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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Simultaneous detection and identification of bacteria and fungi in cerebrospinal fluid by TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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To develop a real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection and identification of clinically common bacteria and fungi causing meningitis from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples.
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Expression of HSPA2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma and its clinical significance.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains one of the most common cancers worldwide. HSPA2 has been highlighted as an important marker in many types of cancers. However, little is known about the role of HSPA2 in HCC. The objective of the current study was to investigate the expression pattern and clinicopathological significance of HSPA2 in patients with HCC. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase ploymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was applied to examine HSPA2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in 52 pairs of HCC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to examine HSPA2 protein expression in paraffin-embedded tissues from 119 HCC patients. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the diagnostic value and associations of HSPA2 expression with clinicopathological characteristics. We identified abnormally elevated mRNA expression of HSPA2 in HCC tissues compared to paired adjacent noncancerous tissues (P?
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Discovery and molecular modeling of novel 1-indolyl acetate--5-nitroimidazole targeting tubulin polymerization as antiproliferative agents.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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A series of 18 novel 1-indolyl acetate-5-nitroimidazole 3a-3r were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their in vitro biological activities as potential tubulin polymerization inhibitors. Among these compounds, 3p displayed strong antitumor activity with IC50 of 2.00, 1.05, 0.87 ?M against A549, Hela and U251 respectively, and also showed the most potent PLK1 inhibitory activity with IC50 of 2.4 ?M. Molecular docking studies within the colchicine binding site of tubulin were in good agreement with the tubulin polymerization inhibitory data and confirmed the importance of the configuration of the synthesized 1-indolyl acetate-5-nitroimidazolefor potential tubulin polymerization inhibitors.
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Structured functional additive regression in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces.
J R Stat Soc Series B Stat Methodol
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Functional additive models (FAMs) provide a flexible yet simple framework for regressions involving functional predictors. The utilization of data-driven basis in an additive rather than linear structure naturally extends the classical functional linear model. However, the critical issue of selecting nonlinear additive components has been less studied. In this work, we propose a new regularization framework for the structure estimation in the context of Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces. The proposed approach takes advantage of the functional principal components which greatly facilitates the implementation and the theoretical analysis. The selection and estimation are achieved by penalized least squares using a penalty which encourages the sparse structure of the additive components. Theoretical properties such as the rate of convergence are investigated. The empirical performance is demonstrated through simulation studies and a real data application.
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[Expression of CD25 in acute B cell lymphoblastic leukemia and its clinical significance].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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This study was purposed to investigate the relation of CD25 with the acute B cell lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and its clinical significance. A totol of 88 newly diagnosed B-ALL patients were enrolled in this study. The immunophenotype of leukemic myeloblasts were detected by flow cytometry, including interleukin 2 receptor ? chain (CD25), ? chain (CD122), ? chain (CD132), CD19, CD20, CD10, CD34, CDIgM, CD79a, CD22 and CDTDT. The expression of BCR/ABL fusion gene was detected by qualitative PCR. The expression of IL2RA (CD25 gene) was detected by real-time qualitative RT-PCR. The results showed that there was no significant statistical difference in WBC count, Hb level, PLT count, marrow blast rate, peripheral blast rate, hepatolienal infiltration, lymphonode infiltration, levels of CD10, CD20, CD22, CD34, CD79a, CDTDT, CDIgM expression between B-ALL patients with CD25(+) and B-ALL patients with CD25(-), while the CD19 expression level in B-ALL patients with CD25(+) was higher than that in B-ALL patients with CD25(-). Out of 88 B-ALL patients, 21 patients showed BCR/ABL(+)(21/88) and their CD25(+) expression level was 66.7% (14/21); 67 patients showed BCR/ABL(-) and their CD25(+) expression level was 4.5% (3/67), there was statistical difference between these two groups (P < 0.05), but the expression level of IL2RA mRNA was not statistical different between CD25(+) and CD25(-) groups (P > 0.05). Among 21 BCR/ABL(+) B-ALL patients the remission rate and relapsed rate were not statistical different between CD25(+) an CD25(-) groups.In BCR/ABL(+) B-ALL patients 8 patients relapsed, the relapsed rate was 38.1% (8/21). In BCR/ABL(-) B-ALL patients 9 patients relapsed, the relapse rate was 13.4% (9/67), there was statistical difference between BCR/ABL(+) and BCR/ABL(-) two groups (P < 0.05). In BCR/ABL(+) group the RFS (relapse free survival) was 21 months, in BCR/ABL(+) CD25(+) patients the RFS was 15 months, while in BCR/ABL(+) CD25(-) patients the RFS was 21 months, in BCR/ABL(-) CD25(-) patients, the RFS was 24 months. It is concluded that the CD25 expresses at high level in B-ALL patients with BCR/ABL(+), which may serve as a predictive marker for the presence of BCR/ABL fusion gene, and relates with relapse, CD25(+) may serve as a adjuvant indicator for poor prognosis.
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Expression differences of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes reveal regulation patterns for red pear coloration.
Plant Cell Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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This research reveals the different expression patterns of anthocyanin biosynthesis enzyme genes and transcription factors in six red-skinned pear cultivars with different genetic backgrounds. Skin color is an important feature of pear fruits, with red skin generally attracting consumers. However, great differences of coloration exist in different pear cultivars. To elucidate the characteristics of pigmentation in pear cultivars with different genetic backgrounds, six cultivars, belonging to P. communis, P. pyrifolia, P. ussuriensis, P. bretschneideri, and a hybrid of P. communis × P. pyrifolia, were used to detect pigment concentrations, expressions of seven anthocyanin biosynthesis enzyme genes, and three related transcription factor genes. Results showed that the occidental pears 'Starkrimson' and 'Red Bartlett' colored at the beginning of fruit setting, but color decreased with fruit maturity; the other four cultivars showed low anthocyanin accumulations and the contents increased during fruit development, but also decreased at later stages. The expression patterns of genes encoding enzymes indicated that ANS and UFGT were decisive genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis for red-skinned pear, and their different expressions led to the coloration differences between occidental and oriental pears. The expression patterns of transcription factors indicated that the different co-expression of MYB10 and bHLH33 genes and the different expressions of WD40 are involved in the differential regulation mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis and coloration pattern between occidental and oriental pears.
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[Sesquiterpenoids from Solanum lyratum].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Ten compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography over silica gel, preparative TLC, and Sephadex LH-20 from the whole plant of Solanum lyratum. The structures were elucidated on the basis of physico-chemical properties and spectral data as 1beta-hydroxy-1 ,2-dihydro-alpha-santonin (1) , boscialin (2) , blumenol C (3), 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha, 6alpha-epoxy-7-megastigmen-9-one(4), dehydrovomifoliol(5) , blumenol A(6), (1'S,2R,5S, 10R) -2-(1', 2'-dihydroxy-l1'-methylethyl) -6,10-dimethylspiro[4,5] dec-6-en-8-one(7) , (1'R,2R,5S,10R)-2-( 1',2'-dihydroxy-l '-methylethyl) -6,1 l0-dimethylspiro[4,5]dec-6-en-8-one( 8) , 2-(1',2'-dihydroxy-1 '-methylethyl) -6,1 0-dimethyl-9-hydroxyspiro [4,5] dec-6-en-8-one (9) , and grasshopper ketone (10). Compounds 1-10 were isolated from this plant for the first time.
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Enhanced asymmetric transmission due to Fabry-Perot-like cavity.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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In this paper, a three layered metamaterial composed of a ring-chain structure sandwiched between two layers of twisted sub-wavelength cut-wire arrays is proposed and investigated. The designed structure is optimized such that asymmetric transmission with an extremely broad bandwidth, sharp rejection stop-band and high transmittance is achieved. The physical mechanism is accounted for that the metallic layers form the Fabry-Perot-like resonance cavity, enhancing the polarization conversion efficiency between two orthogonal linearly polarized waves. To some extent, this approach offers a way to strengthen asymmetric transmission effect.
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Identification of aurora kinase A as an unfavorable prognostic factor and potential treatment target for metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Although imatinib mesylate (IM) has revolutionized the management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), drug resistance remains a challenge. Previous studies have shown that the expression of aurora kinase A (AURKA) predicts recurrence in patients with primary, surgically resected GISTs. The current study aimed to evaluate the significance of AURKA expression as an unfavorable prognostic marker for advanced GISTs, and provide evidence that AURKA could be a potential therapeutic target in GISTs. The prognostic significance of the expression of AURKA, along with other clinicopathological factors, was analyzed in a cohort of 99 IM-treated patients with advanced GISTs. The potential use of an inhibitor of AURKA as a therapeutic agent against GISTs was also tested in GIST cell lines. Among 99 enrolled patients, poor performance status, large tumor size, drug response, and AURKA overexpression were independent prognostic factors for poor progression-free survival (PFS). For overall survival (OS), only large tumor size and AURKA overexpression were identified as independent unfavorable factors. In an in vitro study, MLN8237, an AURKA inhibitor, inhibited growth of both IM-sensitive and IM-resistant GIST cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and exhibited synergistic cytotoxicity with IM in GIST cells. The inhibitory effect of MLN8237 in GIST cells could be attributed to the induction of G2/M arrest, apoptosis, and senescence. Our study shows that AURKA expression independently predicted poor PFS and OS in patients with advanced GISTs who were treated with IM. An AURKA inhibitor may have potential as a therapeutic agent for both IM-sensitive and IM-resistant GISTs.
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Genetic diversity and differentiation of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) population in western Sichuan, China, based on the second exon of the major histocompatibility complex class II DQB (MhcMamu-DQB1) alleles.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Rhesus macaques living in western Sichuan, China, have been separated into several isolated populations due to habitat fragmentation. Previous studies based on the neutral or nearly neutral markers (mitochondrial DNA or microsatellites) showed high levels of genetic diversity and moderate genetic differentiation in the Sichuan rhesus macaques. Variation at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci is widely accepted as being maintained by balancing selection, even with a low level of neutral variability in some species. However, in small and isolated or bottlenecked populations, balancing selection may be overwhelmed by genetic drift. To estimate microevolutionary forces acting on the isolated rhesus macaque populations, we examined genetic variation at Mhc-DQB1 loci in 119 wild rhesus macaques from five geographically isolated populations in western Sichuan, China, and compared the levels of MHC variation and differentiation among populations with that previously observed at neutral microsatellite markers.
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[Effect of quercetin on glioma cell U87 apoptosis and feedback regulation of MDM2-p53].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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To investigate the effect of quercetin on apoptosis and feedback regulation of MDM2-p53 in multiform glioblastoma U87 cells in vitro.
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[Characteristics and antioxidant activity of bovine serum albumin and quercetin interaction in different solvent systems].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Modes and influencing factors of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and quercetin (QUE) interaction will help us understand the interaction mechanisms and functional changes of bioactive small molecules and biomacromolecules. The fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays were used to investigate the characteristics and antioxidant activity of BSA and QUE interaction in three solvent systems (deionized water, dH2O; dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO and ethanol, EtOH). The results revealed that QUE had a great ability to quench BSA's fluorescence in both static and dynamic modes, and that hydrophobic interaction played a dominant role in BSA and QUE interaction in three solvent systems. The binding constant values and binding site numbers between BSA and QUE were in the order of dH2O>DMSO>EtOH. The binding distances were in the order of EtOH>DMSO>dH2O. On the basis of the binding distance, the binding forces were in the order of dH2O>DMSO>EtOH. The synchronous fluorescence spectra demonstrated that QUE interacted with both tyrosine and tryptophan residues of BSA in three solvent systems. Moreover, the DPPH radical scavenging rates of both QUE and BSA-QUE were 30%. While, the ABTS radical scavenging rate of QUE was significantly decreased from 80% to 70% when bound to BSA. No significant difference in antioxidant activity between QUE and BSA-QUE was observed in three solvent systems.
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SPX1 is an important component in the phosphorus signalling network of common bean regulating root growth and phosphorus homeostasis.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Proteins containing the SPX domain are believed to play vital roles in the phosphorus (P) signalling network in plants. However, the functions of SPX proteins in legumes remain largely unknown. In this study, three SPX members, PvSPX1-PvSPX3 were cloned from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). It was found that the transcripts of all three PvSPX members were significantly enhanced in both bean leaves and roots by phosphate (Pi) starvation. Among them, the expression of nuclear localized PvSPX1 showed more sensitive and rapid responses to Pi starvation. Consistently, only overexpression of PvSPX1 resulted in increased root P concentration and modified morphology of transgenic bean hairy roots, such as inhibited root growth and an enlarged root hair zone. It was further demonstrated that PvSPX1 transcripts were up-regulated by overexpressing PvPHR1, and overexpressing PvSPX1 led to increased transcripts of 10 Pi starvation-responsive genes in transgenic bean hairy roots. Taken together, it is suggested that PvSPX1 is a positive regulator in the P signalling network of common bean, and is downstream of PvPHR1.
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Evidence of adaptive evolution of alpine pheasants to high-altitude environment from mitogenomic perspective.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Abstract Adaptive evolutions to high-altitude adaptation have been intensively studied in mammals. However, considering the additional vertebrate groups, new perception regarding selection challenged by high-altitude stress on mitochondrial genome can be gained. To test this hypothesis, we compiled and analyzed the mitochondrial genomes of 5 alpine pheasants and 12 low-altitude species in Phasianidae. The results that evolutionary rates of ATP6 and ND6 showing significant fluctuation among branches when involved with five alpine pheasants revealed both genes might have implications with adapting to highland environment. The radical physico-chemical property changes identified by the modified MM01 model, including composition (C) and equilibrium constant (ionization of COOH) (Pk') in ATP6 and beta-structure tendencies (P?), Pk', and long-range non-bonded energy (El) in ND6, suggested that minor overall adjustments in size, protein conformation and relative orientation of reaction interfaces have been optimized to provide the ideal environments for electron transfer, proton translocation and generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Additionally, three unique substitution sites were identified under selection in ND6, which could be potentially important adaptive changes contributing to cellular energy production. Our findings suggested that adaptive evolution may occur in alpine pheasants, which are an important complement to the knowledge of genetic mechanisms against the high-altitude environment in non-mammal animals.
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New eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoid from Solanum lyratum with cytotoxic activity.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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In our continuing effort to discover more new cytotoxic sesquiterpenoids from Solanum lyratum, one new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoid (1, 3-keto-eudesm-9?,11-diol, named lyratol G), together with one known eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoid (2, 1?-hydroxy-1,2-dihydro-?-santonin), was obtained. The structure of the new sesquiterpenoid was elucidated on the basis of integrated spectroscopic techniques, mainly HR-FAB-MS, 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, HMBC and ROESY). In vitro, two sesquiterpenoids were found to exhibit significant cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines (P-388, HONE-1 and HT-29), and gave IC50 values in the range of 3.1-6.9 ?M.
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Synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular docking studies of novel 2-styryl-5-nitroimidazole derivatives containing 1,4-benzodioxan moiety as FAK inhibitors with anticancer activity.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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A series of 2-styryl-5-nitroimidazole derivatives containing 1,4-benzodioxan moiety (3a-3r) has been designed, synthesized and their biological activities were also evaluated as potential antiproliferation and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitors. Among all the compounds, 3p showed the most potent activity in vitro which inhibited the growth of A549 with IC50 value of 3.11 ?M and Hela with IC50 value of 2.54 ?M respectively. Compound 3p also exhibited significant FAK inhibitory activity (IC50=0.45 ?M). Docking simulation was performed for compound 3p into the FAK structure active site to determine the probable binding model.
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Cytotoxic effects of 15d-PGJ2 against osteosarcoma through ROS-mediated AKT and cell cycle inhibition.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), a critical cell cycle regulator, has been identified as a potential target in osteosarcoma (OS). 15-deoxy-?12, 14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), a prostaglandin derivative, has shown its anti-tumor activity by inducing apoptosis through reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated inactivation of v-akt, a murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog, (AKT) in cancer cells. In the study analyzing its effects on arthritis, 15d-PGJ2 mediated shear-induced chondrocyte apoptosis via protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent regulation of PLK1. In this study, the cytotoxic effect and mechanism underlying 15d-PGJ2 effects against OS were explored using OS cell lines. 15d-PGJ2 induced significant G2/M arrest, and exerted time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects against all OS cell lines. Western blot analysis showed that both AKT and PKA-PLK1 were down-regulated in OS cell lines after treatment with 15d-PGJ2. In addition, transfection of constitutively active AKT or PLK1 partially rescued cells from 15d-PGJ2-induced apoptosis, suggesting crucial roles for both pathways in the anti-cancer effects of 15d-PGJ2. Moreover, ROS generation was found treatment with 15d-PGJ2, and its cytotoxic effect could be reversed with N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK partially rescued 15d-PGJ2 cytotoxicity. Thus, ROS-mediated JNK activation may contribute to apoptosis through down-regulation of the p-Akt and PKA-PLK1 pathways. 15d-PGJ2 is a potential therapeutic agent for OS, exerting cytotoxicity mediated through both AKT and PKA-PLK1 inhibition, and these results form the basis for further analysis of its role in animal studies and clinical applications.
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Age-dependent association between Dickkopf-1 and calcium-containing urolithiasis.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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To evaluate the serum Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) level in patients with calcium-containing upper urinary tract stones (Ca-UUTS).
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A polypyridyl-pyrene based off-on Cd²? fluorescent sensor for aqueous phase analysis and living cell imaging.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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By retaining the quadrapyridyl receptor of polypyridylhexaazatriphenylene (a Cd(2+) sensor reported by us) and extending its chromophoric group with pyrene, a chemical sensor (1) was designed and synthesized in this work. This sensor exhibit selective off-on fluorescence response to Cd(2+) over other metal ions, and the detection limit is as low as 0.02 ?M. The Cd(2+) sensing of 1 has high water toleration and can be carried out in the media with the water content up to 70%. Additionally, 1 was successfully applied to the in vivo imaging of intracellular Cd(2+) in living HaLa cells, and showed low cytotoxicity and cell membrane permeability in these experiments. These results suggest that 1 has potential application in the Cd(2+) analysis of environmental and biological samples.
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Response to corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs in a case of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome with predominantly elevated eosinophils and multiple clinical manifestations.
Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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In the present case study, a 42-year-old Chinese woman fulfilling the WHO criteria for idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHES) who exhibited clinical manifestations of eosinophilic infiltration of multiple tissues including the lungs, heart, central and peripheral nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, spleen, liver and unexplained clinical findings is described. Laboratory investigations revealed the topmost white blood cell and eosinophil that were 150 × 10(9)/L and 136 × 10(9)/L (90.6 %), respectively. To our knowledge, such a large number of eosinophils has rarely been reported, and all reactive causes of hypereosinophilia were excluded. Treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy, prednisone and dexamethasone was not beneficial. The patient showed a remarkable hematological response when methylprednisolone pulse therapy was initiated when progression of respiratory symptoms occurred, but without clinical remission. The patient subsequently died. We consider that her critical organ damage and poor prognosis were related to the large number of eosinophils and delayed effective anti-eosinophilic therapy after severe organ damage occurred. This case highlights the clinical importance of methylprednisolone pulse therapy which should be initiated without delay once the diagnosis of IHES is made.
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Inhibition of BK virus replication in human kidney cells by BK virus large tumor antigen-specific shRNA delivered by JC virus-like particles.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) due to lytic infection by the BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) remains an important cause of allograft dysfunction and graft loss in renal transplant recipients. PVAN is commonly treated by reducing the dosage of immunosuppressive drugs and adding adjuvant antiviral agents, but the outcomes have been less than satisfactory. The BKPyV early protein large tumor antigen (LT) is indispensable for viral genome replication and viral late protein expression. Therefore, suppressing LT expression may be a way to inhibit BKPyV replication without harming the host human kidney cells. Previous studies have shown that JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) virus-like particles (VLPs), which have tropism for the human kidney, can package and transfer exogenous genes into human kidney cells for expression. In this study, we constructed an expression plasmid for a BKPyV LT-specific shRNA (shLT) and used JCPyV VLPs as a delivery vehicle to transduce the shLT plasmid into BKPyV-infected human kidney cells. The expression of BKPyV early (LT) and late (VP1) proteins was examined after transduction by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. We found that transduction with the shLT plasmid decreased the proportions of BKPyV LT- and VP1-expressing cells by 73% and 82%, respectively, relative to control. The viral genomes were also decreased by 56%. These results point to the promising possibility of developing shLT-transducing JCPyV VLPs as a specific anti-BKPyV approach for PVAN treatment.
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Diabetes mellitus and risk of age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of severe vision loss in elderly people. Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder with serious consequences, and diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the main ophthalmic complication. DR and AMD are different diseases and we seek to explore the relationship between diabetes and AMD. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for potentially eligible studies. Studies based on longitudinal cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control associations, reporting evaluation data of diabetes as an independent factor for AMD were included. Reports of relative risks (RRs), hazard ratios (HRs), odds ratio (ORs), or evaluation data of diabetes as an independent factor for AMD were included. Review Manager and STATA were used for the meta-analysis. Twenty four articles involving 27 study populations were included for meta-analysis. In 7 cohort studies, diabetes was shown to be a risk factor for AMD (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.14). Results of 9 cross-sectional studies revealed consistent association of diabetes with AMD (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.45), especially for late AMD (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.44-1.51). Similar association was also detected for AMD (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.13-1.49) and late AMD (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.11-1.21) in 11 case-control studies. The pooled ORs for risk of neovascular AMD (nAMD) were 1.10 (95% CI, 0.96-1.26), 1.48 (95% CI, 1.44-1.51), and 1.15 (95% CI, 1.11-1.21) from cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies, respectively. No obvious divergence existed among different ethnic groups. Therefore, we find diabetes a risk factor for AMD, stronger for late AMD than earlier stages. However, most of the included studies only adjusted for age and sex; we thus cannot rule out confounding as a potential explanation for the association. More well-designed prospective cohort studies are still warranted to further examine the association.
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Homeostatic regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in aging rats: long-term effects of early exercise.
Front Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Adult neurogenesis is highly responsive to environmental and physiological factors. The majority of studies to date have examined short-term consequences of enhancing or blocking neurogenesis but long-term changes remain less well understood. Current evidence for age-related declines in neurogenesis warrant further investigation into these long-term changes. In this report we address the hypothesis that early life experience, such as a period of voluntary running in juvenile rats, can alter properties of adult neurogenesis for the remainder of the animal's life. The results indicate that the number of proliferating and differentiating neuronal precursors is not altered in runners beyond the initial weeks post-running, suggesting homeostatic regulation of these processes. However, the rate of neuronal maturation and survival during a 4 week period after cell division was enhanced up to 11 months of age (the end of the study period). This study is the first to show that a transient period of physical activity at a young age promotes changes in neurogenesis that persist over the long-term, which is important for our understanding of the modulation of neurogenesis by exercise with age. Functional integration of adult-born neurons within the hippocampus that resist homeostatic regulation with aging, rather than the absolute number of adult-born neurons, may be an essential feature of adult neurogenesis that promotes the maintenance of neural plasticity in old age.
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[Investigation of risk factors for hearing impairment in premature infants].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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To investigate the risk factors for hearing impairment in premature infants.
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[Detection of intron 22 inversion of factor VIII gene in severe hemophilia A patients].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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To investigate the incidence of intron 22 inversion (INV22) of factor VIII (FVIII) gene in severe hemophilia A (HA) patients, clarify its pathological mechanism, and identify INV22 carrier in the female family members.
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Therapeutic Effects of Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling in Diabetic Nephropathy.
J. Histochem. Cytochem.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Inflammation is an important pathophysiological mechanism in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Tubular epithelial cell-myofibroblast transdifferentiation (TEMT), which can be induced by many cytokines, is an important event in DN. Oncostatin M (OSM), an inflammatory cytokine, can induce TEMT in vitro. The suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are negative-feedback regulators of cytokine signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of SOCS in DN. The results demonstrated that overexpression of SOCS ameliorated proteinuria, the expression of ?-SMA and OSM in tubular epithelial cells, and interstitial extracellular matrix accumulation in the renal tissue of CD-1 mice. In addition, our previous studies indicated that OSM induced TEMT by activating the JAK/STAT pathway, which could be inhibited by SOCS. These results indicate that overexpression of SOCS has a therapeutic effect in DN.
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New sesquiterpenoid derivatives from Solanum lyratum and their cytotoxicities.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Three new sesquiterpenoid isopropylidene derivatives, named solajiangxins H and I (1 and 2) and 7-hydroxylsolajiangxin I (3), were isolated from the whole plant of Solanum lyratum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of integrated spectroscopic techniques, mainly HR-FAB-MS, 1D NMR, and 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY). In vitro, compounds 1-3 were found to show significant cytotoxicity against three cancer cells (P-388, HONE-1, and HT-29), and gave IC50 values in the range of 3.2-7.7 ?M.
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[Quercetin regulates cell cycle-related gene expression in a model of glucose-oxygen deprivation in astrocytes].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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To study the effect of quercetin on gene expression in astrocytes after glucose-oxygen deprivation and the underlying mechanism.
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Concentrated sodium chloride catheter lock solution - a new effective alternative method for hemodialysis patients with high bleeding risk.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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Abstract Background: Locking catheter with heparin may increase bleeding risk of some hemodialysis (HD) patients. Hence, the security and effectivity of 10% concentrated sodium chloride (CSC) used as an alternative method for patients with high bleeding risk need to be investigated. Methods: Seventy-two patients inserted temporary central venous catheters were divided into two groups randomly. A total of 3125 U/mL heparin saline (HS) was used in HS group and 10% CSC in CSC group to lock catheters. Heparin-free HD was used for the first time and plasma specimens were collected to test coagulation indicators before catheter-locking (at the end of HD) and at 30?min after it. Then, blood flow velocities (BFVs), incidences of catheter thrombosis, etc. were followed up at each time of HD. Results: Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of two groups had no difference at the end of heparin-free HD (27.100 [25.675-28.950] vs. 27.250 [25.150-29.575] second, p?=?0.933), but at 30?minutes after using different catheter lock solutions, APTT of HS group was obviously longer than CSC group (50.100 [41.275-65.400] vs. 27.500 [25.525-29.875] second, p??0.05). But catheters thrombosis incidence and urokinase usage of HS group were less than CSC group (p?
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[The activation effect of nobiletin on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Aim of the present study is to investigate activation effect of nobiletin on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel activity. CFTR-mediated iodide influx assay and patch-clamp tests were done on FRT cells stably co-transfected with human CFTR and EYFP/H148Q. Nobiletin potently activated CFTR chloride channel activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The CFTR blocker CFTR(inh)-172 could completely reverse the effect. Preliminary mechanism study indicated that nobiletin activated CFTR chloride channel through a direct binding way. In addition, ex vivo tests done on mice trachea showed that nobiletin time-dependently stimulated submucosal gland fluid secretion. Nobiletin may be a therapeutic lead compound in treating CFTR-related diseases including disseminated bronchiectasis.
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Characterization of a marine-derived dextranase and its application to the prevention of dental caries.
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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The dextranase added in current commercial dextranase-containing mouthwashes is largely from fungi. However, fungal dextranase has shown much higher optimum temperature than bacterial dextranase and relatively low activity when used in human oral cavities. Bacterial dextranase has been considered to be more effective and suitable for dental caries prevention. In this study, a dextranase (Dex410) from marine Arthrobacter sp. was purified and characterized. Dex410 is a 64-kDa endoglycosidase. The specific activity of Dex410 was 11.9 U/mg at optimum pH 5.5 and 45 °C. The main end-product of Dex410 was isomaltotriose, isomaltoteraose, and isomaltopentaose by hydrolyzing dextran T2000. In vitro studies showed that Dex410 effectively inhibited the Streptococcus mutans biofilm growth in coverage, biomass, and water-soluble glucan (WSG) by more than 80, 90, and 95 %, respectively. The animal experiment revealed that for short-term use (1.5 months), both Dex410 and the commercial mouthwash Biotene (Laclede Professional Products, Gardena, CA, USA) had a significant inhibitory effect on caries (p = 0.0008 and 0.0001, respectively), while for long-term use (3 months), only Dex410 showed significant inhibitory effect on dental caries (p = 0.005). The dextranase Dex410 from a marine-derived Arthrobacter sp. strain possessed the enzyme properties suitable to human oral environment and applicable to oral hygiene products.
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Dehydrocostuslactone, a sesquiterpene lactone activates wild-type and ?F508 mutant CFTR chloride channel.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) represents the main cAMP-activated Cl? channel expressed in the apical membrane of serous epithelial cells. Both deficiency and overactivation of CFTR may cause fluid and salt secretion related diseases. The aim of this study was to identify natural compounds that are able to stimulate wild-type (wt) and ?F508 mutant CFTR channel activities in CFTR-expressing Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) cells. We found that dehydrocostuslactone [DHC, (3aS, 6aR, 9aR, 9bS)-decahydro-3,6,9-tris (methylene) azuleno [4,5-b] furan-2(3H)-one)] dose dependently potentiates both wt and ?F508 mutant CFTR-mediated iodide influx in cell-based fluorescent assays and CFTR-mediated Cl? currents in short-circuit current studies, and the activations could be reversed by the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh-172. Maximal CFTR-mediated apical Cl? current secretion in CFTR-expressing FRT cells was stimulated by 100 ?M DHC. Determination of intracellular cAMP content showed that DHC modestly but significantly increased cAMP level in FRT cells, but cAMP elevation effects contributed little to DHC-stimulated iodide influx. DHC also stimulated CFTR-mediated apical Cl? current secretion in FRT cells expressing ?F508-CFTR. Subsequent studies demonstrated that activation of CFTR by DHC is forskolin dependent. DHC represents a new class of CFTR potentiators that may have therapeutic potential in CFTR-related diseases.
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Concomitant tibial shaft and posterior malleolar fractures can be readily diagnosed from plain radiographs: A retrospective study.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Concomitant tibial shaft and posterior malleolar fractures (PMFs) are often encountered in clinical settings. Plain films were reviewed for concomitant PMF, and fracture patterns were analyzed by focusing on the integrity of the fibula and the location of the fibular fracture.
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Cytotoxicity in the age of nano: The role of fourth period transition metal oxide nanoparticle physicochemical properties.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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A clear understanding of physicochemical factors governing nanoparticle toxicity is still in its infancy. We used a systematic approach to delineate physicochemical properties of nanoparticles that govern cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity of fourth period metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs): TiO2, Cr2O3, Mn2O3, Fe2O3, NiO, CuO, and ZnO increases with the atomic number of the transition metal oxide. This trend was not cell-type specific, as observed in non-transformed human lung cells (BEAS-2B) and human bronchoalveolar carcinoma-derived cells (A549). Addition of NPs to the cell culture medium did not significantly alter pH. Physiochemical properties were assessed to discover the determinants of cytotoxicity: (1) point-of-zero charge (PZC) (i.e., isoelectric point) described the surface charge of NPs in cytosolic and lysosomal compartments; (2) relative number of available binding sites on the NP surface quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to estimate the probability of biomolecular interactions on the particle surface; (3) band-gap energy measurements to predict electron abstraction from NPs which might lead to oxidative stress and subsequent cell death; and (4) ion dissolution. Our results indicate that cytotoxicity is a function of particle surface charge, the relative number of available surface binding sites, and metal ion dissolution from NPs. These findings provide a physicochemical basis for both risk assessment and the design of safer nanomaterials.
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Substantial compositional turnover of fungal communities in an alpine ridge-to-snowbed gradient.
Mol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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The main gradient in vascular plant, bryophyte and lichen species composition in alpine areas, structured by the topographic gradient from wind-exposed ridges to snowbeds, has been extensively studied. Tolerance to environmental stress, resulting from wind abrasion and desiccation towards windswept ridges or reduced growing season due to prolonged snow cover towards snowbeds, is an important ecological mechanism in this gradient. The extent to which belowground fungal communities are structured by the same topographic gradient and the eventual mechanisms involved are less well known. In this study, we analysed variation in fungal diversity and community composition associated with roots of the ectomycorrhizal plant Bistorta vivipara along the ridge-to-snowbed gradient. We collected root samples from fifty B. vivipara plants in ten plots in an alpine area in central Norway. The fungal communities were analysed using 454 pyrosequencing analyses of tag-encoded ITS1 amplicons. A distinct gradient in the fungal community composition was found that coincided with variation from ridge to snowbeds. This gradient was paralleled by change in soil content of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. A large proportion (66%) of the detected 801 nonsingleton operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were ascomycetes, while basidiomycetes dominated quantitatively (i.e. with respect to number of reads). Numerous fungal OTUs, many with taxonomic affinity to Sebacinales, Cortinarius and Meliniomyces, showed distinct affinities either to ridge or to snowbed plots, indicating habitat specialization. The compositional turnover of fungal communities along the gradient was not paralleled by a gradient in species richness.
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The effects and outcomes of electrolyte disturbances and asphyxia on newborns hearing.
Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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To determine the effect of electrolyte disturbances (ED) and asphyxia on infant hearing and hearing outcomes.
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Obstacles delaying the prompt deployment of piston-type mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation devices during emergency department resuscitation: a video-recording and time-motion study.
Resuscitation
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is important to survival after cardiac arrest. Mechanical devices (MD) provide constant CPR, but their effectiveness may be affected by deployment timeliness.
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Noncemented total hip arthroplasty for osteonecrosis of the femoral head in elderly patients.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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The results of total hip arthroplasty (THA) for osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) in elderly patients (80 years or older) has not been well defined. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical course of and the results in noncemented THA for ONFH in elderly patients.Between 1998 and 2007, one hundred seven consecutive hips with ONFH in 103 patients were evaluated. The causes of ONFH were traumatic in 46 (43%) hips and nontraumatic in 61 (57%) hips. All hips were treated with noncemented THA. Average follow-up was 72 months (range, 60-144 months). The functional results improved to statistical significance after THA. However, no significant differences existed between 6 months, 1 year, and 5 years postoperatively. Nine (8.4%) postoperative complications occurred in these 107 hips, including 1 stem loosening, 1 liner wearing, 4 postoperative infections, 2 postoperative dislocations, and 1 pulmonary embolism. Fifteen (14.6%) deaths occurred during follow-up. The progression of ONFH in elderly patients was so rapid and the result of core decompression was so poor that a salvage procedure seemed to have no role in the treatment. Harris Hip Score, Short Form 36 physical function score, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores significantly improved after noncemented THA. Ninety-two hips had a complete follow-up, and the survivorship of prosthesis was 95% (88/92) with minimal 5-year follow-up. Noncemented THA was effective in the treatment of ONFH in this group of patients.
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The enforced expression of c-Myc in pig fibroblasts triggers mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) via F-actin reorganization and RhoA/Rock pathway inactivation.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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In previous studies from other labs it has been well demonstrated that the ectopic expression of c-Myc in mammary epithelial cells can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereas in our pilot experiment, epithelial-like morphological changes were unexpectedly observed in c-Myc-expressing pig fibroblasts [i.e., porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEFs) and porcine dermal fibroblasts (PDFs)] and pig mesenchymal stem cells, suggesting that the same c-Myc gene is entitled to trigger EMT in epithelial cells and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) in fibroblasts. This prompted us to characterize the existence of a MET in c-Myc-expressing PEFs and PDFs at the molecular level. qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and western blot analysis illustrated that epithelial-like morphological changes were accompanied by the increased expression of epithelial markers [such as cell adhesion proteins (E-cadherin, ?-catenin and Bves), tight junction protein occludin and cytokeratins (Krt8 and Krt18)], the reduced expression of mesenchymal markers [vimentin, fibronectin 1 (FN1), snail1, collagen family of proteins (COL1A1, COL5A2) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family (MMP12 and MMP14)] and the decreased cell motility and increased cell adhesion in c-Myc-expressing PEFs and PDFs. Furthermore, the ectopic expression of c-Myc in pig fibroblasts disrupted the stress fiber network, suppressed the formation of filopodia and lamellipodia, and resulted in RhoA/Rock pathway inactivation, which finally participates in epithelial-like morphological conversion. Taken together, these findings demonstrate, for the first time, that the enforced expression of c-Myc in fibroblasts can trigger MET, to which cytoskeleton depolymerization and RhoA/Rock pathway inactivation contribute.
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Solajiangxins A-C, three new cytotoxic sesquiterpenoids from Solanum lyratum.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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One new eudesmane-type (1, named solajiangxin A) and two new eudesmane-related sesquiterpenoids (2-3, named solajiangxins B-C) were isolated from the whole plant of Solanum lyratum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of integrated spectroscopic techniques. In vitro, three new sesquiterpenoids were found to show significant cytotoxicities against three human cancer lines (P-388, HONE-1 and HT-29), and gave ED50 values in the range of 1.9-3.7 ?g/ml.
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Enhanced magnifying endoscopy for differential diagnosis of superficial gastric lesions identified with white-light endoscopy.
Gastric Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Various techniques using magnifying endoscopy (ME) and chromoendoscopy are being developed to enhance images of gastrointestinal tumor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of ME enhanced by acetic acid-indigo carmine mixture (ME-AIM) and ME enhanced with narrow-band imaging (ME-NBI) for differential diagnosis of superficial gastric lesions identified with conventional white-light endoscopy (WLE).
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Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship between three serow species of the genus Capricornis based on the complete mitochondrial DNA control region sequences.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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The molecular evidence of phylogenetic status regarding the Formosan serow (Capricornis swinhoei) is not robust and little is known about the genetic diversity of the Sumatran serow (Capricornis sumatraensis), which partly is due to the hardness in sample collection. Here we determined the sequences of the complete mitochondrial DNA control region (1,014 bp) of 19 Sumatran-serow individuals. Nine new haplotypes were defined based on 78 variable sites. Combined analysis with other 32 haplotypes downloaded from the public database, including 1 Sumatran-serow, 11 Formosan-serow and 20 Japanese-serow (Capricornis crispus) haplotypes, a relatively high level of nucleotide diversity was first observed in Sumatran serow (? = 0.0249). By comparative analysis with structural consensus sequences from other mammals, we have identified central, left and right domains and depicted the putative functional structure, including extend termination associated sequences and conserve sequence blocks, in mtDNA control region. The alignment of mtDNA control region revealed that both Sumatran and Japanese serow have two tandem repeats (TRs), but three TRs in Formosan serow. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Formosan serow is distinct species with the Japanese serow, but a sister group with the Sumatran serow. The divergence time estimated among three serow species revealed that Pleistocene climate changes and the uplift of Qinghai-Tibetan plateau might play an important role in the genetic differentiation of the serows. These results mainly provide the convinced evidence on the genetic relationship between three serow species.
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Mass spectrometric study of stone matrix proteins of human bladder stones.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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To evaluate the mechanisms of bladder uric acid stone (BUAS) formation by analyzing BUAS stone matrix proteins, with mass spectrometry (MS).
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Increased ratio of serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 against TIMP-1 predicts poor wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers.
J. Diabetes Complicat.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Little is known about serum concentrations of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in diabetic patients with foot ulcers. This study demonstrates their relationship with wound healing.
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A novel support vector machine-based approach for rare variant detection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled the identification of multiple rare single nucleotide polymorphisms involved in diseases or traits. Several strategies for identifying rare variants that contribute to disease susceptibility have recently been proposed. An important feature of many of these statistical methods is the pooling or collapsing of multiple rare single nucleotide variants to achieve a reasonably high frequency and effect. However, if the pooled rare variants are associated with the trait in different directions, then the pooling may weaken the signal, thereby reducing its statistical power. In the present paper, we propose a backward support vector machine (BSVM)-based variant selection procedure to identify informative disease-associated rare variants. In the selection procedure, the rare variants are weighted and collapsed according to their positive or negative associations with the disease, which may be associated with common variants and rare variants with protective, deleterious, or neutral effects. This nonparametric variant selection procedure is able to account for confounding factors and can also be adopted in other regression frameworks. The results of a simulation study and a data example show that the proposed BSVM approach is more powerful than four other approaches under the considered scenarios, while maintaining valid type I errors.
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Chronic diarrhea as the presenting feature of primary systemic AL amyloidosis: serendipity or delayed diagnosis?
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Chronic diarrhea in adults is a common symptom with a wide range of underlying etiologies. Although various strategies have been proposed for evaluation, there are still cases with undetermined origins even after extensive workup. Amyloidosis with gastrointestinal (GI) involvement is one of the causes that should be considered in adult patients with chronic diarrhea. We report a case of primary systemic amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, presenting initially as chronic diarrhea and weight loss.
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[Responses of Ilex integra Thunb. seedlings to elevated air ozone concentration].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
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One-year-old Ilex integra seedlings were exposed to charcoal-filtered (CF) and elevated ozone (E-O3, approximately 150 microL x L(-1)) for 84 days in six open-top chambers. Visible injury, growth parameters, pigments content, gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant system were investigated during the growing season. At the end of experiment, foliage showed remarkable visible symptoms with dark-brown necrotic spots and patches which were concaved on the upper surface of the current-year leaves. Although relative height and diameter increment, total biomass and specific leaf weight (SLW) remained unaffected, E-O3 significantly decreased the percentage of stem biomass in total biomass. E-O3 induced significant decrease in net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll a/b ratio and total phenolic compound content by 19%, 9% and 36%, respectively. However, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, pigment contents, MDA contents, total antioxidant capacity and total ascorbate content remained unaffected by E-O3. The results suggested that E-O3-induced change in components of chlorophyll contributed to the reduction of photosynthesis in Ilex integra seedlings. In addition, although visible symptom was found during the experiment, antioxidant system, most of the physiological parameters and growth were not significantly affected by E-O3.
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[Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on the quality of agricultural products: a review].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2 and the nutritional quality of human diets are the two important issues we are facing. At present, the atmospheric CO2 concentration is about 380 micromol mol(-1), and to be reached 550 micromol mol(-1) by 2050. A great deal of researches indicated that the quality of agricultural products is not only determined by inherited genes, but also affected by the crop growth environmental conditions. This paper summarized the common methods adopted at home and abroad for studying the effects of CO2 enrichment on the quality of agricultural products, and reviewed the research advances in evaluating the effects of elevated CO2 on the quality of rice, wheat, soybean, and vegetables. Many experimental results showed that elevated CO2 concentration causes a decrease of protein content in the grains of staple food crops and an overall decreasing trend of trace elements contents in the crops, but improves the quality of vegetable products to some extent. Some issues and future directions regarding the effects of elevated CO2 concentration on the quality of agricultural products were also discussed, based on the present status of related researches.
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Finite conjugate embedded relay lens hyperspectral imaging system (ERL-HIS).
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2011
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We present a novel embedded relay lens hyperspectral imaging system (ERL-HIS) with high spectral resolution (nominal spectral resolution of 2.8 nm) and spatial resolution (30 ?m×8 ?m) that transfers the scanning plane to an additional imaging plane through the internal relay lens so as to alleviate all outside moving parts for the scanning mechanism used in the traditional HIS, where image scanning is achieved by the relative movement between the object and hyperspectrometer. The ERL-HIS also enables high-speed scanning and can attach to a variety of optical modules for versatile applications. Here, we also demonstrate an application of the proposed ERL-HIS attached to a microscopic system for observing autofluorescent images of sliced cancer tissue samples.
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The high incidence of JC virus infection in urothelial carcinoma tissue in Taiwan.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
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Human polyomaviruses, JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV), usually remain latent in kidney and urothelial tissue after primary infection. Infection with human polyomavirus has still not been correlated conclusively with malignancy of kidney and urothelial tissue. The present study investigated further the possible relationship between JCV/BKV infection and urothelial carcinoma. Tissue samples were examined from 33 urothelial carcinomas and 5 renal cell carcinomas for JCV/BKV infection, using nested PCR with primers common to both JCV and BKV. The viral genotypes were further verified by endonuclease digestion and DNA sequencing following the PCR. In addition, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were also performed to detect viral large tumor protein (LT) and the late capsid protein (VP1) in the tissue samples. The results from nested PCR showed that 90.1% (30/33) of the urothelial carcinomas samples and all of the renal cell carcinomas samples (5/5) were JCV DNA positive. Both archetypal and re-arranged JCV genotypes were detected. On the other hand, BKV DNA was detected in only one (3%) of the urothelial carcinoma tissue samples. The immunohistochemical results showed that 30% (10/33) of urothelial carcinoma tissues was stained positive for large tumor antigen (LT). However, the structural protein VP1 was not detectable in any of the tissue samples examined. The present study demonstrated that JCV is highly prevalent in urothelial carcinoma tissue as is the expression of large tumor antigen. Therefore, the findings support the hypothesis that JCV infection is associated with urothelial carcinoma.
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[Randomized controlled study of targeted tidal volume ventilation for treatment of severe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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To evaluate the efficacy of targeted tidal volume ventilation in the treatment of severe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Methods: Eighty-four neonates with severe RDS between June 2008 and January 2010 were randomly assigned to 3 groups according to the ventilation mode: synchronized intermittent positive pressure ventilation plus volume guarantee (SIPPV+VG; n=31), high frequency oscillation ventilation (HFOV; n=23) and intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV; n=30). The oxygenation status, the durations of oxygen exposure and ventilation and the incidence of complications were observed. Results: The oxygenation status (P/F and a/APO2) in the SIPPV+VG and the HFOV groups was improved significantly 12 hrs after ventilation (P<0.05). While in the IMV group, the oxygenation status was not improved until 24 hrs after ventilation. The durations of oxygen exposure and ventilation in the SIPPV+VG and the HFOV groups were shorter than in the IMV group (P<0.05). The incidences of air leak syndrome and ventilation-associated pneumonia (VAP) were lower in the SIPPV+VG and the HFOV groups than in the IMV group (P<0.05). The incidence of severe intracranial hemorrhage in the HFOV group was higher than in the other two groups (P<0.05). Conclusions: Compared with IMV, SIPPV+VG and HFOV can improve the oxygenation status more quickly, shorten the ventilation duration and decrease the incidences of air leak syndrome and VAP in neonates with severe RDS.
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[Radiofrequency ablation-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy without renal hilar vessel clamping: a report of 14 cases].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
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To evaluate the clinical feasibility of radiofrequency ablation-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RF-LCPN) without renal hilar vessel clamping.
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Comparison of articulating and static spacers regarding infection with resistant organisms in total knee arthroplasty.
Acta Orthop
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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The result of treatment of infections involving antibiotic-resistant organisms in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often poor. We evaluated the efficacy of 2-stage revision in TKAs infected with resistant organisms and compared the clinical outcomes with articulating and conventional static spacers, in terms of both infection control and function.
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Phosphorylation of Ser-80 of VP1 and Ser-254 of VP2 is essential for human BK virus propagation in tissue culture.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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BK virus (BKV) infection may cause polyomavirus-associated nephropathy in patients with renal transplantation. Recently, the phosphorylated amino acids on the structural proteins VP1, VP2 and VP3 of BKV have been identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in our laboratory. In this study, we further analysed the biological effects of these phosphorylation events. Phosphorylation of the BKV structural proteins was demonstrated by [(32)P]orthophosphate labelling in vivo. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed to replace all of the phosphorylated amino acids. The mutated BKV genomes were transfected into Vero cells for propagation analysis. The results showed that expression of the early protein LT and of the late protein VP1 by the mutants VP1-S80A, VP1-S80-133A, VP1-S80-327A, VP1-S80-133-327A and VP2-S254A was abolished. However, propagation of other mutants was similar to that of wild-type BKV. The results suggest that phosphorylation of Ser-80 of VP1 and Ser-254 of VP2 is crucial for BKV propagation.
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[Treatment of penile strangulation and sexual psychological analysis of the patients].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2011
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To find the best treatment of penile strangulation and to analyze the sexual psychological factors of the patients.
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An updated GA signaling relief of repression regulatory model.
Mol Plant
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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Gibberellic acid (GA) regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. The DELLA proteins act to restrain plant growth, and GA relieves this repression by promoting their degradation via the 26S proteasome pathway. The elucidation of the crystalline structure of the GA soluble receptor GID1 protein represents an important breakthrough for understanding the way in which GA is perceived and how it induces the destabilization of the DELLA proteins. Recent advances have revealed that the DELLA proteins are involved in protein-protein interactions within various environmental and hormone signaling pathways. In this review, we highlight our current understanding of the relief of repression model that aims to explain the role of GA and the function of the DELLA proteins, incorporating the many aspects of cross-talk shown to exist in the control of plant development and the response to stress.
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Human JC virus-like particles as a gene delivery vector.
Expert Opin Biol Ther
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
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As a viral gene delivery vector, the recombinant JC virus-like particles (VLPs) can be easily generated in large quantities and at low cost. Exogenous genes of interest can be packaged by the VLP without the involvement of viral genetic material and then delivered into any tissue susceptible to JC virus (JCV) to allow gene transduction. Therefore, it should be possible in the future to develop a gene delivery vector using the human JC VLPs that will allow gene therapy.
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Urinary tubular biomarkers in short-term type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a cross-sectional study.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2011
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tubular damage in short-term (less than five years) type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and to explore the correlation between tubular markers and their relationship with renal indices at different stages of diabetic nephropathy. A group of 101 short-term T2DM patients and 28 control subjects were recruited. Tubular markers, such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), N-acetyl-?-D: -glucosaminidase (NAG), and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), as well as urinary albumin excretion were measured in voided urine. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated via Macisaacs formula. The patients were further categorized into three groups, namely, the normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria groups, according to their urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR). Urinary tubular markers were compared and their correlations with renal indices [UACR and estimated GFR (eGFR)] were analyzed among the different diabetic groups. Compared with the control group, Urinary NGAL [median (IQR)][83.6(41.4-138.7) ?g/gcr vs. 32.9(26.1-64.5) ?g/gcr], NAG [13.5(8.7-17.9) U/gcr vs. 7.6(6.5-13.0) U/gcr] and KIM-1 [120.0(98.4-139.9) ng/gcr vs. 103.1(86.8-106.2) ng/gcr] in the T2DM were all markedly increased. For all patients, urinary NGAL had stronger positive correlations with UACR than NAG (R = 0.556 vs. 0.305, both P < 0.05). In addition, only urinary NGAL showed a negative correlation with eGFR (R = -0.215, P < 0.05). Urinary KIM-1, however, showed no significant difference among the three T2DM groups and did not correlate with either UACR or eGFR. As UACR increased from the normoalbuminuria to the last macroalbuminuria group, all of the markers increased. However, only the concentrations of NGAL were statistically different among the three diabetic groups. The correlation between the tubular markers and their relationships with the renal indices differed markedly among the three T2DM groups. In conclusion, these results suggest that tubular damage is common in short-term T2DM patients. Urinary NGAL may be a promising early marker for monitoring renal impairment in short-term T2DM patients.
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Solalyratins A and B, new anti-inflammatory metabolites from Solanum lyratum.
J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2011
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A new coumestan (solalyratin A, 1) and a novel cyclic eight-membered ?,?-unsaturated ketone (solalyratin B, 3), together with three known compounds, puerariafuran (2), coumestrol (4) and 9-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpyrano[5,6:2,3]-coumestan (5), were isolated from the whole plant of Solanum lyratum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. In vitro, compounds 1-5 showed anti-inflammatory activities, with IC(50) values in the range 6.3-9.1 ?M.
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Effects of the Hb E, Hb H and Hb G-Taichung variants on HbA1c values by the Bio-Rad variant II turbo analyzer.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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The influences of Hb variants on HbA(1c) values can cause mismanagement of diabetes; therefore, the effects of Hb E, H, and G-Taichung variants were evaluated.
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Increased risk of cancer among gout patients: a nationwide population study.
Joint Bone Spine
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
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Few studies have investigated the association between gout and cancer. The present study examined the relative risk of cancer in a nationwide cohort.
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The differences in imaging features of malignant and benign branch duct type of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Tumor.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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To investigate the difference in the radiological features of malignant and benign branch duct type of IPMT (Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Tumor) of the pancreas.
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Analysis of DNA methylation in human BK virus.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Human BK virus may cause nephropathy due to viral replication in patients who have undergone renal transplantation. However, the mechanism regulating replication of BKV is still not clear. Previous studies have suggested that epigenetic modifications may play a crucial role in virus replication. In this study, the DNA methylation profiles of five CpG sites located within the promoter/enhancer regions and nine CpG sites located within the early and late coding regions of the replicating BKV genome were investigated. BKV genomic DNA from mature virions and from the early and late phases of replicating BKV were examined for DNA methylation by bisulfite sequencing that covered 14 CpG sites. Our results showed that none of the examined BKV DNA from the various different stages of replication was methylated. This is the first report to analyze the methylation of BKV genomic DNA during viral replication. The results seem to indicate that methylation is not involved in regulation of BKV replication.
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Highly efficient release of lovastatin from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles enhances bone repair in rats.
J. Orthop. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Lovastatin exhibits higher thermal stability and lower degradation rate than simvastatin. However, the amount of research studying a lovastatin delivery device has been far less than similar research on simvastatin. As a consequence, a high lovastatin release rate system has not been developed. We hypothesized that highly efficient release of lovastatin from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles in a short-term release (7 days) could provide an effective delivery system for bone repair. This study optimized the emulsion (o/w) technique in the fabrication process for PLGA nanoparticles, thereby producing the first recorded case of a high release rate (97%) of lovastatin. We also calculated the calibration curve of lovastatin using a UV spectrometer. The results demonstrated that the ALPase activity in human osteoblasts could be significantly stimulated by lovastatin carried in PLGA nanoparticles, but was prominently decreased by free lovastatin with the concentration higher than 4?µg/ml. Animal studies showed that the amount of lovastatin contained in 1?mg PLGA was the optimum dosage. These results suggest the new lovastatin-releasing PLGA delivery device exhibits potential for clinical treatment of bony defects.
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Knockdown of p21(Cip1/Waf1) enhances proliferation, the expression of stemness markers, and osteogenic potential in human mesenchymal stem cells.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Mammalian aging of many tissues is associated with a decline in the replicative and functional capacity of somatic stem cells. Understanding the basis of this decline is a major goal of aging research. Human bone marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) have been applied in the treatment of fracture nonunion. Clinical application of MSCs requires abundant cells that can be overcome by ex vivo expansion of cells, but often at the expense of stemness and differentiation potentiality. We first demonstrated that late-passage MSCs exhibited decreased proliferation capacity, reduced expression of stemness markers such as Oct-4 and Nanog, and deterioration of osteogenic potential. Further, late-passage MSCs showed increased expression of p21(Cip1/Waf1) (p21), an inhibitor of the cyclin-dependent kinase. Knockdown of p21 by lentivirus-mediated shRNAs against p21 in late-passage MSCs increased the proliferation capacity, the expression of Oct-4 and Nanog, and osteogenic potential compared with cells transduced with control shRNA. More importantly, reduction in p21 expression in MSCs enhanced the bone repair capacity of MSCs in a rodent calvarial defect model. Knockdown of p21 in MSCs also increased the telomerase activity and telomere length, and did not show chromosomal abnormalities or acquire transformation ability. Therefore, these data successfully demonstrate the involvement of senescence gene in the expression of stemness markers and osteogenic potential of MSCs.
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The impact of exsanguination by Esmarch bandage on venous hemodynamic changes in total knee arthroplasty - A prospective randomized study of 38 knees.
Knee
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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Elastic (Esmarch) bandage exsanguination is widely used in lower limb surgery to provide a bloodless operating field. Nevertheless, it is still not known exactly how exsanguination through Esmarch bandage usage contributes to venous pressure physiology following TKA. We wished to determine whether exsanguination with Esmarch bandage affects the venous hemodynamics of the lower limb in the first few weeks following TKA, so a prospectively randomized study was set. We prospectively collected consecutive 38 male patients with unilateral advanced osteoarthritis of the knee. All of the subjects were randomly assigned to one of two TKA procedures: TKA with (Group A) or without (Group B) Esmarch bandage exsanguination. No pharmacologic thromboembolic prophylaxis was used in this study. The venous hemodynamics of each operated leg was assessed by strain-gage plethysmography, firstly before the operation, then postoperatively on days 2, 6, 14 and 28. The postoperative results revealed significant falls in venous outflow 2, 6 and 14 days following TKA in Group A; and 2 and 6 days following TKA in Group B. Twenty-eight days after TKA, venous outflow in both groups had returned to baseline level. Over the 28 days following the operation, Group A venous outflow tended to fall more significantly than in Group B. As with venous outflow, venous capacitance in both groups showed significant falls 2 and 6 days following TKA, with recovery to baseline levels 28 days postoperation. More significant falls in arterial filling index were recorded in Group A 6 days following TKA, returning to their baseline level 14 days postoperation. It appears that better leg venous hemodynamic changes are attained during the first month after TKA in Group B. We therefore question the need for exsanguination with Esmarch bandage before knee arthroplasty.
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Phylogenetic analysis of chinese rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) based on mitochondrial control region sequences.
Am. J. Primatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Between one and six subspecies of Chinese rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) have been proposed based on morphological differences and/or their geographic distribution. In this study, a 489 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region was amplified from 230 DNA samples collected from rhesus macaques in the Sichuan province in Western China. The fragment was then sequenced and aligned with 208 sequences from wild rhesus macaques, sampled throughout the species geographic range in China downloaded from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of the 182 unique sequences identified among these samples divided Chinese rhesus macaques into two western haplogroups (haplogroups A and B) and three older eastern haplogroups (haplogroups C, D, and E), whose differentiation probably occurred during the penultimate glacial event. During the warming after the penultimate glacial event, haplogroups A, B, and E rapidly expanded and a relatively young subhaplogroup of haplogroup E, E, limited to Southern China but shared with Vietnamese rhesus macaques, was reintroduced from Indochina during the last glacial event. One haplotype most closely related to subhaplogroup E probably represents the isolation of Hainan Island, to where it is restricted, from the mainland by the formation of the Qiongzhou Strait approximately 8,500 years ago. The distribution of haplogroups both informs the phylogeographic history of dispersal of Chinese rhesus macaques and has implications for their suitability as animal models in biomedical research.
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[A retrospective study comparing the clinical efficacy of laparoscopic cryoablation and partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2010
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To compare the clinical outcomes of laparoscopic cryoablation (LCA) and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
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Displaced femoral neck fractures in young adults treated with closed reduction and internal fixation.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2010
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This article describes the effect of closed reduction and internal fixation with 3 different screw configurations for acute completely displaced femoral neck fractures in young adults. From 2001 to 2006, 136 patients (age range, 20-50 years) who had acute unilaterally completely displaced femoral neck fractures were evaluated retrospectively. All fractures were managed with closed reduction and internal fixation with 3 cannulated screws. The follow-up period was 55 months on average (range, 36-90 months). One hundred twenty-two patients were available for final evaluation of union condition and late complication. Twenty-three patients (18.9%) had nonunion, 15 (12.3%) had fixation failure, and 21 (17.2%) had avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The average duration from injury to surgery was 18.4 hours in the union group and 23.3 hours in the nonunion group, with no statistical significance (P=.196). The average duration from injury to surgery was 17.3 hours in the avascular necrosis of the femoral head group and 22.3 hours in the non-avascular necrosis of the femoral head group, with no statistical significance (P=.155). Vertical- and separated-type screw configurations resulted in a significantly higher nonunion rate (P=.001 and P=.0017, respectively) than parallel configuration. The complication rate in treating completely displaced femoral neck fractures with internal fixation in young adults is high, and screw configuration may further affect results.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.