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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Relationships of health literacy, health behavior, and health status regarding infectious respiratory diseases: application of a skill-based measure.
J Health Commun
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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This study aimed to explain the relationships among health literacy, health behavior, and health status, using a newly developed skills-based measure of health literacy regarding respiratory infectious diseases. This instrument was designed to measure individuals' reading, understanding, and calculating ability, as well as their oral communication and Internet-based information-seeking abilities. A pilot survey was conducted with 489 residents in Beijing, China, to test the reliability and validity of the new measure. Next, a larger study with 3,222 residents in three cities with multistage stratified cluster sampling was implemented to validate a latent variable model (goodness of fit index = 0.918, root mean square residual = 0.076). In this model higher educational attainment (? = 0.356) and more health knowledge (? = 0.306) were positively and directly associated with greater health literacy skill, while age was negatively associated with it (? = - 0.341). Age (? = 0.201) and health knowledge (? = 0.246) had positive and direct relationship with health behavior, which was, in turn, positively associated with health status (? = 0.209). The results illustrate the complex relationships among these constructs and should be considered when developing respiratory intervention strategies to promote health behavior and health status.
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Correlation between the different chain lengths of free fatty acid oxidation and ability of trophoblastic invasion.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with abnormal fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO), especially metabolic disorders of long-chain fatty acid oxidation. The role of FAO dysfunction in inadequate invasion is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of various lengths fatty acids oxidation on invasiveness of trophoblasts.
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[Effects of acute exposure to high altitude on hepatic function and CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 activities in rats].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To investigate the changes in hepatic functions and activities of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in rats after acute exposure to high altitude.
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Determination of rifampicin in rat plasma by modified large-volume direct injection RAM-HPLC and its application to a pharmcokinetic study.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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A direct large volume injection high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with homemade restricted-access media (RAM) pre-column and combined with a column-switching valve was established and developed for determination rifampicin (RIP) in rat plasma. The rat plasma samples (100??L) were injected directly onto pre-column, where RIP was retained and pre-concentrated, while proteins were washed to waste using a methanol-water (5:95) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1?mL/min. Then, by rotation of the switching valve at 5?min, the RIP were eluted from the pre-column and transferred to an Luna C18 analytical column by the chromatographic mobile phase consisting of methanol-acetonitrile-10?mm ammonium format (60:5:35) at a flow rate of 1?mL/min. The total analytical run time was 15?min with UV detection wavelength at 254?nm. Carbamazepine was used as the internal standard. Excellent linear correlation (r?=?0.9993) was obtained in the range of 0.25-8?µg/mL for rat plasma. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of RIP were all <5.0%. The recoveries were in the range of from 99.98-113.66% for plasma. This on-line RAM-HPLC method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of RIP in rat plasma. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Protein kinase a-mediated cell proliferation in brown preadipocytes is independent of Erk1/2, PI3K and mTOR.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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The physiological agonist norepinephrine promotes cell proliferation of brown preadipocytes during the process of tissue recruitment. In a primary culture system, cAMP mediates these adrenergic effects. In the present study, we demonstrated that, in contrast to other systems where the mitogenic effect of cAMP requires the synergistic action of (serum) growth factors, especially insulin/IGF, the cAMP effect in brown preadipocytes was independent of serum and insulin. Protein kinase A, rather than Epac, mediated the cAMP mitogenic effect. The Erk 1/2 family of MAPK, the PI3K system and the mTOR complexes were all activated by cAMP, but these activations were not necessary for cAMP-induced cell proliferation; a protein kinase C isoform may be involved in mediating cAMP-activated cell proliferation. We conclude that the generally acknowledged cellular mediators for induction of cell proliferation are not involved in this process in the brown preadipocyte system; this conclusion may be of relevance both for examination of mechanisms for induction of brown adipose tissue recruitment but also for understanding the mechanism behind e.g. certain endocrine neoplasias.
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Association of epithelial sodium channel ?-subunit common polymorphism with essential hypertension families in a Chinese population.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate whether common polymorphisms in the C-terminus of SCNN1B gene encoding the ?-subunit of epithelial sodium channel are associated with essential hypertension (EH) in Chinese hypertensive families. A total of 433 subjects from 102 EH families were recruited. Biochemical and anthropometric indices and systematic screening of the C-terminus of SCNN1B were performed. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found. Homozygotes for the common A allele at rs3743966 had on average a 12.06 mmHg higher SBP and a 7.43 mmHg higher DBP than homozygotes for the rarer T allele. AA + AT genotype of rs3743966 was also found to maybe a risk factor of hypertension by logistic regression and transmission/disequilibrium test. AA + AT genotype of rs3743966 maybe a risk factor of EH. In conclusion, there was a significant association between the rs3743966 SNP in intron 12 and EH in Chinese hypertensive families.
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High expression of the histone demethylase LSD1 associates with cancer cell proliferation and unfavorable prognosis in tongue cancer.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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The histone lysine-specific demethylase (LSD1) is a key chromatin modifier mediating the demethylation of both H3K4me1/me2 and H3K9 me1/me2. Recently, its deregulation has been implicated in the initiation and progression of various cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression pattern of LSD1 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and determine its prognostic significance in predicting patients' prognosis.
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Overexpression of metabolic markers PKM2 and LDH5 correlates with aggressive clinicopathological features and adverse patient prognosis in tongue cancer.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5) are two metabolic and oncogenic markers of cancer. In this study, we sought to investigate their expression patterns and prognostic value in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC).
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[Changes of iodine nutrition status and thyroid function among pregnant women in iodine sufficient rural area of Gansu province].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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To assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of pregnant women during different periods of pregnancy, to provide evidence for guiding iodine supplementation for them.
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[Myocardial injury in rats following a sudden increase of altitudes].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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To investigate the influence of a sudden increase of altitudes (within 2500 m) in winter on cardiomyocyte functions in rats.
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Specificity protein 1 regulates topoisomerase II? expression in SH-SY5Y cells during neuronal differentiation.
J. Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Topoisomerase II? (top II?) is a nuclear enzyme with an essential role in neural development. The regulation of top II? gene expression during neural differentiation is poorly understood. Functional analysis of top II? gene structure displayed a GC box sequence in its transcription promoter, which binds the nuclear transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1). Sp1 regulates gene expression via multiple mechanisms and is essential for early embryonic development. This study seeks to determine whether Sp1 regulates top II? gene expression during neuronal differentiation. For this purpose, human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were induced to neuronal differentiation in the presence of all-trans retinoic acid (RA) for 5 days. After incubation with 10 ?M RA for 3-5 days, a majority of the cells exited the cell cycle to become postmitotic neurons, characterized by the presence of longer neurite outgrowths and expression of the neuronal marker microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2). Elevated Sp1 and top II? mRNA and protein levels were detected and found to be positively correlated with the differentiation stage. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated an increased recruitment of Sp1 to the top II? promoter after RA treatment. Mithramycin A, a compound that interferes with Sp1 binding to GC-rich DNA sequences, downregulated the expression of top II?, resulting in reduced expression of MAP2 and decreased neurite length compared with the control group. Our results indicate that Sp1 regulates top II? expression by binding to the GC box of the gene promoter during neuronal differentiation in SH-SY5Y cells.
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Oncogenic roles of Bmi1 and its therapeutic inhibition by histone deacetylase inhibitor in tongue cancer.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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The polycomb complex protein Bmi1 (B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog) mediates epigenetic transcriptional silencing by modifying chromatin structure and is critical for stem cell homeostasis and tumorigenesis. Bmi1 is frequently overexpressed in human malignancies and therefore has key diagnostic and prognostic significance, and holds potential as a therapeutic target. Here we sought to characterize the expression patterns and oncogenic roles of Bmi1 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma and to determine the anticancer effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) via Bmi1 inhibition against tongue cancer. Our data revealed that Bmi1 was aberrantly overexpressed in a significant portion of tongue cancers. Elevated Bmi1 is associated with cervical node metastasis, Ki-67 abundance and reduced overall survival, and also serves as an independent prognostic factor for patient outcomes. Short-hairpin RNA-mediated Bmi1 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation and migration, induced cell apoptosis and senescence, reduced colony formation and CD44(+)CD133(+) sub-population as well as enhanced cisplatin chemosensitivity, presumably by modulation of p16, p14 and E-cadherin. Moreover, HDACi chemicals Trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaB) potently inhibited Bmi1 and triggered similar phenotypic changes reminiscent of Bmi1 silencing, although TSA treatment seemed paradoxically to induce some epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like changes in tongue cancer cells. Importantly, NaB-induced antitumor effects were partially attenuated by enforced Bmi1 overexpression in vitro. Genetic Bmi1 silencing and pharmacological inhibition of Bmi1 by NaB treatment significantly impaired tumor growth in a tongue cancer xenograft model. Taken together, our results indicate that Bmi1 serves as a key driver and biomarker with multiple oncogenic functions underlying tongue tumorigenesis. Selected appropriate HDACi compounds like NaB may represent novel therapeutic agents against tongue cancer.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 6 October 2014; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2014.123.
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[Analysis of iodine nutrition and thyroid function of adults in urban areas of Wuwei city Gansu province].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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To find out the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of adults in urban areas of Wuwei city Gansu province and to provide a basis for scientific iodine supplementation.
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Cytotoxic amphiphiles and phosphoinositides bind to two discrete sites on the Akt1 PH domain.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The mechanism of binding of two promising anticancer agents (the cytotoxic alkylphospholipids perifosine and miltefosine) to the Akt PH domain is investigated by high-resolution field-cycling (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using a spin-labeled recombinant PH domain. These results strongly indicate that there are two discrete amphiphile binding sites on the domain: (i) the cationic site that binds phosphoinositides and some alkylphospholipids and (ii) a second site that is occupied by only the alkylphospholipids. The identification of this second site for amphiphiles on the Akt1 PH domain provides a new target for drug development as well as insights into the regulation of the activity of the intact Akt1 protein. The field-cycling NMR methodology could be used to define discrete phospholipid or amphiphile binding sites on a wide variety of peripheral membrane proteins.
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RP215 single chain fragment variable and single domain recombinant antibodies induce cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in breast cancer.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Targeted therapy is an attractive approach to avoid the side effects of cancer treatment. Based on antibody-targeted superantigens, single chain variable fragment (scFv) and single domain (sdAb) antibodies, characterized by a low molecular weight, low immunogenicity and a high tumor penetration compared to monoclonal antibodies (mAb), have been increasingly used in gene-targeted therapy for cancer. In the present study, we aimed to develop the novel recombinant scFv-RP215 and sdAb-RP215 antibodies based on the variable regions of the RP215 monoclonal antibody (RP215-mAb) against CA215, a pan cancer marker expressed in various human tumor tissues, and to examine their biological activity in breast cancer cell lines.
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The polycomb group protein EZH2 is a novel therapeutic target in tongue cancer.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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EZH2, a core member of the Polycomb Repressor Complex 2 (PRC2), mediates transcriptional silencing by catalyzing the trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27), which plays key roles in cancer initiation and progression. Here, we investigated the expression pattern and biological roles of EZH2 in tongue tumorigenesis by loss-of-function assays using small interference RNA and EZH2 inhibitor DZNep. Also we determined the therapeutic efficiency of DZNep against tongue cancer in vivo. We found that aberrantly overexpressed EZH2 was associated with pathological grade, cervical nodes metastasis and Ki-67 expression in tongue cancers. Elevated EZH2 correlated with shorter overall survival and showed significant and independent prognostic importance in patients with tongue cancer. Both genetic and pharmacological depletion of EZH2 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and colony formation and decreased CD44+ subpopulation probably in part through modulating p16, p21 and E-caherin. Moreover, DZNep enhanced the anticancer effects of 5-Fluorouracil. Furthermore, intratumoral EZH2 inhibition induced by DZNep intraperitoneal administration significantly attenuated tumor growth in a tongue cancer xenograft model. Taken together, our results indicate that EZH2 serves as a key driver with multiple oncogenic functions during tongue tumorigenesis and a new biomarker for tongue cancer diagnosis and prognostic prediction. These findings open up possibilities for therapeutic intervention against EZH2 in tongue cancer.
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[Effect of acute exposure to high altitude on the pharmacokinetics of propranolol].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2013
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To study the pharmacokinetics of propranolol in Wistar rats after acute exposure to high altitude.
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Identification of collagen 1 as a post-transcriptional target of miR-29b in skin fibroblasts: therapeutic implication for scar reduction.
Am. J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Excessive collagen synthesis and deposit during skin wound healing results in scar formation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous noncoding RNA regulators that mediate diverse biological functions through repressing target genes and hold great potentials for clinical therapeutic applications. The aim of the present study was to identify miRNAs as post-transcriptional regulators of collagen 1 in skin fibroblasts.
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Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding nutrition and dietary intake of seventh-grade students in rural areas of Mi Yun County, Beijing, China.
Environ Health Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of seventh-grade students regarding nutrition and dietary intake, to collect data that would facilitate the design and implementation of interventions aimed at promoting good nutrition in adolescents via the school and to contribute to the improvement of adolescents health in rural regions.
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Reconstruction of palatomaxillary defects following cancer ablation with temporalis muscle flap in medically compromised patients: a 15-year single institutional experience.
Clin Oral Investig
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2013
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Successful reconstruction of palatomaxillary defects following cancer ablation represents a formidable challenge for surgeons to achieve consistently favorable outcomes. The purpose of this article is to present our experience in oncologic palatomaxillary repair with temporalis muscle flap (TMF) for medically compromised patients who are not ideal candidates for microvascular reconstruction at a Chinese tertiary referral hospital over a 15-year period (1998-2012).
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Hepatitis B viral RNA directly mediates down-regulation of the tumor suppressor microRNA miR-15a/miR-16-1 in hepatocytes.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a key risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent work suggests a functional link between HCC and microRNA expression, but the mechanism underlying the functional interaction between microRNA and HBV infection has remained largely elusive. Here we present evidence that the microRNA machinery serves as a defense system against HBV infection, which, in turn, reprograms the expression of specific microRNAs. We demonstrate a critical role of miR-15a/miR-16-1 in this functional interplay between microRNA and HBV infection, but in contrast to various indirect mechanisms mediated by viral proteins, we unexpectedly found that the HBx transcript directly triggers the down-regulation of miR-15a/miR-16-1 via the microRNA targeting sequences in the viral RNA. Because miR-15a and miR-16-1 are well known tumor suppressor microRNAs in multiple human cancers, our findings raise the intriguing possibility that viral RNA-mediated down-regulation of specific tumor suppressor microRNAs may contribute to HCC development in HBV-infected cells.
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Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cell loss and behavioral analysis in the Thy1-CFP-DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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In this study, the role of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) in the glaucoma-induced depressive behavioral response pattern was investigated. The CFP-D2 transgenic glaucoma animal model from five age groups was used in this study. Immunohistochemical labeling, quantitative analysis of mRGC morphology, open field test (OFT), and statistical analysis were used. In comparison with C57 BL/6 mice, the age-matched CFP-D2 mice had significantly elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). We observed parallel morphological changes in the retina, including a reduction in the density of cyan fluorescent protein-(CFP) expressing cells (cells mm(-2) at 2 months of age, 1309±26; 14 months, 878±30, P<0.001), mRGCs (2 months, 48±3; 14 months, 19±4, P<0.001), Brn3b-expressing RGCs (2 months, 1283±80; 14 months, 950±31, P <0.001), Brn-3b expressing mRGCs (5 months, 50.17%±5.5%; 14 months, 12.61%±3.8%, P<0.001), and reduction in the dendritic field size of mRGCs (mm(2) at 2 months, 0.077±0.015; 14 months, 0.065±0.015, P<0.05). CFP-D2 mice had hyperactive locomotor activity patterns based on OFT findings of the total distance traveled, number of entries into the center, and time spent in the center of the testing apparatus. The glaucoma induced hyperactive response pattern could be associated with dysfunctional mRGCs, most likely Brn-3b-positive mRGCs in CFP-D2 mice.
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A positive feedback loop involving Gcm1 and Fzd5 directs chorionic branching morphogenesis in the placenta.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Chorioallantoic branching morphogenesis is a key milestone during placental development, creating the large surface area for nutrient and gas exchange, and is therefore critical for the success of term pregnancy. Several Wnt pathway molecules have been shown to regulate placental development. However, it remains largely unknown how Wnt-Frizzled (Fzd) signaling spatiotemporally interacts with other essential regulators, ensuring chorionic branching morphogenesis and angiogenesis during placental development. Employing global and trophoblast-specific Fzd5-null and Gcm1-deficient mouse models, combining trophoblast stem cell lines and tetraploid aggregation assay, we demonstrate here that an amplifying signaling loop between Gcm1 and Fzd5 is essential for normal initiation of branching in the chorionic plate. While Gcm1 upregulates Fzd5 specifically at sites where branching initiates in the basal chorion, this elevated Fzd5 expression via nuclear ?-catenin signaling in turn maintains expression of Gcm1. Moreover, we show that Fzd5-mediated signaling induces the disassociation of cell junctions for branching initiation via downregulating ZO-1, claudin 4, and claudin 7 expressions in trophoblast cells at the base of the chorion. In addition, Fzd5-mediated signaling is also important for upregulation of Vegf expression in chorion trophoblast cells. Finally, we demonstrate that Fzd5-Gcm1 signaling cascade is operative during human trophoblast differentiation. These data indicate that Gcm1 and Fzd5 function in an evolutionary conserved positive feedback loop that regulates trophoblast differentiation and sites of chorionic branching morphogenesis.
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In brown adipocytes, adrenergically induced ??-/??-(Gs)-, ??-(Gi)- and ??-(Gq)-signalling to Erk1/2 activation is not mediated via EGF receptor transactivation.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Brown adipose tissue is unusual in that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine influences cell destiny in ways generally associated with effects of classical growth factors: regulation of cell proliferation, of apoptosis, and progression of differentiation. The norepinephrine effects are mediated through G-protein-coupled receptors; further mediation of such stimulation to e.g. Erk1/2 activation is in cell biology in general accepted to occur through transactivation of the EGF receptor (by external or internal pathways). We have examined here the significance of such transactivation in brown adipocytes. Stimulation of mature brown adipocytes with cirazoline (?1-adrenoceptor coupled via Gq), clonidine (?2 via Gi) or CL316243 (?3 via Gs) or via ?1-receptors significantly activated Erk1/2. Pretreatment with the EGF receptor kinase inhibitor AG1478 had, remarkably, no significant effect on Erk1/2 activation induced by any of these adrenergic agonists (although it fully abolished EGF-induced Erk1/2 activation), demonstrating absence of EGF receptor-mediated transactivation. Results with brown preadipocytes (cells in more proliferative states) were not qualitatively different. Joint stimulation of all adrenoceptors with norepinephrine did not result in synergism on Erk1/2 activation. AG1478 action on EGF-stimulated Erk1/2 phosphorylation showed a sharp concentration-response relationship (IC50 0.3µM); a minor apparent effect of AG1478 on norepinephrine-stimulated Erk1/2 phosphorylation showed nonspecific kinetics, implying caution in interpretation of partial effects of AG1478 as reported in other systems. Transactivation of the EGF receptor is clearly not a universal prerequisite for coupling of G-protein coupled receptors to Erk1/2 signalling cascades.
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Determinants of health literacy and health behavior regarding infectious respiratory diseases: a pathway model.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Health literacy has been defined as the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand the basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. Currently, few studies have validated the causal pathways of determinants of health literacy through the use of statistical modeling. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a health literacy model at an individual level that could best explain the determinants of health literacy and the associations between health literacy and health behaviors even health status.
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Overexpression of Hippo pathway effector TAZ in tongue squamous cell carcinoma: correlation with clinicopathological features and patients prognosis.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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BACKGROUND: Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) is a key downstream effector of Hippo signaling pathway involved in stem cell differentiation and organ development. Recently, its deregulation has been linked to initiation and progression of various cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of TAZ in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and its prognostic value in predicting patients outcomes. METHODS: TAZ expression and localization in a panel of TSCC cell lines and human immortalized oral epithelial cell (HIOEC) were determined by real-time RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence. In 52 TSCC tumor specimens with detailed clinical and follow-up data, TAZ abundance was examined by immunohistochemistry and its associations with clinicopathological parameters, Ki-67 expression and patients survival were further assessed. RESULTS: TAZ mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in TSCC cells and specimens than those in non-cancerous cells and normal tongue mucosa. Overexpression of TAZ in TSCC was significantly associated with tumor size (P = 0.033), pathological grade (P = 0.026), clinical stage (P = 0.013), Ki-67 expression (P = 0.0485), and reduced overall and disease-free survival (Kaplan-Meier analysis, log-rank test, P = 0.020, 0.019, respectively). Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified TAZ as an important independent predictor for survival of patients with TSCC [HR (hazard ratio), 4.351; 95% CI (95% confidence interval), 1.477-12.819; P = 0.008]. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that aberrant TAZ overexpression is associated with key clinicopathological features and poor survival in TSCC. These results suggest that TAZ might play critical roles in tumorigenesis of TSCC and become a novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for this malignancy.
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In vitro human corticogenesis.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Whether neurons generated in vitro from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have in vivo-like properties is unknown. In this issue of Neuron, Espuny-Camacho et al. (2013) show that ESC-/iPSC-derived cortical neurons make specific projections and functional synapses when transplanted into a neonatal mouse brain.
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Mast cell stabilization alleviates acute lung injury after orthotopic autologous liver transplantation in rats by downregulating inflammation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the most severe complications after orthotopic liver transplantation. Amplified inflammatory response after transplantation contributes to the process of ALI, but the mechanism underlying inflammation activation is not completely understood. We have demonstrated that mast cell stabilization attenuated inflammation and ALI in a rodent intestine ischemia/reperfusion model. We hypothesized that upregulation of inflammation triggered by mast cell activation may be involve in ALI after liver transplantation.
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Use of "MGE enhancers" for labeling and selection of embryonic stem cell-derived medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) progenitors and neurons.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) is an embryonic forebrain structure that generates the majority of cortical interneurons. MGE transplantation into specific regions of the postnatal central nervous system modifies circuit function and improves deficits in mouse models of epilepsy, Parkinsons disease, pain, and phencyclidine-induced cognitive deficits. Herein, we describe approaches to generate MGE-like progenitor cells from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Using a modified embryoid body method, we provided gene expression evidence that mouse ES-derived Lhx6(+) cells closely resemble immature interneurons generated from authentic MGE-derived Lhx6(+) cells. We hypothesized that enhancers that are active in the mouse MGE would be useful tools in detecting when ES cells differentiate into MGE cells. Here we demonstrate the utility of enhancer elements [422 (DlxI12b), Lhx6, 692, 1056, and 1538] as tools to mark MGE-like cells in ES cell differentiation experiments. We found that enhancers DlxI12b, 692, and 1538 are active in Lhx6-GFP(+) cells, while enhancer 1056 is active in Olig2(+) cells. These data demonstrate unique techniques to follow and purify MGE-like derivatives from ES cells, including GABAergic cortical interneurons and oligodendrocytes, for use in stem cell-based therapeutic assays and treatments.
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A combined array-based comparative genomic hybridization and functional library screening approach identifies mir-30d as an oncomir in cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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Oncomirs are microRNAs (miRNA) that acts as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Efficient identification of oncomirs remains a challenge. Here we report a novel, clinically guided genetic screening approach for the identification of oncomirs, identifying mir-30d through this strategy. mir-30d regulates tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, and migration. The chromosomal locus harboring mir-30d was amplified in more than 30% of multiple types of human solid tumors (n = 1,283). Importantly, higher levels of mir-30d expression were associated significantly with poor clinical outcomes in ovarian cancer patients (n = 330, P = 0.0016). Mechanistic investigations suggested that mir-30d regulates a large number of cancer-associated genes, including the apoptotic caspase CASP3. The guided genetic screening approach validated by this study offers a powerful tool to identify oncomirs that may have utility as biomarkers or targets for drug development.
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Primary liposarcoma in oral and maxillofacial region.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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Liposarcoma as one of the most common soft-tissue sarcomas in adults rarely occurs in oral and maxillofacial region. Its rarity makes a systematic and in-depth understanding of these uncommon entities extremely difficult. Here we aimed to characterize and analyze the epidemiology, clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment and prognosis of primary oral and maxillofacial liposarcomas by presenting our experience from a Chinese tertiary referral hospital and literature review. All relevant information was manually collected from medical records from the authors department (1993-2009) and literature retrieval (Jan.1940-Sep.2009). A total number of 150 patients were identified and included with mean age 49.1 years old and a slight male preponderance. These lesions mostly occurred in tongue (32.0%) followed by buccal region (28.7%) and were diagnosed as atypical lipmatous tumor/well-differentiated (58.45%) and myxoid liposarcomas (27.5%) by pathologic re-evaluation and re-categorization based on 2002 WHO classification scheme. Complete surgical excision with negative margins was the primary treatment modality, while therapeutic utilities of adjuvant radiotherapy/chemotherapy remained controversial. Our data reinforced histopathologic subtype as one of key prognostic factors irrespective of gender, age and primary sites for this malignancy. More importantly, our analysis further revealed that tumor size (especially when larger than 3.6 cm) served as another important prognostic factor suggesting higher rates of disease-related death. Taken together, these findings might for the first time provide comprehensive information regarding the epidemiology, clinicopathologic features, treatment and prognosis of oral and maxillofacial liposarcoma.
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The haem-uptake gene cluster in Vibrio fischeri is regulated by Fur and contributes to symbiotic colonization.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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Although it is accepted that bacteria-colonizing host tissues are commonly faced with iron-limiting conditions and that pathogenic bacteria often utilize iron from host-derived haem-based compounds, the mechanisms of iron acquisition by beneficial symbiotic bacteria are less clear. The bacterium Vibrio fischeri mutualistically colonizes the light organ of the squid Euprymna scolopes. Genome sequence analysis of V. fischeri revealed a putative haem-uptake gene cluster, and through mutant analysis we confirmed this cluster is important for haemin use by V. fischeri in culture. LacZ reporter assays demonstrated Fur-dependent transcriptional regulation of cluster promoter activity in culture. GFP-based reporter assays revealed that gene cluster promoter activity is induced in symbiotic V. fischeri as early as 14 h post inoculation, although colonization assays with the haem uptake mutant suggested an inability to uptake haem does not begin to limit colonization until later stages of the symbiosis. Our data indicate that the squid light organ is a low iron environment and that haem-based sources of iron are used by symbiotic V. fischeri cells. These findings provide important additional information on the availability of iron during symbiotic colonization of E. scolopes by V. fischeri, as well as the role of haem uptake in non-pathogenic host-microbe interactions.
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Preparation and characterization of lung-targeting ceftiofur-loaded gelatin microspheres.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Ceftiofur is an effective antibiotic against respiratory infections in livestock. However, ceftiofur concentration that is found in lungs after intravenous injection is not effective. Fortunately, ceftiofur-loaded gelatin microsphere (Cef-MS) enjoys advantages of lung-targeting and can achieve an effective concentration. However, no study has been reported on this modality of drug delivery.
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Effects of X-irradiation on mitochondrial DNA damage and its supercoiling formation change.
Mitochondrion
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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There have been a small number of reports of radiation-induced mtDNA damage, and mtDNA supercoiling formation change induced by ionizing radiation has not been investigated before. This study evaluated mtDNA damage and supercoiling formation change after X-irradiation. The human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 cells were used for analysis. Modified supercoiling-sensitive real-time PCR approach was used to evaluate mitochondrial DNA supercoiling formation change and copy number; long-PCR method was applied for the quantification of mtDNA damage. MtDNA damage and formation change induced by high-dose irradiation was persistent in 24h after irradiation and was not significant after low-dose irradiation. MtDNA copy number was slightly increased after high-dose irradiation and a transit increase was observed after low-dose irradiation. This is the first study to evaluate radiation-induced mitochondrial DNA supercoiling formation change using real-time PCR. Combined with data of ROS generation and dynamics of mitochondrial mass, our findings suggested that mtDNA is sensitive to radiation hazards, indicating mitochondrial biogenesis play an important role in radiation-induced cellular response.
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Study of Luan-Pao-Prescription on ovarian dysfunction in rats.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Luan-Pao-Prescription (LPP) has been clinically proven to be effective on infertility. In the present study we explored the improvement and underlying mechanism of LPP on ovarian dysfunction in rats.
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Differential expression of proteins in red pear following fruit bagging treatment.
Protein J.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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Fruit bagging is a very effective method for study of fruit qualities and anthocyanin synthesis. The characterization of differentially expressed proteins that were isolated from both bagged and normal fruit skin tissue is apparently an essential parameter for understanding the effect of shading on fruit qualities and to understand the mechanism of fruit coloring in Pyrus communis. Proteome maps of both bagged and normal P. communis Placer fruit skin were obtained by performing two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis and compared to assess the extent to which protein distribution differed in pear skin. The comparative analysis showed 38 differentially expressed proteins between the two samples: with three protein spots up-regulated and 35 down-regulated in the bagged fruit. Differentially expressed protein spots were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis and the data compared to that of known proteins to deduce their possible functions. Of these, 21 protein spots were identified and classified into functional classes. These identified proteins were mainly involved in photosynthesis, signal transduction, energy pathway, protein folding and assembly, and carbohydrate and acidity metabolisms, and were under-expressed in bagged fruit skins. This work provides a first characterization of the proteome changes in response to fruit bagging treatment in red pears.
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The roles of NO in microbial symbioses.
Cell. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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Because of its unique chemical properties, nitric oxide (NO) is a pluripotent signalling and effector molecule that is implicated in a variety of biological roles. Although NO is known to function in host innate immunity against pathogen invasion, its possible roles in microbial symbioses with animal and plant hosts remain relatively less well defined. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which bacteria sense and/or detoxify NO. We then focus specifically on its roles in microbial symbioses of diverse eukaryotic hosts. Using the squid-vibrio light-organ symbiosis as a well-characterized example, we discuss the ways in which NO serves as a signal, antioxidant and specificity determinant in this model symbiosis. Because beneficial microbial associations are older and much more prevalent than pathogenic ones, it seems likely that the former may be evolutionary precursors of the latter. Thus, knowledge of the roles played by NO in mutualisms will provide insights into its function in disease interactions as well.
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CXCR4 and CXCR7 have distinct functions in regulating interneuron migration.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling is critical for cortical interneuron migration and their final laminar distribution. No information is yet available on CXCR7, a newly defined CXCL12 receptor. Here we demonstrated that CXCR7 regulated interneuron migration autonomously, as well as nonautonomously through its expression in immature projection neurons. Migrating cortical interneurons coexpressed Cxcr4 and Cxcr7, and Cxcr7(-/-) and Cxcr4(-/-) mutants had similar defects in interneuron positioning. Ectopic CXCL12 expression and pharmacological blockade of CXCR4 in Cxcr7(-/-) mutants showed that both receptors were essential for responding to CXCL12 during interneuron migration. Furthermore, live imaging revealed that Cxcr4(-/-) and Cxcr7(-/-) mutants had opposite defects in interneuron motility and leading process morphology. In vivo inhibition of G?(i/o) signaling in migrating interneurons phenocopied the interneuron lamination defects of Cxcr4(-/-) mutants. On the other hand, CXCL12 stimulation of CXCR7, but not CXCR4, promoted MAP kinase signaling. Thus, we suggest that CXCR4 and CXCR7 have distinct roles and signal transduction in regulating interneuron movement and laminar positioning.
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Differential regulation of proteoglycan-4 expression by IL-1? and TGF-?1 in rat condylar chondrocytes.
Tohoku J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2010
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Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) is a multifaceted glycoprotein that mediates boundary lubrication of articular cartilage and its dysregulation is associated with impaired lubrication and cartilage destruction in multiple synovial joints. However, the spatiotemporal expression of PRG4 and the associated regulatory networks remain largely unknown in the mandibular condylar cartilage that is responsible for homeostasis and functions of the temporomandibular joint. We here investigated the possible regulatory effects of the interleukin-1? (IL-1?) or/and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) on the expression of PRG4 in primary chondrocytes that were isolated from the superficial layer of the condylar cartilage of the 20-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Both IL-1? and TGF-?1 have been implicated in joint destruction and repair. Treatment of primary chondrocytes for 24 h with recombinant human (rh) IL-1? (10 ng/ml) resulted in pronounced reduction in the expression levels of PRG4 mRNA and protein, whereas stimulation with rhTGF-?1 (10 ng/ml) significantly increased the expression levels, as measured by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Moreover, rhTGF-?1 was capable to antagonize the inhibitory effects on the PRG4 expression caused by rhIL-1? and robustly restored its abundance in the cultured condylar chondrocytes. Taken together, our data indicate that PRG4 is synthesized and secreted by condylar cartilage chondrocytes and its expression is differentially regulated by IL-1? and TGF-?1. The rhIL-1?-mediated PRG4 repression is reversible and potently antagonized by rhTGF-?1 in condylar chondrocytes. The observed up-regulation of PRG4 upon rhTGF-?1 treatment further supports the therapeutic application of rhTGF-?1 in the treatment of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis.
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Vibrio fischeri flavohaemoglobin protects against nitric oxide during initiation of the squid-Vibrio symbiosis.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2010
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Nitric oxide (NO) is implicated in a wide range of biological processes, including innate immunity against pathogens, signal transduction and protection against oxidative stress. However, its possible roles in beneficial host-microbe associations are less well recognized. During the early stages of the squid-vibrio symbiosis, the bacterial symbiont Vibrio fischeri encounters host-derived NO, which has been hypothesized to serve as a specificity determinant. We demonstrate here that the flavohaemoglobin, Hmp, of V. fischeri protects against NO, both in culture and during colonization of the squid host. Transcriptional analyses indicate that hmp expression is highly responsive to NO, principally through the repressor, NsrR. Hmp protects V. fischeri from NO inhibition of aerobic respiration, and removes NO under both oxic and anoxic conditions. A ?hmp mutant of V. fischeri initiates squid colonization less effectively than wild type, but is rescued by the presence of an NO synthase inhibitor. The hmp promoter is activated during the initial stage of colonization, during which the ?hmp strain fails to form normal-sized aggregates of colonizing cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the sensing of host-derived NO by NsrR, and the subsequent removal of NO by Hmp, influence aggregate size and, thereby, V. fischeri colonization efficiency.
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Early effects of low dose C ion or x-ray irradiation on peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with alimentary tract cancer.
Dose Response
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2010
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The aim of this study was to examine the early effects of low dose (12)C(6+) irradiation or X-ray on peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of patients with alimentary tract cancer and to explore mechanisms that may be involved in an antitumor immune response. We found that the percentage of T lymphocyte subsets, the mRNA expression levels of IL-2 and IFN-? in PBL, and their protein levels in supernatant were significantly increased 24 hours after exposure to low dose radiation. The effects were more pronounced in the group receiving 0.05Gy (12)C(6+) ion irradiation than the group receiving X-ray irradiation. There was no significant change in the percentage of NK cell subsets and TNF-? production of PBL. Our study suggests that low dose irradiation could alleviate immune suppression caused by tumor burden and that the effect was more pronounced for 0.05Gy high linear energy transfer (LET) (12)C(6+) irradiation.
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The alternative oxidase (AOX) gene in Vibrio fischeri is controlled by NsrR and upregulated in response to nitric oxide.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a respiratory oxidase found in certain eukaryotes and bacteria; however, its role in bacterial physiology is unclear. Exploiting the genetic tractability of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, we explore the regulation of aox expression and AOX function. Using quantitative PCR and reporter assays, we demonstrate that aox expression is induced in the presence of nitric oxide (NO), and that the NO-responsive regulatory protein NsrR mediates the response. We have identified key amino acid residues important for NsrR function and experimentally confirmed a bioinformatically predicted NsrR binding site upstream of aox. Microrespirometry demonstrated that oxygen consumption by V. fischeri CydAB quinol oxidase is inhibited by NO treatment, whereas oxygen consumption by AOX is less sensitive to NO. NADH oxidation assays using inverted membrane vesicles confirmed that NO directly inhibits CydAB, and that AOX is resistant to NO inhibition. These results indicate a role for V. fischeri AOX in aerobic respiration during NO stress.
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H-NOX-mediated nitric oxide sensing modulates symbiotic colonization by Vibrio fischeri.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2010
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The bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri initiates a specific, persistent symbiosis in the light organ of the squid Euprymna scolopes. During the early stages of colonization, V. fischeri is exposed to host-derived nitric oxide (NO). Although NO can be both an antimicrobial component of innate immunity and a key signaling molecule in eukaryotes, potential roles in beneficial host-microbe associations have not been described. V. fischeri hnoX encodes a heme NO/oxygen-binding (H-NOX) protein, a member of a family of bacterial NO- and/or O(2)-binding proteins of unknown function. We hypothesized that H-NOX acts as a NO sensor that is involved in regulating symbiosis-related genes early in colonization. Whole-genome expression studies identified 20 genes that were repressed in an NO- and H-NOX-dependent fashion. Ten of these, including hemin-utilization genes, have a promoter with a putative ferric-uptake regulator (Fur) binding site. As predicted, in the presence of NO, wild-type V. fischeri grew more slowly on hemin than a hnoX deletion mutant. Host-colonization studies showed that the hnoX mutant was also 10-fold more efficient in initially colonizing the squid host than the wild type; similarly, in mixed inoculations, it outcompeted the wild-type strain by an average of 16-fold after 24 h. However, the presence of excess hemin or iron reversed this dominance. The advantage of the mutant in colonizing the iron-limited light-organ tissues is caused, at least in part, by its greater ability to acquire host-derived hemin. Our data suggest that V. fischeri normally senses a host-generated NO signal through H-NOX(Vf) and modulates the expression of its iron uptake capacity during the early stages of the light-organ symbiosis.
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Dlx5 and Dlx6 regulate the development of parvalbumin-expressing cortical interneurons.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
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Dlx5 and Dlx6 homeobox genes are expressed in developing and mature cortical interneurons. Simultaneous deletion of Dlx5 and 6 results in exencephaly of the anterior brain; despite this defect, prenatal basal ganglia differentiation appeared largely intact, while tangential migration of Lhx6(+) and Mafb(+) interneurons to the cortex was reduced and disordered. The migration deficits were associated with reduced CXCR4 expression. Transplantation of mutant immature interneurons into a wild-type brain demonstrated that loss of either Dlx5 or Dlx5&6 preferentially reduced the number of mature parvalbumin(+) interneurons; those parvalbumin(+) interneurons that were present had increased dendritic branching. Dlx5/6(+/-) mice, which appear normal histologically, show spontaneous electrographic seizures and reduced power of gamma oscillations. Thus, Dlx5&6 appeared to be required for development and function of somal innervating (parvalbumin(+)) neocortical interneurons. This contrasts with Dlx1, whose function is required for dendrite innervating (calretinin(+), somatostatin(+), and neuropeptide Y(+)) interneurons (Cobos et al., 2005).
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Anthocyanin biosynthesis in pears is regulated by a R2R3-MYB transcription factor PyMYB10.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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Skin color is an important factor in pear breeding programs. The degree of red coloration is determined by the content and composition of anthocyanins. In plants, many MYB transcriptional factors are involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. In this study, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, PyMYB10, was isolated from Asian pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cv. Aoguan. Sequence analysis suggested that the PyMYB10 gene was an ortholog of MdMYB10 gene, which regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in red fleshed apple (Malus x domestica) cv. Red Field. PyMYB10 was identified at the genomic level and had three exons, with its upstream sequence containing core sequences of cis-acting regulatory elements involved in light responsiveness. Fruit bagging showed that light could induce expression of PyMYB10 and anthocyanin biosynthesis. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that PyMYB10 was predominantly expressed in pear skins, buds, and young leaves, and the level of transcription in buds was higher than in skin and young leaves. In ripening fruits, the transcription of PyMYB10 in the skin was positively correlated with genes in the anthocyanin pathway and with anthocyanin biosynthesis. In addition, the transcription of PyMYB10 and genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis were more abundant in red-skinned pear cultivars compared to blushed cultivars. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PyMYB10 exhibited ectopic pigmentation in immature seeds. The study suggested that PyMYB10 plays a role in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and the overexpression of PyMYB10 was sufficient to induce anthocyanin accumulation.
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Non-transactivational, dual pathways for LPA-induced Erk1/2 activation in primary cultures of brown pre-adipocytes.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
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In many cell types, G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-induced Erk1/2 MAP kinase activation is mediated via receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) transactivation, in particular via the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), acting via GPCRs, is a mitogen and MAP kinase activator in many systems, and LPA can regulate adipocyte proliferation. The mechanism by which LPA activates the Erk1/2 MAP kinase is generally accepted to be via EGF receptor transactivation. In primary cultures of brown pre-adipocytes, EGF can induce Erk1/2 activation, which is obligatory and determinant for EGF-induced proliferation of these cells. Therefore, we have here examined whether LPA, via EGF transactivation, can activate Erk1/2 in brown pre-adipocytes. We found that LPA could induce Erk1/2 activation. However, the LPA-induced Erk1/2 activation was independent of transactivation of EGF receptors (or PDGF receptors) in these cells (whereas in transformed HIB-1B brown adipocytes, the LPA-induced Erk1/2 activation indeed proceeded via EGF receptor transactivation). In the brown pre-adipocytes, LPA instead induced Erk1/2 activation via two distinct non-transactivational pathways, one G(i)-protein dependent, involving PKC and Src activation, the other, a PTX-insensitive pathway, involving PI3K (but not Akt) activation. Earlier studies showing LPA-induced Erk1/2 activation being fully dependent on RTK transactivation have all been performed in cell lines and transfected cells. The present study implies that in non-transformed systems, RTK transactivation may not be involved in the mediation of GPCR-induced Erk1/2 MAP kinase activation.
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The expression of TRMT2A, a novel cell cycle regulated protein, identifies a subset of breast cancer patients with HER2 over-expression that are at an increased risk of recurrence.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
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Over-expression of HER2 in a subset of breast cancers (HER2+) is associated with high histological grade and aggressive clinical course. Despite these distinctive features, the differences in response of HER2+ patients to both adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy (e.g. trastuzumab) suggests that unrecognized biologic and clinical diversity is confounding treatment strategies. Furthermore, the small but established risk of cardiac morbidity with trastuzumab therapy compels efforts towards the identification of biomarkers that might help stratify patients.
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210Pb: a predictive biomarker of retrospective cigarette smoke exposure.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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Although cigarette smoking continues to occur worldwide, there are few methods available to assess a persons retrospective exposure to mainstream smoke. The tobacco of cigarettes contains trace quantities of radioactive 210Pb and 210Po, which are volatilized and inhaled when a cigarette is smoked. It was hypothesized that urinary 210Pb and 210Po activity concentrations could be used as biomarkers of exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke. Human subjects (n = 250) were recruited from Beijing, China, and reported their smoking habits. Each subject provided a 24-hour urine sample, which was assayed for its 210Pb and 210Po activity concentrations. Although the urinary 210Po activity from smoking was very low compared with background levels, the urinary 210Pb activity correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD; rho = 0.38, P < 0.001) and the urinary cotinine concentration (rho = 0.52, P < 0.001). In a linear regression model, a 1-unit increase in CPD was associated with an increase of 0.13 mBq in urinary 210Pb activity. In a logistic regression model, a 1-unit increase in urinary 210Pb activity was associated with an estimated 25% increase in the odds of being a smoker. These data were modeled using the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and biokinetic models of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. When the final model was applied for a long-term smoker (20 CPD) that suddenly quits, the predicted urinary activity decreased to 50% of the steady-state activity in about 90 days. Based on this half-time estimate and the regression results, urinary 210Pb can be used to assess the probability of having smoked in the past months.
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Iodine deficiency disorders after a decade of universal salt iodization in a severe iodine deficiency region in China.
Indian J. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2009
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Universal salt iodization (USI) was implemented in all counties of China in 1995. This study was undertaken to assess the status of iodine deficiency disorders control and prevention after 10 years of implementation of USI in a severe iodine deficiency region in China.
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Seizures, enhanced excitation, and increased vesicle number in Lis1 mutant mice.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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In humans, abnormal neuronal migration and severe neuronal disorganization resulting from Lis1 (lissencephaly) haploinsufficiency contributes to cognitive impairment and seizures early in life. In Lis1 heterozygotic mice, severe hippocampal disorganization and cognitive impairment have also been reported. Using this mouse model, we examined the functional impact of LIS1 deficiency with particular focus on excitatory glutamate-mediated synaptic transmission.
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Arcuate nucleus expression of NKX2.1 and DLX and lineages expressing these transcription factors in neuropeptide Y(+), proopiomelanocortin(+), and tyrosine hydroxylase(+) neurons in neonatal and adult mice.
J. Comp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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Despite its small size, the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus has a critical role in regulating energy homeostasis. We have begun to define genetic approaches to express genes in specific cell types within the developing arcuate nucleus, to allow precise molecular perturbations of these cells. Furthermore, our analysis aims to contribute to defining the transcriptional networks that regulate the development of function of the arcuate neurons. Here, we define the neuronal cells types within the arcuate that express Nkx2.1 and Dlx homeobox genes. In addition, we used mice expressing Cre recombinase from the Dlx5/6 intergenic enhancer (Dlx5/6i) and from the Nkx2.1 locus to follow the fate of embryonic cells expressing these genes within the arcuate nucleus. We demonstrate that NKX2.1(+) cells and their lineages are broadly expressed in arcuate neurons [gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(+), neuropeptide Y (NPY)(+), proopiomelanocortin (POMC)(+), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)(+)] and glia (tanycytes). On the other hand, DLX(+) cells and their lineages mark only GABA(+) and TH(+) (dopaminergic) neurons, and Dlx1(-/-) mutants have fewer TH(+) neurons. These results have implications for the genetic control of arcuate development and function and for the utility of the Nkx2.1-Cre and Dlx5/6i-Cre mouse lines to alter gene expression in the developing arcuate.
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High-efficiency transfer and expression of AdCMV-p53 in human cervix adenocarcinoma cells induced by subclinical-dose carbon beam radiation.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of carbon-beam irradiation on adenovirus-mediated p53 transfer in human cervix adenocarcinoma.
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Genistein inhibition of topoisomerase IIalpha expression participated by Sp1 and Sp3 in HeLa cell.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
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Genistein (4, 5, 7-trihydroxyisoflavone) is an isoflavone compound obtained from plants that has potential applications in cancer therapy. However, the molecular mechanism of the action of genistein on cancer cell apoptosis is not well known. In this study, we investigated the effect of genistein on topoisomerase II-alpha (Topo IIalpha), an important protein involved in the processes of DNA replication and cell proliferation. The results revealed that inhibition of Topo IIalpha expression through the regulation of Specificity protein 1 and Specificity protein 3 may be one of the reasons for genisteins induction of HeLa cell apoptosis.
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210Po and 210Pb activity in Chinese cigarettes.
Health Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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The radon decay products lead-210 ((210)Pb) and polonium-210 ((210)Po) are known components of tobacco. China is the worlds largest producer and consumer of cigarettes, yet no comprehensive published reports of the (210)Pb and (210)Po activity concentrations in Chinese cigarettes are available. Twelve brands of cigarettes that were commonly smoked within a group of 184 Chinese smokers were selected for (210)Pb and (210)Po activity analysis. For each brand, the tobacco from two cigarettes was isolated, dried, weighed, spiked with a (209)Po tracer for yield, and digested with concentrated HNO3, followed by HCl. The polonium in each digested solution was spontaneously deposited onto a nickel disc. The polonium activity was then counted using alpha spectroscopy. The mean (range) (210)Po activity for all brands was 23 (18-29) mBq cig(-1). The state of radioactive equilibrium between (210)Po and (210)Pb in each cigarette was verified in three brands of cigarettes. Cigarettes from two brands were smoked on a machine in order to estimate the fraction of (210)Pb and (210)Po inhaled. An average of 8% of the (210)Pb and 13% of the (210)Po in the tobacco of the cigarettes was transferred to the mainstream smoke. It is thus estimated that a person smoking 20 of these cigarettes per day in China would inhale a mean (range) of 37 (29-46) mBq d(-1) of (210)Pb and 60 (47-75) mBq d(-1) of (210)Po. Cigarette smoking in China may therefore be a large source of a persons daily intake of (210)Pb and (210)Po.
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Iodine status and thyroid function of pregnant, lactating women and infants (0-1 yr) residing in areas with an effective Universal Salt Iodization program.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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To assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of pregnant women, lactating women and infants residing in areas where the Universal Salt Iodization program is in place.
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Adenovirus-mediated wild-type p53 transfer radiosensitizes H1299 cells to subclinical-dose carbon-ion irradiation through the restoration of p53 function.
Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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To determine whether adenovirus-mediated wild-type p53 transfer after radiotherapy could radiosensitize non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to subclinical-dose carbon-ion beam (C-beam), H1299 cells were exposed to a C-beam or gamma-ray and then infected with 5 MOI of AdCMV-p53 or GFP (C-beam or gamma-ray with p53 or GFP). Cell cycle was detected by flow cytometric analysis. The apoptosis was examined by a fluorescent microscope with DAPI staining. DNA fragmentation was monitored by the TUNEL assay. P53 mRNA was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The expression of p53, MDM(2), and p21 was monitored by Western blot. Survival fractions were determined by colony-forming assay. The percentages of G(1)-phase cells in C-beam with p53 increased by 8.2%-16.0%, 5.2%-7.0%, and 5.8%-18.9%, respectively, compared with C-beam only, gamma-ray with p53, or p53 only. The accumulation of G(2)-phase cells in C-beam with p53 increased by 5.7%-8.9% and 8.8%-14.8%, compared with those in gamma-ray with p53 or p53 only, respectively. The percentage of apoptosis for C-beam with p53 increased by 7.4%-19.1%, 5.8%-11.7%, and 5.2 %-19.2%, respectively, compared with C-beam only, gamma-ray with p53, or p53 only. The level of p53 mRNA in C-beam with p53 was significantly higher than that in p53 only. The expression level of p53 and p21 in C-beam with p53 was significantly higher than that in both C-beam with GFP and p53 only. The survival fractions for C-beam with p53 were significantly less than those for the other groups (p < 0.05). The data suggested that AdCMV-p53 transfer could more efficiently radiosensitize H1299 cells to subclinical-dose C-beam irradiation through the restoration of p53 function.
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Dynamic change of Adamalysin 19 (ADAM19) in human placentas and its effects on cell invasion and adhesion in human trophoblastic cells.
Sci. China, C, Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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Human ADAM19 is a recently identified member of the ADAM family. It is highly expressed in human placentas, but its dynamic change and function at the human feto-maternal interface during placentation remain to be elucidated. In this present study, the spatial and temporal expression and cellular localization of ADAM19 in normal human placentas were first demonstrated, and the effects of ADAM19 on trophoblast cell adhesion and invasion were further investigated by using a human choriocarcinoma cell line (JEG-3) as an in vitro model. The data demonstrated that ADAM19 was widely distributed in villous cytotrophoblast cells, syncytiotrophoblast cells, column trophoblasts, and villous capillary endothelial cells during early pregnancy. The mRNA and protein level of ADAM19 in placentas was high at gestational weeks 8-9, but diminished significantly at mid- and term pregnancy. In JEG-3 cells, the overexpression of ADAM19 led to diminished cell invasion, as well as increases in cell adhesiveness and the expression of E-cadherin, with no changes in beta-catenin expression observed. These data indicate that ADAM19 may participate in the coordinated regulation of human trophoblast cell behaviors during the process of placentation.
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Theoretical study on the thermal decomposition of model compounds for poly (dialkyl fumarate).
J Mol Model
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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The thermal decomposition of model compounds for poly (dialkyl fumarate) was studied by using ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. To determine the most favorable reaction pathway of thermal decomposition, geometries, structures, and energies were evaluated for reactants, products, and transition states of the proposed pathways at the HF/6-31G(d) and B3LYP/6-31G(d) levels. Three possible paths (I, II and III) and subsequent reaction paths (IV and V) for the model compounds of poly (dialkyl fumarate) decomposition had been postulated. It has been found that the path (I) has the lowest activation energy 193.8 kJ mol(-1) at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level and the path (I) is considered as the main path for the thermal decomposition of model compounds for poly (dialkyl fumarate).
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Dual Effects of Bilirubin on the Proliferation of Rat Renal NRK52E Cells and ITS Association with Gap Junctions.
Dose Response
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The effect of bilirubin on renal pathophysiology is controversial. This study aimed to observe the effects of bilirubin on the proliferation of normal rat renal tubular epithelial cell line (NRK52E) and its potential interplay with gap junction function.
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Determinants of risky sexual behavior and condom use among college students in China.
AIDS Care
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The purposes of this study were to assess sexual behavior and condom use among Chinese college students, and to explore social-environmental and social-cognitive determinants associated with risky sexual behaviors within this population. A survey was conducted among 19,123 Chinese college students recruited through stratified cluster sampling. About 9% of the students reported having had sex (male=13.3%, female=5.0%, OR=2.918), 3.6% had multiple sexual partners (male=5.7%, female=1.6%, OR=3.624), and 0.9% had commercialized sex (male=1.6%, female=0.3%, OR=6.169). Only 24.8% of sexually active students had used a condom for every sexual encounter, and there was no significant difference in condom use between male students and female students. Logistic regression showed that sex (female, OR=0.769), age (older, OR=1.263), exposure to pornographic information (higher, OR=1.751), drinking (intoxication, OR=1.437), and smoking (OR=2.123-5.112) were all determinants of sexual behaviors. Path analysis showed that exposure to pornographic information, level of consumption, and sex education were important social-environmental factors of condom use. Condom use was more common among those who had greater HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes toward high-risk behavior, self-efficacy, and intent to use a condom. Intentions were the most important and direct factor influencing condom use. The study concluded that college students are vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases - including HIV/AIDS infection - through sexual contact. Therefore, future HIV/AIDS prevention and safer sex interventions should focus on self-protection skills and target behavior change.
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A septation related gene AcsepH in Acremonium chrysogenum is involved in the cellular differentiation and cephalosporin production.
Fungal Genet. Biol.
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T-DNA inserted mutants of Acremonium chrysogenum were constructed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT). One mutant 1223 which grew slowly was selected. TAIL-PCR and sequence analysis indicated that a putative septation protein encoding gene AcsepH was partially deleted in this mutant. AcsepH contains nine introns, and its deduced protein AcSEPH has a conserved serine/threonine protein kinase catalytic (S_TKc) domain at its N-terminal region. AcSEPH shows high similarity with septation H proteins from other filamentous fungi based on the phylogenetic analysis of S_TKc domains. In sporulation (LPE) medium, the conidia of AcsepH mutant was only about one-seventh of the wild-type, and more than 20% of conidia produced by the mutant contain multiple nuclei which were rare in the wild-type. During fermentation, the AcsepH disruption mutant grew slowly and its cephalosporin production was only about one quarter of the wild-type, and the transcription analysis showed that pcbC expression was delayed and the expressions of cefEF, cefD1 and cefD2 were significantly decreased. The vegetative hyphae of AcsepH mutant swelled abnormally and hardly formed the typical yeast-like cells. The amount of yeast-like cells was about one-tenth of the wild-type after fermentation for 5days. Comparison of hyphal viabilities revealed that the cells of AcsepH mutant died easily than the wild-type at the late stage of fermentation. Fluorescent stains revealed that the absence of AcsepH in A. chrysogenum led to reduction of septation and formation of multinucleate cells. These data indicates that AcsepH is required for the normal cellular septation and differentiation of A. chrysogenum, and its absence may change the cellular physiological status and causes the decline in cephalosporin production.
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An epidemiological and clinical analysis of craniomaxillofacial fibrous dysplasia in a Chinese population.
Orphanet J Rare Dis
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Craniomaxillofacial fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign bone lesion characterized by facial disfigurement and functional impairment. The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiological and clinical features of craniomaxillofacial FD by presenting data from a representative Chinese population during a 15-year period (1994-2009).
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[Analysis on iodine nutritional status and thyroid function in pregnant women].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
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To investigate the iodine nutritional status and thyroid function of pregnant women during different periods of pregnancy, to provide evidence for guiding iodine supplementation for them.
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Genomic DNA copy-number alterations of the let-7 family in human cancers.
PLoS ONE
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In human cancer, expression of the let-7 family is significantly reduced, and this is associated with shorter survival times in patients. However, the mechanisms leading to let-7 downregulation in cancer are still largely unclear. Since an alteration in copy-number is one of the causes of gene deregulation in cancer, we examined copy number alterations of the let-7 family in 2,969 cancer specimens from a high-resolution SNP array dataset. We found that there was a reduction in the copy number of let-7 genes in a cancer-type specific manner. Importantly, focal deletion of four let-7 family members was found in three cancer types: medulloblastoma (let-7a-2 and let-7e), breast cancer (let-7a-2), and ovarian cancer (let-7a-3/let-7b). For example, the genomic locus harboring let-7a-3/let-7b was deleted in 44% of the specimens from ovarian cancer patients. We also found a positive correlation between the copy number of let-7b and mature let-7b expression in ovarian cancer. Finally, we showed that restoration of let-7b expression dramatically reduced ovarian tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that copy number deletion is an important mechanism leading to the downregulation of expression of specific let-7 family members in medulloblastoma, breast, and ovarian cancers. Restoration of let-7 expression in tumor cells could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer.
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Scl represses cardiomyogenesis in prospective hemogenic endothelium and endocardium.
Cell
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Endothelium in embryonic hematopoietic tissues generates hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells; however, it is unknown how its unique potential is specified. We show that transcription factor Scl/Tal1 is essential for both establishing the hematopoietic transcriptional program in hemogenic endothelium and preventing its misspecification to a cardiomyogenic fate. Scl(-/-) embryos activated a cardiac transcriptional program in yolk sac endothelium, leading to the emergence of CD31+Pdgfr?+ cardiogenic precursors that generated spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes. Ectopic cardiogenesis was also observed in Scl(-/-) hearts, where the disorganized endocardium precociously differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Induction of mosaic deletion of Scl in Scl(fl/fl)Rosa26Cre-ER(T2) embryos revealed a cell-intrinsic, temporal requirement for Scl to prevent cardiomyogenesis from endothelium. Scl(-/-) endothelium also upregulated the expression of Wnt antagonists, which promoted rapid cardiomyocyte differentiation of ectopic cardiogenic cells. These results reveal unexpected plasticity in embryonic endothelium such that loss of a single master regulator can induce ectopic cardiomyogenesis from endothelial cells.
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Lipopolysaccharide effects on the proliferation of NRK52E cells via alternations in gap-junction function.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg
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Gap junctions regulate proper kidney function by facilitating intercellular communication, vascular conduction, and tubular purinergic signaling. However, no clear relationship has been described between gap-junction function and acute kidney injury induced by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
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Substituent effects on the properties of fluorene-thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine derivatives for light-emitting applications.
J Mol Model
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Five thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine-based model compounds were studied to explore the effects of the substituent groups (alkyl or aryl) on the structure, atomic charge, optical properties, ionization potential (IP), electron affinity (EA), and reorganization energy. Theoretical calculations were carried out by density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP hybrid function combined and CAM-B3LYP with the 6-31G(d) basis set. The lowest-lying absorption and emission spectra of 9,9-diethylhexylfluorene-alt-5,7-dithien-2-yl-thieno[3,4-b] pyrazine (FDDTTP) with alkyl groups showed a blue-shift, while those of FDDTTP with aryl groups exhibited a red-shift. The results agree well with analytical data from reorganization energies. IPs are brought down by both alkyl and aryl groups. However, EAs are raised only by aryl units. The results indicate that aryl groups are more helpful in forming excitions for FDDTTP molecules. Consequently, FDDTTP with aryl groups are more efficient acceptor segments for designing donor-acceptor copolymers than those with alkyl groups.
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Trophoblasts regulate the placental hematopoietic niche through PDGF-B signaling.
Dev. Cell
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The placenta is a hematopoietic organ that supports hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) generation and expansion without promoting differentiation. We identified PDGF-B signaling in trophoblasts as a key component of the unique placental hematopoietic microenvironment that protects HSPCs from premature differentiation. Loss of PDGF-B or its receptor, PDGFR?, induced definitive erythropoiesis in placental labyrinth vasculature. This was evidenced by accumulation of CFU-Es and actively proliferating definitive erythroblasts that clustered around central macrophages, highly reminiscent of erythropoiesis in the fetal liver. Ectopic erythropoiesis was not due to a requirement of PDGF-B signaling in hematopoietic cells but rather in placental trophoblasts, which upregulated Epo in the absence of PDGF-B signaling. Furthermore, overexpression of hEPO specifically in the trophoblasts in vivo was sufficient to convert the placenta into an erythropoietic organ. These data provide genetic evidence of a signaling pathway that is required to restrict erythroid differentiation to specific anatomical niches during development.
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Lack of health risk awareness in low-income Chinese youth migrants: assessment and associated factors.
Environ Health Prev Med
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To analyze and assess health risk awareness of youth migrants in China and the factors that influence it, and to provide evidence for making health promotion interventions and decreasing health risks among Chinese youth migrants.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.