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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Deep localized distortion of alternating bonds and reduced transport of charged carriers in conjugated polymers under photoexcitation.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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In a real bulk heterojunction polymer solar cell, after exciton separation in the heterojunction, the resulting negatively-charged carrier, a polaron, moves along the polymer chain of the acceptor, which is believed to be of significance for the charged carrier transport properties in a polymer solar cell. During the negative polaron transport, due to the external light field, the polaron, which is re-excited and induces deep localization, also forms a new local distortion of the alternating bonds. It is revealed that the excited polaron moves more slowly than the ground-state polaron. Furthermore, the velocity of the polaron moving along the polymer chain is crucially dependent on the photoexcitation. With an increase in the intensity of the optical field, the localization of the excited polaron will be deepened, with a decrease of the polaron's velocity. It is discovered that, for a charged carrier, photoexcitation is a significant factor in reducing the efficiency during the charged carrier transport in polymer solar cells. Mostly, the deep trapping effect of charged carrier in composite conjugated polymer solar cell presents an opportunity for the future application in nanoscale memory and imaging devices.
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Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of Cu2O via cationic-anionic passivated codoping.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To improve the photocatalytic activity of Cu2O for hydrogen production through water splitting, the band edges of Cu2O should be modified to meet the electronic transition of angular momentum selection rules (?l = ±1) and match with the hydrogen or oxygen production levels. Upon analyzing the band structure of Cu2O and the chemical potentials of the dopants, we show that passivated codopants such as (Sn + B) can induce superior modification in the band edges of Cu2O: the conduction band edge is changed from the d band character of Cu atoms to the p band character of the Sn atom and shifted slightly downwards, while the valence band edge keeps the d band character of the Cu atoms and energy unchanged, indicating that the stringent requirements get satisfied. Moreover, the optical absorption spectrum of (Sn + B) codoped Cu2O shows a greatly improved absorption of visible light. The calculated defect formation energy shows that the codoping is energetically more favorable than mono-doping due to the Coulomb interactions and charge compensation effects.
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[Multivariate factors analysis on length of stay in Lushan earthquake victims].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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To clarify the factors associate with the length of stay (LOS) in Lushan Earthquake victims.
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[Effects of electroacupuncture on circadian rhythm of temperature and melatonin in depression rats model induced by chronic stress].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on circadian rhythm of temperature and melatonin (MT) in depression rats model induced by chronic stress, so as to explore the biological mechanism of EA for depression.
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[Study on effect of huatuo zaizao extractum on focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion neurogenesis in rats and its mechanisms].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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To observe the effect of Huatuo Zaizao extractum (HTZZ) on focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) neurogenesis in rats induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and its mechanism.
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Pathogenic analysis in different types of orthopedic implant infections.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Diversity of orthopedic infections with various local environments affects the pattern and prevalence of pathogens. It is not well-characterized whether different pathogens have different propensity to cause different types of orthopedic infections. We aimed to investigate the frequency of different pathogens derived from orthopedic infections, and determine the relationship between the prevalence of clinical isolates and the type of orthopedic implants, especially focusing on staphylococci.
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Transcriptome sequencing of a chimaera reveals coordinated expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes mediating yellow formation in herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.).
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is a traditional flower in China and a wedding attractive flower in worldwide. In its flower colour, yellow is the rarest which is ten times the price of the other colours. However, the breeding of new yellow P. lactiflora varieties using genetic engineering is severely limited due to the little-known biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying its characteristic formation.
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Bending and twisting the embryonic heart: a computational model for c-looping based on realistic geometry.
Front Physiol
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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The morphogenetic process of cardiac looping transforms the straight heart tube into a curved tube that resembles the shape of the future four-chambered heart. Although great progress has been made in identifying the molecular and genetic factors involved in looping, the physical mechanisms that drive this process have remained poorly understood. Recent work, however, has shed new light on this complicated problem. After briefly reviewing the current state of knowledge, we propose a relatively comprehensive hypothesis for the mechanics of the first phase of looping, termed c-looping, as the straight heart tube deforms into a c-shaped tube. According to this hypothesis, differential hypertrophic growth in the myocardium supplies the main forces that cause the heart tube to bend ventrally, while regional growth and cytoskeletal contraction in the omphalomesenteric veins (primitive atria) and compressive loads exerted by the splanchnopleuric membrane drive rightward torsion. A computational model based on realistic embryonic heart geometry is used to test the physical plausibility of this hypothesis. The behavior of the model is in reasonable agreement with available experimental data from control and perturbed embryos, offering support for our hypothesis. The results also suggest, however, that several other mechanisms contribute secondarily to normal looping, and we speculate that these mechanisms play backup roles when looping is perturbed. Finally, some outstanding questions are discussed for future study.
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In vitro and in vivo anti-biofilm effects of silver nanoparticles immobilized on titanium.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Prevention of periprosthetic infection (PPI) by inhibiting biofilm formation on prostheses is crucial to orthopedic surgery. In this work, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are fabricated in situ and immobilized on titanium by silver plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). The anti-biofilm activity rendered by the immobilized Ag NPs is assessed using Staphylococcus epidermidis, a biofilm producing strain, in vitro and in vivo. The immobilized Ag NPs show no apparent cytotoxicity but reduce biofilm formation in vitro by inhibiting bacteria adhesion and icaAD transcription. The immobilized Ag NPs offer a good defense against multiple cycles of bacteria attack in vitro, and the mechanism is independent of silver release. Radiographic assessment, microbiological cultures, and histopathological results demonstrate the ability of the functionalized surface against bacterial infection to reduce the risk of implant-associated PPI.
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Association between ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 S18Y variant and risk of Parkinson's disease: the impact of ethnicity and onset age.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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The Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCHL1) is a candidate risk gene for Parkinson' disease (PD), and a function SNP (rs5030732) in the coding region of this gene has been studied for the association with the disease extensively among worldwide populations, but the results were inconsistent and controversial. Here, to estimate the association between UCHL1 S18Y polymorphism and risk of PD in general population, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis by combining all available case-control subjects in Asian, European, and American populations, with a total of 7742 PD cases and 8850 healthy controls, and the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) for UCHL1 S18Y polymorphism and PD were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method with a fixed- or random-effects model. Subgroup analysis was also performed in different onset age-matched groups. Among high-quality studies, UCHL1 S18Y polymorphism was moderately associated with the risk of PD (allele contrasts, OR = 1.063, 95 % CI 1.008-1.122; p = 0.024; regressive genetic model, OR = 1.078, 95 % CI 1.005-1.157; p = 0.035). When stratifying for ethnicity, none association were observed in subgroups. Analysis of early-onset PD (EOPD) and late-onset PD (LOPD) revealed that the polymorphism was not associated with the risk of PD. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggests that UCHL1 S18Y polymorphism is moderately associated with susceptibility to PD, and more studies are needed to confirm our conclusion.
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Strongly Coupled Cyclometalated Ruthenium-Triarylamine Hybrids: Tuning Electrochemical Properties, Intervalence Charge Transfer, and Spin Distribution by Substituent Effects.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Nine cyclometalated ruthenium complexes with a redox-active diphenylamine unit in the para position to the Ru?C bond were prepared. MeO, Me, and Cl substituents on the diphenylamine unit and three types of auxiliary ligands-bis(N-methylbenzimidazolyl)pyridine (Mebip), 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine (tpy), and trimethyl-4,4',4''-tricarboxylate-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine (Me3 tctpy)-were used to vary the electronic properties of these complexes. The derivative with an MeO-substituted amine unit and Me3 tctpy ligand was studied by single-crystal X-ray analysis. All complexes display two well-separated redox waves in the potential region of +0.1 to +1.0?V versus Ag/AgCl, and the potential splitting ranges from 360 to 510?mV. Spectroelectrochemical measurements show that these complexes display electrochromism at low potentials and intense near-infrared (NIR) absorptions. In the one-electron oxidized form, the complex with the Cl-substituted amine unit and Mebip ligand shows a moderate ligand-to-metal charge transfer at 800?nm. The other eight complexes show asymmetric, narrow, and intense intervalence charge-transfer transitions in the NIR region, which are independent of the polarity of the solvent. The Mebip-containing complexes display rhombic or broad isotropic EPR signals, whereas the other seven complexes show relatively narrow isotropic EPR signals. In addition, DFT and time-dependent DFT studies were performed to gain insights into the spin distributions and NIR absorptions.
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Organic-inorganic mixed-valence systems with strongly-coupled triarylamine and cyclometalated osmium.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Organic-inorganic mixed-valence systems with strongly-coupled triarylamine and cyclometalated osmium have been developed. They display two well-separated redox couples at low potentials. Each of the three readily accessible oxidation states can be distinguished by the absorbance at three different wavelengths.
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Novel sensing concept based on optical Tamm plasmon.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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This paper proposes a novel concept of refractive index sensing taking advantage of a high-refractive-index-contrast optical Tamm plasmon (OTP) structure, i.e., an air/dielectric alternate-layered distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) coated with metal. In the reflection spectrum of the structure, a dip related to the formation of OTP appears. The wavelength and reflectivity of this dip are sensitive to variation of ambient refractive index, which provides a potential way to realize refractive index sensing with a large measuring range and high sensitivity.
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[Effect of formula of removing both phlegm and blood stasis in improving cardiac function of Chinese mini-swine with coronary heart disease of phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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To evaluate that the effect of formula of removing both phlegm and blood stasis in improving cardiac function of Chinese mini-swine with coronary heart disease of phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome.
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Oligotriarylamines with a Pyrene Core: A Multicenter Strategy for Enhancing Radical Cation and Dication Stability and Tuning Spin Distribution.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Monoamine 1, diamines 2-4, triamine 5, and tetraamine 6 have been synthesized by substituting dianisylamino groups at the 1-, 3-, 6-, and/or 8-positions of pyrene. Diamines 2-4 differ in the positions of the amine substituents. No pyrene-pyrene interactions are evident in the single-crystal packing of 3, 4, and 6. With increasing numbers of amine substituents, the first oxidation potential decreases progressively from the mono- to the tetraamine. These compounds show intense charge-transfer (CT) emission in CH2 Cl2 at around 530?nm with quantum yields of 48-68?%. Upon stepwise oxidation by electrolysis or chemical oxidation, these compounds were transformed into radical cations 1(?+) -6(?+) and dications 2(2+) -6(2+) , which feature strong visible and near-infrared absorptions. Time-dependent density functional theory studies suggested the presence of localized transitions from the pyrene radical cation and aminium radical cation, intervalence CT, and CT between the pyrene and amine moieties. Spectroscopic studies indicated that these radical cations and dications have good stability. Triamine 5 and tetraamine 6 formed efficient CT complexes with tetracyanoquinodimethane in solution. The results of EPR spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations suggested that the dications 2(2+) -4(2+) have a triplet ground state, whereas 5(2+) and 6(2+) have a singlet ground state. The dication of 1,3-disubstituted diamine 4 exhibits a strong EPR signal.
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MMP-9 inhibitor SB-3CT attenuates behavioral impairments and hippocampal loss after traumatic brain injury in rat.
J. Neurotrauma
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of SB-3CT, a matrix metallopeptidase 9 inhibitor, on behavioral and histological outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=15/group): TBI with SB-3CT treatment, TBI with saline, and sham injury. The TBI model was induced by a fluid percussion TBI device. SB-3CT (50?mg/kg in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide) was administered intraperitoneally at 30?min, 6?h, and 12?h after the TBI. Motor function (beam-balance/beam-walk tests) and spatial learning/memory (Morris water maze) were assessed on post-operative Days 1-5 and 11-15, respectively. Fluoro-Jade staining, immunofluorescence, and cresyl violet-staining were carried out for histopathological evaluation at 24?h, 72?h, and 15 days after TBI, respectively. It was shown that TBI can result in significant behavioral deficit induced by acute neurodegeneration, increased expression of cleaved caspase-3, and long-term neuronal loss. SB-3CT intervention via the current regime provides robust behavioral protection and hippocampal neurons preservation from the deleterious effects of TBI. Hence, the efficacy of SB-3CT on TBI prognosis could be ascertained. It is believed that the current study adds to the growing literature in identifying SB-3CT as a potential therapy for human brain injury.
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Synergetic effects of hBMSCs and hPCs in osteogenic differentiation and their capacity in the repair of critical-sized femoral condyle defects.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Tissue-engineered bone grafts require an osteoblastic cellular source to be utilized in bone transplantation therapy. Human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs) and periosteal-derived stem cells (hPCs) are the commonly used cellular sources for bone tissue engineering and are essential in fracture healing. In the present study, hBMSCs and hPCs were co-cultured from the same donors, as the cellular source. In monolayer cultivation, co-culturing hBMSCs and hPCs demonstrated more robust mineralized nodule formation and stronger alkaline phosphatase (ALP) positive staining than hBMSCs or hPCs. Three-dimensional (3-D) culturing on porous ?-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds and co-culturing of hBMSCs and hPCs significantly promoted the osteogenic specific mRNA expression of COL1?1, BMP-2, osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OC). For in vivo bone formation and neovascularization assessment, the cellular-?-TCP scaffolds were transplanted into critical-sized femoral condyle defects in rabbits. The results confirmed that co-culturing hBMSCs and hPCs accelerated bone regeneration and enhanced mature bone formation, but also facilitated central vascularization in scaffold pores. Based on these data, we recommend co-culturing hBMSCs and hPCs as a promising cellular source for bone tissue engineering applications.
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[Effect of formula of removing both phlegm and blood stasis in improving hemorheology and blood fat of mini-swine with coronary heart disease of phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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To observe effect of formula of removing both phlegm and blood stasis (TYTZ) in improving hemorheology and blood fat of mini-swine with coronary heart disease of phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome.
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P130cas is required for TGF-?1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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In lung cancer A549 cells, the present study evaluated the associations between p130cas expression and the activation of p38 or Smad2, which are components of two of the main signaling pathways of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), i.e., epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and apoptosis, respectively. TGF-?1-induced EMT was investigated by inspecting cell shape and cell migration, and by testing E-Cadherin, N-Cadherin and Vimentin biomarkers in p130cas-RNA interference (RNAi)-A549 cells. The changes in TGF-?1-induced apoptosis, i.e., cleaved Caspase-3 levels, were additionally analyzed following p130cas-RNAi. p130cas-knockdown decreased the phosphorylated (p)-p38 expression level, and blockaded the TGF-?1-induced activation of p-p38 in the A549 cells. p130cas-knockdown arrested cell migration and impaired TGF-?1-induced EMT in the A549 cells, characterized by changes in cell morphology and biomarker levels. However, p130cas-knockdown had no impact on the activation of Smad2 and the cleavage of Caspase-3. These results indicate that p130cas is a novel molecular 'rheostat' that alters the function of the TGF-?1 signaling pathway from tumor suppression to tumor promotion in lung cancer cells. The underlying mechanism warrants further study.
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Progress of animal research on electro-acupuncture treatment for depression(?).
Chin. Med. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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This paper summarized the Chinese literatures in the previous 5 years about the pre-clinical animal researches on the application of electro-acupuncture (EA) treatment for depression, searched in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The efficiency of EA treatment for depression and the mechanism of it were discussed, to shed light on new ideas and new fronts for the further research on depression in clinical or pre-clinical fields.
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Evaluation of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung carcinoma by CD34 immunohistochemistry.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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The objective of the study was to investigate angiogenesis in non-small lung cancer by measuring the expression of CD34. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect CD34 at the endothelial cell surface in 81 surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer specimens. CD34 immunohistochemistry had high specificity and sensitivity with minimal background, which enabled efficient identification of CD34-positive staining. Statistical analysis showed that increased microvessel density (MVD) was closely correlated to tumor progression as reflected by the clinical stage (P < 0.05). However, MVD was not significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and other clinical and pathological features (P > 0.05). In conclusion, microvascular density may play an important role in the development and progression of lung cancer.
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Neurocognitive improvement after carotid artery stenting in patients with chronic internal carotid artery occlusion: a prospective, controlled, single-center study.
Vasc Endovascular Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Symptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion with hemodynamic impairment remains a dismal disease when untreated. In this prospective, single-center, controlled study, we investigated the feasibility, safety, and long-term outcome of stenting by endovascular recanalization for patients with chronic ICA occlusion. Forty patients with symptomatic chronically occluded ICA were assigned to receive endovascular recanalization (group A, n = 18) or conservative management (group B, n = 22). The primary end point was 100% complete recanalization of the primary occlusion at 60 minutes, and secondary end points were improvement in neurologic function and cognitive function. Patients in the 2 groups were comparable in demographic and baseline characteristics. Successful recanalization was achieved in 88.9% (16 of 18) of patients with the restoration of Thrombolysis in Myocardial Ischemia/Thrombolysis in Cerebral Ischemia 2 or 3 flow. There was no procedural or new cerebral ischemic event. Improvement in brain perfusion was observed in 12 (12 of 18, 75%) patients on single-photon emission computed tomography. Improvement in neurologic function defined as a reduction of ?4 points on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at 6 months was observed in group A (baseline, 6.83 ± 3.01 vs 6 months, 2.61 ± 1.20; P < .01) and group B (baseline, 6.05 ± 2.75 vs 6 months, 4.77 ± 1.69; P < .05). A significant difference in NIHSS scores was noted between group A and B at 1, 3, and 6 months (P < .05 or .001). Improvement in cognitive function defined as an increase of ?8 on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was observed in group A at 3 and 6 months (baseline, 14.67 ± 3.56 vs 3 months, 24.17 ± 3.55 and 6 months, 24.72 ± 2.85; P < .01). Significant improvement in MoCA was also observed in group B (P < .01). Furthermore, a significant difference in MoCA scores was noted between group A and B at 1, 3, and 6 months (P < .05 or .001). Endovascular recanalization is feasible and safe for patients with symptomatic chronic carotid artery occlusion. Successful carotid artery stenting can improve neurological function and global cognitive function than nonrevascularization.
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Should stage T2 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma be subclassified?
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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In patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), pathologic examination allows T2 tumors to be further subclassified according to whether the circular or longitudinal muscle layers are invaded. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether subclassifying the T2 stages can aid in determining the prognosis for patients with ESCC.
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A dose escalation feasibility study of lenalidomide for treatment of symptomatic, relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Adequate dosing of lenalidomide in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) remains unclear. This study determined maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in relapsed CLL patients (Cohort A) and patients achieving a partial response (PR) or better to recent therapy (Cohort B). Thirty-seven patients were enrolled. MTD was 2.5mg followed by 5.0mg continuous. In Cohort A, tumor flare grade 1-2 occurred in 15 patients (50%) and grade 3 in 1 patient (3%). Cohort A had 19 of 23 evaluable (83%) patients, 4 PR (17%) and 15 (65%) stable disease (SD), Cohort B had 6 of 7 patients (86%) with SD. Despite overall response rate not being high, many patients remained on therapy several months with SD.
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Codon usage bias of the phosphoprotein gene of spring viraemia of carp virus and high codon adaptation to the host.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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In this study, we calculated the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) value and the effective number of codons (ENC) value to carry out principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis of the codon usage pattern of the phosphoprotein gene (P gene) of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). The synonymous codon usage pattern in P genes is geography-specific, based on PCA analysis. The high correlation between (G + C)1,2 % and (G + C)3 % suggests that mutational pressure rather than natural selection is the main factor that determines the codon usage and base components in P genes. At least 40 out of 59 synonymous codons are similarly selected in all functional genes within five complete SVCV genomes, and the hosts based on the RSCU data. These results not only provide insight into variations in the codon usage pattern of SVCV but also may help in understanding the processes governing the evolution of SVCV.
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Effects of dietary polysaccharides from the submerged fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. on fat deposition in broilers.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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The present study was conducted to investigate the lipid-lowering effect of polysaccharides from the submerged fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (HFCP) in broilers. A total of 480 female Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into four dietary treatments, each consisting of six pens as replicates, and fed diets containing 0 (control), 1, 3 or 5 g kg(-1) HFCP.
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Bending of the looping heart: differential growth revisited.
J Biomech Eng
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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In the early embryo, the primitive heart tube (HT) undergoes the morphogenetic process of c-looping as it bends and twists into a c-shaped tube. Despite intensive study for nearly a century, the physical forces that drive looping remain poorly understood. This is especially true for the bending component, which is the focus of this paper. For decades, experimental measurements of mitotic rates had seemingly eliminated differential growth as the cause of HT bending, as it has commonly been thought that the heart grows almost exclusively via hyperplasia before birth and hypertrophy after birth. Recently published data, however, suggests that hypertrophic growth may play a role in looping. To test this idea, we developed finite-element models that include regionally measured changes in myocardial volume over the HT. First, models based on idealized cylindrical geometry were used to simulate the bending process in isolated hearts, which bend without the complicating effects of external loads. With the number of free parameters in the model reduced to the extent possible, stress and strain distributions were compared to those measured in embryonic chick hearts that were isolated and cultured for 24 h. The results show that differential growth alone yields results that agree reasonably well with the trends in our data, but adding active changes in myocardial cell shape provides closer quantitative agreement with stress measurements. Next, the estimated parameters were extrapolated to a model based on realistic 3D geometry reconstructed from images of an actual chick heart. This model yields similar results and captures quite well the basic morphology of the looped heart. Overall, our study suggests that differential hypertrophic growth in the myocardium (MY) is the primary cause of the bending component of c-looping, with other mechanisms possibly playing lesser roles.
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Endovascular treatment of the extracranial carotid pseudoaneurysms resulting from stab penetrating injury using overlapping bare stents.
Vasc Endovascular Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Injury pertaining to the common carotid artery may result in complete or partial arterial transection, pseudoaneurysms, or arteriovenous connections. Endovascular treatment option of the pseudoaneurysm has already been established with favorable success rate and minimal morbidity. Our purpose is to report one 18-year-old male patient having 2 traumatic pseudoaneurysms as a result of penetrating stab injury in the extracranial common carotid. The patient was successfully treated using 2 overlapping bare-metal stents. The 2 common carotid pseudoaneurysms had different degree inflow angles defined as the space between the lines indicating the direction of blood flow from the parent artery and through the aneurysmal neck to the dome. Computed tomography angiography was utilized to follow the evolution of the pseudoaneurysms until total occlusion was demonstrated. The treatment modality used in this report represents an alternative approach of the endovascular treatment for the extracranial carotid pseudoaneurysm.
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Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome risk: a meta analysis.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Several studies have reported that excessive amounts of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1) might increase the incidence of polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS), but so far the published results were inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the association between PAI-1 gene polymorphism and the susceptibility to PCOS by performing a meta-analysis.
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Upregulated SLC1A5 promotes cell growth and survival in colorectal cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Glutamine metabolism is essential for tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer, cancer cells remodel their glutamine metabolic pathways to fuel rapid proliferation. SLC1A5 is an important transporter of glutamine various cancer cells. In this study, we investigated SLC1A5 protein expression in colorectal cancer and evaluated its clinical significance and functional importance. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissue microarrays containing 90 pairs of cancer and adjacent normal tissues from colorectal cancer patients, we found that SLC1A5 expression increased significantly in colorectal cancer compared with normal mucosa tissues (P < 0.001). We further validated SLC1A5 overexpression in 12 pairs of fresh cancer and adjacent normal mucosa tissues from colorectal cancer patients by Western blot (P < 0.05). SLC1A5 expression levels were strongly associated with T stage of tumor (P < 0.05), and the tubular adenocarcinoma subtype (P < 0.001). Moreover, downregulation of SLC1A5 by synthetic siRNA could suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines HT29 and HCT116. In conclusion, our results provide for the first time the differential expression in human colorectal cancer and normal tissues, and a functional link between SLC1A5 expression and growth and survival of colorectal cancer, making it an attractive target in colorectal cancer treatment.
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Nesfatin-1 influences the excitability of glucosensing neurons in the dorsal vagal complex and inhibits food intake.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nesfatin-1 is a recently discovered metabolic peptide hormone that decreases food intake after lateral, third, or fourth brain ventricle; cisterna magna; or paraventricular nucleus (PVN) injection in ad libitum fed rats. Additional micro-injection studies will improve the understanding of how nesfatin-1 acts on the brain and define specific nuclei responsive to nesfatin-1, which will provide insight on its effects on food intake. We evaluated how nesfatin-1 injection into the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) modulates food intake response in rats during the dark phase. Consistent with previous observations, nesfatin-1-injected rats significantly reduced cumulative food intake over a 5-h period in rats. Chronic administration of nesfatin-1 into the DVC reduced body weight gain over a 10-day period. Because glucosensing neurons in the DVC are involved in glucoprivic feeding and homeostatic control of blood glucose, we examined the effect of nesfatin-1 on the excitability of DVC glucosensing neurons. Nesfatin-1 inhibited most of the glucose-inhibitory (GI) neurons and excited most of the glucose-excitatory (GE) neurons in the DVC. Current-clamp electrophysiology recordings from DVC glucosensing neurons in slice preparation showed that bath applied nesfatin-1(10 nM) increased the firing frequency of GE neurons and inhibited the firing rate of GI-neurons. Nesfatin-1 inhibited 88.9% (16/18) of gastric distension inhibitory (GD-INH) neurons and excited 76.2% (32/42) of gastric distension excitatory (GD-EXC) neurons. Thus, nesfatin-1 may control food intake by modulating the excitability of glucosensing neurons in the DVC.
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Silver nanoparticles promote osteogenic differentiation of human urine-derived stem cells at noncytotoxic concentrations.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In tissue engineering, urine-derived stem cells are ideal seed cells and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are perfect antimicrobial agents. Due to a distinct lack of information on the effects of AgNPs on urine-derived stem cells, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of silver ions and AgNPs upon the cytotoxicity and osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells. Initially, AgNPs or AgNO3 were exposed to urine-derived stem cells for 24 hours. Cytotoxicity was measured using the Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) test. The effects of AgNPs or AgNO3 at the maximum safety concentration determined by the CCK-8 test on osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells were assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity, Alizarin Red S staining, and the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Lastly, the effects of AgNPs or AgNO3 on "urine-derived stem cell actin cytoskeleton organization" and RhoA activity were assessed by rhodamine-phalloidin staining and Western blotting. Concentration-dependent toxicity was observed starting at an AgNO3 concentration of 2 ?g/mL and at an AgNP concentration of 4 ?g/mL. At these concentrations, AgNPs were observed to promote osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells, induce actin polymerization and increase cytoskeletal tension, and activate RhoA; AgNO3 had no such effects. In conclusion, AgNPs can promote osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells at a suitable concentration, independently of silver ions, and are suitable for incorporation into tissue-engineered scaffolds that utilize urine-derived stem cells as seed cells.
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[Circulating microRNA expression in children with idiopathic short stature].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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To study the role of circulating microRNAs (miRNA) in the pathogenesis of idiopathic short stature (ISS) through detecting miRNA expression profile in plasma of children with ISS.
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Effects of topical administration of nimodipine on cerebral blood flow following subarachnoid hemorrhage in pigs.
J. Neurotrauma
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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We sought to explore whether topical administration of nimodipine improves the abnormal cerebral perfusion following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in pigs. Fourteen pigs were randomly divided into three groups: sham (n=4), SAH (n=5), or SAH + nimodipine (n=5). The SAH model was established by injecting fresh autologous nonheparinized arterial blood into the suprasellae cistern. Nimodipine or saline placebo (0.04?g/mL) were administered to the operative area on the fourth day after the SAH model was established. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured 60?min after topical administration of nimodipine by cranial SPECT/CT scans with 5?mCi 99mTc-ECD injected intravenously. The CCR (corticocebellar ratio) was calculated by dividing the counts/voxel of the whole cerebral hemisphere by the average count/voxel in the cerebellar region of reference and RD (relative dispersion). A predictor for impaired autoregulation of CBF was calculated by dividing standard deviation (SD) of regional perfusion by mean perfusion (RD=SD/Mean). CCR and RD were applied to describe hemisphere CBF and perfusion heterogeneity. Cerebral perfusion significantly decreased in the SAH group (CCR: 1.382±0.192, RD: 0.417±0.015) compared to sham (CCR: 1.988±0.346, RD 0.389±0.015) (p<0.05). Abnormal cerebral perfusion status, however, was not significantly improved in the nimodipine + SAH group (CCR: 1.503±0.107, RD: 0.425±0.018) compared to the SAH group (p>0.05). Topical administration of nimodipine did not significantly improve CBF following SAH. These findings were not consistent with our previous data demonstrating that the topical administration of nimodipine significantly alleviates cerebral vasospasm following SAH detected by TCD. Potential mechanisms governing these disparate outcomes require further investigation.
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All-optical bistable logic control based on coupled Tamm plasmons.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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A method for realizing low-threshold all-optical bistable logic control is proposed based on Tamm plasmons (TPs), which are formed in an asymmetric dielectric Bragg reflector (DBR)-metal-DBR (ADMD) structure with a layer of Kerr medium embedded. The ADMD structure supports two TPs due to coupling of trapped modes at each metal-DBR interface, generating two dips in the structures reflection spectrum. Thus, control (i.e., pump) and controlled (i.e., probe) light with wavelengths close to the two dips, respectively, can be imported. It is verified theoretically that, thanks to the enhanced Kerr nonlinearity related to excitation of high-quality TP, bistable switching at very low injection intensity can be initiated by strength or direction variation of the pump. Meanwhile, the probe changes correspondingly with the pump. Thus, all-optical bistable logic operation of the probe can be controlled by the pump.
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Blockage of the Upregulation of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Nav1.3 Improves Outcomes after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.
J. Neurotrauma
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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Abstract Excessive active voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for the cellular abnormalities associated with secondary brain injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI). We previously presented evidence that significant upregulation of Nav1.3 expression occurs in the rat cortex at 2?h and 12?h post-TBI and is correlated with TBI severity. In our current study, we tested the hypothesis that blocking upregulation of Nav1.3 expression in vivo in the acute stage post-TBI attenuates the secondary brain injury associated with TBI. We administered either antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) targeting Nav1.3 or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) at 2?h, 4?h, 6?h, and 8?h following TBI. Control sham animals received aCSF administration at the same time points. At 12?h post-TBI, Nav1.3 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels in bilateral hippocampi of the aCSF group were significantly elevated, compared with the sham and ODN groups (p<0.01). However, the Nav1.3 mRNA levels in the uninjured contralateral hippocampus of the ODN group were significantly lowered, compared with the sham group (p<0.01). Treatment with antisense ODN significantly decreased the number of degenerating neurons in the ipsilateral hippocampal CA3 and hilar region (p<0.01). A set of left-to-right ratio value analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging T2 image on one day, three days, and seven days post-TBI showed marked edema in the ipsilateral hemisphere of the aCSF group, compared with that of the ODN group (p<0.05). The Morris water maze memory retention test showed that both the aCSF and ODN groups took longer to find a hidden platform, compared with the sham group (p<0.01). However, latency in the aCSF group was significantly higher than in the ODN group (p<0.05). Our in vivo Nav1.3 inhibition studies suggest that therapeutic strategies to block upregulation of Nav1.3 expression in the brain may improve outcomes following TBI.
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Sol-hydrothermal synthesis and optical properties of Eu(3+), Tb(3+)-codoped one-dimensional strontium germanate full color nano-phosphors.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Novel near-UV and blue excited Eu(3+), Tb(3+)-codoped one dimensional strontium germanate full-color nano-phosphors have been successfully synthesized by a simple sol-hydrothermal method. The morphologies, internal structures, chemical constitution and optical properties of the resulting samples were characterized using FE-SEM, TEM, HRTEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR, XPS, PL and PLE spectroscopy and luminescence decay curves. The results suggested that the obtained Eu(3+), Tb(3+)-codoped strontium germanate nanowires are single crystal nanowires with a diameter ranging from 10 to 80 nm, average diameter of around 30 nm and the length ranging from tens to hundreds micrometers. The results of PL and PLE spectra indicated that the Eu(3+), Tb(3+)-codoped single crystal strontium germanate nanowires showed an intensive blue, blue-green, green, orange and red or green, orange and red light emission under excitation at 350-380 nm and 485 nm, respectively, which may attributed to the coexistent Eu(3+), Eu(2+) and Tb(3+) ions, and the defects located in the strontium germanate nanowires. A possible mechanism of energy transfer among the host, Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions was proposed. White-emission can be realized in a single-phase strontium germanate nanowire host by codoping with Tb(3+) and Eu(3+) ions. The Eu(3+), Tb(3+)-codoped one-dimensional strontium germanate full-color nano-phosphors have superior stability under electron bombardment. Because of their strong PL intensity, good CIE chromaticity and stability, the novel 1D strontium germanate full-color nano-phosphors have potential applications in W-LEDs.
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Anatomical references for tibial sagittal alignment in total knee arthroplasty: a comparison of three anatomical axes based on 3D reconstructed CT images.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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This study was designed to analyze three tibial axis reference lines including the anterior tibial cortex (ATC) line, the fibular line (FL), and the anatomical axis of tibia (AAT) line, to determine which line most closely parallels the mechanical axis (MA) of the tibia in the sagittal plane. The clinical relevance of the study is that through finding a reliable landmark on the leg, a surgeon may minimize posterior tibial slope measurement errors thereby and improving the technique for assuring proper alignment of total knee arthroplasty.
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[Study on effect of weinaokang and bilobalide on autophagy and neurogenesis induced by focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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To observe the protective effect of the Weinaokang (WNK) and its active compound bilobalide on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion, and their mechanisms.
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[Effect of electroacupuncture intervention on behavioral changes and hippocampal excitatory amino acid transporter mRNA expression in depression rats].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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To observe the influence of music-electroacupuncture (EA) and pulse EA on locomotor activity and hippocampal neuron numbers and excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) mRNA expression in depression rats, so as to explore their mechanisms underlying improvement of depression in acupuncture clinic.
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Substance P enhanced titanium particles-induced RANKL expression in fibroblasts from periprosthetic membrane.
Connect. Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Aseptic loosening remains the primary cause of failure in total joint arthroplasty. Implant-derived particles are thought to be a main cause of osteolysis that leads to the failure. Substance P (SP) immunoreactive nerve fibers have been detected in the periprosthetic membrane of aseptic loose hip prostheses. We isolated fibroblasts from periprosthetic membrane. Fibroblasts were examined by real-time RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, and COX-2. Experiments were performed in the presence and absence of titanium particles, SP and NS-398 (a selective COX-2 inhibitor). Titanium particles or SP stimulated RANKL and COX-2 expression in fibroblasts, whereas NS-398 inhibited RANKL production, suggesting a COX-2-mediated event. Moreover, SP enhanced COX-2 and RANKL expression by titanium particles-stimulated fibroblasts. Thus, SP and titanium particles acted synergistically to increase RANKL expression.
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CYP1A2 rs762551 polymorphism contributes to risk of lung cancer: A meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Previous studies proposed that CYP1A2 rs762551 polymorphism might be associated with risk of lung cancer by influencing the function of CYP1A2. However, previous studies on the association between CYP1A2 rs762551 polymorphism and risk of lung cancer reported inconsistent findings. We performed a meta-analysis of the published case-control studies to assess the association between CYP1A2 rs762551 polymorphism and risk of lung cancer. PubMed and Embase were searched to identify relevant studies on the association between CYP1A2 rs762551 polymorphism and risk of lung cancer, and seven studies with a total of 3,320 subjects were finally included into the meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (95%CI) was calculated to evaluate the association. Meta-analysis of total studies showed that CYP1A2 rs762551 polymorphism contributed to risk of lung cancer under all four genetic models (C versus A: OR?=?1.26, 95%CI 1.13 to 1.40, P?
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Reductive electropolymerization of bis-tridentate ruthenium complexes with 5,5-divinyl-4-tolyl-2,2:6,2-terpyridine.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Four bis-tridentate ruthenium complexes with 5,5??-divinyl-4?-tolyl-2,2?:6?,2??-terpyridine (dvtpy) have been synthesized. Among them, 3(PF6) ([(dvtpy)Ru(Mebib)](PF6)) and 4(PF6) ([(dvtpy)Ru(dpb)](PF6)) are cyclometalated, and 5(PF6)2 ([(dvtpy)Ru(Mebip)](PF6)2) and 6(PF6)2 ([(dvtpy)Ru(tpy)](PF6)2) are noncyclometalated, where Mebib is 2-deprotonated-1,3-bis(N-methylbenzimidazolyl)benzene, dpb is 2-deprotonated-1,3-di(2-pyridyl)benzene, Mebip is 2,6-bis(N-methylbenzimidazolyl)pyridine, and tpy is 2,2?:6?,2??-terpyridine, respectively. Reductive electropolymerization of these complexes and copolymerization of 4(PF6) and 5(PF6)2 proceeded smoothly, both on glassy carbon and ITO glass electrodes, to afford stable metallopolymeric films with well-defined redox processes. On the basis of the monomer structures, electrochemical properties, and polymerization mechanism, the polymer chains of these materials are supposed to be composed of organic frameworks with the metal ions laterally chelated to the main backbones. The polymeric films on ITO surfaces display promising electrochromism in the visible region with good reversibility and moderate contrast ratio. Besides, the apparent diffusion constants of films of 3(PF6)–6(PF6)2 were measured by potential step chronoamperometry and the typical surface morphology of poly-5(PF6)2/ITO film was studied using SEM.
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Five-stage near-infrared electrochromism in electropolymerized films composed of alternating cyclometalated bisruthenium and bis-triarylamine segments.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Oxidative electropolymerization of cyclometalated bisruthenium complexes [(Nptpy)2Ru2(tppyr)](PF6)2 and [(Nptpy)2Ru2(tpb)](PF6)2 produced adherent metallopolymeric films on electrode surfaces, where Nptpy is 4-(p-N,N-diphenylamino)phenyl-2,2:6,2?-terpyridine, tppyr is the 2,7-bisdeprotonated form of 1,3,6,8-tetra(pyrid-2-yl)pyrene, and tpb is the 3,6-bisdeprotonated form of 1,2,4,5-tetra(pyrid-2-yl)benzene. The resulting polymers are composed of two types of alternating constituent units: tppyr- or tpb-bridged cyclometalated bisruthenium units and biphenyl-bridged bis-triarylamine segments. These films exhibited four well-defined anodic redox couples as a result of the stepwise oxidations of these two units. By manipulating the intervalence charge-transfer transitions of mixed-valent bisruthenium and bis-triarylamine units, five-stage near-infrared electrochromism with stepwise color changes accompanied by good contrast ratio and coloration efficiency has been realized in these films. The film characterization by scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques are presented as well.
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Effectiveness of cysteine proteases on protein/pigment film removal.
Arch. Oral Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Theaflavin (TF) from the black tea can react to human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) to form stains on exposed dental surfaces. Here, we employed a model of protein/pigment film using TF and dephosphorylated bovine ?-casein (D?-CN), which has an extended conformation, similar to that of salivary PRPs, on a sensor surface to assess the efficacy of cysteine proteases (CPs) including papain, stem bromelain, and ficin, on removing TF bound to D?-CN and the control TF readsorption on the residual substrate surfaces was also measured.
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Effect of beta-tricalcium phosphate/poly-l-lactide composites on radial bone defects of rabbit.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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To explore the effect of?-TCP/PLLA scaffold in repairing rabbit radial bone defects.
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[Effect and mechanism of huatuo zaizao extractum on focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced blood-brain barrier injury in rats].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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To observe the effect and mechanism of Huatuo Zaizao extractum (HTZZ) on focal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) blood-brain barrier injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion.
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Sensitive liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methods for quantification of pomalidomide in mouse plasma and brain tissue.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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Pomalidomide was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who have received at least two prior therapies. As pomalidomide is increasingly evaluated in other diseases and animal disease models, this paper presents development and validation of a sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay for quantification of pomalidomide in mouse plasma and brain tissue to fill a gap in published preclinical pharmacokinetic and analytical data with this agent. After acetonitrile protein precipitation, pomalidomide and internal standard, hesperitin, were separated with reverse phase chromatography on a C-18 column with a gradient mobile phase of water and acetonitrile with 0.1% fomic acid. Positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry with selected reaction monitoring mode was applied to achieve 0.3-3000nM (0.082-819.73ng/mL) linear range in mouse plasma and 0.6-6000pmol/g in brain tissue. The within- and between-batch accuracy and precision were less than 15% for both plasma and brain tissue. The method was applied to measure pomalidomide concentrations in plasma and brain tissue in a pilot mouse pharmacokinetic study with an intravenous dose of 0.5mg/kg. This assay can be applied for thorough characterization of pomalidomide pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in mice.
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Migration of neural stem cells to ischemic brain regions in ischemic stroke in rats.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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An established rat model of ischemic stroke, produced by temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R), was used in the evaluation of organ migration of intra-arterial (IA) transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs). Immediately after transplantation, ischemic rats (n=8) transplanted with either NSCs (MCAO/R+NSC group) or NSC growth medium (MCAO/R+medium group) exhibited neurological dysfunction but rats in a sham+NSCs group (n=5) did not. During the post-operative period, neurological function improved to a similar extent in both MCAO/R groups. At 10 and 14 days post-transplantation, neurological function in the MCAO/R+NSC group was superior to that in the MCAO/R+medium group (p<0.001). Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed neuronal degeneration and necrosis in ischemic rats. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that NSCs had migrated to the frontal and parietal lobes, caudate, and putamen. Some cells had begun differentiating into neurons and astrocytes. Rat NSCs can migrate into the ischemic region, survive, and differentiate into astrocytes and neurons, and thereby potentially improve neurologic function after cerebral ischemia.
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Antioxidant properties and neuroprotective effects of isocampneoside II on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury in PC12 cells.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Oxidative stress has been considered as a major cause of cell damage in various neurodegenerative disorders. One of the reasonable strategies for delaying the diseases progression is to prevent reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated cellular injury by dietary or pharmaceutical augmentation of free radical scavengers. Isocampneoside II (ICD) is an active phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from the medicinal hardwood genus Paulownia. This study was designed to explore free radical scavenging potential of ICD in different in vitro systems and its protective role in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic death in cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. The results showed ICD eliminated approximately 80.75% superoxide radical at the concentration of 0.1mg/ml and inhibited metal chelating by 22.07% at 8 mg/ml. Additionally, ICD showed a strong ability on reducing power and provided protection against oxidative protein damage induced by hydroxyl radicals. Pretreatment of PC12 cells with ICD prior to H2O2 exposure elevated cell viability, enhanced activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and decreased levels of malondialdehyde and intracellular ROS. Furthermore, ICD inhibited cell apoptosis and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio induced by H2O2. These findings suggested ICD may be considered as a potential antioxidant agent and should encourage for further research in neurodegenerative diseases.
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Enhanced biocorrosion resistance and biocompatibility of degradable Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy by brushite coating.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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To further improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy (JDBM), a biodegradable calcium phosphate coating (Ca-P coating) with high bonding strength was developed using a novel chemical deposition method. The main composition of the Ca-P coating was brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O). The bonding strength between the coating and the JDBM substrate was measured to be over 10 MPa, and the thickness of the coating layer was about 10-30 ?m. The in vitro corrosion tests indicated that the Ca-P treatment improved the corrosion resistance of JDBM alloy in Hanks solution. Ca-P treatment significantly reduced the hemolysis rate of JDBM alloy from 48% to 0.68%, and induced no toxicity to MC3T3-E1 cells. The in vivo implantation experiment in New Zealands rabbit tibia showed that the degradation rate was reduced obviously by the Ca-P treatment and less gas was produced from Ca-P treated JDBM bone plates and screws in early stage of the implantation, and at least 10weeks degradation time can be prolonged by the present coating techniques. Both Ca-P treated and untreated JDBM Mg alloy induced bone growth. The primary results indicate that the present Ca-P treatment is a promising technique for the degradable Mg-based biomaterials for orthopedic applications.
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Novel articulating medullary-sparing spacer for the treatment of infectious hip arthritis.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Two-stage total hip arthroplasty (THA) is considered a safe choice for the treatment of primary infectious arthritis of the hip. In cases where the proximal portion of the femur is intact without infection, the use of a spacer with a femoral stem during the interim would disturb the normal femoral medullary cavity. The authors report the technical procedure and outcomes of cases using a novel medullary sparing, antibiotic-loaded hip spacer for the treatment of hip infections.Five consecutive patients (5 hips) with infectious arthritis of the hip were treated in a 2-stage approach using an intraoperatively made medullary-sparing hip spacer. During the first-stage THA, after thorough debridement of potentially infected and necrotic soft tissues, the spacer was inserted into the femoral neck and fixed without opening the femoral canal. Antibiotics were administered for at least 6 weeks and were continued until the infection was controlled clinically, after which the second-stage THA was completed.Infection was eradicated in all 5 hips. Average follow-up was 39.6 months (range, 30-59 months). At most recent follow-up, no recurrence of infection was observed. No specific complications were associated with the use of this novel spacer. Average Harris Hip Score improved from 35.2 (range, 28-43) before the first-stage THA to 61.6 (range, 54-71) between the 2 stages and to 93.6 (range, 89-99) at final follow-up. All patients ambulated with the aid of crutches during the interim period.
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A combined experimental and computational study of linear ruthenium(II) coordination oligomers with end-capping organic redox sites: insight into the light absorption and charge delocalization.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Two series of linear ruthenium coordination oligomers, [(Ntpy)Ru(n)(tppz)(n-1)(tpy)](2n+) (mono-Ntpy series, n = 1-3) and [(Ntpy)2Ru(n)(tppz)(n-1)](2n+) (bis-Ntpy series, n = 1-3) have been prepared, where Ntpy is the capping ligand 4-di-p-anisylamino-2,2:6,2-terpyridine, tppz is tetra-2-pyridylpyrazine, and tpy is 2,2:6,2-terpyridine. The electrochemical measurements evidence oxidation events from both the amine segments and the metal centers and reduction waves from tppz and the capping ligands. Both series complexes display much enhanced light absorption with respect to model complexes without terminal amine units. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed on both series and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations have been performed on the bis-Ntpy-series compounds (n = 1-4) to characterize their electronic structures and excited states and predict the electronic properties of long-chain polymers. Upon one-electron oxidation, the mono-Ntpy-series monoruthenium and diruthenium complexes display N(+)-localized transitions and metal-to-nitrogen charge-transfer (MNCT) transitions in the near-infrared (NIR) region. DFT and TD-DFT computations on the one-electron-oxidized forms of the mono-Ntpy-series compounds (n = 1-4) provide insight into the nature of the MNCT transitions and the degree of charge delocalization.
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Multi-center redox-active system: amine-amine electronic coupling through a cyclometalated bisruthenium segment.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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A multicenter redox-active system with a linear N-Ru-Ru-N array, where two distal triarylamine sites are bridged by a cyclometalated bisruthenium segment, has been synthesized and characterized with single-crystal X-ray analysis. This system displays four consecutive and separate anodic redox waves at low potentials, indicating the presence of amine-amine electronic coupling with a distance of 19.16 Å through the cyclometalated bisruthenium segment. In contrast, when a noncyclometalated bisruthenium bridge is used, no amine-amine coupling is present. Upon stepwise oxidation by chemical or electrochemical methods, four-step absorption spectral changes occur in the visible to near-infrared region. In addition, the EPR studies and DFT and TDDFT calculations of the singly oxidized state are presented.
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A universal and multiplex kinase assay using ?-[(18)O(4)]-ATP.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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We have synthesized ?-[(18)O4]-ATP and used it to develop a non-radioactive and multiplex method. Significantly, this novel approach can be applied to any kinases without using a purified enzyme or a fluorescent substrate. Using this approach, the effectiveness and specificity of inhibitors on several kinases could be readily determined.
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Lateral position could provide more excellent hemodynamic parameters during video-assisted thoracoscopic esophagectomy for cancer.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Thoracoscopic esophagectomy is a feasible technique that has been shown to be safe for the treatment of esophageal cancer. There continues to be controversy about the optimal position during thoracoscopic esophagectomy. In this study, we compared the intraoperative hemodynamic parameters, clinical pathological characteristics, as well as postoperative complications in patients who underwent thoracoscopic esophagectomy in the prone position (PP) or left-lateral decubitus position (LDP).
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Long-Term Stimulation with Electroacupuncture at DU20 and ST36 Rescues Hippocampal Neuron through Attenuating Cerebral Blood Flow in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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This study was designed to investigate the effect of long-term electroacupuncture at Baihui (DU20) and Zusanli (ST36) on cerebral microvessels and neurons in CA1 region of hippocampus in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A total of 45 male Wistar rats and 45 SHR were randomly grouped, with or without electroacupuncture (EA) at DU20 and ST36, once every other day for a period of 8 weeks. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured once every 2 weeks. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the number of open microvessels in hippocampal CA1 region were detected by Laser Doppler and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Nissl staining and Western blotting were performed, respectively, to determine hippocampus morphology and proteins that were implicated in the concerning signaling pathways. The results showed that the MAP in SHR increased linearly over the observation period and was significantly reduced following electroacupuncture as compared with sham control SHR rats, while no difference was observed in Wistar rats between EA and sham control. The CBF, learning and memory capacity, and capillary rarefaction of SHR were improved by EA. The upregulation of angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), endothelin receptor (ETAR), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in SHR rats was attenuated by electroacupuncture, suggesting an implication of AT1R, ETAR, and ET-1 pathway in the effect of EA.
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Pharmacokinetics and dose escalation of the heat shock protein inhibitor 17-allyamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin in combination with bortezomib in relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Abstract This phase I study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose limiting toxicities (DLTs) of the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor 17-allyamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) in combination with bortezomib, and to provide pharmacokinetic data in relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Eleven patients were enrolled. The MTD was 17-AAG 150 mg/m(2) and bortezomib 0.7 mg/m(2). Hepatic toxicity and cardiac toxicity were dose limiting. Co-administration on day 4 led to a decrease in clearance (p = 0.005) and increase in AUC (p = 0.032) of 17-amino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AG), not observed when 17-AAG was administered alone. Pharmacokinetic parameters of patients who developed toxicities and those who did not were not different. The combination of 17-AAG and bortezomib led to toxicity without measurable response in patients with relapsed or refractory AML. Pharmacokinetic data provide insight for studies of related agents in AML. Next-generation HSP90 inhibitors are appealing for further development in this area.
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Near-IR electrochromism in electropolymerized films of a biscyclometalated ruthenium complex bridged by 1,2,4,5-tetra(2-pyridyl)benzene.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2011
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Reductive electropolymerization of the biscyclometalated ruthenium complex [(vtpy)Ru(tpb)Ru(vtpy)](2+) [vtpy = 4-vinyl-2,2:6,2?-terpyridine; tpb = 1,2,4,5-tetra(2-pyridyl)benzene] proceeded smoothly on electrode surfaces. Thanks to the strong electron coupling between the ruthenium centers of the individual monomeric units and strong intervalence charge-transfer absorption in the mixed valence state, the produced adherent metallopolymeric films exhibited near-IR electrochromism with tricolor switching, good contrast ratio (40% at 1165 nm), short response time, low-switching voltage, and long memory time.
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Oxidative cross-esterification of dithiolanes with alcohols through a cross-dehydrogenative coupling (CDC)/deprotection sequence.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
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An unprecedented oxidative cross-esterification in an equimolar mixture of dithiolanes, alcohols and water through a CDC/deprotection sequence has been developed. The reaction itself features simple experimental procedures under very mild conditions and offers a new strategic protocol for the direct and efficient synthesis of structurally diverse esters.
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Calibrating the end-Permian mass extinction.
Science
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2011
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The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe biodiversity crisis in Earth history. To better constrain the timing, and ultimately the causes of this event, we collected a suite of geochronologic, isotopic, and biostratigraphic data on several well-preserved sedimentary sections in South China. High-precision U-Pb dating reveals that the extinction peak occurred just before 252.28 ± 0.08 million years ago, after a decline of 2 per mil (‰) in ?(13)C over 90,000 years, and coincided with a ?(13)C excursion of -5‰ that is estimated to have lasted ?20,000 years. The extinction interval was less than 200,000 years and synchronous in marine and terrestrial realms; associated charcoal-rich and soot-bearing layers indicate widespread wildfires on land. A massive release of thermogenic carbon dioxide and/or methane may have caused the catastrophic extinction.
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A novel hydrogen migration of dialkylphosphonic acid esters using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.
Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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In this paper, attention is focused on analysis of the fragmentation of ?-hydroxy-?-amino phosphonate esters designed as inhibitors of protein kinase A. An interesting proton migration mechanism in the cleavage of the P-C bond is investigated by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. A possible rearrangement mechanism is proposed and verified by high-resolution mass spectra using isotope deuterium/hydrogen-exchange technology and additionally checked by detailed DFT calculation based on Gaussian software. The result clearly indicates that this mechanism proceeds by a five-membered ring concerted transition state with activation energy 11.3 kcal mol(-1) for the compound 3f. The overall reaction is endothermic with an energy 13.2 kcal mol(-1). The effect of different substituents and different metal ions for rearrangement of these esters is studied by experiment and theory. It is concluded that this rearrangement process is energetically unfavorable and hence only occurs in the mass spectrometer.
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[Repair of radial segmental bone defects by combined angiopoietin 1 gene transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma tissue engineered bone in rabbits].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
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To investigate the osteogenesis effects of angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1) gene transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) seeded on beta tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) scaffolds (tissue engineered bone) with platelet-rich plasma (PRP).
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Charge delocalization in a cyclometalated bisruthenium complex bridged by a noninnocent 1,2,4,5-tetra(2-pyridyl)benzene ligand.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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Two ruthenium atoms are covalently connected to the para positions of a phenyl ring in 1,2,4,5-tetra(2-pyridyl)benzene (tpb) to form a linear Ru-tpb-Ru arrangement. This unique structure leads to appealing electronic properties for the biscyclometalated complex [(tpy)Ru(tpb)Ru(tpy)](2+), where tpy is 2,2;6,2?-terpyridine. It could be stepwise oxidized at substantially low potential (+0.12 and +0.55 V vs Ag/AgCl) and with a noticeably large comproportionation constant (1.94 × 10(7)). In addition to the routinely observed metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transitions, [(tpy)Ru(tpb)Ru(tpy)](2+) displays a separate and distinct absorption band at 805 nm with appreciable absorptivity (? = 9000 M(-1) cm(-1)). This band is assigned to the charge transition from the Ru-tpb-Ru motif to the pyridine rings of tpb with the aide of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations. Complex [(tpy)Ru(tpb)Ru(tpy)](2+) was precisely titrated with 1 equiv of cerium ammonium nitrate to produce [(tpy)Ru(tpb)Ru(tpy)](3+), which shows intense multiple NIR transitions. The electronic coupling parameters H(ab) of individual NIR components are determined to be 5812, 4942, 4358, and 3560 cm(-1). DFT and TDDFT calculation were performed on [(tpy)Ru(tpb)Ru(tpy)](3+) to elucidate its electronic structure and spin density population and the nature of the observed NIR transitions. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of [(tpy)Ru(tpb)Ru(tpy)](3+) exhibit a discernible rhombic signal with the isotropic g factor of ?g? = 2.144. These results point to the strong orbital interaction of tpb with metal centers and that tpb behaves as a redox noninnocent bridging ligand in [(tpy)Ru(tpb)Ru(tpy)](2+). Complex [(tpy)Ru(tpb)Ru(tpy)](3+) is determined to be a Robin-Day class III system with full charge delocalization across the Ru-tpb-Ru motif.
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Chiral phosphoproline-catalyzed asymmetric Michael addition of ketones to nitroolefins: an experimental and theoretical study.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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A novel pyrrolidine-based chiral phosphoproline is an effective bifunctional organocatalyst for the asymmetric Michael addition of ketones to nitroolefins giving high levels of diastereo- and enantio-selectivities (up to > 99 : 1 dr and 96% ee). anti-SR Transition state has the lowest barrier which controls the stereoselectivity, in agreement with experimental results.
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In vivo degradation behavior and biocompatibility of Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy at early stage.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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The neotype magnesium alloy, Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr (NZK) alloy, was implanted into the rabbit femur to investigate its in vivo degradation behavior and biocompatibility. Seventy-two New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into the NZK alloy group, titanium alloy group and sham-operated group. Then NZK alloy rods were embedded in the rabbit femur in the NZK alloy group, titanium alloy rods were embedded in the titanium alloy group, and only bone tunnel was established in the sham-operated group. Prior to surgery and at 1, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after operation, the serum alanine transaminase, creatinine, creatine kinase and magnesium ion concentration were examined in each group. An X-ray of the implanted region was taken at 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after implantation. The pathological changes in heart, liver, kidney and bone from the implant region were examined at 28 and 56 days postoperatively. The degradation behavior of the NZK alloy was observed using scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive spectroscopy system. There were no significant differences in serum alanine transaminase, creatinine, creatine kinase and magnesium ion concentrations among each group at the same time point (P>0.05). The histology of heart, liver, kidney and bone from implant region was altered. The results demonstrate that the NZK alloy implanted into the rabbit femur could be absorbed gradually, and that the NZK alloy has excellent biocompatibility in vivo.
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Prevention of postoperative chylothorax with thoracic duct ligation during video-assisted thoracoscopic esophagectomy for cancer.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) is a feasible technique that has been shown to be safe for the treatment of esophageal cancer. Chylothorax remains a challenging and potentially life-threatening postoperative complication of MIE. In this retrospective series, we evaluated the results of preventive intraoperative thoracic duct ligation in patients who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic esophagectomy for cancer.
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[Re(CO)3Cl]-chelation-mediated electronic coupling between two amine redox sites through the 5,5-positions of 2,2-bipyridine.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2011
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The electronic coupling between two amine redox sites bridged through the 5,5-positions of the [Re(CO)(3)Cl]-chelated 2,2-bipyridine was studied by the electrochemical, spectroscopic, and EPR analysis. Interestingly, multiple near-infrared bands were observed in this new organic mixed-valent system. The results are interpreted with the aid of DFT and TDDFT calculations.
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Retrospective analysis for thirty-nine patients with solitary fibrous tumor of pleura and review of the literature.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura (SFTP) is an uncommon neoplasm arising from mesenchymal cells. The aim of this study is to summarize the experience and the outcome of the surgical treatment for 39 cases of SFTP.
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