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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effects of adenosine monophosphate used in combination with L-arginine on female rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue.
Sex Med
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Sexual dysfunction is significantly more prevalent in women than in men. However, to date, no satisfactory oral treatment is yet available.
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EGFR as a potential therapeutic target for a subset of muscle-invasive bladder cancers presenting a basal-like phenotype.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma (MIBC) constitutes a heterogeneous group of tumors with a poor outcome. Molecular stratification of MIBC may identify clinically relevant tumor subgroups and help to provide effective targeted therapies. From seven series of large-scale transcriptomic data (383 tumors), we identified an MIBC subgroup accounting for 23.5% of MIBC, associated with shorter survival and displaying a basal-like phenotype, as shown by the expression of epithelial basal cell markers. Basal-like tumors presented an activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway linked to frequent EGFR gains and activation of an EGFR autocrine loop. We used a 40-gene expression classifier derived from human tumors to identify human bladder cancer cell lines and a chemically induced mouse model of bladder cancer corresponding to human basal-like bladder cancer. We showed, in both models, that tumor cells were sensitive to anti-EGFR therapy. Our findings provide preclinical proof of concept that anti-EGFR therapy can be used to target a subset of particularly aggressive MIBC tumors expressing basal cell markers and provide diagnostic tools for identifying these tumors.
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Landmarks in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
Nat Rev Urol
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Bladder cancer is divided into two entities: non-muscle-invasive (NMIBC) and muscle invasive bladder cancer. NMIBC represents 75% of primary diagnoses and is characterized by frequent recurrence but a low risk of mortality. Throughout urological history, significant progress in detection, diagnosis, and treatment of NMIBC has been made. However, bladder cancer remains a heterogeneous disease with varying pathology, molecular background, diagnostic options, and subsequent therapies for the individual patient. Although significant progress has been made over the years, the improvement of bladder cancer outcomes remains the goal of future research.
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Long-term follow-up of TaG1 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
Urol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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To retrospectively assess the long-term outcome of patients initially diagnosed with TaG1 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) with no immediate postoperative instillation of intravesical chemotherapy and evaluate the reproducibility of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) scoring system for predicting bladder cancer outcome.
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Prostate cancer incidence on cystoprostatectomy specimens is directly linked to age: results from a multicentre study.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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To assess the incidence and age-related histopathological characteristics of incidentally diagnosed prostate cancer from specimens obtained via radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
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FGFR3 mutations, but not FGFR3 expression and FGFR3 copy-number variations, are associated with favourable non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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The fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a tyrosine kinase receptor frequently activated by point mutations in bladder cancer (BC). These mutations are associated with genetically stable, Ta and low-grade BC, representing the favourable BC pathway. Conversely, FGFR3 over-expression was recently found in 40 % of muscle invasive BC. We examined FGFR3 mutation status and protein expression in patients originally diagnosed as T1. We also investigated copy-number variations in FGFR3 as a possible alternative mechanism to activate FGFR3. We included 84 patients with T1 BC as their initial diagnosis. A uropathologist reviewed the slides for grade and (sub)stage. The FGFR3 mutation status was examined by PCR-SNaPshot and FGFR3 protein expression by standard immuno-histochemistry (FGFR3-B9). Copy-number status was determined in 69/84 cases with nine probes covering nine exons of the FGFR3 gene (MLPA). Of 27 BC with FGFR3 mutations, 26 (96 %) showed FGFR3 over-expression. Of the 57 wild-type BC, 27 (47 %) BC showed over-expression. Pathological parameters significantly differed (p < 0.01) between mutant and wild-type tumours with the FGFR3 mutation pointing to more favourable BC. However, if the BC exhibited wild-type FGFR3, FGFR3 protein status had no influence on grade and (sub)stage. We found six tumours with more than or equal to three copies of FGFR3. Only 1 of 22 wild-type tumours with over-expression of FGFR3 had more than or equal to three gene copies. In initially diagnosed T1 BC, only the FGFR3 mutation was significantly associated with favourable BC disease characteristics. In addition to almost all FGFR3 mutant BC, 47 % of wild-type BC displayed FGFR3 over-expression, suggesting an alternative mechanism to activate FGFR3. Increased FGFR3 copy number was a rare event and did not account for this mechanism. Nevertheless, FGFR3 wild-type tumours with over-expression of the protein may still represent a subset that might potentially benefit from FGFR3-targeted therapy.
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Assessment of diagnostic gain with hexaminolevulinate (HAL) in the setting of newly diagnosed non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer with positive results on urine cytology.
Urol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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In accordance with the European Association of Urology guidelines, a second transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) is recommended for high-grade or T1-category tumors. This practice brings into question the benefit of photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) in reducing the residual disease after TURB in patients with positive results on urine cytology showing high-grade cancer cells.
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Long-term women-reported quality of life after radical cystectomy and orthotopic ileal neobladder reconstruction.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The purpose of this study was to determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among long-term disease-free survivors in women who underwent radical cystectomy (RC) for urothelial carcinoma and orthotopic ileal neobladder (ONB) reconstruction, using validated patient-reported outcome instruments.
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Biomarkers for assessing therapeutic response in bladder cancer.
Arch. Esp. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Reliable markers for assessing therapeutic response are needed to select the most effective treatment strategy for bladder cancer patients. We analyzed the role of biomarkers predicting response of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) on BCG induction, and of non-organ confined muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) on neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A critical, non-structured review of the literature was conducted. For assessing BCG therapy outcome, measurement of urinary IL-2 levels seems to be the most potent marker of all the clinical parameters reviewed. Measurements of urinary interleukins IL-8, IL-18, and tumour necrosis factor apoptosis-inducing ligand levels seem promising as well. Immunohistochemical markers (ie, TP53, Ki-67, and Rb)display contradictory results and seem unsuitable. Gene polymorphisms need to be studied more thoroughly before their clinical relevance can be determined. Regarding assessing and predicting response of MIBC to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, a set of potent markers has been studied. However, no conclusive evidence is yet available on their additional value over the established clinicopathological variables. Prospective trials are needed to validate the clinical benefit of molecular markers to predict response to BCG (NMIBC) and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (MIBC) before predictive biomarkers can become part of clinical practice.
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[Diagnosis and management of severe adverse events occurring during BCG therapy for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC)].
Presse Med
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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BCG therapy, which is the standard treatment for non-muscle invasive bladder tumours with high risk of recurrence and progression, has potential life-threatening adverse effects (AEs). Rapid deterioration of general condition in a patient with history of bladder tumour should question about an ongoing treatment with BCG and specify the date of the last instillation. Trauma during catheterization and untreated concomitant urinary infection upon instillations are risk factors of severe AEs. In emergency, the diagnosis of severe AEs of BCG therapy is only based on the medical questioning with the notion of current BCG treatment and risk-bearing event upon instillation. Management of AEs is related to their pathophysiological mechanisms and relies on a combination of antibiotics against BCG, the symptomatic treatment, and corticosteroid therapy which has shown to improve patient outcomes.
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High incidence of predominant Gleason pattern 4 localized prostate cancer is associated with low serum testosterone.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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We characterized the aggressiveness of prostate cancer by Gleason score and predominant Gleason pattern in relation to preoperative serum testosterone.
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Effectiveness of a cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) preparation in reducing asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients with an ileal enterocystoplasty.
Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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Bacteriuria is a usual complication of enterocystoplasty following cystectomy. Cranberry products may decrease the number of urinary tract infections because of a non-dialysable compound, a condensed tannin, the proanthocyanidin (PAC) type A. This study determined the effectiveness of treatment with a cranberry preparation highly dosed in proanthocyanidin A in prevention of repeated bacteriuria in patients with an ileal enterocystoplasty.
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Prognostic factors for cases with metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the era of targeted medicine.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2009
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Prognostic factors in the setting of treated metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) can theoretically predict drug response, progression-free survival or overall survival. These factors are potentially useful for informing patients and for tailoring medical treatment according to risk assessment. Prognostic factors were well defined in the era of immunotherapy. Since 2006, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and anti-angiogenic drugs have revolutionized the treatment of mRCC by improving progression-free survival and overall survival. Physicians now need new predictive tools adapted to targeted therapies. The aim of our study was to review the current knowledge about prognostic factors in mRCC by focusing on anatomical, clinical, biological, histological, radiological and molecular parameters. The most recent integrated prognostic models will be reviewed as well.
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A meta-analysis of the relationship between FGFR3 and TP53 mutations in bladder cancer.
PLoS ONE
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TP53 and FGFR3 mutations are the most common mutations in bladder cancers. FGFR3 mutations are most frequent in low-grade low-stage tumours, whereas TP53 mutations are most frequent in high-grade high-stage tumours. Several studies have reported FGFR3 and TP53 mutations to be mutually exclusive events, whereas others have reported them to be independent. We carried out a meta-analysis of published findings for FGFR3 and TP53 mutations in bladder cancer (535 tumours, 6 publications) and additional unpublished data for 382 tumours. TP53 and FGFR3 mutations were not independent events for all tumours considered together (OR?=?0.25 [0.18-0.37], p?=?0.0001) or for pT1 tumours alone (OR?=?0.47 [0.28-0.79], p?=?0.0009). However, if the analysis was restricted to pTa tumours or to muscle-invasive tumours alone, FGFR3 and TP53 mutations were independent events (OR?=?0.56 [0.23-1.36] (p?=?0.12) and OR?=?0.99 [0.37-2.7] (p?=?0.35), respectively). After stratification of the tumours by stage and grade, no dependence was detected in the five tumour groups considered (pTaG1 and pTaG2 together, pTaG3, pT1G2, pT1G3, pT2-4). These differences in findings can be attributed to the putative existence of two different pathways of tumour progression in bladder cancer: the CIS pathway, in which FGFR3 mutations are rare, and the Ta pathway, in which FGFR3 mutations are frequent. TP53 mutations occur at the earliest stage of the CIS pathway, whereas they occur would much later in the Ta pathway, at the T1G3 or muscle-invasive stage.
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Perivesical fat invasion in bladder cancer: implications for prognosis comparing pT2b, pT3a and pT3b stages and consequences for adjuvant chemotherapy indications.
BJU Int.
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Study Type--Therapy (retrospective cohort) Level of Evidence 2b. Whats known on the subject? and What does the study add? The more that bladder cancer progresses from the urothelium to the outside of the bladder the worse the prognosis. To date, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy has not been completely defined. The present study clarifies the prognosis and benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy for different stages of bladder cancer that invade perivesical fat.
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Evaluation of sexuality, health-related quality-of-life and depression in advanced cancer patients: a prospective study in a Phase I clinical trial unit of predominantly targeted anticancer drugs.
Eur. J. Cancer
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The advent of molecular targeted agents (MTA) has opened a new era of therapy in oncology. However, some of the toxicities and side-effects of these new drugs are not explored as is the case with the potential impact of MTA on sexuality. This study aimed to prospectively evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL), depression and sexual function in advanced cancer patients treated in a Phase I drug unit evaluating MTA. PATENTS AND METHODS: In total, 63 of 74 eligible patients agreed to participate in the study. Four validated self-questionnaires were used: the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey (SF12), the short form Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Forty-seven patients (75%) responded at baseline and 31 (65%) at 1-month.
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Patterns of local recurrence after radical cystectomy in a contemporary series of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
World J Urol
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To describe the epidemiology, clinical features, and prognostic factors of local recurrence (LR) in a large case series of patients treated by radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer.
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Influence of positive surgical margin status after radical nephroureterectomy on upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma survival.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
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The influence of a positive surgical margin (PSM) on survival outcome of post radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC) is unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine the significance of PSM on cancer-specific survival (CSS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and metastasis-free survival (MFS) post RNU.
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Indication and timing of cystectomy in high-risk bladder cancer.
Curr Opin Urol
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Although the conservative approach including Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy is considered as the first-line option in high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder tumors, cystectomy is often required as an alternative treatment in the case of BCG failure. Considering all the parameters, including clinical data, endoscopic aspects and new biological markers, the question of the indication, and moreover timing, of cystectomy has become crucial.
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Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) arising in native kidneys of dialyzed and transplant patients: are they different entities?
BJU Int.
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Whats known on the subject? and What does the study add? Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have an increased risk of developing RCC in their native kidneys. The prevalence of RCC is 3-4% in cases of ESRD in dialyzed and/or transplanted patients, which corresponds to a rate 100-times higher than that in the general population. This is the first study, to our knowledge, comparing the characteristics of kidney cancer in the ESRD population according to their dialysis or transplantation status at the time of diagnosis. The differences in stage and survival we observed may be due to differences in surveillance strategies between transplanted and not transplanted patients, nevertheless, the differences in pathological subtypes suggest they could also be due to differences in the tumorigenesis process.
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The role of American Society of Anesthesiologists scores in predicting urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract outcome after radical nephroureterectomy: results from a national multi-institutional collaborative study.
BJU Int.
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Study Type--Prognosis (cohort) Level of Evidence 2b. Whats known on the subject? and What does the study add? Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC) is a rare disease, usually treated by nephroureterectomy, occurring in a population with a median age of 70 years and with frequent tobacco use and other comorbidities. We know that the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score has prognostic value in urological oncology but this has not been assessed in UUT-UC. Using a multi-institutional French database, we have shown that the 5-year cancer-specific survival differed significantly between ASA 1, ASA 2 and ASA 3 patients (83.8%, 76.9% and 70.6%, respectively; P = 0.01). ASA status had a significant impact on cancer-specific survival in univariate and multivariate analyses, with a threefold higher risk of mortality at 5 years for ASA 3 compared with ASA 1 patients (P = 0.04).
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CDKN2A homozygous deletion is associated with muscle invasion in FGFR3-mutated urothelial bladder carcinoma.
J. Pathol.
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The gene cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) is frequently inactivated by deletion in bladder carcinoma. However, its role in bladder tumourigenesis remains unclear. We investigated the role of CDKN2A deletion in urothelial carcinogenesis, as a function of FGFR3 mutation status, a marker for one of the two pathways of bladder tumour progression, the Ta pathway. We studied 288 bladder carcinomas: 177 non-muscle-invasive (123 Ta, 54 T1) and 111 muscle-invasive (T2-4) tumours. CDKN2A copy number was determined by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and FGFR3 mutations by SNaPshot analysis. FGFR3 mutation was detected in 124 tumours (43.1%) and CDKN2A homozygous deletion in 56 tumours (19.4%). CDKN2A homozygous deletion was significantly more frequent in FGFR3-mutated tumours than in wild-type FGFR3 tumours (p = 0.0015). This event was associated with muscle-invasive tumours within the FGFR3-mutated subgroup (p < 0.0001) but not in wild-type FGFR3 tumours. Similar findings were obtained for an independent series of 101 bladder carcinomas. The impact of CDKN2A deletions on recurrence-free and progression-free survival was then analysed in 89 patients with non-muscle-invasive FGFR3-mutated tumours. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that CDKN2A losses (hemizygous and homozygous) were associated with progression (p = 0.0002), but not with recurrence, in these tumours. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified CDKN2A loss as a predictor of progression independent of stage and grade. These findings highlight the crucial role of CDKN2A loss in the progression of non-muscle-invasive FGFR3-mutated bladder carcinomas and provide a potentially useful clinical marker for adapting the treatment of such tumours, which account for about 50% of cases at initial clinical presentation.
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Comparison of oncological outcomes after segmental ureterectomy or radical nephroureterectomy in urothelial carcinomas of the upper urinary tract: results from a large French multicentre study.
BJU Int.
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Whats known on the subject? and What does the study add? Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas (UUT-UCs) are rare tumours. Because of the aggressive pattern of UC, radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) with bladder cuff removal remains the gold-standard treatment. However, conservative strategies, such as segmental ureterectomy (SU) or endourological management, have also been developed in patients with imperative indications. Some teams are now advocating the use of conservative management more commonly in cases of elective indications of UUT-UCs. Due to the paucity of cases of UUT-UC, only limited data are available on the oncological outcomes afforded by conservative management. We retrospectively investigated the oncological outcomes after SU and RNU in a large multi-institutional database. Overall, 52 patients were treated with SU and 416 with RNU. There was no statistical difference between the RNU and SU groups for the 5-year probability of cancer-specific survival, recurrence-free survival and metastasis-free survival. The type of surgery was not a significant prognostic factor in univariate analysis. The results were the same in a subgroup analysis of only unifocal tumours of the distal ureter with a diameter of <2 cm and of low stage (?T2). Our results suggest that oncological outcomes after conservative treatment with SU are comparable to RNU for the management of UUT-UC in select cases.
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French results of the ARESC study: clinical aspects and epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in female patients with cystitis. Implications for empiric therapy.
Med Mal Infect
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Uncomplicated cystitis is one of the most frequent community infections. We report the French results of the international ARESC study on the clinical aspects, epidemiology, and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.