An overwhelming number of medicines on the market are oral medicine with the disadvantage of lower bioavailability universally. Newcastle disease (ND) has become a serious disease that threatens the poultry industries in many countries, and there are no treatments available for ND. The biodegradable materials could be surface modified and protect antigen or DNA from damage. Furthermore, nanoparticles are also a potential drug delivery with proper size. However, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines encapsulated in nanoparticles were widely used due to their proved a high safety and induced quicker and better mucosal and humoral immune responses. Here we review the results of mucosal immune delivery system for ND. Due to the safety, low toxicity, and better immunogenicity of the mucosal immune delivery system, our studies provide a clearly view that used the biodegradable materials to research and develop the human vaccines to save more patients' lives. These promising results provide a foundation for testing the approach in humans.
Scientific interpretation of the relationships between urban landscape patterns and water quality is important for sustainable urban planning and watershed environmental protection. This study applied the ordinary least squares regression model and the geographically weighted regression model to examine the spatially varying relationships between 12 explanatory variables (including three topographical factors, four land use parameters, and five landscape metrics) and 15 water quality indicators in watersheds of Yundang Lake, Maluan Bay, and Xinglin Bay with varying levels of urbanization in Xiamen City, China. A local and global investigation was carried out at the watershed-level, with 50 and 200 m riparian buffer scales. This study found that topographical features and landscape metrics are the dominant factors of water quality, while land uses are too weak to be considered as a strong influential factor on water quality. Such statistical results may be related with the characteristics of land use compositions in our study area. Water quality variations in the 50 m buffer were dominated by topographical variables. The impact of landscape metrics on water quality gradually strengthen with expanding buffer zones. The strongest relationships are obtained in entire watersheds, rather than in 50 and 200 m buffer zones. Spatially varying relationships and effective buffer zones were verified in this study. Spatially varying relationships between explanatory variables and water quality parameters are more diversified and complex in less urbanized areas than in highly urbanized areas. This study hypothesizes that all these varying relationships may be attributed to the heterogeneity of landscape patterns in different urban regions. Adjustment of landscape patterns in an entire watershed should be the key measure to successfully improving urban lake water quality.
Jatropha curcas is a new promising bioenergy crop due to the high oil content in its seeds that can be converted into biodiesel. Seed size, a major determinant of Jatropha oil yield, is a target trait for Jatropha breeding. Due to the vital roles of phytohormone auxin in controlling seed and fruit development, we screened key genes in auxin pathway including ARF and IAA families and downstream effectors to identify candidate genes controlling seed size in Jatropha. As a result, JcARF19 was mapped in the major quantitative trait locus (QTL) region and significantly associated with seed length. By using expression QTL (eQTL) analysis to link variants with functional candidate genes, we provided evidences that seed traits were affected by the interaction of JcARF19 and JcIAA9. ARF19 and IAA9, involved in auxin signal transduction, were conserved in higher plants. These data including the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the two genes could lead to utilization of the genes by integrating favored alleles into elite varieties through marker-assisted selection.
Jatropha curcas mosaic disease (JcMD) is a newly emerging disease that has been reported in Africa and India. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of a new Indian cassava mosaic virus isolate (ICMV-SG) from Singapore. Infection of ICMV-SG showed more severe JcMD in Jatropha curcas and Nicotiana benthamiana than the other ICMV isolates reported previously, though ICMV-SG shares high sequence identity with the other ICMV isolates. Agroinfectious DNA-A alone sufficiently induced systemic symptoms in N. benthamiana, but not in J. curcas. Results from agroinfection assays showed that systemic infection of ICMV-SG in J. curcas required both DNA-A and DNA-B components.
Although olfactory discrimination has already been studied in several mouse strains, data on protein levels linked to olfactory memory are limited. Wild mouse strains Mus musculus musculus, Mus musculus domesticus and CD1 laboratory outbred mice were tested in a conditioned odor preference task and trained to discriminate between two odors, Rose and Lemon, by pairing one odor with a sugar reward. Six hours following the final test, mice were sacrificed and olfactory bulbs (OB) were taken for gel-based proteomics analyses and immunoblotting. OB proteins were extracted, separated by 2-DE and quantified using specific software (Proteomweaver). Odor-trained mice showed a preference for the previously rewarded odor suggesting that conditioned odor preference occurred. In CD1 mice levels, one out of 482 protein spots was significantly increased in odor-trained mice as compared with the control group; it was in-gel digested by trypsin and chymotrypsin and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry (nano-ESI-LC-MS/MS). The spot was unambiguously identified as serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-? catalytic subunit (PP-1A) and differential levels observed in gel-based proteomic studies were verified by immunoblotting. PP-1A is a key signalling element in synaptic plasticity and memory processes and is herein shown to be paralleling olfactory discrimination representing olfactory memory.
A large series of protein pathway components have been shown to be dysregulated in Down syndrome (DS) brain. No information about pathomechanisms linked to the trisomic state can be obtained from adult DS brain, however, as neurodegeneration occurs from the fourth decade. The aim of the study was to search for protein dysregulation in fetal DS brain before neurodegenerative changes are observed. Proteins were extracted from fetal DS and control frontal cortex, run on 2-DE, followed by quantification of protein spots with subsequent nano-ESI-LC-MS/MS analysis using an ion trap. Aberrant expression of proteins tropomodulin-2, tubulin alpha 1A chain, and alpha-internexin may indicate disturbed synaptic plasticity; fatty acid binding protein 7 suggests impaired maintenance of neuroepithelial cells; and creatine kinase B may reflect defective energy metabolism. RNA binding protein 4B derangement may represent impaired splicing, altered retrotransposon gag domain-containing protein 1 levels may be pointing to altered retrotransposition, and level changes of the potassium-chloride transporter solute carrier family 12 member 7 may lead to impaired ion fluxes with electrophysiological consequences. Taken together, aberrant protein levels from several pathways in fetal DS are challenging as well as fertilizing the area of research and providing the basis for additional neurochemical and functional studies.
Aplysia proteins have not been studied systematically and it was therefore the aim of the study to carry out protein profiling in ganglia from Aplysia californica (AC). AC ganglia were extirpated, proteins extracted and run on 2DE with subsequent in-gel digestion, followed by identification of proteins by nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS on an ion trap. Proteins were identified based upon a public Aplysia EST database. Out of 408 picked spots, 276 spots were identified corresponding to 172 ESTs and 118 individual proteins. The range of sequence coverage was between 14 and 80% and the average amount of peptides used for the identification of proteins was 9 (from 3 to 24). Mean score for protein identification was 516. Comparison of protein levels between cerebral, pleural, pedal and abdominal ganglia revealed a series of significant differences including: signaling, metabolism, cytoskeleton and structural, redox, chaperone, replication/transcription and electron/proton transport proteins. The generation of a protein map complements transcriptional studies carried out in AC ganglia. The findings provide the basis for investigation into post-translational modifications, splice variants and assist in the generation of antibodies against AC proteins. Moreover, differences in protein expression between ganglia may be valuable for the design of future studies in neurobiology of AC.
Phylogenetic studies have revealed a profound understanding about the biodiversity of rabies viruses in China, but little is known about their evolutionary dynamics in the country. In the present study, the complete G gene sequences of 33 rabies virus isolates (RABVs) isolated from distinct Chinese provinces were determined and phylogenetic analysis was conducted using these G sequences and 93 others retrieved from GenBank representing China and Southeast Asia. Further evolutionary history of RABV was estimated using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method to understand the temporal and spatial dynamics of this virus. Results showed that rabies viruses in China and Southeast Asia share a common ancestor and form 2 clades with each being further divided into 3 lineages. The time of the most recent common ancestor of current RABV strains was estimated to be year 1654 (1514-1812) and the viruses circulating in Southeast Asia likely derived from China.
After sequencing, we amplified and cloned foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) O/QYYS/s/06 whole genome by three fragments. These three fragments were cloned into vector P43 one by one to construct recombinant plasmid P43C, which carried the full-length cDNA of FMDV O/QYYS/s/06. Then, plasmid P43C and plasmid T7 expressing T7 RNA polymerase were co-transfected into BHK-21 cells. After 48 h, we harvested the culture broth from transfected BHK-21 cells and inoculated into 2-3 day-old sucking mice. After four generation passage, the virus harvested from sucking mice was confirmed to be type O FMDV by the indirect hemagglutination test, sucking mices neutralization test and sequencing. The results showed that we have successfully constructed the full-length cDNA clone of FMDV O/QYYS/s/06 strain.
To better understand the structure and biological function of rbfCxoo, a gene with the putative function in lipopolysaccharide O-antigen synthesis in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal pathogen of bacterial blight of rice.
The liver has the ability to restore its functional capacity following injury or resection and the priming of liver regeneration is a complex process that has not been completely elucidated. In the current research, to further reveal the priming mechanism of liver regeneration, hepatocyte total protein and hepatocyte cytosol of the rats at 4 h after 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PHx) were studied, respectively, by 2-DE and 2-D blue native gel electrophoresis. Seventeen unique differential proteins were identified in hepatocyte total protein samples. Nine differential protein complexes containing 41 protein components were identified in hepatocyte cytosol samples. For the first time, at the priming stage of liver regeneration, the variations of serine protease inhibitor 2c, sulfite oxidase and valosin-containing protein (VCP) were presented and validated by Western blotting, and the VCP complex was further validated by antibody super-shift experiments. The current results suggested that at 4 h after PHx, VCP complex was down-regulated in hepatocyte cytosol, apoptosis pathways were inhibited, nuclear factor-kappaB and interleukin 6 pathways worked together and triggered the liver regeneration.
Small molecules that can specifically bind to a DNA abasic site (AP site) have received much attention due to their importance in DNA lesion identification, drug discovery, and sensor design. Herein, the AP site binding behavior of sanguinarine (SG), a natural alkaloid, was investigated. In aqueous solution, SG has a short-wavelength alkanolamine emission band and a long-wavelength iminium emission band. At pH 8.3, SG experiences a fluorescence quenching for both bands upon binding to fully matched DNAs without the AP site, while the presence of the AP site induces a strong SG binding and the observed fluorescence enhancement for the iminium band are highly dependent on the nucleobases flanking the AP site, while the alkanolamine band is always quenched. The bases opposite the AP site also exert some modifications on the SGs emission behavior. It was found that the observed quenching for DNAs with Gs and Cs flanking the AP site is most likely caused by electron transfer between the AP site-bound excited-state SG and the nearby Gs. However, the flanking As and Ts that are not easily oxidized favor the enhanced emission. This AP site-selective enhancement of SG fluorescence accompanies a band conversion in the dominate emission from the alkanolamine to iminium band thus with a large emission shift of about 170 nm. Absorption spectra, steady-state and transient-state fluorescence, DNA melting, and electrolyte experiments confirm that the AP site binding of SG occurs and the stacking interaction with the nearby base pairs is likely to prevent the converted SG iminium form from contacting with water that is thus emissive when the AP site neighbors are bases other than guanines. We expect that this fluorophore would be developed as a promising AP site binder having a large emission shift.
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