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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Effects of anaerobic feeding period on nitrifying granular].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Alternating anoxic/oxic conditions have profound effects on both ammonium (AOB) and nitrite (NOB) oxidizing bacteria. In this study the influence of alternating anoxic/oxic condition on nitrifying granules was evaluated in a laboratory-scale column-type sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The anoxic phase was extended from 10 min to 120 min by increasing the anaerobic feeding time. Granules maintained their structure and characteristics during the whole study. The amount of granules with diameter larger than 0.8 mm kept above 95% (mass fraction), and the average settling velocity of particles maintained in the range of 125-130 m x h(-1). Despite the increase in the length of anoxic phases, the values of ammonium removal and nitrite accumulation in effluent still kept at (60 +/- 5)% and (85 +/- 5)%, respectively. Moreover, in the aeration period per cycle, NH4(+) -N removal loading rates, NO2(-) -N and NO3(-) -N accumulation loading rates retained stably at 90 mg x (L x h)(-1), 70 mg x (L x h)(-1) and 15 mg x (L x h)(-1), respectively. All these results suggested the changing anoxic conditions resulted from prolonged anaerobic feeding period had no significant effects on nitrifying granules.
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E2F1 suppresses cardiac neovascularization by down-regulating VEGF and PlGF expression.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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The E2F transcription factors are best characterized for their roles in cell-cycle regulation, cell growth, and cell death. Here we investigated the potential role of E2F1 in cardiac neovascularization.
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VEGF-D as a Marker in the Aid of Malignant Metastatic Pleural Effusion Diagnosis.
Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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The sensitivity in cytology diagnosis of malignant metastatic pleural effusion (MMPE) is insufficient nowadays due to the similarity of the reactive mesothelial cells and malignant cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the key factors in tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the value of VEGF and its homologs in the aid of MMPE diagnosis.
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Light beams with selective angular momentum generated by hybrid plasmonic waveguides.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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We report an integrated compact technique that can "spin" and "twist" light on a silicon photonics platform, with the generated light beams possessing both spin angular momentum (SAM) and orbital angular momentum (OAM). It demonstrates the potential of SAM/OAM optics for on-chip integration.
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Fission yeast Pxd1 promotes proper DNA repair by activating Rad16XPF and inhibiting Dna2.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Structure-specific nucleases play crucial roles in many DNA repair pathways. They must be precisely controlled to ensure optimal repair outcomes; however, mechanisms of their regulation are not fully understood. Here, we report a fission yeast protein, Pxd1, that binds to and regulates two structure-specific nucleases: Rad16XPF-Swi10ERCC1 and Dna2-Cdc24. Strikingly, Pxd1 influences the activities of these two nucleases in opposite ways: It activates the 3' endonuclease activity of Rad16-Swi10 but inhibits the RPA-mediated activation of the 5' endonuclease activity of Dna2. Pxd1 is required for Rad16-Swi10 to function in single-strand annealing, mating-type switching, and the removal of Top1-DNA adducts. Meanwhile, Pxd1 attenuates DNA end resection mediated by the Rqh1-Dna2 pathway. Disabling the Dna2-inhibitory activity of Pxd1 results in enhanced use of a break-distal repeat sequence in single-strand annealing and a greater loss of genetic information. We propose that Pxd1 promotes proper DNA repair by differentially regulating two structure-specific nucleases.
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Generation of two beams of light carrying spin and orbital angular momenta of opposite handedness.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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A new hybrid plasmonic structure that can generate two light beams carrying spin and orbital angular momenta of opposite handedness is proposed and numerically demonstrated. In this design, hybrid plasmonic sections are used to make light beams spin and twist, and a directional coupler structure with two output ports is used to generate opposite handedness. This design is expected to unlock the full potential of optical manipulation and quantum-information processing through effective usage of spin and orbital angular momenta.
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Activation of RAS/ERK alone is insufficient to inhibit RXR? function and deplete retinoic acid in hepatocytes.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Activation of RAS/ERK signaling pathway, depletion of retinoid, and phosphorylation of retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR?) are frequent events found in liver tumors and thought to play important roles in hepatic tumorigenesis. However, the relationships among them still remained to be elucidated. By exploring the transgenic mouse model of hepatic tumorigenesis induced by liver-specific expression of H-ras12V oncogene, the activation of RAS/ERK, the mRNA expression levels of retinoid metabolism-related genes, the contents of retinoid metabolites, and phosphorylation of RXR? were determined. RAS/ERK signaling pathway was gradually and significantly activated in hepatic tumor adjacent normal liver tissues (P) and hepatic tumor tissues (T) of H-ras12V transgenic mice compared with normal liver tissues (Wt) of wild type mice. On the contrary, the mRNA expression levels of retinoid metabolism-related genes were significantly reduced in P and T compared with Wt. Interestingly, the retinoid metabolites 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) and all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), the well known ligands for nuclear transcription factor RXR and retinoic acid receptor (RAR), were significantly decreased only in T compared with Wt and P, although the oxidized polar metabolite of atRA, 4-keto-all-trans-retinoic-acid (4-keto-RA) was significantly decreased in both P and T compared with Wt. To our surprise, the functions of RXR? were significantly blocked only in T compared with Wt and P. Namely, the total protein levels of RXR? were significantly reduced and the phosphorylation levels of RXR? were significantly increased only in T compared with Wt and P. Treatment of H-ras12V transgenic mice at 5-week-old or 5-month-old with atRA had no effect on the prevention of tumorigenesis or cure of developed nodules in liver. These events imply that the depletion of 9cRA and atRA and the inhibition of RXR? function in hepatic tumors involve more complex mechanisms besides the activation of RAS/ERK pathway.
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MiR-421 regulates apoptosis of BGC-823 gastric cancer cells by targeting caspase-3.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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MicroRNAs might act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in cancer. Recent studies have shown that miR-421 is up-regulated in human gastric cancer. Here, we found that miR-421 was over-expressed in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that the caspase-3 gene was a target of miR-421. Caspase-3 was negatively regulated by miR-421 at the post-transcriptional level. Bax and Bcl-2 were also regulated by miR-421. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor receptor-I and -II, death receptors in the apoptosis pathway, were up-regulated by miR-421. The over-expression of miR-421 promoted gastric cancer cell growth and inhibited apoptosis of the BGC-823 gastric cancer cell line. These observations indicate that miR-421 acts as a tumor promoter by targeting the caspase-3 gene and preventing apoptosis of gastric cancer cells through inhibition of caspase-3 expression. These findings contribute to our understanding of the functions of miR-421 in gastric cancer.
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The deterministic chaos and random noise in turbulent jet.
Chaos
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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A turbulent flow is usually treated as a superposition of coherent structure and incoherent turbulence. In this paper, the largest Lyapunov exponent and the random noise in the near field of round jet and plane jet are estimated with our previously proposed method of chaotic time series analysis [T. L. Yao, et al., Chaos 22, 033102 (2012)]. The results show that the largest Lyapunov exponents of the round jet and plane jet are in direct proportion to the reciprocal of the integral time scale of turbulence, which is in accordance with the results of the dimensional analysis, and the proportionality coefficients are equal. In addition, the random noise of the round jet and plane jet has the same linear relation with the Kolmogorov velocity scale of turbulence. As a result, the random noise may well be from the incoherent disturbance in turbulence, and the coherent structure in turbulence may well follow the rule of chaotic motion.
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CLIC4, ERp29, and Smac/DIABLO derived from metastatic cancer stem-like cells stratify prognostic risks of colorectal cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Cancer stem-like cells have been well accepted to be involved in recurrence and metastasis of cancers, but the prognostic potential of biomarkers integrating with metastasis and cancer stem-like cells for colorectal cancer is unclear.
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AMP-activated protein kinase activators in diabetic ulcers: from animal studies to Phase II drugs under investigation.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Diagnosed cases of diabetes have gradually increased year by year, and research on diabetes mellitus (DM) has attracted greater attention from the medical profession. Diabetic ulcers present persistent pain and the risk of bacterial infection. However, no promising treatment methods have been found. As a regulator of cellular energy balance, 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested as a drug target for DM, including such drugs as metformin.
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Using hematogram model to predict future metabolic syndrome in elderly: a 4-year longitudinal study.
Aging Male
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Abstract Objectives: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is proposed to predict future occurrence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. There are some other "non-traditional" risk factors such as hematogram components that are also related to the same endpoints as MetS. In this four-year longitudinal study, we used hematogram components to build models for predicting future occurrence of MetS in older men and women separately. Methods: Subjects above 65 years without MetS and related diseases were enrolled. All subjects were followed up until they developed MetS or until up to four years from the day of entry, whichever was earlier. Results: Among the 4539 study participants, 1327 developed MetS. Models were built for men and women separately and the areas under the receiver operation curves were significant. The Kaplan-Meier plot showed that the models could predict future MetS. Finally, Cox regression analysis showed that the hematogram model was correlated to future MetS with hazard ratios of 1.567 and 1.738 in men and women, respectively. Conclusion: Our hematogram models could significantly predict future MetS in elderly and might be more practical and convenient for daily clinical practice.
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Prediction of large-gap two-dimensional topological insulators consisting of bilayers of group III elements with Bi.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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We use first-principles electronic structure calculations to predict a new class of two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs) in binary compositions of group III elements (B, Al, Ga, In, and Tl) and bismuth (Bi) in a buckled honeycomb structure. We identify band inversions in pristine GaBi, InBi, and TlBi bilayers, with gaps as large as 560 meV, making these materials suitable for room-temperature applications. Furthermore, we demonstrate the possibility of strain engineering in that the topological phase transition in BBi and AlBi could be driven at ?6.6% strain. The buckled structure allows the formation of two different topological edge states in the zigzag and armchair edges. More importantly, isolated Dirac-cone edge states are predicted for armchair edges with the Dirac point lying in the middle of the 2D bulk gap. A room-temperature bulk band gap and an isolated Dirac cone allow these states to reach the long-sought topological spin-transport regime. Our findings suggest that the buckled honeycomb structure is a versatile platform for hosting nontrivial topological states and spin-polarized Dirac fermions with the flexibility of chemical and mechanical tunability.
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Amelioration of LPS-induced inflammation response in microglia by AMPK activation.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of cellular energy homeostasis via modulating metabolism of glucose, lipid, and protein. In addition to energy modulation, AMPK has been demonstrated to associate with several important cellular events including inflammation. The results showed that ENERGI-F704 identified from bamboo shoot extract was nontoxic in concentrations up to 80??M and dose-dependently induced phosphorylation of AMPK (Thr-172) in microglia BV2 cells. Our findings also showed that the treatment of BV2 with ENERGI-F704 ameliorated the LPS-induced elevation of IL-6 and TNF-? production. In addition, ENERGI-F704 reduced increased production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) via downregulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), respectively. Moreover, ENERGI-F704 decreased activated nuclear translocation and protein level of NF-?B. Inhibition of AMPK with compound C restored decreased NF-?B translocation by ENERGI-F704. In conclusion, ENERGI-F704 exerts inhibitory activity on LPS-induced inflammation through manipulating AMPK signaling and exhibits a potential therapeutic agent for neuroinflammatory disease.
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Regulatory roles of microRNA-708 and microRNA-31 in proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of colorectal cancer cells.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRs) function as key regulators of gene expression and their deregulation is associated with the carcinogenesis of various cancers. In the present study, the aim was to validate the potential roles and regulatory mechanisms of miR-708 and miR-31 in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. miR-708 and miR-31 were found to be highly expressed in five CRC tissue samples. Functional studies showed that the inhibition of miR-708 and miR-31 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion, however, promoted apoptosis in vitro. Subsequently, it was identified that miR-708 and miR-31 directly target cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (CDKN2B) by binding to the 3' untranslated region, which suppresses the CDKN2B protein levels. In addition, the CDKN2B protein levels were significantly reduced when there was high miR-708 and miR-31 expression in the CRC tissue samples. The results indicate that miR-31 and miR-708 function in an oncogenic manner in CRC development, and inhibition of the two miRs may be used as a therapeutic strategy for patients with CRC.
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Use of text messages to communicate clinical recommendations to health workers in rural China: a cluster-randomized trial.
Bull. World Health Organ.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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To compare the effectiveness of mobile phone text messaging and that of traditional health worker training in communicating clinical recommendations to health workers in China.
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Network meta-analyses could be improved by searching more sources and by involving a librarian.
J Clin Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Network meta-analyses (NMAs) aim to rank the benefits (or harms) of interventions, based on all available randomized controlled trials. Thus, the identification of relevant data is critical. We assessed the conduct of the literature searches in NMAs.
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[Changes in clinicopathological features and survival after surgical resection for gastric cancer over a 20-year period at a single institution].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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To investigate changes in clinicopathological features and survival of patients with gastrectomy at a single institution in China.
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Two structurally analogous ruthenium complexes as naked-eye and reversible molecular "light switch" for G-quadruplex DNA.
J. Inorg. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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A pair of symmetrical furyl based ruthenium(II) complexes ([Ru(phen)2dpq-df](2+) (1) and [Ru(bpy)2dpq-df](2+) (2) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline, bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, dpq-df=dipyrido (3,2-a:2',3'-c) quinoxaline-difuran) have been prepared and characterized. The binding properties of both complexes toward G-quadruplex DNA have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) melting assays and molecular docking studies. The experimental results indicated that both Ru-complexes exhibited a remarkable "light switch" effect in the presence of hybrid G-quadruplex DNA. Interestingly, the "light switch" can be repeated off and on through the successive addition of Cu(2+) ions and EDTA, and all these behaviors can be observed even by the naked eyes. Moreover, FRET melting assay revealed that both complexes could be potential stabilizers for G-quadruplex architectures. The computational studies not only confirmed that the two complex molecules bound to one G-quadruplex DNA molecule, but also explained the "light switch" effect.
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New triterpenic acids from Uncaria rhynchophylla: chemistry, NO-inhibitory activity, and tandem mass spectrometric analysis.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Five new oleanane and ursane type triterpenes, namely uncarinic acids F-J (1-5), together with six known triterpenic acids (6-11) were isolated from the stems and hooks of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Structure elucidation of 1-5 was based on the integrated analyses of high-resolution MS data, 1D ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT) and 2D (HSQC, HMBC, ROESY) NMR spectra. Compounds 4, 10, and 11 exhibited weak inhibitory effects on LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells (with IC50 1.48, 7.01, and 1.89 ?M, respectively) with dexamethasone (IC50 0.04 ?M) and quercetin (IC50 0.86 ?M) as the positive controls. 19-OH substituted oleanane triterpenic acids (1, 2, 5, 8) were prone to eliminate CH2O3, whereas those ursane-type encompassing 19-OH (3, 6, 7, 9, 4) were featured by preferred cleavage of H2O while performing the negative collision-induced MS/MS fragmentation on an LTQ/Orbitrap mass spectrometer.
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Linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of intracranial arteriovenous malformations: long-term outcome.
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is one of the cerebrovascular diseases that bear a high risk of hemorrhage. The treatment modalities include microsurgical resection, endovascular embolization, stereotactic radiosurgery, or combinations that vary widely. Several large series have been reported, while data from Asian populations were few. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery (LINAC SRS) for the treatment of intracranial AVMs, to evaluate the hemorrhage rate and to analyze associated factors.
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Highly sensitive and selective fluorometric/electrochemical dual-channel sensors for TNT and DNT explosives.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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A novel electro-active compound, TCAC, is synthesized and its electrochemical polymerized film is used to detect 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) explosives through a fluorometric/electrochemical dual-channel sensor with high sensitivity and selectivity. In particular, the electrochemical sensor for the analysis of TNT had an enhanced sensitivity of 0.5??M. The detection limit of the sensor was calculated to be 15?nM.
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An efficient AIE-active blue-emitting molecule by incorporating multifunctional groups into tetraphenylsilane.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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A multifunctional AIE-active molecule, CzPySiTPE, in which carbazole (Cz) and pyridine (Py) were attached to tetraphenylsilane to facilitate carrier injection has been designed and synthesized. Tetraphenylethene (TPE) was adopted to maintain efficient blue emission. Blue electroluminescent (EL) emission of CzPySiTPE was obtained with CIE coordinates of (0.16, 0.17) and an external quantum efficiency of 1.12%.
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Is lower uric acid level better? A combined cross-sectional and longitudinal study in the elderly.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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The relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and uric acid (UA) has been explored in many studies, but there is paucity of information on hypo-uricemia and MetS. The current study aimed to elucidate the relationship between the lower end of UA and MetS in elderly. Subjects aged ?60 years who underwent routine health checkups were enrolled, and 10,579 were eligible for analysis. A cross-sectional study was first performed to determine the correlation between MetS and UA. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the lowest male MetS prevalence in each UA level (UA ?5 and >5 mg/dl). A longitudinal study then excluded subjects with MetS at baseline to validate the UA level of those with the lowest incidence of MetS. In the prevalence of MetS in different UA levels, there was a J-shaped curve in males but a linear relationship in females. In males, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride were correlated with UA in univariate analysis, but high-density lipoprotein became insignificant in multivariate analysis in UA >5 mg/dl (UA-high). Only fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was significantly related to UA ?5 mg/dl (UA-low). The UA level of 4.5-5 mg/dl had the lowest risk of having MetS in odds ratio, log-rank test, and hazard ratio. A J-shaped phenomenon exists between UA and MetS in elderly men but not in elderly women and FPG seem to be the key factor in this. Lower UA does not provide benefits in elderly men. The new UA control strategy for the elderly warrants further investigation.
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Use of white blood cell counts to predict metabolic syndrome in the elderly: a 4 year longitudinal study.
Aging Male
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Abstract Background: The white blood cell (WBC) count was one of the first inflammatory markers associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Recently, two longitudinal studies have demonstrated a cause and effect relationship between MetS and WBC counts among middle-aged adults. However, no study has used WBC cutoff values to predict MetS in the elderly.
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Highly efficient near-infrared organic light-emitting diode based on a butterfly-shaped donor-acceptor chromophore with strong solid-state fluorescence and a large proportion of radiative excitons.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The development of near-infrared (NIR) organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is of growing interest. Donor-acceptor (D-A) chromophores have served as an important class of NIR materials for NIR OLED applications. However, the external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of NIR OLEDs based on conventional D-A chromophores are typically below 1?%. Reported herein is a butterfly-shaped D-A compound, PTZ-BZP. A PTZ-BZP film displayed strong NIR fluorescence with an emission peak at 700?nm, and the corresponding quantum efficiency reached 16?%. Remarkably, the EQE of the NIR OLED based on PTZ-BZP was 1.54?%, and a low efficiency roll-off was observed, as well as a high radiative exciton ratio of 48?%, which breaks through the limit of 25?% in conventional fluorescent OLEDs. Experimental and theoretical investigations were carried out to understand the excited-state properties of PTZ-BZP.
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Reduced expression of circulating microRNA-218 in gastric cancer and correlation with tumor invasion and prognosis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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To investigate the expression of microRNA-218 (miR-218) in serum from gastric cancer patients and its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics.
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Prophylactic uterine artery embolization assisted cesarean section for the prevention of intrapartum hemorrhage in high-risk patients.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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To evaluate the safety and efficacy of prophylactic uterine artery embolization (UAE)-assisted cesarean section for the prevention of intrapartum hemorrhage.
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Painful ophthalmoplegia with normal cranial imaging.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Painful ophthalmoplegia with normal cranial imaging is rare and confined to limited etiologies. In this study, we aimed to elucidate these causes by evaluating clinical presentations and treatment responses.
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Functional analysis of FABP3 in the milk fat synthesis signaling pathway of dairy cow mammary epithelial cells.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Milk fat is the major energy component of milk, and regulation of its production relies on transcription factors sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?). As one of the target genes of SREBP1 and PPAR?, fatty acid-binding protein 3(FABP3) is the main protein allowing for rapid diffusion and selective targeting of long-chain fatty acids toward specific organelles for metabolism. Whether FABP3 plays an important role in milk fat synthesis signaling pathway is largely unknown. In this study, we observed the effects of FABP3 overexpression and gene silencing in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells, as well as the effects of oleic acid, stearic acid, and palmitic acid on the expressions of FABP3 and lipid droplet formation, by using quantitative reverse transcriptase (qRT)-PCR, Western blotting, and fluorescent immunostaining techniques. FABP3 upregulated the expression of SREBP1 and PPAR? to increase lipid droplet accumulation. Oleic acid, stearic acid, and palmitic acid also increased lipid droplet accumulation by affecting expression of FABP3. These findings shed new insights for understanding the mechanism of FABP3 in regulating milk fat synthesis.
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Tofacitinib for acute rheumatoid arthritis patients who have had an inadequate response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD): a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib for the treatment of patients with acute rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who have had an inadequate response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD). Randomized controlled trials were searched in MEDLINE (1966-2013), Embase (1947-2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1948-2013), WHO International Clinical Trial Registration Platform (2004-2013), Clinical Trial.gov (1999-2013), and China Biology Medicine disc (1978-2013). The review included 10 studies involving 4,929 patients. A pooled analysis of six studies showed that tofacitinib had a superior effect over placebo (both with background therapy) at weeks 12 and 24. Also, the pooled results of three studies showed that tofacitinib monotherapy had a significantly greater effect over placebo. Compared to adalimumab, tofacitinib was found to be more efficacious as well. For safety, tofacitinib monotherapy had less serious adverse events (sAE) than placebo but not other adverse effects (oAE). In the comparison of tofacitinib and placebo both with background therapy, no difference in sAE and oAE were found. However, the quality of the evidence was quite low when evaluated using GRADE. Tofacitinib alone, or together with non-biologic DMARDs, was associated with more favorable remission in the signs and symptoms of RA than adalimumab or placebo. Also, tofacitinib monotherapy was safer than placebo with regards to reported sAE, but not oAE. However, the quality of evidence is exceedingly low; long-term, large-scale, and high-quality post-marketing research is suggested to further verify the conclusion.
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TGF-? induction of FGF-2 expression in stromal cells requires integrated smad3 and MAPK pathways.
Am J Clin Exp Urol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Transforming Growth Factor-? (TGF-?) regulates the reactive stroma microenvironment associated with most carcinomas and mediates expression of many stromal derived factors important for tumor progression, including FGF-2 and CTGF. TGF-? is over-expressed in most carcinomas, and FGF-2 action is important in tumor-induced angiogenesis. The signaling mechanisms of how TGF-? regulates FGF-2 expression in the reactive stroma microenvironment are not understood. Accordingly, we have assessed key signaling pathways that mediate TGF-?1-induced FGF-2 expression in prostate stromal fibroblasts and mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) null for Smad2 and Smad3. TGF-?1 induced phosphorylation of Smad2, Smad3, p38 and ERK1/2 proteins in both control MEFs and prostate fibroblasts. Of these, Smad3, but not Smad2 was found to be required for TGF-?1 induction of FGF-2 expression in stromal cells. ChIP analysis revealed a Smad3/Smad4 complex was associated with the -1.9 to -2.3 kb upstream proximal promoter of the FGF-2 gene, further suggesting a Smad3-specific regulation. In addition, chemical inhibition of p38 or ERK1/2 MAPK activity also blocked TGF-?1-induced FGF-2 expression in a Smad3-independent manner. Conversely, inhibition of JNK signaling enhanced FGF-2 expression. Together, these data indicate that expression of FGF-2 in fibroblasts in the tumor stromal cell microenvironment is coordinately dependent on both intact Smad3 and MAP kinase signaling pathways. These pathways and key downstream mediators of TGF-? action in the tumor reactive stroma microenvironment, may evolve as putative targets for therapeutic intervention.
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Optical properties of epitaxial BiFeO3 thin film grown on SrRuO3-buffered SrTiO3 substrate.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The BiFeO3 (BFO) thin film was deposited by pulsed-laser deposition on SrRuO3 (SRO)-buffered (111) SrTiO3 (STO) substrate. X-ray diffraction pattern reveals a well-grown epitaxial BFO thin film. Atomic force microscopy study indicates that the BFO film is rather dense with a smooth surface. The ellipsometric spectra of the STO substrate, the SRO buffer layer, and the BFO thin film were measured, respectively, in the photon energy range 1.55 to 5.40 eV. Following the dielectric functions of STO and SRO, the ones of BFO described by the Lorentz model are received by fitting the spectra data to a five-medium optical model consisting of a semi-infinite STO substrate/SRO layer/BFO film/surface roughness/air ambient structure. The thickness and the optical constants of the BFO film are obtained. Then a direct bandgap is calculated at 2.68 eV, which is believed to be influenced by near-bandgap transitions. Compared to BFO films on other substrates, the dependence of the bandgap for the BFO thin film on in-plane compressive strain from epitaxial structure is received. Moreover, the bandgap and the transition revealed by the Lorentz model also provide a ground for the assessment of the bandgap for BFO single crystals.
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Enhanced proportion of radiative excitons in non-doped electro-fluorescence generated from an imidazole derivative with an orthogonal donor-acceptor structure.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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A greatly enhanced proportion of radiative excitons in non-doped blue electroluminescence with a maximum exciton utilizing efficiency (EUE) of 85% is harvested in the orthogonal cyano substituted, charge transfer (CT) emitter TPMCN, in comparison to the localized emission (LE)-like emitter TPM with a low EUE of 16%.
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Rosiglitazone promotes neurite outgrowth and mitochondrial function in N2A cells via PPARgamma pathway.
Mitochondrion
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Several pieces of evidence indicate that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) stimulation promotes neuronal differentiation. However, to date, the effects of a synthetic PPAR? agonist (Rosiglitazone, Rosi) on neurite outgrowth have not yet been well described. Here we have evaluated the effects of Rosi on neurite outgrowth and mitochondrial function in the mouse neuroblastoma Neuro 2a (N2A) cell line. Our results show that Rosi promotes neurite outgrowth of N2A cells and significantly increases the population of neurite-bearing cells, with apparent increase of intracellular calcium and the expression of calmodulin-dependent kinase I (CaMKI). Rosi also increases the intracellular cAMP and expression of both protein kinase A (PKA) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Phosphorylation of CREB was also detected in the Rosi treated N2A cells. Moreover, Rosi significantly increases the transcription of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). Besides, the expression of PPAR coactivator 1? (PGC1?), as well as the mRNA level its downstream genes, including nuclear respiratory factors 1 and 2 (NRF1 and NRF2) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) were induced by Rosi treatments. Furthermore, Rosi increases the level of ATP, D-loop, and mitochondrial mass in N2A cells. Collectively, these findings provide an array of evidence that PPAR? activation provides beneficial neuronal networks within neurite outgrowth.
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[Correlations between serum hypoxia inducible factor-1?, vascular endothelial growth factor and computed tomography perfusion imaging at pre-and post-TACE in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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To explore the correlations between the serum levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and computed tomography (CT) perfusion parameters at pre- and post-transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC).
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[Study on rapid start-up of a nitrifying process using aerobic granular sludge as seed sludge].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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Using synthetic ammonia-rich wastewater as influent, rapid start-up of the nitrification reactor was attained in a laboratory-scale column-type sequencing batch reactor (SBR) inoculated with aerobic granular sludge, by gradually increasing the influent NH4(+) -N concentration (100-1000 mg x L(-1)) and decreasing the hydraulic retention time (8-4 h) under mesophilic condition (28-30 degrees C). The influent loading rate of NH4(+) -N reached 3.9 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) and the average ammonia removal efficiency was above 95% within one month. Values of ammonia oxidizing rate (AOR) as high as 5.0 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) was obtained in the following operational stage with extremely high nitrogen loading rate. Nitrite accumulation obviously occurred during the start-up period. The nitrite accumulation rate reached 2-4.5 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) from day 25 to 70. In spite of the change in the feeding composition (COD/N ratio) and the frequent fluctuations of nitrogen loading rate, the granules maintained their structures, with the SVI of 30-40 mL x g(-1). The amount of granules with diameter larger than 0.21 mm was about 93% (mass fraction) of the total on day 36. The granular color changed from yellow to brownish-yellow, and some turned brown in this study. All these results suggested the critical role of aerobic granular sludge as seed sludge for the rapid start-up of nitrifying processes and the formation of nitrifying granules.
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Fluorescence detection of trace TNT by novel cross-linking electropolymerized films both in vapor and aqueous medium.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Electropolymerized (EP) films with high fluorescent efficiency are introduced to the detection of trace 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Three electroactive materials TCPC, OCPC and OCz have been synthesized and their EP films have been demonstrated to be sensitive to TNT. Among them, the TCPC EP films have displayed the highest sensitivity to TNT in both vapor and aqueous medium, even in the natural water. It is proposed that the good performances would be caused by the following two factors: first, the cross-linking network of EP films can generate the cavities which benefit the TNT penetration, and remarkably increase the contact area between the EP films and TNT; second, the frontier orbits distribution leads the fast photo-induced electron transfer (PET) from the TCPC EP films to TNT. Our results prove that these EP films are promising TNT sensing candidates and provide a new method to prepare fluorescent porous films.
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Efficacy of Gastrosis No.1 compound on functional dyspepsia of spleen and stomach deficiency-cold syndrome: a multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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To assess the efficacy and safety of Gastrosis No.1 compound in the treatment of functional dyspepsia with Spleen (Pi) and Stomach (Wei) deficiency-cold syndrome.
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Effects of microRNA-106 on proliferation of gastric cancer cell through regulating p21 and E2F5.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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To investigate the effects of miR-106b on malignant characteristics of gastric cancer cells, and explore possible mechanisms.
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Epigallocatechin-3-gallate combined with alpha lipoic acid attenuates high glucose-induced receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) expression in human embryonic kidney cells.
An. Acad. Bras. Cienc.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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The anti-oxidant effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) have been demonstrated in previous studies. The kidney protection effects of EGCG and ALA in patients with kidney injury are still under investigation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of EGCG and ALA on high glucose-induced human kidney cell damage. EGCG inhibited high glucose(HG)-induced TNF-? and IL-6 production in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Both EGCG and ALA decreased HG-induced receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) mRNA and protein expressions in HEK cells. EGCG and ALA also recovered HG-inhibited superoxide dismutase production and decreased ROS expressions in HEK cells. The synergism of EGCG and ALA was also studied. The effect of EGCG combined with ALA is greater than the effect of EGCG alone in all anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant experiments. Our studies provide a potential therapeutic application of EGCG and ALA in preventing progression of diabetic nephropathy.
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A new fluorescence "switch on" assay for heparin detection by using a functional ruthenium polypyridyl complex.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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In the present study, a new strategy for heparin detection and quantification in biological media, such as fetal bovine serum (FBS), is developed by monitoring the emission change of a functional ruthenium polypyridyl complex ([Ru(phen)(2)dppz-idzo](2+), complex 1) in buffer solution. Polyanionic heparin is found to interact with a positively charged Ru-complex through electrostatic effects and/or hydrogen bonding interactions, which leads to a significant fluorescence enhancement of the Ru-complex. To get insight into this fluorescence "switch on" behavior, the binding model of the Ru-complex to heparin is established by employing molecular docking simulations based on the fluorescence and UV absorption results. The selectivity results of the fluorescence assay reveal that our complex displayed good fluorescence selectivity towards heparin over its analogues, such as chondroitin 4-sulfate (Chs) or hyaluronic acid (Hya), which have lower charge density and/or structural compatibility as compared to that of heparin. Quantification of heparin is also performed and a linear calibration curve is observed in the range of 0.01-4.87 U mL(-1) (the limit of detection is 0.01 U mL(-1)) for heparin detection in diluted FBS solution. This "one-step" fluorescence "switch on" assay for heparin detection is label-free, convenient, sensitive and selective, and has a long emission wavelength and large Stokes shift.
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Boronated carbohydrate derivatives as potential boron neutron capture therapy reagents.
Future Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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The treatment of cancer remains one of the most challenging problems for humanity. Boron neutron capture therapy is a binary approach for cancer treatment that is particularly attractive in treating high-grade gliomas and metastatic brain tumors. Among the types of boron-containing molecules used as boron neutron capture therapy agents, boronated carbohydrate derivatives have received significant attention because of their preferential uptake by growing tumor cells. This review provides a summary of the recent developments in the chemistry of carborane-containing carbohydrates.
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Multi-band metamaterial absorber based on the arrangement of donut-type resonators.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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We propose multi-band metamaterial absorbers at microwave frequencies. The design, the analysis, the fabrication, and the measurement of the absorbers working in multiple bands are presented. The numerical simulations and the experiments in the microwave anechoic chamber were performed. The metamaterial absorbers consist of an delicate arrangement of donut-shape resonators with different sizes and a metallic background plane, separated by a dielectric. The near-perfect absorptions of dual, triple and quad peaks are persistent with polarization independence, and the effect of angle of incidence for both TE and TM modes was also elucidated. It was also found that the multiple-reflection theory was not suitable for explaining the absorption mechanism of our investigated structures. The results of this study are promising for the practical applications.
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Chemistry and materials based on 5,5-bibenzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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D-A compounds constructed from a novel building block 5,5-bibenzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (BBTz) possess a special configuration of swivel cruciform, which exhibits promising potential in the solution-processed small molecule optoelectronic devices, e.g. OSCs and OLEDs.
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Contrasting roles of E2F2 and E2F3 in endothelial cell growth and ischemic angiogenesis.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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The growth of new blood vessels after ischemic injury requires endothelial cells (ECs) to divide and proliferate, and the E2F transcription factors are key regulators of the genes responsible for cell-cycle progression; however, the specific roles of individual E2Fs in ECs are largely unknown. To determine the roles of E2F2 and E2F3 in EC proliferation and the angiogenic response to ischemic injury, hind-limb ischemia was surgically induced in E2F2(-/-) mice, endothelial-specific E2F3-knockout (EndoE2F3(?/?)) mice, and their littermates with wild-type E2F2 and E2F3 expression. Two weeks later, Laser-Doppler perfusion measurements, capillary density, and endothelial proliferation were significantly greater in E2F2(-/-) mice and significantly lower in EndoE2F3(?/?) mice than in their littermates, and EndoE2F3(?/?) mice also developed toe and limb necrosis. The loss of E2F2 expression was associated with increases in the proliferation and G1/S-phase gene expression of isolated ECs, while the loss of E2F3 expression led to declines in these parameters. Thus E2F2 impairs, and endothelial E2F3 promotes, the angiogenic response to peripheral ischemic injury through corresponding changes in EC cell-cycle progression.
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Beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity at various degrees of glucose tolerance in Chinese subjects.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of insulin sensitivity (SI), and the first (1st ISEC) and second phase insulin secretion (2nd ISEC) in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Chinese subjects.
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[Changes of AFP and beta-hCG in testicular tumors analyzed by a function method].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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To establish a new function method for the analysis of a-fetoprotein (AFP) and beta-hCG in testicular tumors.
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A comparison of benign and inflammatory manifestations of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome.
Cephalalgia
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) manifests as a benign or an inflammatory type disease. The nosography differences between these types remain to be elucidated. We aimed to analyze and compare the clinical presentations of benign and inflammatory THS.
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Patients with nephrolithiasis had lower fetuin-A protein level in urine and renal tissue.
Urolithiasis
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Fetuin-A acts as an inhibitor of systemic and local ectopic calcification and inflammatory response, but the role of fetuin-A in the etiology of urolithiasis is still unclear. We aim to investigate the expression of fetuin-A in the serum, urine and renal tissue of patients with or without nephrolithiasis. 48 patients with nephrolithiasis (group A) and 32 individuals without urolithiasis (group B, control group) were enrolled into our study. Level of fetuin-A in serum and urine was measured by ELISA, and expression of fetuin-A in renal tissue was localized and assessed by immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting, respectively. Indexes of oxidative stress in kidney were evaluated. Other routine serum and urine chemistries for inpatients were measured biochemically. The results showed that fetuin-A expressed widely in the proximal and distal renal tubule, the thin segment of Henles loop and the collecting duct epithelium. There were no differences in serum fetuin-A level between the two groups. Compared with control group, cellular expression of P47phox and fetuin-A mRNAs in the renal tissue of patients with nephrolithiasis increased, the level of MDA in renal tissue and the level of urinary calcium also increased, but urinary and renal fetuin-A protein and the activities of SOD in renal tissue decreased. Correlation analysis showed that there was a negative correlation between the level of renal fetuin-A protein and the expression of P47phox mRNA and MDA. These results revealed that nephrolithiasis patients had lower fetuin-A protein level in urine and renal tissue.
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[Ru(bpy)2dppz-idzo]2+: a colorimetric molecular "light switch" and powerful stabilizer for G-quadruplex DNA.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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A new ruthenium complex, [Ru(bpy)2dppz-idzo](2+) (bpy = 2,2-bipyridine, dppz-idzo = dipyrido-[3,2-a:2,3-c] phenazine-imidazolone), was synthesized and characterized. The luminescent titrations showed that the Ru-complex exhibited an outstanding "light switch" effect with an emission enhancement factor of about 300 in the presence of G-quadruplex DNA in a K(+) solution. This remarkable "light switch" behavior can even be observed by the naked eye under irradiation with UV light. To get an insight into the "light switch" mechanism, quantum-chemical calculations were performed based on the DFT/TDDFT/PCM method at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. Furthermore, the CD titrations and thermal melting experiments indicated that [Ru(bpy)2dppz-idzo](2+) could not only induce the formation of an antiparallel G-quadruplex structure in the absence of monocations, but also has the ability to stabilize the G-quadruplex architecture, implying potential applications in anticancer therapeutics. Both the "light switch" effect and the structure stabilization ability of [Ru(bpy)2dppz-idzo](2+) were found to be superior to the well-known DNA molecular "light switch" [Ru(bpy)2dppz](2+). Finally, a "sandwich-like" binding model was proposed on the basis of molecular docking simulations.
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Predictors of shunt-dependent chronic hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.
Eur. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Chronic hydrocephalus is a common complication that can occur after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical risk factors that could predict the occurrence of shunt-dependent chronic hydrocephalus after aneurysmal SAH.
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CT-guided core needle biopsy of deep suprahyoid head and neck lesions.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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To evaluate the efficacy of computer tomography (CT)-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) in the diagnosis of deep suprahyoid lesions in patients with treated head and neck cancers.
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Effect of the PA-MSHA vaccine on septic serum-induced inflammatory response.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Sepsis is defined as a complex clinical syndrome caused by a serious infection followed by an amplified and deregulated inflammatory response. The complex syndrome is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality, despite substantial clinical advances. A vaccine derived from the outer membrane proteins of the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA-MSHA) has been demonstrated to exhibit immune modulatory properties. In the present study, the effect of the PA-MSHA vaccine on the inflammatory response induced by serum from septic patients in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was determined. It was observed that PA-MSHA pretreatment inhibits the production of septic serum-induced tumor necrosis factor-?. In addition, PA-MSHA treatment increases interleukin-10 levels and promotes the generation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells. Thus, the results of the current study provide mechanistic insight relevant to the potential application of PA-MSHA in the treatment of sepsis.
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Laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy versus open gastrectomy for resectable gastric cancer: an update meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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We carry out a meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) versus open gastrectomy for resectable gastric cancer.
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[Relative quantification of mRNA transcription of Cry1 in different tissues of sheep in oestrous cycle by real-time quantitative PCR].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Studies have shown that clock gene Cry1 may have important roles in the endocrine process of seasonal reproduction in mammals. In this study, Duolang sheep (non-seasonal reproduction sheep breed) and Chinese Merino (seasonal reproduction sheep breed) were used to determine the expression change of Cry1 in hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis in different stage of estrous cycle by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the Cry1 mRNA was expressed in all tested tissues, in which the expression levels in pineal gland and thyroid gland were higher than in other tissues. As far as different sheep breeds were concerned, the tissue expression profiles of Cry1 at different stage of estrous cycle were broadly similar. Besides hypothalamus, the expression levels of Cry1 in ovary, uterus, pineal gland, pituitary gland, and thyroid gland were all reached to peak in proestrus. The differences of expression change extent for Cry1 in vary, uterus, pineal gland, and pituitary gland in proestrus and oestrus were significant between different sheep breeds. The results suggested that Cry1 may play roles in switching on the estrus and seasonal reproduction.
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CT-guided core needle biopsy of deep suprahyoid head and neck lesions in untreated patients.
Interv Neuroradiol
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of CT-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) in the diagnosis of deep head and neck tumors in untreated patients. We retrospectively reviewed the records of ten consecutive CT-guided CNB procedures from ten patients without a related history from March 2004 to February 2012. The surgical results, treatment response and clinical follow-up were used as the diagnostic standards. All specimens were considered adequate. Nine out of ten cases matched the final diagnosis. Biopsy failed to diagnose the infratemporal meningioma en plaque in a particular case. Three cases were carcinomas. No complication was encountered. CT-guided core needle biopsy is an efficient and safe technique for histological diagnosis of skull base lesions in patients without a related history. This technique can offer a definite tissue diagnosis and avoid unnecessary surgical interventions for such patients.
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Direct binding of SAS-6 to ZYG-1 recruits SAS-6 to the mother centriole for cartwheel assembly.
Dev. Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Assembly of SAS-6 dimers to form the centriolar cartwheel requires the ZYG-1/Plk4 kinase. Here, we show that ZYG-1 recruits SAS-6 to the mother centriole independently of its kinase activity; kinase activity is subsequently required for cartwheel assembly. We identify a direct interaction between ZYG-1 and the SAS-6 coiled coil that explains its kinase activity-independent function in SAS-6 recruitment. Perturbing this interaction, or the interaction between an adjacent segment of the SAS-6 coiled coil and SAS-5, prevented SAS-6 recruitment and cartwheel assembly. SAS-6 mutants with alanine substitutions in a previously described ZYG-1 target site or in 37 other residues, either phosphorylated by ZYG-1 in vitro or conserved in closely related nematodes, all supported cartwheel assembly. We propose that ZYG-1 binding to the SAS-6 coiled coil recruits the SAS-6-SAS-5 complex to the mother centriole, where a ZYG-1 kinase activity-dependent step, whose target is unlikely to be SAS-6, triggers cartwheel assembly.
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Effects of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate against Mareks disease virus in experimentally infected chickens.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Chickens experimentally infected with Mareks disease virus J-1 strain were used to evaluate the anti-Mareks disease virus (MDV) activity of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) in vivo. Chickens in same group were kept in one pen and control group chickens were housed in negative pressure isolator. Chickens were treated with different dose of STS or ABOB for 21 consecutive days. Peripheral T lymphocyte proliferation, expression level of IFN-? and IL-10 in serum, and MDV load in spleen were determined. The results showed that the treatments with STS and ABOB could significantly increase stimulating index (SI) of peripheral T lymphocytes while the SI is dropping due to the MDV infection, SI of chickens in STS prevention groups were significantly higher than that in STS treatment group and ABOB group (P<0.05 or P<0.01); IFN-? and IL-10 level of chickens in STS groups were higher than that in other groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The results of qPCR demonstrated that STS could inhibit the virus replication in spleen of chickens infected with MDV. These findings indicated that STS can be potentially applied as an anti-MDV drug and set a solid basis for further investigating the antiviral mechanisms of STS.
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L-165,041, troglitazone and their combination treatment to attenuate high glucose-induced receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) expression.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the most developed countries of the world. Hyperglycemia-induced advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and receptor for AGEs (RAGE) production, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, and oxidative stress activation play major roles in kidney cell injury and apoptosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR?) agonists are used clinically as insulin sensitizers. This study evaluated the renoprotective effect of PPAR? (troglitazone) and PPAR? (L-165,041) agonists on human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK) and mesangial cells. Troglitazone (10 ?M) and L-165,041 (1 ?M) significantly inhibited high glucose (25mM)-induced interleukin-6 and TNF-? production, RAGE expression and NF-?B translocation in HEK cells. Furthermore, Troglitazone (10 ?M) and L-165,041(1 ?M) significantly increased SOD expression and attenuated apoptosis in HEK and mesangial cells. The inhibitory effect between 1 ?M L-165,041 and 10 ?M troglitazone showed no difference. Furthermore L-165,041 and troglitazone together did not increase the effects. These results provide important information for future application of PPAR agonists in diabetic nephropathy treatment.
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Sex dimorphism of cortical water diffusion in normal aging measured by magnetic resonance imaging.
Front Aging Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Background: The purpose of this study was to examine sex dimorphism in water diffusion in the brain throughout the normal aging process by magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: Diffusion-weighted images covering the majority of the brain were acquired from 77 healthy participants. Both the mean water diffusivity and diffusion kurtosis were calculated from the cortical regions and parcellated according to the template in anatomical automatic labeling. The mean water diffusivity and diffusion kurtosis from both sexes were examined and subsequently correlated with age. Statistical significance was set at a threshold of p < 0.01 after correction for multiple comparisons. In regions that reached statistical significance, a linear regression model was performed. Analysis of variance was conducted to determine the interaction between aging and sex. Results: Sex differences were observed for three aspects. First, compared to females, males presented increased mean water diffusivity and a decreased diffusion kurtosis in the frontal and temporal lobes. Second, a widespread age-related increase in mean water diffusivity was observed, which was more significant in the frontal, occipital, and temporal areas and in the cingulum in females. Third, the diffusion kurtosis decreased with aging but only in restricted areas for both sexes. For the interaction of aging and sex, the most significant change was observed with regards to mean diffusivity, mostly in the right amygdala. Conclusions: A sex-related dimorphism in water diffusion throughout the aging process was observed in the cortex using magnetic resonance imaging.
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Proliferation of Colorectal Cancer Is Promoted by Two Signaling Transduction Expression Patterns: ErbB2/ErbB3/AKT and MET/ErbB3/MAPK.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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One of the recent breakthroughs in cancer research is the identification of activating mutations in various receptor tyrosine kinase(RTK) pathways in many cancers including colorectal cancer(CRC). We hypothesize that, alternative to mutations, overexpression of various oncogenic RTKs may also underpin CRC pathogenesis, and different RTK may couple with distinct downstream signaling pathways in different subtypes of human CRC. By immunohistochemistry, we show here that RTK members ErbB2, ErbB3 and c-Met were in deed differentially overexpressed in colorectal cancer patient samples leading to constitutive activation of RTK signaling pathways. Using ErbB2 specific inhibitor Lapatinib and c-Met specific inhibitor PHA-665752, we further demonstrated that this constitutive activation of RTK signaling is necessary for the survival of colorectal cancer cells. Furthermore, we show that RTK overexpression pattern dictates the use of downstream AKT and/or MAPK pathways. Our data are important additions to current oncogenic mutation models, and further explain the clinical variation in therapeutic responses of colorectal cancer. Our findings advocate for more personalized therapy tailored to individual patients based on their type of RTK expression in addition to their mutation status.
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Crystal structures of the CPAP/STIL complex reveal its role in centriole assembly and human microcephaly.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Centrioles organise centrosomes and template cilia and flagella. Several centriole and centrosome proteins have been linked to microcephaly (MCPH), a neuro-developmental disease associated with small brain size. CPAP (MCPH6) and STIL (MCPH7) are required for centriole assembly, but it is unclear how mutations in them lead to microcephaly. We show that the TCP domain of CPAP constitutes a novel proline recognition domain that forms a 1:1 complex with a short, highly conserved target motif in STIL. Crystal structures of this complex reveal an unusual, all-? structure adopted by the TCP domain and explain how a microcephaly mutation in CPAP compromises complex formation. Through point mutations, we demonstrate that complex formation is essential for centriole duplication in vivo. Our studies provide the first structural insight into how the malfunction of centriole proteins results in human disease and also reveal that the CPAP-STIL interaction constitutes a conserved key step in centriole biogenesis. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01071.001.
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Effect of larvae treated with mixed biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis-abamectin on sex pheromone communication system in cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Third instar larvae of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) were reared with artificial diet containing a Bacillus thuringiensis-abamectin (BtA) biopesticide mixture that resulted in 20% mortality (LD20). The adult male survivors from larvae treated with BtA exhibited a higher percentage of "orientation" than control males but lower percentages of "approaching" and "landing" in wind tunnel bioassays. Adult female survivors from larvae treated with BtA produced higher sex pheromone titers and displayed a lower calling percentage than control females. The ratio of Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9-16:Ald) in BtA-treated females changed and coefficients of variation (CV) of Z11-16:Ald and Z9-16:Ald were expanded compared to control females. The peak circadian calling time of BtA-treated females occurred later than that of control females. In mating choice experiment, both control males and BtA-treated males preferred to mate with control females and a portion of the Bt-A treated males did not mate whereas all control males did. Our Data support that treatment of larvae with BtA had an effect on the sex pheromone communication system in surviving H. armigera moths that may contribute to assortative mating.
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Rosuvastatin enhances angiogenesis via eNOS-dependent mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (circEPCs) of bone marrow (BM) origin contribute to postnatal neovascularization and represent a potential therapeutic target for ischemic disease. Statins are beneficial for ischemia disease and have been implicated to increase neovascularization via mechanisms independent of lipid lowering. However, the effect of Statins on EPC function is not completely understood. Here we sought to investigate the effects of Rosuvastatin (Ros) on EPC mobilization and EPC-mediated neovascularization during ischemic injury. In a mouse model of surgically-induced hindlimb ischemia (HLI), treatment of mice with low dose (0.1 mg/kg) but not high dose (5 mg/kg) significantly increased capillary density and accelerated blood flow recovery, as compared to saline-treated group. When HLI was induced in mice that had received Tie2/LacZ BM transplantation, Ros treatment led a significantly larger amount of endothelial cells (ECs) of BM origin incorporated at ischemic sites than saline. After treatment of mice with a single low dose of Ros, circEPCs significantly increased from 2 h, peaked at 4 h, declined until 8 h. In a growth-factor reduced Matrigel plug-in assay, Ros treatment for 5 d induced endothelial lineage differentiation in vivo. Interestingly, the enhanced circEPCs and post-HLI neovascularization stimulated by Ros were blunted in mice deficient in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and Ros increased p-Akt/p-eNOS levels in EPCs in vitro, indicating these effects of Ros are dependent on eNOS activity. We conclude that Ros increases circEPCs and promotes their de novo differentiation through eNOS pathway.
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Survey for late-onset hypogonadism among old and middle-aged males in Shanghai communities.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
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This study sought to investigate late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in old and middle-aged males in Shanghai communities, using symptom score evaluation systems and measurements of sex hormone levels. One thousand cases of males aged 40-70 years were investigated. The aging male symptoms (AMS) scale and androgen deficiency in aging males (ADAM) questionnaire were used at the beginning of the investigation, followed by measurement of the sex hormone-related factors (total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (fT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and bioavailability of testosterone (Bio-T)). There were 977 valid questionnaires. The LOH-positive rates shown by AMS and ADAM were 59.88% and 84.65%, respectively; values increased with the age of the patients. There were 946 results related to sex hormone measurements, which showed the following results: TT was not related to aging (P>0.05); levels of SHBG increased with age; and fT and Bio-T decreased with age. There was a significant difference in fT between LOH-positive and LOH-negative patients, as shown by the ADAM. In summary, TT levels were not related to aging, even though SHBG did increase while fT and Bio-T decreased with aging. Clinically, the diagnosis of LOH cannot be based on serum TT level.
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Identification of the nanogold particle-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress by omic techniques and systems biology analysis.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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Growth inhibition and apoptotic/necrotic phenotype was observed in nanogold particle (AuNP)-treated human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. To elucidate the underlying cellular mechanisms, proteomic techniques including two-dimensional electrophoresis/mass spectrometry and protein microarrays were utilized to study the differentially expressed proteome and phosphoproteome, respectively. Systems biology analysis of the proteomic data revealed that unfolded protein-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response was the predominant event. Concomitant with transcriptomic analysis using mRNA expression, microarrays show ER stress response in the AuNP-treated cells. The ER stress protein markers expression assay unveiled AuNPs as an efficient cellular ER stress elicitor. Upon ER stress, cellular responses, including reactive oxygen species increase, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and mitochondria damage, chronologically occurred in the AuNP-treated cells. Conclusively, this study demonstrates that AuNPs cause cell death through induction of unmanageable ER stress.
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[The gene ontology and electro localization of ovine skin derived EST-SSR markers].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2011
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Abstract: In order to study the potential gene function of ovine EST-SSR markers, nine original EST of Ovine Skin Derived polymorphic EST-SSR loci, which were developed in an early study by our lab, were ontology annotated and Electro localized. The results revealed that the original ESTs of the six loci had high homology with known genes and three of them probably played an important role in wool traits. Compared with its cDNA library, 8 loci were located on chromosomes of cattle. The homology of chromosomes between cattle and sheep was estimated based on the similarity coefficients calculated by positioning markers. Additionally, NJ clustering tree was establishedto serve for electro localization of ovine EST-SSR markers. Finally, 8 EST-SSR markers were successfully positioned on ovine chromosomes. The results from this study not only provide references for further studies on genetic mapping, in silico cloning of key genes for wool traits, but also are helpful to the researchs of chromosome evolution in animal.
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Carotid stenting of asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid artery stenoses with and without the use of a distal embolic protection device.
Acta Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of symptomatic and clinically silent embolic following carotid angioplasty and stent placement (CAS) with and without the use of an embolic protection device (EPD).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.