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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
An Anatomic Study to Determine the Optimal Entry Point, Medial Angles, and Effective Length for Safe Fixation using Posterior C1 Lateral Mass Screws.
Spine
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Study Design. Anatomic study of the C1 lateral mass using fine-cut computed tomographic (CT) scans and Mimics software.Objective. To investigate the optimal entry point, medial angles and effective length for safe fixation using posterior C1 lateral mass screws.Summary of Background Data. Placing posterior C1 lateral mass screws is technically demanding, and a misplaced screw can result in injury to the vertebral artery, spinal cord, or internal carotid artery. Although various insertion angles have been proposed for posterior C1 lateral mass screw, no clear consensus has been reached on the ideal medial angle of the C1 lateral mass.Methods. The C1 lateral masses were evaluated using CT scans and Mimics software in 70 patients. The effective width (EW) and effective screw length (ESL) of posterior C1 lateral mass screws were measured at different medial angulations relative to the midline sagittal plane. The height (H) for screw entry point on the posterior surface of C1 lateral mass and the distance (D) between screw entry point and the intersection of the midline sagittal plane and the posterior arch of the atlas were also measured.Results. The mean height (H) for screw entry on the posterior surface of the lateral mass was 4.25mm, the mean distance (D) between screw entry point and the intersection of the mid-sagittal plane and the posterior arch of the atlas was 27.62mm. The optimal medial angle was 20.86º with a corresponding effective width of 10.56mm and effective screw length of 21.87mm.Conclusion. This study helps to define the specific anatomy related to C1 posterior lateral mass screw placement in an effort to facilitate instrumentation. However, variation is seen in lateral mass anatomy, and this study must be combined with customized surgical planning that includes advanced imaging for safe and effective instrumentation.
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Enantioselective Friedel-Crafts Alkylation of Pyrrole with Chalcones Catalyzed by a Dinuclear Zinc Catalyst.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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A highly enantioselective Friedel-Crafts (F-C) alkylation of pyrrole with a wide range of simple nonchelating chalcone derivatives catalyzed by a chiral (Zn2EtL)n (L = (S,S)-1) complex has been developed. The catalyst (Zn2EtL)n complex was prepared in situ by reacting the chiral ligand (S,S)-1 with two equivalents of diethylzinc. A series of beta-pyrrole-substituted dihydrochalcones were usually formed mostly in excellent yields (up to 99%) and excellent enantioselectivity [up to 99% enantiomeric excess (ee)] by using 15 mol % catalyst loading under mild conditions. The absolute stereochemistry of the products was determined to be of the S-configuration by X-ray crystallographic analysis of 13g. Meanwhile, a weak negative nonlinear effect was observed. On the basis of the experimental results and previous reports, a possible mechanism was proposed to explain the origin of the asymmetric induction.
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Association of selenoprotein S gene polymorphism with ischemic stroke in a Chinese case-control study.
Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Previous studies showed that selenoprotein S (SELS) was associated with a range of inflammatory markers, and its gene expression was influenced by a polymorphism in the promoter region. The genetic basis of the ischemic stroke has now been largely determined, so the aim of the study was to examine the role of SELS genetic variants in the ischemic stroke risk in a Chinese population. We conducted a case-control study with 239 ischemic stroke patients and 240 controls. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SELS genes were analyzed for association with the risk of ischemic stroke in the Chinese Han population. No evidence of ischemic stroke association was observed with the SNP rs34713741. Interestingly, the strongest evidence showed that SELS SNP rs4965814 was associated with ischemic stroke (P?
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A highly efficient asymmetric synthesis of quaternary stereocenter-containing indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids using aldehydes, nitroalkenes, and unactivated cyclic ketimines.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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A highly efficient approach for the construction of indolizidines and quinolizidines bearing a bridged quaternary stereocenter has been established in a one-pot fashion using aldehydes, nitroalkenes, and cyclic ketimines with excellent enantioselectivities and in high yields. Moreover, this method could be applied to the synthesis of indolizidines in the gram scale.
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Effects and safety of iron-based phosphate binders in dialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Abstract Aim: To assess the effects and safety of iron-based phosphate binders in adult patients receiving dialysis. Methods: We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and CBM for randomized controlled trials about iron-based phosphate binders in adult dialysis patients. Study quality was assessed using the criteria outlined in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of intervention. Meta-analysis was conducted by RevMan 5.3. Results: Eight studies with 2018 participants were eligible for our meta-analysis. Iron-based phosphate binders were superior to placebo (MD?=?-2.43?mg/dL, 95% CI: -3.18 to -1.68, p?
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[Construction and investigation of a recombinant eukaryotic expression vector for expressing the ORF3 protein of hepatitis E virus in BHK-21 fibroblasts].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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To construct a eukaryotic expression vector to express the hepatitis E virus protein open reading frame 3 (ORF3) and investigate the intracellular location of the expressed protein using the baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) fibroblast cell line.
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DNA methylation-mediated silencing of matricellular protein dermatopontin promotes hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis by ?3?1 integrin-Rho GTPase signaling.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Dermatopontin (DPT), a tyrosine-rich, acidic matricellular protein, has been implicated in several human cancers. However, its biological functions and molecular mechanisms in cancer progression, particular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), remain unknown. We demonstrated that DPT was significantly down-regulated in 202 HCC clinical samples and that its expression level was closely correlated with cancer metastasis and patient prognosis. The overexpression of DPT dramatically suppressed HCC cell migration in vitro and intrahepatic metastasis in vivo. We further revealed that the down-regulation of DPT in HCC was due to epigenetic silencing by promoter DNA methylation. And the inhibitory effects of DPT on HCC cell motility were associated with dysregulated focal adhesion assembly, decreased RhoA activity and reduced focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and c-Src tyrosine kinase (Src) phosphorylation, and all of these alterations required the involvement of integrin signaling. Furthermore, we determined that the inhibitory effects of DPT on HCC cell motility were primarily mediated through ?3?1 integrin. Our study provides new evidence for epigenetic control of tumor microenvironment, and suggests matricellular protein DPT may serve as a novel prognostic marker and act as a HCC metastasis suppressor.
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Epigenetic enzymes are the therapeutic targets for CD4(+)CD25(+/high)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells.
Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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CD4(+)CD25(+/high)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are a subset of CD4(+) T cells that play an essential role in maintaining peripheral immune tolerance. Several transcriptional cofactors have been recently identified, which form complexes with transcription factor Foxp3 of Treg cells and contribute in the suppressive function of Treg cells. However, Foxp3 is still defined as a "master" (multiple pathway) regulator gene that controls the development and stability of Treg cells. Because of its importance, the regulatory mechanisms underlying Foxp3 expression have been a focus of intensive investigation. Recent progress suggests that the epigenetic mechanisms responsible for regulating the Foxp3 gene expression are key components of suppressive activity of Treg cells. This review not only discusses the basic concepts of biology and epigenetic modifications of Treg cells, but also analyzes the translational clinical aspect of epigenetic modifications of Treg cells, focusing on several ongoing clinical trials and the Food and Drugs administration-approved epigenetic-based drugs. The new progress in identifying epigenetic enzymes functional in Treg cells is a new target for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, graft-vs-host disease and cancers.
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Stress during a Critical Postnatal Period Induces Region-Specific Structural Abnormalities and Dysfunction of the Prefrontal Cortex via CRF1.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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During the early postnatal period, environmental influences play a pivotal role in shaping the development of the neocortex, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that is crucial for working memory and goal-directed actions. Exposure to stressful experiences during this critical period may disrupt the development of PFC pyramidal neurons and impair the wiring and function of related neural circuits. However, the molecular mechanisms of the impact of early-life stress on PFC development and function are not well understood. In this study, we found that repeated stress exposure during the first postnatal week hampered dendritic development in layers II/III and V pyramidal neurons in the dorsal agranular cingulate cortex (ACd) and prelimbic cortex (PL) of neonatal mice. The deleterious effects of early postnatal stress on structural plasticity persisted to adulthood only in ACd layer V pyramidal neurons. Most importantly, concurrent blockade of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) by systemic antalarmin administration (20 ?g/g of body weight) during early-life stress exposure prevented stress-induced apical dendritic retraction and spine loss in ACd layer V neurons and impairments in PFC-dependent cognitive tasks. Moreover, the magnitude of dendritic regression, especially the shrinkage of apical branches, of ACd layer V neurons predicted the degree of cognitive deficits in stressed mice. Our data highlight the region-specific effects of early postnatal stress on the structural plasticity of prefrontal pyramidal neurons, and suggest a critical role of CRF1 in modulating early-life stress-induced prefrontal abnormalities.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 18 November 2014. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.304.
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Liposome-mediated induction of apoptosis of human hepatoma cells by c-myc antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide and 5-fluorouracil.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotide and 5-fluorouracil on the expression of c-myc, invasion and proliferation of HEPG-2 liver cancer cells.
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Immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory cytokines directly and indirectly inhibit endothelial dysfunction- a novel mechanism for maintaining vascular function.
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Endothelial dysfunction is a pathological status of the vascular system, which can be broadly defined as an imbalance between endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction and vasodilation. Endothelial dysfunction is a key event in the progression of many pathological processes including atherosclerosis, type II diabetes and hypertension. Previous reports have demonstrated that pro-inflammatory/immunoeffector cytokines significantly promote endothelial dysfunction while numerous novel anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive cytokines have recently been identified such as interleukin (IL)-35. However, the effects of anti-inflammatory cytokines on endothelial dysfunction have received much less attention. In this analytical review, we focus on the recent progress attained in characterizing the direct and indirect effects of anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive cytokines in the inhibition of endothelial dysfunction. Our analyses are not only limited to the importance of endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular disease progression, but also expand into the molecular mechanisms and pathways underlying the inhibition of endothelial dysfunction by anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive cytokines. Our review suggests that anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive cytokines serve as novel therapeutic targets for inhibiting endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation and cardio- and cerebro-vascular diseases.
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Testing hypotheses of mitochondrial gene-tree paraphyly: unraveling mitochondrial capture of the Streak-breasted Scimitar Babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis) by the Taiwan Scimitar Babbler (P. musicus).
Mol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Species-level paraphyly inferred from mitochondrial gene trees is a prevalent phenomenon in taxonomy and systematics, but there are several potential causes that are not easily explained by currently used methods. The present study aims to test the underlying causes behind the observed paraphyly of Streak-breasted Scimitar Babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis) via statistical analyses of four mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nine nuclear (nuDNA) genes. Mitochondrial gene trees show paraphyly of P. ruficollis with respect to the Taiwan Scimitar Babbler (P. musicus), but nuclear genealogies support a sister-group relationship. Predictive coalescent simulations imply several hypothetical explanations, the most likely being mitochondrial capture of P. ruficollis by P. musicus for the observed cyto-nuclear incongruence. Further Approximate Bayesian Computation suggests a unidirectional introgression model with substantial level of gene flow from P. ruficollis to P. musicus during their initial divergence during the Late Pleistocene. This specific observation frames several potential causes for incongruent outcomes of mitochondrial and nuclear introgression in general, and on the whole, our results underscore the strength of multiple independent loci for species delimitation and importance of testing hypotheses that explain disparate causes of mitochondrial gene-tree paraphyly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Efficacy and safety of lanthanum carbonate versus calcium-based phosphate binders in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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We conducted this review to assess the relative efficacy and safety of lanthanum carbonate versus calcium-based phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease.
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Hyperhomocysteinemia potentiates hyperglycemia-induced inflammatory monocyte differentiation and atherosclerosis.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with increased diabetic cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of HHcy in atherogenesis associated with hyperglycemia (HG) remains unknown. To examine the role and mechanisms by which HHcy accelerates HG-induced atherosclerosis, we established an atherosclerosis-susceptible HHcy and HG mouse model. HHcy was established in mice deficient in cystathionine ?-synthase (Cbs) in which the homocysteine (Hcy) level could be lowered by inducing transgenic human CBS (Tg-hCBS) using Zn supplementation. HG was induced by streptozotocin injection. Atherosclerosis was induced by crossing Tg-hCBS Cbs mice with apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice and feeding them a high-fat diet for 2 weeks. We demonstrated that HHcy and HG accelerated atherosclerosis and increased lesion monocytes (MCs) and macrophages (MØs) and further increased inflammatory MC and MØ levels in peripheral tissues. Furthermore, Hcy-lowering reversed circulating mononuclear cells, MC, and inflammatory MC and MC-derived MØ levels. In addition, inflammatory MC correlated positively with plasma Hcy levels and negatively with plasma s-adenosylmethionine-to-s-adenosylhomocysteine ratios. Finally, l-Hcy and d-glucose promoted inflammatory MC differentiation in primary mouse splenocytes, which was reversed by adenoviral DNA methyltransferase-1. HHcy and HG, individually and synergistically, accelerated atherosclerosis and inflammatory MC and MØ differentiation, at least in part, via DNA hypomethylation.
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Screening of the genital human papillomavirus infection among 8581 women in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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To investigate the prevalence of genital human papillomavirus(HPV)infection among women in Shaan'xi Province of China,and to detect the characteristics of genital HPV infection among these women.
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A dual emission fluorescent probe enables simultaneous detection of glutathione and cysteine/homocysteine.
Chem Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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Many studies have shown that glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) / homocysteine (Hcy) levels are interrelated in biological systems. To unravel the complicated biomedical mechanisms by which GSH and Cys/Hcy are involved in various disease states, probes that display distinct signals in response to GSH and Cys/Hcy are highly desirable. In this work, we report a rhodol thioester (1) that responds to GSH and Cys/Hcy with distinct fluorescence emissions in neutral media. Probe 1 reacts with Cys/Hcy to form the corresponding deconjugated spirolactam via a tandem native chemical ligation (NCL) reaction. This intramolecular spirocyclization leads to the "quinone - phenol" transduction of rhodol dyes, and an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) process between the phenolic hydroxyl proton and the aromatic nitrogen in the benzothiazole unit occurs upon photoexcitation, thus affording 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzothiazole (HBT) emission (454 nm). In the case of the tripeptide GSH, only transthioesterification takes place removing the intramolecular photo-induced electron transfer (PET) process caused by the electron deficient 4-nitrobenzene moiety giving rise to a large fluorescence enhancement at the rhodol emission band (587 nm). The simultaneous detection of GSH and Cys/Hcy is attributed to the significantly different rates of intramolecular S,N-acyl shift of their corresponding thioester adducts derived from 1. The utility of probe 1 has been demonstrated in various biological systems including serum and cells.
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ALDH1A1 expression correlates with clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis of breast cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A1 (ALDH1A1) has been identified as a putative cancer stem cell (CSC) marker in breast cancer. However, the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of this protein in breast cancer patients remains controversial.
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One-pot enantioselective construction of indoloquinolizidine derivatives bearing five contiguous stereocenters using aliphatic aldehydes, nitroethylenes, and tryptamine.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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An organocatalytic cascade reaction was established for the construction of indoloquinolizidine derivatives bearing five contiguous stereocenters from readily available aliphatic aldehydes, nitroethylenes, and tryptamine. This one-pot process gave 30-55% overall yields with excellent d.r. (>20?:?1 in all cases) and ee (91-98%). Additionally, quaternary stereogenic carbon center-containing indoloquinolizidines were prepared through NBS-mediated cyclization of one of the intermediates.
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Anti-C1q autoantibodies from active lupus nephritis patients could inhibit the clearance of apoptotic cells and complement classical pathway activation mediated by C1q in vitro.
Immunobiology
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Anti-C1q antibodies are prevalent in patients with active lupus nephritis and were found to be closely associated with renal involvement and predictive for a flare of nephritis. However, the pathogenesis of anti-C1q antibodies involved in human lupus nephritis remains unclear. C1q, which plays a key role in apoptotic cell and immune complex removal, is a very important functional molecule in the pathogenesis of SLE. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of anti-C1q autoantibodies from active lupus nephritis patients on the bio-functions of C1q in vitro. We purified IgG autoantibodies against C1q from lupus nephritis patients, and found that they could recognize C1q bound on early apoptotic cells at 30?g/ml, and could significantly decrease the phagocytosis by macrophages of early apoptotic cells opsonized by 50?g/ml C1q in comparison with normal IgG. Levels of circulating immune complexes of the ten patients were measured by a circulating immune complexes (CIC)-C1q Enzyme Immunoassay Kit. Anti-C1q autoantibodies affinity purified by microtiter plates could significantly inhibit the deposition of C3c on CIC-C1q in a dose dependent manner in comparison with IgG from 10 healthy blood donors. The binding of opsonized immune complexes to RBCs was significantly inhibited by anti-C1q autoantibodies purified by microtiter plates in a dose dependent manner. Our observations suggest that serum anti-C1q autoantibodies from active lupus nephritis patients could interfere with some biological function of C1q in vitro.
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Telocytes damage in endometriosis-affected rat oviduct and potential impact on fertility.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Women with endometriosis (EMs) have unexplained infertility. The recently identified telocytes (TCs) might participate in the maintenance of structural and functional integrity of oviduct tissue, but so far the involvement of TCs in EMs-affected oviduct tissue and potential impact on fertility capacity remain unknown. By an integrated technique of haematoxylin and eosin staining, in situ immunohistochemistry and double-labelled immunofluorescence staining and electron microscopy approach, TCs were studied in the autotransplantation Sprague-Dawley rat model of EMs-affected oviduct tissue and in sham control, respectively, together with determination of iNOS, COX-2, LPO and estradiol. TCs were found in perivascular connective tissue and smooth muscle bundles in sham oviduct, with typical ultrastructural features (a slender piriform/spindle/triangular cell body, and one or more extremely long prolongations, emerged from cell bodies and extend to various directions), and specific immunophenotype of CD34-positive/vimentin-positive/c-kit-negative. However, in EMs-affected oviduct tissue (grade III), extensive ultrastructural damage (degeneration, discontinue, dissolution and destruction), significant decrease or loss of TCs and interstitial fibrosis were observed, together with elevated level of iNOS, COX-2, LPO and estradiol, thus suggestive of inflammation and ischaemia-induced TCs damage. Based on TCs distribution and intercellular connections, we proposed that such damage might be involved in structural and functional abnormalities of oviduct, such as attenuated intercellular signalling and oviduct contractility, impaired immunoregulation and stem cell-mediated tissue repair, 3-D interstitial architectural derangement and tissue fibrosis. Therefore, TCs damage might provide a new explanation and potential target for EMs-induced tubal damage and fertility disorders.
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Wireless esophageal pH capsule for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease: A multicenter clinical study.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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To investigate the feasibility and safety of pH capsule to monitor pH in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
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Lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4) promotes proliferation and metastasis of gastric cancer via FAK/Src pathway.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4) has been found up-regulated in a variety of human malignancies, but its clinical significance and functional roles in gastric cancer (GC) remain unknown.
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Traditional Chinese medicine versus western medicine as used in China in the management of rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, single-blind, 24-week study.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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This study is designed to compare the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with western medicine (WM) in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This is a 24-week, randomized, multicenter, single-blind study comparing TCM with WM (as used in China) carried out between June 2002 and December 2004 in nine research centers in China, involving 489 patients. Patients were randomized to receive TCM (n = 247), MTX and SSZ (n = 242). MTX was started at a dose of 5 mg to a final dose of 7.5-15 mg weekly. The maintenance dose was 2.5-7.5 mg weekly. The starting dose of SSZ was 0.25 g bid, increasing by 0.25 g a day once a week to a final dose of 0.5-1 g qid. The maintenance dose was 0.5 g tid to qid. Primary end point was the proportion of patients with response according to the American College of Rheumatology 20 % improvement criteria (ACR20) at weeks 24. At 24 weeks, ACR20 responses were 53.0 % in TCM group and 66.5 % in WM group, (P < 0.001) at 24 weeks. ACR 50 responses were 31.6 % of TCM group and 42.6 % in WM group, (P = 0.01). ACR70 responses were 12.6 % in TCM group and 17.4 % in WM group, (P = 0.14). Side effects were observed more frequently in WM group. In this study, ACR20, ACR50 responses at 24 weeks were significantly better in the WM treated group, by intention to treat (ITT) and per protocol analysis. The ACR 70 response showed no significant difference between the two groups. TCM, while effective in treating RA, appears to be less effective than WM in controlling symptoms, but TCM is associated with fewer side effects.
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A hybrid coumarin-thiazole fluorescent sensor for selective detection of bisulfite anions in vivo and in real samples.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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A hybrid coumarin-thiazole compound was developed as a novel ratiometric and colorimetric sensor for bisulfite anions. Structure identification of the compound was confirmed by (1)H?NMR, (13)C?NMR, (1)H,(1)H COSY, heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), IR, and HRMS spectroscopy. The detection of bisulfite anions was performed through the Michael addition of the bisulfite anion toward the hybrid coumarin-thiazole sensor. The reaction between the sensor and bisulfite anion caused the fluorescence intensity to decrease at 600?nm and to increase at 450?nm and simultaneously yielded a visible color change from purplish red to colorless because the ? conjugation between thiazole and coumarin was blocked. The sensor possessed high selectivity and sensitivity for bisulfite with respect to other common anions in aqueous solution. Moreover, the practical value of this sensor was confirmed by its application in the detection of bisulfite anion in human breast adenocarcinoma cells and granulated sugar.
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Monoamine oxidase A suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis by inhibiting the adrenergic system and its transactivation of EGFR signaling.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), a catecholamine neurotransmitter degrading enzyme, is closely associated with neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, its role in cancer progression remains unknown.
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LRG1 is an independent prognostic factor for endometrial carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common female malignancies. The patients with high-risk factors may have poor prognosis. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find a new molecule to more accurately predict survival of patients. Leucine-rich-alpha-2-glycoprotein1 (LRG1), one of leucine-rich repeat family, was closely associated with cancer metastasis and poor prognosis. The biological functions and the expression level of LRG1 remain obscure in EC. In this study, by immunohistochemical analysis of 242 EC patient tissues, we found that LRG1 expression was associated with stage and lymphatic metastasis in both test cohort (133 patients) and validation cohort (109 patients). Furthermore, to investigate the prognostic value of LRG1 in endometrial carcinoma, we analyzed the correlation between variables and overall survival with Cox proportional hazard regression. The result showed that LRG1 was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival of endometrial carcinoma patients. To further evaluate the prognostic efficiency of LRG1 in endometrial carcinoma, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of LRG1 in endometrial carcinoma prognosis by logistic regression. The result showed that LRG1 combining with other clinicopathological risk factors was a stronger prognostic model than clinicopathological risk factors alone or their combination. Thus, LRG1 potentially offered clinical value in directing personal treatment for endometrial carcinoma patients.
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CTHRC1 acts as a prognostic factor and promotes invasiveness of gastrointestinal stromal tumors by activating Wnt/PCP-Rho signaling.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the major gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors with a variable malignancy ranging from a curable disorder to highly malignant sarcomas. Metastasis and recurrence are the main causes of death in GIST patients. To further explore the mechanism of metastasis and to more accurately estimate the recurrence risk of GISTs after surgery, the clinical significance and functional role of collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 (CTHRC1) in GIST were investigated. We found that CTHRC1 expression was gradually elevated as the risk grade of NIH classification increased, and was closely correlated with disease-free survival and overall survival in 412 GIST patients. In vitro experiments showed that recombinant CTHRC1 protein promoted the migration and invasion capacities of primary GIST cells. A luciferase reporter assay and pull down assay demonstrated that recombinant CTHRC1 protein activated noncanonical Wnt/PCP-Rho signaling but inhibited canonical Wnt signaling. The pro-motility effect of CTHRC1 on GIST cells was reversed by using a Wnt5a neutralizing antibody and inhibitors of Rac1 or ROCK. Taken together, these data indicate that CTHRC1 may serve as a new predictor of recurrence risk and prognosis in post-operative GIST patients and may play an important role in facilitating GIST progression. Furthermore, CTHRC1 promotes GIST cell migration and invasion by activating Wnt/PCP-Rho signaling, suggesting that the CTHRC1-Wnt/PCP-Rho axis may be a new therapeutic target for interventions against GIST invasion and metastasis.
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Ovarian cancer initially presenting with isolated ipsilateral superficial inguinal lymph node metastasis: a case study and review of the literature.
J Ovarian Res
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Isolated superficial inguinal metastases without any extended intra-abdominal spread is a rare event in patients with ovarian carcinoma. Here we report an isolated superficial inguinal metastasis in a patient with primary ovarian cancer. A 54-year-old Chinese patient with primary ovarian cancer, had an isolated painless enlarged right groin swelling (3×2cm) as the only manifestation, preoperative pathology confirmed metastatic adenocarcinoma. Gynecologic examination, transvaginal ultrasonography of the abdominopelvic cavity revealed a 5-cm mixed, right adnexal mass. At exploratory laparotomy, there was little intra-abdominal tumor dissemination but 100 ml of faint yellow peritoneal fluid and a 5-cm right ovarian tumor with intact capsule. Staging operation was performed and postoperative pathology confirmed adenocarcinoma located within right ovarian, with no evidence of involvement of other sites. Then the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy for Stage IVB. Five years later, the patient is currently still alive without evidence of recurrent disease. This case indicate that ovarian carcinoma isn't a disease localized only within the intra-peritoneal cavity, isolated superficial inguinal lymph node metastasis might occur in rare cases via potential lymphatic and (or) hematogenous route under special conditions. We propose the need to investigate the possible mechanisms, risk factors, metastatic patterns, the biology and natural history of such patients in a large-scale and multicenter analysis. Furthermore, efforts should be made for earlier and differential diagnosis and finally prolong survival time for such patients.
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Microfilament regulatory protein MENA increases activity of RhoA and promotes metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Mammalian enabled (MENA), usually known as a direct regulator of microfilament polymerization and bundling, promotes metastasis in various cancers. Here we focus on the role of MENA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis and the relevant mechanism from the view of RhoA activity regulation. By HCC tissue microarray analysis, we found that MENA expression was positively associated with satellite lesions (P<0.01) and vascular invasion (P<0.01). Cases with membrane reinforcement of MENA staining in HCC tissues had significantly higher rates of early recurrence in the intermediate MENA expression group. Knockdown of MENA significantly suppressed HCC cell migration and invasion in vitro, as well as their intrahepatic and distant metastasis in vivo. Knockdown of MENA also decreased filopodia and stress fibers in SMMC-7721 cells. Furthermore, a decrease of RhoA activity was detected by a pull-down assay in SMMC-7721-shMENA cells. The ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, suppressed migration of both MENA knockdown SMMC-7721 cells and control cells, but diminished their difference. Thus, our findings suggest that MENA promotes HCC cell motility by activating RhoA.
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Native chemical ligation combined with spirocyclization of benzopyrylium dyes for the ratiometric and selective fluorescence detection of cysteine and homocysteine.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Spirocyclization of xanthene dyes has become a powerful technique for developing fluorescent probes. Herein, we extend this unique fluorescence switching mechanism to a near-infrared (NIR) dye, 2-(7-diethylamino-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-3-yl)-4-(2-carboxyphenyl)-7-diethylamino-1-benzopyrylium (CB), and construct a ratiometric fluorescent probe 1 for cysteine (Cys)/homocysteine (Hcy). The ratiometric sensing of probe 1 toward Cys/Hcy is realized by utilizing a tandem native chemical ligation/spirocyclization reaction to interrupt the large ?-conjugated system of CB fluorophore, thereby affording remarkable blue shifts in the spectra of sensing system (from 669 to 423 nm in absorption spectra and from 694 to 474 nm in emission spectra). Probe 1 shows a high sensitivity for Cys/Hcy, and the detection limits (3 ?) for Cys and Hcy are 1.6 × 10(-7) and 1.8 × 10(-7) M, respectively. Moreover, since both the sulfhydril and the adjacent amino groups are involved in the sensing process, probe 1 is selective toward Cys/Hcy over other thiols such as glutathione. All these unique features make it particularly favorable for ratiometric Cys/Hcy sensing and bioimaging applications. It has been preliminarily used for Cys detection in rabbit serum samples and the ratiometric fluorescent imaging of Cys in living HepG2 cells.
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Monocyte and macrophage differentiation: circulation inflammatory monocyte as biomarker for inflammatory diseases.
Biomark Res
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Monocytes express various receptors, which monitor and sense environmental changes. Monocytes are highly plastic and heterogeneous, and change their functional phenotype in response to environmental stimulation. Evidence from murine and human studies has suggested that monocytosis can be an indicator of various inflammatory diseases. Monocytes can differentiate into inflammatory or anti-inflammatory subsets. Upon tissue damage or infection, monocytes are rapidly recruited to the tissue, where they can differentiate into tissue macrophages or dendritic cells. Given the rapid progress in monocyte research from broad spectrum of inflammatory diseases, there is a need to summarize our knowledge in monocyte heterogeneity and its impact in human disease. In this review, we describe the current understanding of heterogeneity of human and murine monocytes, the function of distinct subsets of monocytes, and a potential mechanism for monocyte differentiation. We emphasize that inflammatory monocyte subsets are valuable biomarkers for inflammatory diseases, including cardiovascular diseases.
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Blockade of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 attenuates early-life stress-induced synaptic abnormalities in the neonatal hippocampus.
Hippocampus
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Adult individuals with early stressful experience exhibit impaired hippocampal neuronal morphology, synaptic plasticity and cognitive performance. While our knowledge on the persistent effects of early-life stress on hippocampal structure and function and the underlying mechanisms has advanced over the recent years, the molecular basis of the immediate postnatal stress effects on hippocampal development remains to be investigated. Here, we reported that repeated blockade of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) ameliorated postnatal stress-induced hippocampal synaptic abnormalities in neonatal mice. Following the stress exposure, pups with fragmented maternal care showed retarded dendritic outgrowth and spine formation in CA3 pyramidal neurons and reduced hippocampal levels of synapse-related proteins. During the stress exposure, repeated blockade of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) by daily administration of RU486 (100 µg g(-1) ) failed to attenuate postnatal stress-evoked synaptic impairments. Conversely, daily administration of the CRHR1 antagonist antalarmin hydrochloride (20 µg g(-1) ) in stressed pups normalized hippocampal protein levels of synaptophysin, postsynaptic density-95, nectin-1, and nectin-3, but not the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits NR1 and NR2A. Additionally, GR or CRHR1 antagonism attenuated postnatal stress-induced endocrine alterations but not body growth retardation. Our data indicate that the CRH-CRHR1 system modulates the deleterious effects of early-life stress on dendritic development, spinogenesis, and synapse formation, and that early interventions of this system may prevent stress-induced hippocampal maldevelopment.
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Silencing of WISP3 suppresses gastric cancer cell proliferation and metastasis and inhibits Wnt/?-catenin signaling.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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CCN6/Wnt1-inducible signaling protein-3 (CCN6/WISP3) is a cysteine-rich protein that belongs to the CCN (Cyr61, CTGF, Nov) family of matricellular proteins, which are often dysregulated in cancers. However, the functional role and clinical significance of WISP3 in gastric cancer remain unclear. In this study, we found that silencing of WISP3 suppressed gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Cell adhesion to collagens (collagen I and IV), but not to fibronectin, were significantly inhibited by silencing of WISP3. Furthermore, silencing of WISP3 prevented ?-catenin transferring from cell cytoplasm to nuclear, and suppressed canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling and its downstream target genes, cyclin D1 and TCF-4. By immunohistochemical analysis of 379 patients, we found that the expression of WISP3 is closely associated with gastric cancer size and tumor invasion, and indicates a poor prognosis in both test cohort (253 patients) and validation cohort (126 patients). Moreover, the expression of WISP3 was positively correlated with the expression of cyclin D1 and TCF-4 in gastric cancer tissues. Taken together, our data suggests that WISP3 might be a promising prognostic factor and WISP3-Wnt/?-catenin axis may be a new therapeutic target for the intervention of gastric cancer growth and metastasis.
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Cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy improves survival for patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer: a phase II study from a Chinese center.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is a difficult clinical challenge in colorectal cancer (CRC) because conventional treatment modalities could not produce significant survival benefit, which highlights the acute need for new treatment strategies. Our previous case-control study demonstrated the potential survival advantage of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) over CRS alone. This phase II study was to further investigate the efficacy and adverse events of CRS+HIPEC for Chinese patients with CRC PC.
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Cytohesin-3 is upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and contributes to tumor growth and vascular invasion.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumor with high morbidity and mortality, and is characterized by high potential for metastasis and recurrence. The outcome of it is still poor due to lacking of targeted therapeutic strategies. There is an urgent need to find new therapeutic targets for interventions against HCC metastasis and recurrence. In the present study, we found cytohesin-3, a member of the cytohesin family, was upregulated in HCC tissues, and its expression was negatively correlated with the overall survival and relapse-free survival of HCC patients. Further clinicopathological correlation analysis revealed that cytohesin-3 expression was related with tumor size and vascular invasion. And in vitro studies revealed that knock-down of cytohesin-3 suppressed HCC cells proliferation and migration. These results suggest that cytohesin-3 may act as a novel prognostic factor of HCC, and it might also be useful to exploit targeted therapeutic drugs against HCC growth and metastasis.
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SERPINA3 promotes endometrial cancer cells growth by regulating G2/M cell cycle checkpoint and apoptosis.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common gynecologic cancer worldwide and is one of the leading causes of death in women. Therefore, it is urgent to elucidate the pathological mechanisms of EC. SERPINA3 is a member of the serpin super-family of protease inhibitors. Its aberrant expression has been observed in various tumor cells. However, its clinical significance and biological function in endometrial cancer remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that SERPINA3 expression was significantly up-regulated in EC samples and was closely correlated with lower differentiation, higher stage, positive lymph node or vascular thrombosis and negative estrogen receptor (ER), indicating a poor prognosis. We then demonstrated that SERPINA3 promoted EC cells proliferation by regulating G2/M checkpoint in cell cycle and inhibited cells apoptosis, and we further uncovered that the pro-proliferative effect of SERPINA3 on EC was likely ascribed to the activation of MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling. The results of our study may provide insight into the application of SERPINA3 as a novel predictor of clinical outcomes and a potential therapeutic target of EC.
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Dysregulated cell mechanical properties of endometrial stromal cells from endometriosis patients.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Endometriosis, diagnosed with ectopically implanted endometrial stromal cells (ESC) and epithelial cells to a location outside the uterine cavity, seriously threaten the quality of life and reproductive ability of women, yet the mechanisms and the pathophysiology of the disease remain unclear. Specially, the functional changes of ESC during endometriosis progression need in-depth investigation. In this study, we characterized mechanical properties of normal ESC (NESC) from healthy women and eutopic ESC (EuESC) and ectopic ESC (EcESC) from endometriosis patients. We found the collagen lattice contractile ability of EuESC was significantly stronger than that of NESC, and the cell mobility of EuESC and EcESC was significantly greater than that of NESC. Furthermore, the expression of F-actin and vinculin in NESC, EuESC and EcESC cells progressively increased, and the Rho GTPase activity, of which RhoA exhibited the highest activity, in the three cells gradually increased. Collectively, these results suggest that the mechanical characteristics of NESC, EuESC and EcESC cells exhibited progressive abnormalities. Therefore, the biomechanics of endometrial stromal cells may be a potent target for intervention in patients with endometriosis.
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[Association of ERCC6 gene polymorphisms and DNA damage in lymphocytes among coke oven workers].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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To investigate the association between ERCC6 gene polymorphisms and peripheral blood lymphocyte DNA damage among the workers in coking plant.
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Induced pluripotent stem cells: origins, applications, and future perspectives.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Embryonic stem (ES) cells are widely used for different purposes, including gene targeting, cell therapy, tissue repair, organ regeneration, and so on. However, studies and applications of ES cells are hindered by ethical issues regarding cell sources. To circumvent ethical disputes, great efforts have been taken to generate ES cell-like cells, which are not derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst-stage embryos. In 2006, Yamanaka et al. first reprogrammed mouse embryonic fibroblasts into ES cell-like cells called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. About one year later, Yamanaka et al. and Thomson et al. independently reprogrammed human somatic cells into iPS cells. Since the first generation of iPS cells, they have now been derived from quite a few different kinds of cell types. In particular, the use of peripheral blood facilitates research on iPS cells because of safety, easy availability, and plenty of cell sources. Now iPS cells have been used for cell therapy, disease modeling, and drug discovery. In this review, we describe the generations, applications, potential issues, and future perspectives of iPS cells.
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[Effect of meliae toosendan fructus on nerves system and its mechanism].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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To study the effect of the ethanol extract of stir-bake to yellowish Meliae Toosendan Fructus on nerve system and its mechanism.
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Myeloperoxidase influences the complement regulatory function of modified C-reactive protein.
Innate Immun
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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In patients with active anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic Ab (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), there are high levels of circulating C-reactive protein (CRP), which can inhibit the alternative complement pathway by binding factor H and triggering the classical complement pathway by binding C1q. However, the alternative, not the classical, complement pathway has been proven to play an important role in AAV. We found that both purified myeloperoxidase (MPO) and MPO released from ANCA-stimulated neutrophils could bind modified CRP (mCRP), but not pentameric CRP. Furthermore, MPO could block the binding between mCRP and factor H, as well as the binding between mCRP and C1q. Binding with mCRP did not influence the enzymatic activity of MPO. Binding with mCRP also did not influence the binding between MPO and its physical inhibitor, ceruloplasmin, as well as the binding between MPO and MPO-ANCA. The results indicated that MPO might be a complement regulator and inhibit the negative regulatory effect of CRP on the alternative complement pathway.
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Cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy improves survival of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer: A case-control study from a Chinese center.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2013
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Advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) is prone to developing peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). This case-control study was to compare the efficacy and safety of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) versus CRS plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in Chinese patients with CRC PC.
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Inferring the geographic mode of speciation by contrasting autosomal and sex-linked genetic diversity.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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When geographic isolation drives speciation, concurrent termination of gene flow among genomic regions will occur immediately after the formation of the barrier between diverging populations. Alternatively, if speciation is driven by ecologically divergent selection, gene flow of selectively neutral genomic regions may go on between diverging populations until the completion of reproductive isolation. It may also lead to an unsynchronized termination of gene flow between genomic regions with different roles in the speciation process. Here, we developed a novel Approximate Bayesian Computation pipeline to infer the geographic mode of speciation by testing for a lack of postdivergence gene flow and a concurrent termination of gene flow in autosomal and sex-linked markers jointly. We applied this approach to infer the geographic mode of speciation for two allopatric highland rosefinches, the vinaceous rosefinch Carpodacus vinaceus and the Taiwan rosefinch C. formosanus from DNA polymorphisms of both autosomal and Z-linked loci. Our results suggest that the two rosefinch species diverged allopatrically approximately 0.5 Ma. Our approach allowed us further to infer that female effective population sizes are about five times larger than those of males, an estimate potentially useful when comparing the intensity of sexual selection across species.
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Relationship between serum osteocalcin levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adult males, South China.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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To determine serum osteocalcin levels in South Chinese males with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to examine the relation between serum osteocalcin and NAFLD.
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[Effects of soluble adult worm antigen and soluble egg antigen of Schistosoma japonicum on differentiation of CD4+ T cells of mice].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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To investigate and compare the different effects of soluble adult worm antigen (SWA) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) of Schistosoma japonicum on the differentiation of the splenocytes and CD4+ T cells of mice.
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[Activities of treg cells stimulated by soluble adult worm antigen and egg antigen of Schistosoma japonicum].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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To observe and compare the effects of soluble adult worm antigen (SWA) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) of Schistosoma japonicum on the induction of Treg cells and the suppressive activity of Treg cells.
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[Dynamics of IL-22-producing cells of mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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To study the dynamics of IL-22-producing cells and analyze the main source of IL-22 of mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum.
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An evolving new paradigm: endothelial cells--conditional innate immune cells.
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Endothelial cells (ECs) are a heterogeneous population that fulfills many physiological processes. ECs also actively participate in both innate and adaptive immune responses. ECs are one of the first cell types to detect foreign pathogens and endogenous metabolite-related danger signals in the bloodstream, in which ECs function as danger signal sensors. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide activates ECs, causing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which amplify the immune response by recruiting immune cells. Thus, ECs function as immune/inflammation effectors and immune cell mobilizers. ECs also induce cytokine production by immune cells, in which ECs function as immune regulators either by activating or suppressing immune cell function. In addition, under certain conditions, ECs can serve as antigen presenting cells (antigen presenters) by expressing both MHC I and II molecules and presenting endothelial antigens to T cells. These facts along with the new concept of endothelial plasticity suggest that ECs are dynamic cells that respond to extracellular environmental changes and play a meaningful role in immune system function. Based on these novel EC functions, we propose a new paradigm that ECs are conditional innate immune cells. This paradigm provides a novel insight into the functions of ECs in inflammatory/immune pathologies.
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Molecular systematics and plumage coloration evolution of an enigmatic babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis) in East Asia.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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The streak-breasted scimitar babbler, Pomatorhinus ruficollis, is a polytypic and taxonomically enigmatic babbler common in southern, eastern, and southeastern Asia. To infer the phylogeny of the P. ruficollis, we examined the sequences of two complete mitochondrial genes (2184bp in total) from fourteen of the fifteen known subspecies, and an additional five nuclear genes (2657bp in total) from ten subspecies. The mitochondrial phylogeny indicates four major clades with large geographical identity in P. ruficollis and paraphyly of the P. ruficollis species complex, with the inclusion of the olivaceus group of congeneric P. schisticeps. Together with their interbreeding in northern Indochina, we propose to lump this group into P. ruficollis. Analysis of both multilocus networks and species-tree inference recovered poor phylogenetic structure among mainland/ Hainan subspecies and exclusive groupings of the Taiwanese subspecies, consistent with the recent taxonomic revision of its species status. Our analyses also suggest strong incongruence between the morphological-based classification and molecular systematics, implying the strength of multilocus data for taxonomy.
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Single-atom catalysts: a new frontier in heterogeneous catalysis.
Acc. Chem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Supported metal nanostructures are the most widely used type of heterogeneous catalyst in industrial processes. The size of metal particles is a key factor in determining the performance of such catalysts. In particular, because low-coordinated metal atoms often function as the catalytically active sites, the specific activity per metal atom usually increases with decreasing size of the metal particles. However, the surface free energy of metals increases significantly with decreasing particle size, promoting aggregation of small clusters. Using an appropriate support material that strongly interacts with the metal species prevents this aggregation, creating stable, finely dispersed metal clusters with a high catalytic activity, an approach industry has used for a long time. Nevertheless, practical supported metal catalysts are inhomogeneous and usually consist of a mixture of sizes from nanoparticles to subnanometer clusters. Such heterogeneity not only reduces the metal atom efficiency but also frequently leads to undesired side reactions. It also makes it extremely difficult, if not impossible, to uniquely identify and control the active sites of interest. The ultimate small-size limit for metal particles is the single-atom catalyst (SAC), which contains isolated metal atoms singly dispersed on supports. SACs maximize the efficiency of metal atom use, which is particularly important for supported noble metal catalysts. Moreover, with well-defined and uniform single-atom dispersion, SACs offer great potential for achieving high activity and selectivity. In this Account, we highlight recent advances in preparation, characterization, and catalytic performance of SACs, with a focus on single atoms anchored to metal oxides, metal surfaces, and graphene. We discuss experimental and theoretical studies for a variety of reactions, including oxidation, water gas shift, and hydrogenation. We describe advances in understanding the spatial arrangements and electronic properties of single atoms, as well as their interactions with the support. Single metal atoms on support surfaces provide a unique opportunity to tune active sites and optimize the activity, selectivity, and stability of heterogeneous catalysts, offering the potential for applications in a variety of industrial chemical reactions.
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Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a variant of bile duct carcinoma that is characterized by intraductal growth and better outcomes compared with common cholangiocarcinoma. IPNBs are mainly found in patients from Far Eastern areas, where hepatolithiasis and clonorchiasis are endemic. According to the immunohistochemical profiles of the mucin core proteins, IPNBs are classified into four types: pancreaticobiliary, intestinal, gastric, and oncocytic. Approximately 40%-80% of IPNBs contain a component of invasive carcinoma or tubular or mucinous adenocarcinoma, suggesting that IPNB is a disease with high potential for malignancy. It is difficult to make an accurate preoperative diagnosis because of IPNBs low incidence and the lack of specificity in its clinical manifestation. The most common abnormal preoperative imaging findings of IPNB are intraductal masses and the involvement of bile duct dilation. Simultaneous proximal and distal bile duct dilation can be detected in some cases, which has diagnostic significance. Cholangiography and cholangioscopy are needed to confirm the pathology and demonstrate the extent of the lesions. However, pathologic diagnosis by biopsy cannot reflect the actual stage in many cases because different foci may be of different stages and because mixed pathologic findings may exist in the same lesion. Surgical resection is the major treatment. Systematic cholangioscopy with staged biopsies and frozen sections is recommended during resection to ensure that no minor tumors are left and that curative resection is achieved. Staging, histologic subtype, curative resection and lymph node metastasis are factors affecting long-term survival.
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Fatty liver index correlates with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, but not with newly diagnosed coronary artery atherosclerotic disease in Chinese patients.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Fatty liver index (FLI) was recently established to predict non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in general population, which is known to be associated with coronary artery atherosclerotic disease (CAD).This study aims to investigate whether FLI correlates with NAFLD and with newly diagnosed CAD in a special Chinese population who underwent coronary angiography.
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[Diversity and faunal analysis of crustaceans in Potatso National Park, Shangri-La, China].
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Potatso National Park was the first national park in mainland China, preceded by the earlier Bitahai Nature Reserve. Located in the northwest of Yunnan and on the southeast of Qinghai-Tibet plateau, Potatso is a typical low latitude and high elevation wetland nature reserve, with large areas of coniferous forest around alpine lakes and both wetland and water area ecosystems. In August, 2011, we undertook a survey of crustaceans in the park, sampling lakes, ponds, streams, and rivers throughout Potatso. We found a total of 29 species (including varieties) belonging to 24 genera and 11 families. Notable discoveries include Parartemiopsis sp, Arctodiaptomus parvispinus and Simocephalus congener, which are the first examples of these species to be recorded in China. Likewise, Gammarus bitaensis is a unique crustacean found only in Potatso National Park and Thermocyclops dumonti and Gammarus paucispinus are both endemic species to northwestern Yunnan. The overall faunal characteristics of crustaceans in the park also revealed several things about Potatso: (1) Cosmopolitan and Palaearctic elements reach 48.27% and 37.93%, clearly showing the Palaearctic element as the dominant fauna; (2) most of the crustacean, such as Arctodiaptomus parvispinus and Gammarus, are typical alpine types, confirming that Potatso has feature typical of alpine and plateau fauna; and (3) the proportion of endemic and rare crustacean species in Potatso National Park is approximately 10%, suggesting that the Potatso National Park in particular and the northwest of Yunnan in general have a unique geological and evolutionary history.
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[Small molecule inhibitor SB203580 enhances the antitumor effect of gefitinib in PC-9 and A549 lung cancer cell lines].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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To detect the inhibitory effect of a p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 in combination with gefitinib on lung adenocarcinoma cell line PC-9 cells and A549 cells, and its cellular and molecular mechanisms of action.
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Glomerular C1q deposition and serum anti-C1q antibodies in anti-glomerular basement membrane disease.
BMC Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease is a well-known antibody-induced autoimmune disease. A few patients have glomerular C1q deposition, but it is usually absent on renal histopathology. The role of C1q deposition in kidney injury is unclear. Recently, anti-C1q antibodies are demonstrated to be pathogenic in the target organ damage of many autoimmune diseases, by facilitating C1q deposition and enhancing complement activation via classical pathway. In the current study, we investigated the associations between anti-C1q antibodies in sera and C1q deposition in kidney of patients with anti-GBM disease.
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Spirolactamized benzothiazole-substituted N,N-diethylrhodol: a new platform to construct ratiometric fluorescent probes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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A new rhodol dye with an ESIPT unit has been successfully developed, which can serve as a convenient and universal platform for developing ratiometric sensing systems based on the unique spirocyclic ring-opening process. As a model platform, rhodol hydrazide (4) was prepared and it showed ratiometric response toward Cu(2+).
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Theoretical study of local environment of Mn(2+) in two different tetragonal sites in Cs(2)NaLaCl(6) elpasolite.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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A theoretical method for investigating the inter-relation between the electronic and the molecular structures of a 3d(5) ion in a tetragonal ligand-field has been established on the basis of a 252×252 complete energy matrix. By means of this method, the local lattice structures of Mn(2+) in two different tetragonal sites in Cs2NaLaCl6 elpasolite are determined by the experimental EPR spectra. The Mn(2+)-Cl(-) distances have been obtained as: R1=3.2803Å, R2=2.6495Å for (MnCl6)La cluster, and R1=3.4558Å, R2=2.5111Å for (MnCl6)Na cluster in the Cs2NaLaCl6:Mn(2+) system. And our results show R1>R2 for each cluster, which exhibits an elongation distortion relative to the regular octahedron. And the elongation magnitude of a tetragonal (MnCl6)Na cluster is larger than that of a (MnCl6)La cluster in the Cs2NaLaCl6:Mn(2+) system. Using this method, our calculation values of EPR parameters are well accordant with the experimental values.
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Implication of polymorphisms in DNA repair genes in prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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XRCC1 genetic polymorphisms could be associated with increased risk of various cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the fifth most common cancer. We here conducted a study to explore the role of selective SNPs of the XRCC1 and XPD genes in the prognosis of HCC. A total of 231 cases were collected, and genotyping of XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XPD Lys751Gln and XPD Asp312Asn was performed by duplex polymerase-chain-reaction with the confronting-two-pair primer method. Our findings indicated XRCC1 399Gln/Gln genotype was associated with a significant difference in the median survival time compared with patients carrying Arg/Trp and Arg/Arg genotypes, and individuals with XPD 751 Gln/ Gln genotype had a significantly greater survival time than patients carrying Lys/Lys and Lys/Gln genotypes. The Coxs regression analysis showed individuals carrying XRCC1 399Trp/Trp genotype had 0.55 fold risk of death from HCC than Arg/Arg genotype. Similarly, XPD 751Gln/Gln had a strong decreasein comparison to XPD Lys/Lys carriers with an HR of 0.34. These results suggest that polymorphisms in XRCC1 and XPD may have functional significance in the prognosis of HCC.
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?-Catenin/POU5F1/SOX2 transcription factor complex mediates IGF-I receptor signaling and predicts poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Cancer stem-like cells (CSLC) are crucial in tumor initiation and progression; however, the underlying mechanism for the self-renewal of cancer cells remains undefined. In the study, immunohistochemical analysis of specimens freshly excised from patients with lung adenocarcinoma showed that high expression of insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) in lung adenocarcinoma cells was positively correlated with the expressions of cancer stem cell markers CD133 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A1 (ALDH1A1). IGF-IR activation enhanced POU class 5 homeobox 1 (POU5F1) expression on human lung adenocarcinoma stem-like cells (LACSLC) through PI3K/AKT/GSK3?/?-catenin cascade. POU5F1 could form a novel complex with ?-catenin and SOX2 to bind Nanog promoter for transcription to maintain self-renewal of LACSLCs, which was dependent on the functional IGF-IR. Genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of IGF-IR abrogated LACSLC capabilities for self-renewal and tumorigenicity in vitro. In an in vivo xenograft tumor model, knockdown of either IGF-IR or POU5F1 impeded tumorigenic potentials of LACSLCs. By analyzing pathologic specimens excised from 200 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, we found that colocalization of highly expressed IGF-IR with ?-catenin and POU5F1 predicted poor prognosis. Taken together, we show that IGF-IR-mediated POU5F1 expression to form a complex with ?-catenin and SOX2 is crucial for the self-renewal and oncogenic potentials of LACSLCs, and the integrative clinical detection of the expressions of IGF-IR, ?-catenin, and POU5F1 is indicatory for predicting prognosis in the patients of lung adenocarcinoma.
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Identification of novel pretranslational regulatory mechanisms for NF-?B activation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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NF-?B-controlled transcriptional regulation plays a central role in inflammatory and immune responses. Currently, understanding about NF-?B activation mechanism emphasizes I?B-tethered complex inactivation in the cytoplasm. In the case of NF-?B activation, I?B phosphorylation leads to its degradation, followed by NF-?B relocation to the nucleus and trans-activation of NF-?B-targeted genes. Pretranslational mechanism mediated NF-?B activation remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated NF-?B pretranslational regulation by performing a series of database mining analyses and using six large national experimental databases (National Center of Biotechnology Information UniGene expressed sequence tag profile database, Gene Expression Omnibus database, Transcription Element Search System database, AceView database, and Epigenomics database) and TargetScan software. We reported the following findings: 1) NF-?B-signaling genes are differentially expressed in human and mouse tissues; 2) heart and vessels are the inflammation-privileged tissues and less easy to be inflamed because lacking in key NF-?B-signaling molecular expression; 3) NF-?B-signaling genes are induced by cardiovascular disease risk factors oxidized phospholipids and proinflammatory cytokines in endothelial cells; 4) transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins and NF-?B have higher binding site frequencies in the promoters of proinflammatory cytokine-induced NF-?B genes; 5) most NF-?B-signaling genes have multiple alternative promoters and alternatively spliced isoforms; 6) NF-?B family genes can be regulated by DNA methylation; and 7) 27 of 38 NF-?B-signaling genes can be regulated by microRNAs. Our findings provide important insight into the mechanism of NF-?B activation, which may contribute to cardiovascular disease, inflammatory diseases, and immunological disorders.
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Computed tomography coronary angiography with a consistent dose below 2 mSv using double prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition in patients with atrial fibrillation: initial experience.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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To evaluate the feasibility and imaging quality of double prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition mode (double flash mode) for coronary computed tomography angiography (CTCA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). 47 patients (11 women, 36 men; mean age 64.5 ± 12.1 years) were enrolled for CTCA examinations using a dual-source CT with 2 × 128 × 0.6 mm collimation, 0.28 s rotation time and a pitch of 3.4. Double flash mode was prospectively triggered first at 60 % and later at 30 % of the R-R interval within two cardiac cycles. Image quality was evaluated using a four-point scale (1 = excellent, 4 = non-assessable). From 672 coronary artery segments, 77.5 % (521/672) was rated as score of 1, 20.8 % (140/672) as score of 2, 1.2 % (8/672) as score of 3 and 0.4 % (3/672) was rated as non-assessable. The average image quality score was 1.25 ± 0.38 on a per segment basis. Mean dose-length product for CTCA was 92.6 ± 28.2 mGy cm, the effective dose was 1.30 ± 0.39 mSv (0.64-1.97 mSv). In patients with AF, double prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition mode could be a feasible and valuable scan mode for CTCA with a consistent dose below 2 mSv as well as diagnostic imaging quality.
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Contralateral haematoma secondary to decompressive craniectomy performed for severe head trauma: a descriptive study of 15 cases.
Brain Inj
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Contralateral haematoma is an infrequent but severe complication of decompressive craniectomy for head trauma.
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Inhibitory effects of blockage of intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K (+) channels on proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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The roles of intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (IKCa1) in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were investigated. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to detect the expression of IKCa1 protein in 50 HCC and 20 para-carcinoma tissue samples. Real-time PCR was used to detect the transcription level of IKCa1 mRNA in 13 HCC and 11 para-carcinoma tissue samples. The MTT assay was used to measure the function of IKCa1 in human HCC cell line HepG2 in vitro. TRAM-34, a specific blocker of IKCa1, was used to intervene with the function of IKCa1. As compared with para-carcinoma tissue, an over-expression of IKCa1 protein was detected in HCC tissue samples (P<0.05). The mRNA expression level of IKCa1 in HCC tissues was 2.17 times higher than that in para-carcinoma tissues. The proliferation of HepG2 cells was suppressed by TRAM-34 (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ?mol/L) in vitro (P<0.05). Our results suggested that IKCa1 may play a role in the proliferation of human HCC, and IKCa1 blockers may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for HCC.
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Immunohistochemical alterations of cajal-like type of tubal interstitial cells in women with endometriosis and tubal ectopic pregnancy.
Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The aim of the study was to observe alterations of pacemaker cells termed cajal-like type of tubal interstitial cells (t-ICC) in oviduct from early-stage EMs and tEP, discuss underlying mechanisms and potential role in tubal factor infertility (TFI).
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Metabolomic analyses for atherosclerosis, diabetes, and obesity.
Biomark Res
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, and atherosclerosis is a global health problem. A portfolio of abnormalities of metabolic and vascular homeostasis accompanies T2DM and obesity, which are believed to conspire to lead to accelerated atherosclerosis and premature death. The complexity of metabolic changes in the diseases presents challenges for a full understanding of the molecular pathways contributing to the development of these diseases. The recent advent of new technologies in this area termed "Metabolomics" may aid in comprehensive metabolic analysis of these diseases. Therefore, metabolomics has been extensively applied to the metabolites of T2DM, obesity, and atherosclerosis not only for the assessment of disease development and prognosis, but also for the biomarker discovery of disease diagnosis. Herein, we summarize the recent applications of metabolomics technology and the generated datasets in the metabolic profiling of these diseases, in particular, the applications of these technologies to these diseases at the cellular, animal models, and human disease levels. In addition, we also extensively discuss the mechanisms linking the metabolic profiling in insulin resistance, T2DM, obesity, and atherosclerosis, with a particular emphasis on potential roles of increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria dysfunctions.
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Blockade of NOX2 and STIM1 signaling limits lipopolysaccharide-induced vascular inflammation.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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During sepsis, acute lung injury (ALI) results from activation of innate immune cells and endothelial cells by endotoxins, leading to systemic inflammation through proinflammatory cytokine overproduction, oxidative stress, and intracellular Ca2+ overload. Despite considerable investigation, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) leading to LPS-induced ALI remain elusive. To determine whether stromal interaction molecule 1-dependent (STIM1-dependent) signaling drives endothelial dysfunction in response to LPS, we investigated oxidative and STIM1 signaling of EC-specific Stim1-knockout mice. Here we report that LPS-mediated Ca2+ oscillations are ablated in ECs deficient in Nox2, Stim1, and type II inositol triphosphate receptor (Itpr2). LPS-induced nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) nuclear accumulation was abrogated by either antioxidant supplementation or Ca2+ chelation. Moreover, ECs lacking either Nox2 or Stim1 failed to trigger store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCe) and NFAT nuclear accumulation. LPS-induced vascular permeability changes were reduced in EC-specific Stim1-/- mice, despite elevation of systemic cytokine levels. Additionally, inhibition of STIM1 signaling prevented receptor-interacting protein 3-dependent (RIP3-dependent) EC death. Remarkably, BTP2, a small-molecule calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channel blocker administered after insult, halted LPS-induced vascular leakage and pulmonary edema. These results indicate that ROS-driven Ca2+ signaling promotes vascular barrier dysfunction and that the SOCe machinery may provide crucial therapeutic targets to limit sepsis-induced ALI.
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Targeting mitochondrial reactive oxygen species as novel therapy for inflammatory diseases and cancers.
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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There are multiple sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell. As a major site of ROS production, mitochondria have drawn considerable interest because it was recently discovered that mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) directly stimulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines and pathological conditions as diverse as malignancies, autoimmune diseases, and cardiovascular diseases all share common phenotype of increased mtROS production above basal levels. Several excellent reviews on this topic have been published, but ever-changing new discoveries mandated a more up-to-date and comprehensive review on this topic. Therefore, we update recent understanding of how mitochondria generate and regulate the production of mtROS and the function of mtROS both in physiological and pathological conditions. In addition, we describe newly developed methods to probe or scavenge mtROS and compare these methods in detail. Thorough understanding of this topic and the application of mtROS-targeting drugs in the research is significant towards development of better therapies to combat inflammatory diseases and inflammatory malignancies.
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Xiamenmycin attenuates hypertrophic scars by suppressing local inflammation and the effects of mechanical stress.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Hypertrophic scarring is a common disease affecting millions of people around the world, but there are currently no satisfactory drugs to treat the disease. Exaggerated inflammation and mechanical stress have been shown to be two main mechanisms of excessive fibrotic diseases. Here we found that a benzopyran natural product, xiamenmycin, could significantly attenuate hypertrophic scar formation in a mechanical stretch-induced mouse model. The compound suppressed local inflammation by reducing CD4+ lymphocyte and monocyte/macrophage retention in fibrotic foci and blocked fibroblast adhesion with monocytes. Both in vivo and in vitro studies found that the compound inhibited the mechanical stress-induced profibrotic effects by suppressing proliferation, activation, fibroblast contraction, and inactivating FAK, p38, and Rho guanosine triphosphatase signaling. Taken together, the compound could simultaneously suppress both the inflammatory and mechanical stress responses, which are the two pivotal pathological processes in hypertrophic scar formation, thus suggesting that xiamenmycin can serve as a potential agent for treating hypertrophic scar formation and other excessive fibrotic diseases.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.