studies have verified that RTE is useful for the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC).
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Consumption of non-cow's milk beverages and serum vitamin D levels in early childhood.
CMAJ
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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Vitamin D fortification of non-cow's milk beverages is voluntary in North America. The effect of consuming non-cow's milk beverages on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in children is unclear. We studied the association between non-cow's milk consumption and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy preschool-aged children. We also explored whether cow's milk consumption modified this association and analyzed the association between daily non-cow's milk and cow's milk consumption.
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Effect of TiO2 microbead pore size on the performance of DSSCs with a cobalt based electrolyte.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Mesoporous TiO2 microbeads with well-defined intra-bead pore sizes (14 nm, 23 nm or 33 nm) were employed to investigate the effect of pore size on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells constructed with an organic dye (MK2) and a [Co(bpy)3](2+/3+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine)-based electrolyte. The TiCl4 post treatment and film thickness were optimized for the TiO2 electrodes made from beads with 33 nm intra-bead pores, and an overall energy conversion efficiency of 8.5% was achieved for a device with a 6.5 ?m thick TiO2 film treated with a 20 mM TiCl4 solution. Although beads with larger pores had a smaller specific surface area, devices derived from these beads produced better photovoltaic performance. This is attributed to the improved diffusion of cobalt species inside the working electrode, as evidenced by a higher electron lifetime and dye regeneration rate recorded on these solar cells.
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Gene module based regulator inference identifying miR-139 as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Colorectal cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancer types worldwide. Identification of the key regulators of the altered biological networks is crucial for understanding the complex molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer. We proposed a gene module based approach to infer key miRNAs regulating the major gene network alterations in cancer tissues. By integrating gene differential expression and co-expression information with a protein-protein interaction network, the differential gene expression modules, which captured the major gene network changes, were identified for colorectal cancer. Then, several key miRNAs, which extensively regulate the gene modules, were inferred by analyzing their target gene enrichment in the modules. Among the inferred candidates, three miRNAs, miR-101, miR-124 and miR-139, are frequently down-regulated in colorectal cancers. The following computational and experimental analyses demonstrate that miR-139 can inhibit cell proliferation and cell cycle G1/S transition. A known oncogene ETS1, a key transcription factor in the gene module, was experimentally verified as a novel target of miR-139. miR-139 was found to be significantly down-regulated in early pathological cancer stages and its expression remained at very low levels in advanced stages. These results indicate that miR-139, inferred by the gene module based approach, should be a key tumor suppressor in early cancer development.
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The CD8? gene in duck (Anatidae): cloning, characterization, and expression during viral infection.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
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Cluster of differentiation 8 alpha (CD8?) is critical for cell-mediated immune defense and T-cell development. Although CD8? sequences have been reported for several species, very little is known about CD8? in ducks. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses of ducks, we cloned CD8? coding sequences from domestic, Muscovy, Mallard, and Spotbill ducks using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Each sequence consisted of 714 nucleotides and encoded a signal peptide, an IgV-like domain, a stalk region, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic tail. We identified 58 nucleotide differences and 37 amino acid differences among the four types of duck; of these, 53 nucleotide and 33 amino acid differences were between Muscovy ducks and the other duck species. The CD8? cDNA sequence from domestic duck consisted of a 61-nucleotide 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 714-nucleotide open reading frame, and an 849-nucleotide 3' UTR. Multiple sequence alignments showed that the amino acid sequence of CD8? is conserved in vertebrates. RT-PCR revealed that expression of CD8? mRNA of domestic ducks was highest in the thymus and very low in the kidney, cerebrum, cerebellum, and muscle. Immunohistochemical analyses detected CD8? on the splenic corpuscle and periarterial lymphatic sheath of the spleen. CD8? mRNA in domestic ducklings was initially up-regulated, and then down-regulated, in the thymus, spleen, and liver after treatment with duck hepatitis virus type I (DHV-1) or the immunostimulant polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C).
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Dose intraarticular steroid injection increase the rate of infection in subsequent arthroplasty: grading the evidence through a meta-analysis Article title: As per journal standards, the article title must only be one sentence in length;
J Orthop Surg Res
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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BackgroundIntraarticular steroid injections are widely used in joint arthritis. However, the data regarding an association between an increased risk for arthroplasty infection after an intraarticular steroid injection are still conflicting. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the evidence from relevant studies that examine the relation between intraarticular steroid injections and infection rates in subsequent joint arthroplasty and to develop GRADE based recommendations for using the steroid before arthroplasty.MethodsA systematic search of all studies published through August 2014 was conducted using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, OVID, ScienceDirect and Cochrane CENTRAL databases. The relevant studies that examined the relation between intraarticular steroid injections and infection rates in subsequent joint arthroplasty were identified. Demographic characteristics, infection rates and clinical outcomes were manually extracted from all of the selected studies. The evidence quality levels and recommendations were assessed using the GRADE system.ResultsEight studies looking at hip and knee arthroplasties were included. Meta-analysis showed that patients with steroid injection before arthroplasty had a higher deep infection rate than patients without steroid injection (OR =2.13, 95%CI 1.02-4.45), but no significant effect on superficial infection rate (OR =1.75, 95%CI 0.74-4.16). The overall GRADE system evidence quality was very low, which lowers our confidence in their recommendations.ConclusionsIntraarticular steroid injections may lead to increased deep infection rates of subsequent joint arthroplasty but not the superficial infection rates. Due to the poor quality of the evidence currently available, further studies are still required.
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X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) Arg399Gln polymorphism significantly associated with prostate cancer.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Prostate cancer (Pca) is one of the noncutaneous cancers occurring worldwide. Its high morbidity and mortality make it a concern. X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) Arg399Gln polymorphism (rs25487) has been reported to be related to Pca. However, the conclusions are controversial. In this study, PubMed, HuGENet and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were combined with a comprehensive literature search. Four models including dominant (AA + AG vs. GG), recessive (AA vs. AG+GG), codominant (AA vs. AG, AA vs. GG) and per-allele analysis (A vs. G) were applied. Finally, 15 studies with 18 sets of data were included. A positive association was discovered in pooled results for recessive (odds ratio [OR]=1.202, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.060-1.363, I2=46.20%), codominant (AA vs. AG; OR=1.258, 95% CI, 1.099-1.439, I2=38.50%; AA vs. GG; OR=1.283, 95% CI, 1.027-1.602, I2=51.70%) and allele analysis (OR=1.116, 95% CI, 1.001-1.244, I2=58.00%). In ethnicity subgroup analysis, these 4 models were also significant in the Asian subgroup. However, for whites, only 2 models seemed to be significant (AA vs. AG+GG: OR=1.525, 95% CI, 1.111-2.093, I2=52.60%; AA vs. AG: OR=1.678, 95% CI, 1.185-2.375, I2=30.70%). In further analysis, we regrouped the data based on race, in which pooled results and Asian subgroup were again shown to be positive. In the next analysis, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), linkage disequilibrium (LD), TagSNP and functional analysis were used. The results showed that the SNP was a tag and functional SNP with LD block in both Asians and whites. In summary, we suggest that XRCC1 Arg399Gln might be significantly associated with development of Pca.
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Shedding light on the photochemistry of coinage-metal phosphorescent materials: a time-resolved Laue diffraction study of an Ag(I)-Cu(I) tetranuclear complex.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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The triplet excited state of a new crystalline form of a tetranuclear coordination d(10)-d(10)-type complex, Ag2Cu2L4 (L = 2-diphenylphosphino-3-methylindole ligand), containing Ag(I) and Cu(I) metal centers has been explored using the Laue pump-probe technique with ?80 ps time resolution. The relatively short lifetime of 1 ?s is accompanied by significant photoinduced structural changes, as large as the Ag1···Cu2 distance shortening by 0.59(3) Å. The results show a pronounced strengthening of the argentophilic interactions and formation of new Ag···Cu bonds on excitation. Theoretical calculations indicate that the structural changes are due to a ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) strengthening the Ag···Ag interaction, mainly occurring from the methylindole ligands to the silver metal centers. QM/MM optimizations of the ground and excited states of the complex support the experimental results. Comparison with isolated molecule optimizations demonstrates the restricting effect of the crystalline matrix on photoinduced distortions. The work represents the first time-resolved Laue diffraction study of a heteronuclear coordination complex and provides new information on the nature of photoresponse of coinage metal complexes, which have been the subject of extensive studies.
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A dual amplification strategy for DNA detection combining bio-barcode assay and metal-enhanced fluorescence modality.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Silver-enhanced fluorescence was coupled with a bio-barcode assay to facilitate a dual amplification assay to demonstrate a non-enzymatic approach for simple and sensitive detection of DNA. In the assay design, magnetic nanoparticles seeded with silver nanoparticles were modified with the capture DNA, and silver nanoparticles were modified with the binding of ssDNA and the fluorescently labeled barcode dsDNA. Upon introduction of the target DNA, a sandwich structure was formed because of the hybridization reaction. By simple magnetic separation, silver-enhanced fluorescence of barcode DNAs could be readily measured without the need of a further step to liberate barcode DNAs from silver nanoparticles, endowing the method with simplicity and high sensitivity with a detection limit of 1 pM.
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[Protective effect of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor on neurogenic pulmonary edema in rabbits].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE ) was indicative of poor prognosis in the epidemic of enterovirus 71 infections. The pathogenesis of NPE remains poorly understood. The objectives of this experimental study were to explore whether RAS is activated during NPE in rabbit models induced by fibrin and the effects of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (enalaprilat) on NPE.
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[Ectopic expression of duck albumin down-regulates the expressions of IFN-? and myxovirus resistance 1 mRNA in DF-1 cells].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Objective To investigate the impact of duck albumin (ALB) gene on the mRNA expression levels of interferon ? (IFN-?) and myxovirus resistance-1 (Mx1). Methods The duck ALB gene was subcloned into pEGFP-C1 eukaryotic expression vector, and then the pEGFP-C1-ALB was transiently transfected into chick fibroblast DF-1 by Lipofectamine(TM) 2000. Twenty-four hours later, real-time quantitative PCR was applied to detect the dynamic change of IFN-? and Mx1 mRNA expressions under the stimulation of polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C). Results The pEGFP-C1-ALB was constructed successfully, and transfected into DF-1 effectively. The expression levels of IFN-? and Mx1 gene in cells transfected with pEGFP-C1-ALB were significantly lower than those transfected with pEGFP-C1 after 12-hour stimulation of PolyI:C (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion The expression levels of IFN-? and Mx1 mRNA were down-regulated by over-expression of duck ALB gene.
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Predictors for mortality following acute pancreatitis in children.
Pediatr. Surg. Int.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Although there are several studies focusing on pancreatitis etiology and clinical outcome, no previous report has examined the risk factors for death in children.
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Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane modified layered double hydroxides greatly facilitate polyoxometalate intercalation.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Polyoxometalate (POM) intercalation to layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has been greatly restricted by the geometry, charge and size of POMs. We report herein, for the first time, the intercalation of Na3[PW12O40]·15H2O into tris(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane (Tris) modified layered double hydroxides (Tris-LDH-CO3) using an ion exchange method, resulting in the formation of novel intercalated Tris-LDH-PW12 under ambient conditions without the necessity of degassing CO2. Theoretical calculations show the decreased energy and the slightly distorted LDH layer after Tris modification, indicating that the Tris-modified LDH layers greatly facilitate the intercalation of PW12. Further application of Tris-LDH-PW12 for oxygenation of sulfides shows highly efficient and selective catalytic activities under mild conditions. The Tris-LDH-PW12 can be easily recovered and reused for more than 10 times without any obvious decrease of reactivity. This opens a completely new pathway for engineering POM-LDH advanced functional materials.
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Surface Plasmon-Polariton Mediated Red Emission from Organic Light-Emitting Devices Based on Metallic Electrodes Integrated with Dual-Periodic Corrugation.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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We demonstrate an effective approach to realize excitation and outcoupling of the SPP modes associated with both cathode/organic and anode/organic interfaces in OLEDs by integrating dual-periodic corrugation. The dual-periodic corrugation consists of two set gratings with different periods. The light trapped in the SPP modes associated with both top and bottom electrode/organic interfaces are efficiently extracted from the OLEDs by adjusting appropriate periods of two set corrugations, and a 29% enhancement in the current efficiency has been obtained.
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[Advances in the application of gene therapy for Parkinson's disease with adeno-associated virus].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Vectors used to carry foreign genes play an important role in gene therapy, among which, the adeno-associated virus (AAV) has many advantages, such as nonpathogenicity, low immunogenicity, stable and long-term expression and multiple-tissue-type infection, etc. These advantages have made AAV one of the most potential vectors in gene therapy, and widely used in many clinical researches, for example, Parkinson's disease. This paper introduces the biological characteristics of AAV and the latest research progress of AAV carrying neurotrophic factor, dopamine synthesis related enzymes and glutamic acid decarboxylase gene in the gene therapy of Parkinson's disease.
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Method validation and proficiency testing for determination of total arsenic in apple juice by inductively coupled plasma/ mass spectrometry.
J AOAC Int
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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A proficiency test (PT) program for determination of total As in apple juice samples was conducted by the Food Emergency Response Network (FERN) laboratories. An analytical method using inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-MS was validated for this project. The LOD and LOQ were determined to be 0.315 and 2.32 ng/g, respectively. A total of eight apple juice samples were sent to 38 FERN laboratories, and results were statistically evaluated according to ISO 13528:2005. The total As concentrations in the PT samples reported by the participating laboratories were very close to those obtained in the homogeneity and stability tests. The reproducibility, repeatability, interlaboratory, and intralaboratory variability results led to 69% of participating laboratories being rated as satisfactory using the widely accepted Izl score
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Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation and podocyte injury via thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) during hyperhomocysteinemia.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported to activate NLRP3 inflammasomes resulting in podocyte and glomerular injury during hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcys). However, the mechanism by which the inflammasome senses ROS is still unknown in podocytes upon hHcys stimulation. The current study explored whether thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), an endogenous inhibitor of the antioxidant thioredoxin and ROS sensor, mediates hHcys-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and consequent glomerular injury. In cultured podocytes, size exclusion chromatography and confocal microscopy showed that inhibition of TXNIP by siRNA or verapamil prevented Hcys-induced TXNIP protein recruitment to form NLRP3 inflammasomes and abolished Hcys-induced increases in caspase-1 activity and IL-1? production. TXNIP inhibition protected podocytes from injury as shown by normal expression levels of podocyte markers, podocin and desmin. In vivo, adult C57BL/6J male mice were fed a folate-free diet for 4 weeks to induce hHcys, and TXNIP was inhibited by verapamil (1 mg/ml in drinking water) or by local microbubble-ultrasound TXNIP shRNA transfection. Evidenced by immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation studies, glomerular inflammasome formation and TXNIP binding to NLRP3 were markedly increased in mice with hHcys but not in TXNIP shRNA-transfected mice or those receiving verapamil. Furthermore, TXNIP inhibition significantly reduced caspase-1 activity and IL-1? production in glomeruli of mice with hHcys. Correspondingly, TXNIP shRNA transfection and verapamil attenuated hHcys-induced proteinuria, albuminuria, glomerular damage, and podocyte injury. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that TXNIP binding to NLRP3 is a key signaling mechanism necessary for hHcys-induced NLRP3 inflammasome formation and activation and subsequent glomerular injury.
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Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 agents on left ventricular function: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Ann. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Background. The cardiovascular safety of many glucagon-like peptide-1 agents (GLP-1 agents) is unclear. In this study, we assess the effects of the GLP-1 agents on left ventricular function in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for the relevant publications up to May 2013 without restriction by language. All clinical controlled trials assessing left ventricular function and cardiovascular outcomes with the GLP-1 agents were selected for eligibility. Fourteen trials (415 patients) were identified as eligible between 1966 and 2013. Twelve of the studies were randomized controlled trials (RCT). Results. The results showed that GLP-1 agent treatment in patients with T2DM and/or CVD led to significantly improved regional left ventricular contractile parameters (including peak left systolic tissue velocity and strain) and global left ventricular performance (including stroke volume, ejection fraction, and left ventricular chambers) compared with patients receiving placebo. Conclusions. GLP-1 agent treatment in T2DM and/or CVD patients is associated with a modest but significant increase in the odds of left ventricular contractile parameters and left ventricular performance compared with patients having received placebo, which may be indicative of additional cardiovascular benefits for these patients.
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Hsa-miR-1246, hsa-miR-320a and hsa-miR-196b-5p inhibitors can reduce the cytotoxicity of Ebola virus glycoprotein in vitro.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a highly lethal hemorrhagic fever syndrome in humans and has been associated with mortality rates of up to 91% in Zaire, the most lethal strain. Though the viral envelope glycoprotein (GP) mediates widespread inflammation and cellular damage, these changes have mainly focused on alterations at the protein level, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the molecular pathogenesis underlying this lethal disease is not fully understood. Here, we report that the mi-RNAs hsa-miR-1246, hsa-miR-320a and hsa-miR-196b-5p were induced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) following expression of EBOV GP. Among the proteins encoded by predicted targets of these miRNAs, the adhesion-related molecules tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), dystroglycan1 (DAG1) and the caspase 8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator (CFLAR) were significantly downregulated in EBOV GP-expressing HUVECs. Moreover, inhibition of hsa-miR-1246, hsa-miR-320a and hsa-miR-196b-5p, or overexpression of TFPI, DAG1 and CFLAR rescued the cell viability that was induced by EBOV GP. Our results provide a novel molecular basis for EBOV pathogenesis and may contribute to the development of strategies to protect against future EBOV pandemics.
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An approach toward constructing the trioxadispiroketal core in the DEF-ring of (+)-spirastrellolide A.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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A concise and stereoselective synthesis of the trioxadispiroketal motif that embodies the DEF-ring of the marine macrolide (+)-spirastrellolide A is described. The synthetic approach features a sequence of cyclic acetal tethered ring-closing metathesis and Suárez oxidative cyclization, thereby constituting a viable strategy for constructing the Northern Half.
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Quantitative Analysis of Deformable Model based 3-D Reconstruction of Coronary Artery from Multiple Angiograms.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of the coronary artery is important for the diagnosis and interventional treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this paper, a novel mean composited external force back-projective composition model is proposed and integrated into the deformable model framework for the 3-D reconstruction of coronary arteries from multiple angiograms. The parametric snake evolves toward the real vascular centerline in 3-D space based on the integrated internal energy and composited external energy. In addition, a polynomial function is constructed to determine the diameter of the cross-section of the vascular segments, which fully utilizes the back-projection information of multiple angiograms. The deformable and proposed methods are comparatively validated using phantom data sets and routine angiographic images with respect to space and re-projection Euclidean distance errors. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed model, which can achieve a mean space error of 0.570mm and a mean re-projection error of 0.351mm. In addition, the influence of the angle difference to the reconstruction accuracy is discussed and validated on phantom data sets, which demonstrate that an angle difference of for any two angiograms is suitable for the 3-D reconstruction process.
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[Fermentation transformed ginsenoside by Lactobacillus plantarum].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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To explore ginseng fermentation process by Lactobacillus plantarum, and to make part of total saponins transformed into more reactive ginsenoside Rd.
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Artifact Suppressed Dictionary Learning for Low-dose CT Image Processing.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Low-dose CT (LDCT) images are often severely degraded by amplified mottle noise and streak artifacts. These artifacts are often hard to suppress without introducing tissue blurring effects. In this paper, we propose to process LDCT images using a novel image-domain algorithm called "artifact suppressed dictionary learning (ASDL)". In this ASDL method, orientation and scale information on artifacts is exploited to train artifact atoms, which are then combined with tissue feature atoms to build three discriminative dictionaries. The streak artifacts are cancelled via a discriminative sparse representation (DSR) operation based on these dictionaries. Then, a general dictionary learning (DL) processing is applied to further reduce the noise and residual artifacts. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations on a large set of abdominal and mediastinum CT images are carried out and the results show that the proposed method can be efficiently applied in most current CT systems.
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Insights into the effect of nanoconfinement on molecular interactions.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Being confined within nanoscale space, substances may exhibit unique physicochemical properties. The effect of nanoconfinement on molecular interactions is of significance, but a sound understanding has not been established yet. Here we present a quantitative study on boronate affinity (covalent) and electrostatic (non-covalent) interactions confined within mesoporous silica. We show that both interactions were enhanced by the confinement and that the enhancement depended on the closeness of the interacting location, as well as on the difference between the pore size and the molecular size. The overall enhancement could reach 3 orders of magnitude.
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Microfluidic generation of multicolor quantum-dot-encoded core-shell microparticles with precise coding and enhanced stability.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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A novel microfluidic approach is developed to prepare multicolor QDs-encoded core-shell microparticles with precise and various barcode and enhanced stability performance. With the protection of the hydrogel shell, the leakage of QDs is avoided and the fluorescent stability is enhanced greatly. By embedding different QDs into different cores, no interaction between different QDs existed and the fluorescence spectrum of each kind of QDs can be recorded, respectively. Compared with QDs mixtures in a single particle, it is unnecessary to separate the emissions of QDs in different colors, and deconvolution algorithms are not needed. Therefore, it still maintains precise coding even if QDs with approximate emission wavelengths are used.
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Oolong tea drinking could help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal Han Chinese women.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between oolong tea drinking and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Han Chinese women, while living and diet habits, fertility, disease elements and other baseline conditions were controlled. One group included 124 cases who routinely drank oolong tea, and the other included 556 who did not drink tea. Data were collected on participant age, lifestyle habits, fertility condition, disease elements, and lumbar, and hip bone densities. It was found that the bone densities of the greater trochanteric bone in tea drinkers were higher (0.793 ± 0.119 kg/cm(2)) than that in non-tea drinkers (0.759 ± 0.116 kg/cm(2), F = 6.248, p = 0.013). Similarly, the bone density of Ward's triangular bone in tea drinkers was higher (0.668 ± 0.133 kg/cm(2)) than that in non-tea drinkers (0.637 ± 0.135 kg/cm(2), F = 6.152, p = 0.013). Oolong tea drinking could help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal Chinese women.
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Platelets direct monocyte differentiation into epithelioid-like multinucleated giant foam cells with suppressive capacity upon mycobacterial stimulation.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Epithelioid, foam, and multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) are characteristics of tuberculosis granulomas, yet the precise genesis and functions of these transformed macrophages are unclear. We evaluated the role of platelets as drivers of macrophage transformation in mycobacterial infection.
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Photonic generation of binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave waveforms with an ultra-wide frequency tunable range.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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A novel photonic approach to generating binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave waveforms with an ultra-wide frequency tunable range is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed system, a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DP-MZM) is used as an optical wavelength shifter. To generate a phase-coded microwave waveform, the coding signal is modulated on the original wavelength using a phase modulator (PM). Combining the shifted wavelength and the original wavelength, two wavelengths with a frequency space determined by the input microwave signal are obtained. Applying them to a photodetector (PD), a phase-coded microwave waveform is generated. The key significance of the approach is that both binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave waveforms can be generated with an ultra-wide frequency tunable range. An experiment is performed. The generation of binary and quaternary microwave waveforms with a microwave carrier frequency at 10 and 20 GHz is demonstrated.
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Relating structure and photoelectrochemical properties: electron injection by structurally and theoretically characterized transition metal-doped phenanthroline-polyoxotitanate nanoparticles.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Whereas a large number of sensitized polyoxotitanate clusters have been reported, information on the electrochemical properties of the fully structurally defined nanoparticles is not available. Bridging of this gap will allow a systematic analysis of the relation between sensitizer-cluster binding geometry, electronic structure and electron injection properties. Ti17O28(O(i)Pr)16(Fe(II)Phen)2 is a member of a doubly-doped series of nanoclusters in which the phenanthroline is attached to the surface-located transition metal atom. The visible spectrum of a dichloromethane solution of the studied sample shows a series of absorption bands in the 400-900 nm region. Theoretical DOS and TDDFT calculations indicate that the bands in increasing wavelength order correspond essentially to metal-to-core charge transfer (MCCT) at ?460 nm, metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) at ?520 nm and d-d metal-atom transitions. Exposure of a thin layer of the sample to light in a photoelectrochemical cell produces an electric current in the 400 to ?640 nm region. The fit of the wavelength range of the electron injection with the results of the calculations suggests that charge injection into the FTO anode occurs both from the TiO cluster and from the phenanthroline ligand. Injection from the phenanthroline via the cluster orbitals is ruled out by the lower energy of the phenanthroline orbitals.
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The anti-proliferative effects and mechanisms of low molecular weight scorpion BmK venom peptides on human hepatoma and cervical carcinoma cells in vitro.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Peptides from scorpion venom have been previously studied for use in the prevention and treatment of various types of cancer in folk medicine. The present study investigated the anti-proliferative effects and mechanisms of the low molecular weight (~3 kDa) BmK scorpion venom peptides (LMWSVP) on human hepatoma (SMMC 7721) and cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells. The data indicated that LMWSVP inhibited the growth of SMMC 7721 cells, but had no effect on the growth of HeLa cells. SMMC 7721 cells were more sensitive, with a higher affinity, to LMWSVP as compared with HeLa cells. In addition, LMWSVP induced apoptosis of SMMC 7721 cells by upregulating the expression of caspase-3 and downregulating the expression of Bcl-2. These data provide an experimental basis for further purification and application of LMWSVP for use as an anti-tumor drug in clinical trials.
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Evaluation of the stress distribution change at the adjacent facet joints after lumbar fusion surgery: a biomechanical study.
Proc Inst Mech Eng H
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Spinal fusion surgery has been widely applied in clinical treatment, and the spinal fusion rate has improved markedly. However, its postoperative complications, especially adjacent segment degeneration, have increasingly attracted the attention of spinal surgeons. The most common pathological condition at adjacent segments is hypertrophic degenerative arthritis of the facet joint. To study the stress distribution changes at the adjacent facet joint after lumbar fusion with pedicle screw fixation, human cadaver lumbar spines were used in the present study, and electrical resistance strain gauges were attached on L1-L4 articular processes parallel or perpendicular to the articular surface of facet joints. Subsequently, electrical resistance strain gauge data were measured using anYJ-33 static resistance strain indicator with three types of models: the intact model, the laminectomy model, and the fusion model with pedicle screw fixation. The strain changes in the measurement sites indirectly reflect the stress changes. Significant differences in strain were observed between the normal and laminectomy state at all facet joints. Significant differences in strain were observed between the normal and the pedicle screw fixation fusion state at the L1/2 and L3/4 facet joints. The increased stress on the facet joints after lumbar fusion with pedicle screw fixation may be the cause of adjacent segment degeneration.
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A new C??-diterpenoid alkaloid from the roots of Aconitum duclouxii.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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A new C??-diterpenoid alkaloid, ducloudine F (1), was obtained from the roots of Aconitum duclouxii, along with eight known alkaloids (2-9) isolated from this species for the first time. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. The antimicrobial activities of these compounds were investigated.
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Clinical analysis of 102 cases of Epstein-Barr virus infections in Chinese children.
Georgian Med News
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical manifestations and disease severity, to evaluate the recent trend of clinical manifestations and differences in the clinical and laboratory findings of EBV-associated IM (infectious mononucleosis) according to the age of children. We retrospectively collected cases on hospitalized patients a majority of 7 years old with characteristic symptoms of IM and serologically diagnosed EBV-associated IM at Shaanxi Provincial Peoples University Hospital in Xi'an from Apr, 2012 to Oct, 2013. All their medical records were reviewed and analyzed. For each patient, clinical, laboratory data and outcome were collected retrospectively and compared to previous studies to evaluate the differences between the clinical and laboratory findings of patients of different ages. The clinical manifestations in children with EB virus infection varied. There were 60 (58.8%) cases of children with infectious mononucleosis, 26 (25.49%) cases of Epstein-barr virus infection,16 cases of the atypical EB virus infection, accounting for 15.67%. 78% children were under 7 years of age, 12% were 7 to 14 years of age. There are differences in the symptoms and signs among the different age groups. The clinical manifestations in children with EB virus infection involved multiple systems and produced harm is heavier and should be paid attention to during the treatment. The disease continues to occur mostly in children under 10 years of age. When compared to previous Chinese studies about 15 years ago, the age distribution was similar and the incidence of hepatosplenomegaly was lower in our study.
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Molecular cloning and expression analysis of ferritin, heavy polypeptide 1 gene from duck (Anas platyrhynchos).
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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H-ferritin is a core subunit of the iron storage protein ferritin, and is related to the pathogenesis of malignant diseases. A differential expressed sequence tag of the ferritin, heavy polypeptide 1 gene (FTH1) was obtained from our previously constructed suppression subtractive cDNA library from 3-day-old ducklings challenged with duck hepatitis virus type I (DHV-1). The expression and function of FTH1 in immune defense against infection remains largely unknown in ducks. In this study, the full-length duFTH1 cDNA was obtained using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It consisted of 153 basepairs (bp) 5'untranslated region (UTR), 183 bp 3'UTR, and 546 bp open reading frame that encodes a single protein of 181 amino acid residues. duFTH1 shares high similarity with FTH1 genes from other vertebrates. The amino acid sequence possesses the conserved domain of typical ferritin H subunits, including seven metal ligands in the ferroxidase center, one iron binding region signature, and a potential bio-mineralization residue (Thy(29)). Moreover, in agreement with a previously reported ferritin H subunit, we identified an iron response element in the 5'UTR. RT-PCR analyses revealed duFTH1 mRNA is widely expressed in various tissues. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses suggested that duFTH1 mRNA is significantly up-regulated in the liver after DHV-1 injection or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (polyI:C) treatment, reaching a peak 4 h post-infection, and dropping progressively and returning to normal after 24 h. Our findings suggest that duFTH1 functions as an iron chelating protein subunit in duck and contributes to the innate immune responses against viral infections.
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Comparative analysis of a novel disease phenotype network based on clinical manifestations.
J Biomed Inform
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Systems approaches to analyzing disease phenotype networks in combination with protein functional interaction networks have great potential in illuminating disease pathophysiological mechanisms. While many genetic networks are readily available, disease phenotype networks remain largely incomplete. In this study, we built a large-scale Disease Manifestation Network (DMN) from 50,543 highly accurate disease-manifestation semantic relationships in the United Medical Language System (UMLS). Our new phenotype network contains 2305 nodes and 373,527 weighted edges to represent the disease phenotypic similarities. We first compared DMN with the networks representing genetic relationships among diseases, and demonstrated that the phenotype clustering in DMN reflects common disease genetics. Then we compared DMN with a widely-used disease phenotype network in previous gene discovery studies, called mimMiner, which was extracted from the textual descriptions in Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). We demonstrated that DMN contains different knowledge from the existing phenotype data source. Finally, a case study on Marfan syndrome further proved that DMN contains useful information and can provide leads to discover unknown disease causes. Integrating DMN in systems approaches with mimMiner and other data offers the opportunities to predict novel disease genetics. We made DMN publicly available at nlp/case.edu/public/data/DMN.
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The Effect of Actuator Nozzle Designs on the Electrostatic Charge Generated in Pressurised Metered Dose Inhaler Aerosols.
Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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To investigate the influence of different actuator nozzle designs on aerosol electrostatic charges and aerosol performances for pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs).
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Multiresolution generalized N dimension PCA for ultrasound image denoising.
Biomed Eng Online
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Ultrasound images are usually affected by speckle noise, which is a type of random multiplicative noise. Thus, reducing speckle and improving image visual quality are vital to obtaining better diagnosis.
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PLC?1-PKC? signaling-mediated Hsp90? plasma membrane translocation facilitates tumor metastasis.
Traffic
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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The 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90?) has been identified on the surface of cancer cells, and is implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis, suggesting that it is a potentially important target for tumor therapy. However, the regulatory mechanism of Hsp90? plasma membrane translocation during tumor invasion remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Hsp90? plasma membrane expression is selectively upregulated upon epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation, which is a process independent of the extracellular matrix. Abrogation of EGF-mediated activation of phospholipase (PLC?1) by its siRNA or inhibitor prevents the accumulation of Hsp90? at cell protrusions. Inhibition of the downstream effectors of PLC?1, including Ca(2+) and protein kinase C (PKC?), also blocks the membrane translocation of Hsp90?, while activation of PKC? leads to increased levels of cell-surface Hsp90?. Moreover, overexpression of PKC? increases extracellular vesicle release, on which Hsp90? is present. Furthermore, activation or overexpression of PKC? promotes tumor cell motility in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo, whereas a specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody against Hsp90? inhibits such effects, demonstrating that PKC?-induced Hsp90? translocation is required for tumor metastasis. Taken together, our study provides a mechanistic basis for the role for the PLC?1-PKC? pathway in regulating Hsp90? plasma membrane translocation, which facilitates tumor cell motility and promotes tumor metastasis.
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A boronate affinity sandwich assay: an appealing alternative to immunoassays for the determination of glycoproteins.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Immunoassay has been an essential tool in many areas, including clinical diagnostics. However, it suffers from drawbacks, such as poor availability of high specificity antibodies, limited stability of biological reagents, as well as damage to health and susceptibility of chemical labels to the sample environment. Here we present a new approach, a boronate-affinity sandwich assay (BASA), for the specific and sensitive determination of trace glycoproteins in complex samples. BASA relies on the formation of sandwiches between boronate-affinity molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), target glycoproteins, and boronate-affinity surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes. The MIP ensures the specificity, while the SERS detection provides the sensitivity. BASA overcomes the drawbacks of traditional immunoassays and offers a great prospect for application.
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Silicon application increases drought tolerance of kentucky bluegrass by improving plant water relations and morphophysiological functions.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Drought stress encumbers the growth of turfgrass principally by disrupting the plant-water relations and physiological functions. The present study was carried out to appraise the role of silicon (Si) in improving the drought tolerance in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Drought stress and four levels (0, 200, 400, and 800?mg?L(-1)) of Si (Na2SiO3·9H2O) were imposed after 2 months old plants cultured under glasshouse conditions. Drought stress was found to decrease the photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, leaf water content, relative growth rate, water use efficiency, and turf quality, but to increase in the root/shoot and leaf carbon/nitrogen ratio. Such physiological interferences, disturbances in plant water relations, and visually noticeable growth reductions in Kentucky bluegrass were significantly alleviated by the addition of Si after drought stress. For example, Si application at 400?mg?L(-1) significantly increased the net photosynthesis by 44%, leaf water contents by 33%, leaf green color by 42%, and turf quality by 44% after 20 days of drought stress. Si application proved beneficial in improving the performance of Kentucky bluegrass in the present study suggesting that manipulation of endogenous Si through genetic or biotechnological means may result in the development of drought resistance in grasses.
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Enhancement of dynein-mediated autophagosome trafficking and autophagy maturation by ROS in mouse coronary arterial myocytes.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Dynein-mediated autophagosome (AP) trafficking was recently demonstrated to contribute to the formation of autophagolysosomes (APLs) and autophagic flux process in coronary arterial myocytes (CAMs). However, it remains unknown how the function of dynein as a motor protein for AP trafficking is regulated under physiological and pathological conditions. The present study tested whether the dynein-mediated autophagy maturation is regulated by a redox signalling associated with lysosomal Ca(2+) release machinery. In primary cultures of CAMs, reactive oxygen species (ROS) including H2 O2 and O2 (-.) (generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase) significantly increased dynein ATPase activity and AP movement, which were accompanied by increased lysosomal fusion with AP and APL formation. Inhibition of dynein activity by (erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine) (EHNA) or disruption of the dynein complex by dynamitin (DCTN2) overexpression blocked ROS-induced dynein activation, AP movement and APL formation, and resulted in an accumulation of AP along with a failed breakdown of AP. Antagonism of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP)-mediated Ca(2+) signalling with NED-19 and PPADS abolished ROS-enhanced lysosomal Ca(2+) release and dynein activation in CAMs. In parallel, all these changes were also enhanced by overexpression of NADPH oxidase-1 (Nox1) gene in CAMs. Incubation with high glucose led to a marked O2 (-.) production compared with normoglycaemic CAMs, while Nox1 inhibitor ML117 abrogated this effect. Moreover, ML117 and NED-19 and PPADS significantly suppressed dynein activity and APL formation caused by high glucose. Taken together, these data suggest that ROS function as important players to regulate dynein-dependent AP trafficking leading to efficient autophagic maturation in CAMs.
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Off-line hyphenation of boronate affinity monolith-based extraction with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for efficient analysis of glycoproteins/glycopeptides.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Boronate affinity materials have attracted increasing attentions as sample enrichment platforms for glycoproteomic analysis in recent years. However, most of the boronate affinity materials that have already employed for proteomic analysis are suffering from apparent disadvantages, such as alkaline pH for binding, weak affinity, and relatively poor selectivity. Benzoboroxoles are a unique class of boronic acids which have showed excellent binding properties for the recognition of cis-diol-containing compounds. Recently, a 3-carboxy-benzoboroxole-functionalized monolithic column had been reported and it had exhibited the best selectivity and affinity as well as the lowest binding pH among all reported boronate affinity monolithic columns. In this study, an off-line hyphenation of this boronate affinity monolithic column-based extraction with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was developed and the powerfulness of this hyphenated approach in the analysis of glycoproteins and glycopeptides in complex samples was investigated. The approach was first applied to the analysis of glycopeptides in the tryptic digest of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Totally 22 glycopeptides were identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the best performance among all the boronic acid-functionalized materials. We further employed this approach to the analysis of intact proteins in human saliva. Totally 6 intact glycoproteins were successfully identified. As comparison, when the samples were analyzed without extraction, only a few glycopeptides were identified from the tryptic digest of HRP while no glycoproteins were found from the saliva samples.
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Biomechanical analysis of four types of internal fixation in subtrochanteric fracture models.
Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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To compare the biomechanical properties of four types of internal fixation (proximal femoral nail [PFN], dynamic hip screw [DHS], dynamic condylar screw [DCS], and proximal femoral locking plate [PFLP]) for different types of subtrochanteric fractures.
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CRR9p polymorphism as a protective factor for lung cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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A number of studies have investigated the association between CRR9p polymorphism and risk of lung cancer (LC), yet the role in LC pathogenesis remains unclear owing to inconsistencies across studies. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for all medical literature published until January 2014. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained by means of the fixed effects model. Data from eight studies satisfying the predesigned inclusion criteria were selected for this meta-analysis. We found a statistically significant evidence for a protective effect on the overall LC risk (TT vs. CC: OR?=?0.78, 95 % CI?=?0.70-0.87, P het?=?0.299; TT vs. CT?+?CC: OR?=?0.81, 95 % CI?=?0.73-0.90, P het?=?0.113; T vs. C: OR?=?0.90, 95 % CI?=?0.86-0.95, P het?=?0.758; TT?+?CT vs. CC: OR?=?0.92, 95 % CI?=?0.87-0.98, P het?=?0.892). Both Caucasian and Asian populations were suggested to have a reduced risk of developing such cancer. In the analysis of the association between rs401681 and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risks, all of the contrast models showed similar results except the CT vs. CC genetic model (OR?=?0.93, 95 % CI?=?0.84-1.02, P het?=?0.568). Our meta-analysis provides supportive evidence that CRR9p polymorphism may influence a risk of LC and NSCLC in a protective model.
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The role of RIP3 mediated necroptosis in ouabain-induced spiral ganglion neurons injuries.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) injury is a generally accepted precursor of auditory neuropathy. Receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3) has been reported as an important necroptosis pathway mediator that can be blocked by necrostatin-1 (Nec-1). In our study, we sought to identify whether necroptosis participated in SGN injury. Ouabain was applied to establish an SGN injury model. We measured the auditory brain-stem response (ABR) threshold shift as an indicator of the auditory conditions. Positive ?3-tubulin immunofluorescence staining indicated the surviving SGNs. RIP3 expression was evaluated using immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. SGN injury promoted an increase in RIP3 expression that could be suppressed by application of the necroptosis inhibitor Nec-1. A decreased ABR threshold shift and increased SGN density were observed when Nec-1 was administered with apoptosis inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD). These results demonstrated that necroptosis is an indispensable pathway separately from apoptosis leading to SGN death pathway, in which RIP3 plays an important role.
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Phase I trial of M2ES, a novel polyethylene glycosylated recombinant human endostatin, plus gemcitabine in advanced pancreatic cancer.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal and resistant to treatment of solid tumors. Combination therapies with various types of drugs against pancreatic cancer have been extensively investigated. Endostatin is a potent endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, which may be administered in combination with various chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of several types of cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this phase I trial was the first clinical study to determine the tolerance, safety and efficacy of M2ES, a novel polyethylene glycosylated recombinant human endostatin, administered concurrently with full-dose gemcitabine in patients with inoperable, locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A total of 16 patients were treated with gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8 and 15) and M2ES (5-45 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, 15 and 21) of each 28-day cycle. In 15 evaluable patients, the stable disease rate (SDR) was 40% (95% CI: 11.9-68.1%). In particular, a 75% SDR was observed in 3 out of 4 patients with a M2ES dose level of 7.5 mg/m(2). The most noticeable M2ES-related adverse events observed during the trial were grade 2 liver function abnormalities (6.3%) and grade 1 skin rash (6.3%). No dose-limiting toxicity was observed in any patients from all the dose levels. Therefore, there was no increased toxicity associated with the addition of M2ES to gemcitabine and this combination was well tolerated.
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Visualizing an emotional valence map in the limbic forebrain by TAI-FISH.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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A fundamental problem in neuroscience is how emotional valences are represented in the brain. We know little about how appetitive and aversive systems interact and the extent to which information regarding these two opposite values segregate and converge. Here we used a new method, tyramide-amplified immunohistochemistry-fluorescence in situ hybridization, to simultaneously visualize the neural correlates of two stimuli of contrasting emotional valence across the limbic forebrain at single-cell resolution. We discovered characteristic patterns of interaction, segregated, convergent and intermingled, between the appetitive and aversive neural ensembles in mice. In nucleus accumbens, we identified a mosaic activation pattern by positive and negative emotional cues, and unraveled previously unappreciated functional heterogeneity in the D1- and D2-type medium-spiny neurons, which correspond to the Go and NoGo pathways. These results provide insights into the coding of emotional valence in the brain and act as a proof of principle of a powerful methodology for simultaneous functional mapping of two distinct behaviors.
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The ErbB2-targeting antibody trastuzumab and the small-molecule SRC inhibitor saracatinib synergistically inhibit ErbB2-overexpressing gastric cancer.
MAbs
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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The anti-ErbB2 antibody trastuzumab has shown significant clinical benefits in ErbB2-overexpressing breast and gastric cancer, but resistance to the drug is common. Here, we investigated the antitumor activity of the combination of trastuzumab and the SRC inhibitor saracatinib in ErbB2-overexpressing trastuzumab-resistant gastric cancer. The ErbB2-overexpressing human gastric cancer cell line NCI-N87 was treated with trastuzumab to obtain the trastuzumab-resistant cell line NCI-N87R. The NCI-N87R cell line showed a marked increase in SRC activity and ErbB signaling compared with the NCI-N87 cell line. Our data demonstrated that trastuzumab plus saracatinib was much more potent than either agent alone in reducing the phosphorylation of ErbB3 and AKT in both NCI-N87 and NCI-N87R gastric cancer cell lines. Trastuzumab and saracatinib synergistically inhibited the in vitro growth of NCI-N87 and NCI-N87R cell lines. Further data showed that combination therapy of trastuzumab with saracatinib resulted in a significant benefit over either agent alone in both NCI-N87 and NCI-N87R xenograft models, suggesting its potential use for treating ErbB2-overexpressing gastric cancer.
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Radiation dose reduction with dictionary learning based processing for head CT.
Australas Phys Eng Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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In CT, ionizing radiation exposure from the scan has attracted much concern from patients and doctors. This work is aimed at improving head CT images from low-dose scans by using a fast Dictionary learning (DL) based post-processing. Both Low-dose CT (LDCT) and Standard-dose CT (SDCT) nonenhanced head images were acquired in head examination from a multi-detector row Siemens Somatom Sensation 16 CT scanner. One hundred patients were involved in the experiments. Two groups of LDCT images were acquired with 50 % (LDCT50 %) and 25 % (LDCT25 %) tube current setting in SDCT. To give quantitative evaluation, Signal to noise ratio (SNR) and Contrast to noise ratio (CNR) were computed from the Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements of GM, WM and CSF tissues. A blinded qualitative analysis was also performed to assess the processed LDCT datasets. Fifty and seventy five percent dose reductions are obtained for the two LDCT groups (LDCT50 %, 1.15 ± 0.1 mSv; LDCT25 %, 0.58 ± 0.1 mSv; SDCT, 2.32 ± 0.1 mSv; P < 0.001). Significant SNR increase over the original LDCT images is observed in the processed LDCT images for all the GM, WM and CSF tissues. Significant GM-WM CNR enhancement is noted in the DL processed LDCT images. Higher SNR and CNR than the reference SDCT images can even be achieved in the processed LDCT50 % and LDCT25 % images. Blinded qualitative review validates the perceptual improvements brought by the proposed approach. Compared to the original LDCT images, the application of DL processing in head CT is associated with a significant improvement of image quality.
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Mining cancer-specific disease comorbidities from a large observational health database.
Cancer Inform
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cancer comorbidities often reflect the complex pathogenesis of cancers and provide valuable clues to discover the underlying genetic mechanisms of cancers. In this study, we systematically mine and analyze cancer-specific comorbidity from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System. We stratified 3,354,043 patients based on age and gender, and developed a network-based approach to extract comorbidity patterns from each patient group. We compared the comorbidity patterns among different patient groups and investigated the effect of age and gender on cancer comorbidity patterns. The results demonstrated that the comorbidity relationships between cancers and non-cancer diseases largely depend on age and gender. A few exceptions are depression, anxiety, and metabolic syndrome, whose comorbidity relationships with cancers are relatively stable among all patients. Literature evidences demonstrate that these stable cancer comorbidities reflect the pathogenesis of cancers. We applied our comorbidity mining approach on colorectal cancer and detected its comorbid associations with metabolic syndrome components, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Our results not only confirmed known cancer comorbidities but also generated novel hypotheses, which can illuminate the common pathophysiology between cancers and their co-occurring diseases.
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Global validation of a process-based model on vegetation gross primary production using eddy covariance observations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Gross Primary Production (GPP) is the largest flux in the global carbon cycle. However, large uncertainties in current global estimations persist. In this study, we examined the performance of a process-based model (Integrated BIosphere Simulator, IBIS) at 62 eddy covariance sites around the world. Our results indicated that the IBIS model explained 60% of the observed variation in daily GPP at all validation sites. Comparison with a satellite-based vegetation model (Eddy Covariance-Light Use Efficiency, EC-LUE) revealed that the IBIS simulations yielded comparable GPP results as the EC-LUE model. Global mean GPP estimated by the IBIS model was 107.50±1.37 Pg C year-1 (mean value ± standard deviation) across the vegetated area for the period 2000-2006, consistent with the results of the EC-LUE model (109.39±1.48 Pg C year-1). To evaluate the uncertainty introduced by the parameter Vcmax, which represents the maximum photosynthetic capacity, we inversed Vcmax using Markov Chain-Monte Carlo (MCMC) procedures. Using the inversed Vcmax values, the simulated global GPP increased by 16.5 Pg C year-1, indicating that IBIS model is sensitive to Vcmax, and large uncertainty exists in model parameterization.
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Immunization associated with erectile dysfunction based on cross-sectional and genetic analyses.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a global disease affecting a large number of people. Some studies have found a relationship between low-grade inflammation and ED. We hypothesized that the immune system might play a key role in the outcome of ED. Five immune agents (C3, C4, IgA, IgM, and IgG) were collected based on the Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination Survey (FAMHES), using methods of a traditional cross-sectional analysis. Our results repeated the significant association between ED and metabolic syndrome, obesity, and so forth. However, there seemed to be no positive relation between the tested indexes and ED risk in the baseline analysis (C3: P?=?0.737; C4: P?=?0.274; IgA: P?=?0.943; IgG: P?=?0.069; IgM: P?=?0.985). Then, after adjusting for age and multivariate covariates, a potentially significant association between ED and IgG was discovered (P?=?0.025 and P?=?0.034, respectively). Meanwhile, in order to describe the development of ED on a gene level, SNP-set kernel-machine association test (SKAT) was applied with the known humoral immune genes involved. The outcomes suggested that PTAFR (binary P value: 0.0096; continuous P value: 0.00869), IL27 (0.0029; 0.1954), CD37 (0.0248; 0.5196), CD40 (0.7146; 0.0413), IL7R (0.1223; 0.0222), PSMB9 (0.1237; 0.0212), and CXCR3 (0.0849; 0.0478) might be key genes in ED, especially IL27, when we restricted the family-wise error rate (FWER) to 0.5. Our study shows that IgG and seven genes (PTAFR, CD37, CD40, IL7R, PSMB9, CXCR3, and especially IL27) might be key factors in the pathogenesis of ED, which could pave the way for future gene and immune therapies.
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Association between Polymorphisms of the IKZF3 Gene and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Chinese Han Population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It has been reported that IKAROS family of zinc finger 3 (IKZF3)-deficient mice spontaneously develop human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like phenotypes and produce anti-dsDNA Ab leading to immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis. Polymorphism of the IKZF3 gene corresponds with the susceptibility to several immune-related diseases. Our intention was to establish an association between polymorphisms in the IKZF3 gene and SLE in the Chinese Han population.
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A novel long non-coding RNA FOXCUT and mRNA FOXC1 pair promote progression and predict poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Accumulating evidences demonstrated that many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can cooperate with the adjacent coding genes, forming into "lncRNA-mRNA gene pairs" in multiple biological cellular processes. Here, we showed that a novel long non-coding RNA FOXCUT (FOXC1 promoter upstream transcript) and its neighboring gene FOXC1 played a similar important role in the oncogenesis and progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In this study, the expression of FOXCUT/FOXC1 was measured in 82 ESCC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The prognostic significance of the lncRNA-mRNA gene pair was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test. Cell biological experiments were performed in ESCC cell lines to explore their functions in tumor progression. Notably elevated FOXCUT and FOXC1 expression levels were observed in cancerous tissues compared to adjacent noncancerous tissues (86.6% and 84.1%, respectively; P < 0.01), showing strong correlations with poor differentiation, advanced lymph node classification and metastasis (P < 0.05). Moreover, patients with upregulated FOXCUT or FOXC1 experienced a significantly worse prognosis than those with downregulated FOXCUT or FOXC1 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.014, respectively). In addition, the expression of FOXCUT was positively correlated with expression of FOXC1 in ESCC specimens. And the expression of FOXC1 was also decreased as the FOXCUT expression was silenced by siRNA. Assays in vitro demonstrated that knockdown of either FOXCUT or FOXC1 remarkably inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, invasion in ESCC cells. In conclusion, FOXCUT may be functionally involved in the tumor progression and survival of ESCC patients, at least in part, by modulating FOXC1. FOXCUT and FOXC1 may function as a lncRNA-mRNA gene pair, which may represent a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for ESCC patients.
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Decreased expression of a novel lncRNA CADM1-AS1 is associated with poor prognosis in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinomas.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype in renal cell carcinomas. Rapidly accumulating studies show that the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may play essential roles in cancers. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of a novel lncRNA CADM1-AS1 in ccRCC by quantitative real time PCR. The results showed that CADM1-AS1 expression was down-regulated in tumor tissues in 64 patients with ccRCC compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. Furthermore, the expression of CADM1-AS1 was positively correlated with the expression of mRNA CADM1 in ccRCC specimens (R = 0.611, P <0.0001). Decreased CADM1-AS1 expression was correlated with the progression of AJCC stage (P = 0.039) and worse survival of ccRCC patients (P <0.05). Also, multivariate analysis identified low CADM1-AS1 expression as an independent prognostic factor for ccRCC (P <0.001, HR = 0.211, 95% CI = 0.088-0.504). In addition, we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to evaluate the biological function of CADM1-AS1 in vitro. The results showed that CADM1-AS1 expression was positively associated with CADM1 mRNA expression in 786-O cells and ACHN cells. Functional experiments demonstrated markedly enhanced ability of growth and migration, and reduced apoptotic rate in CADM1-AS1 knocking down in 786-O cells. Conversely, overexpression of CADM1-AS1 showed a significant decrease in growth and migration, along with an increase in apoptotic rate in ACHN cells. In conclusion, our data demonstrated CADM1-AS1 is a new tumor suppressor in ccRCC which regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration via the expression pattern of "CADM1-AS1/CADM1 mRNA gene pairs". CADM1-AS1 may be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in patients with ccRCC.
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Content-based image retrieval using spatial layout information in brain tumor T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR images.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study aims to develop content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system for the retrieval of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR (CE-MR) images of brain tumors. When a tumor region is fed to the CBIR system as a query, the system attempts to retrieve tumors of the same pathological category. The bag-of-visual-words (BoVW) model with partition learning is incorporated into the system to extract informative features for representing the image contents. Furthermore, a distance metric learning algorithm called the Rank Error-based Metric Learning (REML) is proposed to reduce the semantic gap between low-level visual features and high-level semantic concepts. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on a brain T1-weighted CE-MR dataset with three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor). Using the BoVW model with partition learning, the mean average precision (mAP) of retrieval increases beyond 4.6% with the learned distance metrics compared with the spatial pyramid BoVW method. The distance metric learned by REML significantly outperforms three other existing distance metric learning methods in terms of mAP. The mAP of the CBIR system is as high as 91.8% using the proposed method, and the precision can reach 93.1% when the top 10 images are returned by the system. These preliminary results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and feasible for the retrieval of brain tumors in T1-weighted CE-MR Images.
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[Study on applicability of kinetic model for water extracts from puerariae radix].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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To establish an appropriate experimental and data processing method on the basis of the general kinetic model for extraction of traditional Chinese medicines, in order to study the effect of total flavonoids in water extracts from Puerariae Radix on the adaptability of the model, with total flavonoids of Puerariae Radix as the determination indicator. The results showed that the natural logarithm of mass concentration of total flavonoids showed a good linearity with the changes in extraction time and solvent volume. Through calculating and fitting, we successfully established the kinetic model for water extraction of total flavonoids from Puerariae Radix, and verified its accuracy. Its good fitting degree and controllable deviation within the range of industrial production requirements indicated a good adaptability of the model. However, its equation correction factors require further studies.
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Knowledge, attitude and practice of antibiotics: a questionnaire study among 2500 Chinese students.
BMC Med Educ
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Recently, many scientists including bacteriologists have begun to focus on social aspects of antibiotic management especially the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) among the general population regarding antibiotic use. However, relatively few works have published on the relationship between KAP and medical education. In this study, we analyze the present status of Chinese medical (MS)- and non-medical (NS) students KAP on the use of antibiotics, and examine the influence of Chinese medical curriculum on the appropriate usage of antibiotics among medical students.
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[Biomechanical study on open fracture model with plate fixation compared with closed fracture model with intramedullary nail fixation in rats].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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To compare biomechanical effect of the closed fracture model with intramedullary nail fixation and the open fracture model with plate fixation in rats.
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Systematic Analysis of Missing Proteins Provides Clues to Help Define All of the Protein-Coding Genes on Human Chromosome 1.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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Our first proteomic exploration of human chromosome 1 began in 2012 (CCPD 1.0), and the genome-wide characterization of the human proteome through public resources revealed that 32-39% of proteins on chromosome 1 remain unidentified. To characterize all of the missing proteins, we applied an OMICS-integrated analysis of three human liver cell lines (Hep3B, MHCC97H, and HCCLM3) using mRNA and ribosome nascent-chain complex-bound mRNA deep sequencing and proteome profiling, contributing mass spectrometric evidence of 60 additional chromosome 1 gene products. Integration of the annotation information from public databases revealed that 84.6% of genes on chromosome 1 had high-confidence protein evidence. Hierarchical analysis demonstrated that the remaining 320 missing genes were either experimentally or biologically explainable; 128 genes were found to be tissue-specific or rarely expressed in some tissues, whereas 91 proteins were uncharacterized mainly due to database annotation diversity, 89 were genes with low mRNA abundance or unsuitable protein properties, and 12 genes were identifiable theoretically because of a high abundance of mRNAs/RNC-mRNAs and the existence of proteotypic peptides. The relatively large contribution made by the identification of enriched transcription factors suggested specific enrichment of low-abundance protein classes, and SRM/MRM could capture high-priority missing proteins. Detailed analyses of the differentially expressed genes indicated that several gene families located on chromosome 1 may play critical roles in mediating hepatocellular carcinoma invasion and metastasis. All mass spectrometry proteomics data corresponding to our study were deposited in the ProteomeXchange under the identifiers PXD000529, PXD000533, and PXD000535.
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Novel Hybrid Structure Silica/CdTe/Molecularly Imprinted Polymer: Synthesis, Specific Recognition, and Quantitative Fluorescence Detection of Bovine Hemoglobin.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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This work presented a novel strategy for the synthesis of the hybrid structure silica/CdTe/molecularly imprinted polymer (Si-NP/CdTe/MIP) to recognize and detect the template bovine hemoglobin (BHb). First, amino-functionalized silica nanoparticles (Si-NP) and carboxyl-terminated CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were assembled into composite nanoparticles (Si-NP/CdTe) using the EDC (1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride) chemistry. Next, Si-NP/CdTe/MIP was synthesized by anchoring molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) layer on the surface of Si-NP/CdTe through the sol-gel technique and surface imprinting technique. The hybrid structure possessed the selectivity of molecular imprinting technique and the sensitivity of CdTe QDs as well as well-defined morphology. The binding experiment and fluorescence method demonstrated its special recognition performance toward the template BHb. Under the optimized conditions, the fluorescence intensity of the Si-NP/CdTe/MIP decreased linearly with the increase of BHb in the concentration range 0.02-2.1 ?M, and the detection limit was 9.4 nM. Moreover, the reusability and reproducibility and the successful applications in practical samples indicated the synthesis of Si-NP/CdTe/MIP provided an alternative solution for special recognition and determination of protein from real samples.
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Measurement and evaluation of the alar base in unilateral secondary lip nasal deformities by three-dimensional computed tomography.
Cleft Palate Craniofac. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Objective : This study aimed to analyze the asymmetry of the pyriform aperture and alar base in patients with unilateral secondary nasal deformities by three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). Methods : 3D-CT images of the subject group of 101 adult patients and of a control group of 65 normal adults were examined. Sixty-nine patients without alveolar bone grafting (ABG) were classified as Group A, and 32 patients with ABG were classified as Group B. Seven landmarks (INM, LPA, IPA, Gbase, Gsup, Glat, and Sbal) were measured for both the subject and control groups, and comparative analyses were done to assess the degree of asymmetry in the subject group. Results : For over 95% of Group A and 80% to 85% of Group B, the index of LPA and IPA showed asymmetry or marked asymmetry. The index of Gbase, Glat, Gsup, and Sbal showed symmetry for around 50% of Group A and about 60% of Group B. In Group A, dorsal, lateral, and caudal translocation was found on the cleft side in LPA and IPA, while all soft landmarks showed dorsal translocation. In Group B, caudal translocation was found in both LPA and IPA, but only LPA appeared dorsal on the cleft side, while Glat showed dorsal and caudal translocation. Conclusion : The results indicated that the degree of asymmetry of hard tissue landmarks far exceeded that of the soft tissue landmarks, and the degree of asymmetry of pyriform aperture was higher than expected for patients after ABG.
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[Research on the influence of mixing layer depth on algal growth].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Frequent blooms have been observed in tributary bays of the Three Gorges Reservoir since its initial filling. In order to identify the primary factor controlling water blooms, some experiments were conducted based on the critical depth theory. In the winter of early 2012, the enclosures on Xiangxi River were built to investigate the mechanism of mixing layer depth (Z(mix)) on algal growth. The length of the enclosures under water was changed in gradient, and the water of each enclosures was injected from Xiangxi River, in which the algal concentration was low and the zooplanktons were filtered out, and then the water was mixed evenly. The results showed that the algae grew quickly in the enclosures with Z(eu)/Z(mix) (the favorable ratio of euphotic depth to mixing depth) > 1, and the maximum density of chlorophyll-a (ChI-a) reached 90 mg x m(-3), otherwise the algae grew slowly. The critical depth theory was appropriate for the experiment, and there was a critical value of Z(eu)/Z(mix). Water bloom will not break out if the Z(eu)/Z(mix) is below the critical value. Based on the critical depth theory, it was found that there was a negative correlation between algal net primary productivity and Z(mix), the lower the Z(mix), the greater the net primary productivity.
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Responsive lanthanide coordination polymer for hydrogen sulfide.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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Metal organic coordination polymers have received great attention because of their flexible compositions and architecture. Here, we report the design and synthesis of a responsive lanthanide coordination polymer (LCP) for hydrogen sulfide (H2S), utilizing self-assembling of biomolecule nucleotide with luminescent terbium ion (Tb(3+)) and sensitizing silver ion (Ag(+)) in aqueous solution. LCP is highly fluorescent due to the inclusion of Ag(+) ions, which sensitized the fluorescence of Tb(3+) ions. H2S can strongly quench the fluorescence of LCP through its high affinity for Ag(+) ions. Such configurated LCP material from initial building blocks showed high sensitivity and selectivity for H2S and was applied to the determination of H2S in human serum. LCP with Tb(3+) ions also has a long fluorescence lifetime, which allows for time-resolved fluorescence assays, possessing particular advantages to probing H2S in biological systems with autofluorescence.
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Note: Vibrationally mediated photodissociation of carbon dioxide cation.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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The photodissociation dynamics of carbon dioxide cation, CO2(+), mediated by its different A?(2)?u,1/2(?1,?2,0) vibronic states has been investigated by means of time-sliced velocity map imaging. Through analysis of the recorded translational energy release spectra of photofragment CO(+), we found that the photodissociation of CO2(+) exhibits drastic change in a rather narrow energy region. A conformational barrier in the CO2(+)(A?(2)A1) state is suggested to be ?5600 cm(-1) relative to the CO2(+)(A?(2)?u,1/2(0,0,0)) state, in reasonable agreement with previous prediction.
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Application countermeasures of non-incineration technologies for medical waste treatment in China.
Waste Manag Res
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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By the end of 2012, there were 272 modern, high-standard, centralized medical waste disposal facilities operating in various cities in China. Among these facilities nearly 50% are non-incineration treatment facilities, including the technologies of high temperature steam, chemical disinfection and microwave. Each of the non-incineration technologies has its advantages and disadvantages, and any single technology cannot offer a panacea because of the complexity of medical waste disposal. Although non-incineration treatment of medical waste can avoid the release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans, it is still necessary to decide how to best meet the local waste management needs while minimizing the impact on the environment and public health. There is still a long way to go to establish the sustainable application and management mode of non-incineration technologies. Based on the analysis of typical non-incineration process, pollutant release, and the current tendency for technology application and development at home and abroad, this article recommends the application countermeasures of non-incineration technologies as the best available techniques and best environmental practices in China.
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Transcription Activator-like Effector Nuclease (TALEN)-mediated Gene Correction in Integration-free ?-Thalassemia Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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?-Thalassemia (?-Thal) is a group of life-threatening blood disorders caused by either point mutations or deletions of nucleotides in ?-globin gene (HBB). It is estimated that 4.5% of the population in the world carry ?-Thal mutants (1), posing a persistent threat to public health. The generation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and subsequent correction of the disease-causing mutations offer an ideal therapeutic solution to this problem. However, homologous recombination-based gene correction in human iPSCs remains largely inefficient. Here, we describe a robust process combining efficient generation of integration-free ?-Thal iPSCs from the cells of patients and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-based universal correction of HBB mutations in situ. We generated integration-free and gene-corrected iPSC lines from two patients carrying different types of homozygous mutations and showed that these iPSCs are pluripotent and have normal karyotype. We showed that the correction process did not generate TALEN-induced off targeting mutations by sequencing. More importantly, the gene-corrected ?-Thal iPS cell lines from each patient can be induced to differentiate into hematopoietic progenitor cells and then further to erythroblasts expressing normal ?-globin. Our studies provide an efficient and universal strategy to correct different types of ?-globin mutations in ?-Thal iPSCs for disease modeling and applications.
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Association between the polymorphism of estrogen receptor alpha and Alzheimers disease in Chinese population.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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To investigate the possible association between the polymorphism of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and Alzheimers disease (AD) in Chinese population.
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Mechanistic investigation and reversible effect of 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl heptanoate on the in vitro percutaneous absorption of indomethacin.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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Abstract In the present study, the enhancing effect of 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl heptanoate (M-HEP) on the percutaneous absorption of indomethacin (IM) was evaluated by the in vitro penetration experiments using the rat abdominal skin as a barrier. Partition experiment, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), was employed to investigate the possible mechanisms of the action of M-HEP. Furthermore, the reversible effect of M-HEP on excised rat skin was also evaluated through in vitro permeation as a preliminary indicator of safety. The result of in vitro permeation experiment indicated that, 10% (w/w) M-HEP in combination with isopropyl palmitate (IPP) significantly increased (p?
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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