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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Generalized Ratiometric Indictor Based Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for the Detection of Cd2+ in Environmental Water Samples.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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The concept of generalized ratiometric indictor based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy was first introduced and successfully implemented in the detection of Cd2+ in environmental water samples using Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified by trithiocyanuric acid (TMT). Without the use of any internal standard, the proposed method achieved accurate concentration predictions for Cd2+ in environmental water samples with recoveries in the ranges of 91.8~108.1%, comparable to the corresponding values obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were estimated to be 2.9 and 8.7 nM, respectively. More importantly, other species presented in water samples which can not react with TMT and has weaker binding ability to AuNPs than TMT, do not interfere with the quantification of Cd2+. Therefore, it is expected that the combination of the generalized ratiometric indictor based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with the proposed AuNPs-TMT probing system can be a competitive alternative for the primary screening of Cd2+ pollution.
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[Degradation of dimethyl phthalate by Ti (IV)-catalyzed O3/H2O2 under acidic conditions].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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The degradation efficiencies of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) by O3, O3/H2O2, Ti(IV)/O3 and Ti(IV)/O3/H2O2 were investigated under acidic conditions. The results indicated that Ti(IV)/O3/H2O2 was the best system with the highest degradation efficiency and mineralization rate of DMP, and the highest utilization rate of ozone at pH 2.8. The apparent rate constants of DMP degradation by O3, O3/H2O2, Ti(IV)/O3 and Ti(IV)/O3/H2O2 under the same conditions were 3.96 x 10(-4) s(-1), 9.54 x 10(-4) s(-1) 1.07 x 10(-3) s(-1) and 6.41 x 10(-3) s(-1), respectively. The ozone utilization rate of Ti(IV)/O3/H2O2 was improved by 6.51% compared with that of ozonation alone. The experimental results showed that the optimized concentrations of Ti(IV) and H2O2 were 1.4 mg x L(-1) and 10 mg x L(-1), respectively. According to the results of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and ion chromatography analysis, the possible reaction pathway of DMP degradation by Ti(IV)/O3/H2O2 was proposed and discussed.
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Comparison of immunological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human embryonic stem cells and bone marrow.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) has great potentials for both regenerative medicine and immunotherapy due to its multipotency and immunomodulatory property. The derivation of MSCs from human tissues involves an invasive procedure and the obtained MSCs often suffer from inconsistent quality. To overcome these issues, the approaches of deriving highly potent and replenishable population of MSCs from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were established. However, few studies compared the immunological characteristics of MSCs derived from hESCs with tissue-derived MSCs or demonstrated differences and the underlying mechanisms. Here, we differentiated H9 hESCs into MSC-like cells (H9-MSCs) through an EB-outgrowth method and compared the immunological characteristics of H9-MSCs with bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs). Both sources of derived cells exhibited typical MSC morphologies and surface markers expressions, as well as multipotency to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. Immunological characterization study showed that H9-MSCs and BMSCs had similarly immunoprivileged properties without triggering allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation, as well as equivalent immunosuppressive effect on T-cell proliferation induced by either cellular or mitogenic stimuli. Flow cytometry analysis revealed a lower expression of human major histocompatability complex (MHC) class II molecule HLA-DR and a higher expression of co-inhibitory molecules B7-H1 in H9-MSCs than in BMSCs. IFN-? is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that can induce the expression of HLA class II molecules in many cell types. Our results showed that pretreatment of H9-MSCs and BMSCs with IFN-? did not change their immunogenicity and immunosuppressive abilities, but increased the difference between H9-MSCs and BMSCs for their expression of HLA-DR. Further detection of expression of molecules involved in IFN-? signaling pathways suggested that the lower expression of HLA-DR in H9-MSCs could be partially attributed to the lower expression and the less nuclear translocation of its transcriptional factor CIITA. The present study provides evidence that the hESCs-derived MSCs share similar immunogenicity and immunosuppressive abilities with BMSCs, but differ in the expression profile of immunological markers and the responsiveness to certain inflammatory cytokines, which suggests that H9-MSCs could be a safe and efficient candidate for MSC treatment in patients with inflammatory disorders.
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[Analysis of the phase of left ventricular isovolumic relaxation time in healthy people using dual-channel echocardiography].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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To exacted analysis each time interval in isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) of normal subjects through observin the changes of cardiac structure and hemodynamics during the IVRT. Then to provide the evidence of cardiac resynchronization therapy.
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Why does enzyme not leach from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)? Unveiling the interactions between an enzyme molecule and a MOF.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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The strong interactions between microperoxidase (MP-11) and Tb-mesoMOF were identified via Raman spectroscopic studies, which revealed that MP-11 molecules interact with the framework of Tb-mesoMOF through ?···? interactions between the heme of MP-11 and the conjugated triazine and benzene rings in the organic ligand of Tb-mesoMOF. The strong interactions facilitate the retention of MP-11 molecules within the metal-organic framework (MOF) pores, which is in striking contrast with the severe leaching of MP-11 from MCM-41 due to the lack of specific interactions between enzyme molecules and the mesoporous silica material.
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Strategy selection in evolutionary game dynamics on group interaction networks.
Bull. Math. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Evolutionary game theory provides an appropriate tool for investigating the competition and diffusion of behavioral traits in biological or social populations. A core challenge in evolutionary game theory is the strategy selection problem: Given two strategies, which one is favored by the population? Recent studies suggest that the answer depends not only on the payoff functions of strategies but also on the interaction structure of the population. Group interactions are one of the fundamental interactive modes within populations. This work aims to investigate the strategy selection problem in evolutionary game dynamics on group interaction networks. In detail, the strategy selection conditions are obtained for some typical networks with group interactions. Furthermore, the obtained conditions are applied to investigate selection between cooperation and defection in populations. The conditions for evolution of cooperation are derived for both the public goods game and volunteer's dilemma game. Numerical experiments validate the above analytical results.
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Phase Equilibria of Ternary and Quaternary Systems Containing Diethyl Carbonate with Water.
J Solution Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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In this study liquid phase equilibrium compositions were measured at 298.15 K under atmospheric pressure for (water + propan-1-ol + diethyl carbonate (DEC) + benzene or cyclohexane or heptane) quaternary systems and (water + DEC + propan-1-ol or benzene or cyclohexane) ternary systems. Good correlation of the experimental LLE data was seen for the measured systems by both modified and extended UNIQUAC models. The solubility of DEC in aqueous and organic phases is shown by equilibrium distribution coefficients calculated from the LLE data.
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Effects of high salt-exposure on the development of retina and lens in 5.5-day chick embryo.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Excess maternal salt intake during pregnancy may alter fetal development. However, our knowledge on how an increased salt intake during pregnancy influences fetal eye development is limited. In this study, we investigated the effects of high-salt treatment on the developing eyes in chick embryos, especially focusing on the development of the retina and the lens.
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Inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by specific siRNA targeting Nsp9 gene.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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To screen siRNAs for effectively inhibiting the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Four pairs of siRNA targeting Nsp9 gene of PRRSV and one non-efficient pair used as control were designed, synthesized and cloned into pSilencer4.1-CMV neo, designated as pSi-294, pSi-367, pSi-409, pSi-1488, pSi-Ctr. The recombinant plasmids were transfected into Marc-145 cells and infected with PRRSV 24h post transfection. Subsequently, IFA, real-time PCR, TCID50 and western blot were used for evaluating the inhibitory effect of the siRNA. IFA and western-blot results showed that pSi-294, pSi-1488 can effectively inhibit the expression of Nsp9 and M protein of PRRSV, real-time PCR result showed that the expression of Nsp9 gene were decreased from 86.56% to 93.66% compared to the negative control. siRNAs can be used as candidates for basic research of PRRSV.
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Epidemiological and evolutionary characteristics of the PRRSV in Southern China from 2010 to 2013.
Microb. Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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In 2006, a highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) emerged in China and caused lasting damage to the swine industry. To analyze the genetic variation of PRRSV in Southern China, 126 tissue samples were collected; 41 ORF5 and partial Nsp2 genes were sequenced and analyzed. The results showed that the PRRSV positive rate was 32.54% over the last four years, that there are two main subgenotypes in Southern China, and that the dominant strain is HP-PRRSV. An amino acid analysis of Nsp2 showed that 40 strains contained a 30-amino acid deletion in the hypervariable region. However, the 13YJ6-8 mutant exhibited a unique amino acid deletion at positions 508-514 of Nsp2. A phylogenetic analysis of ORF5 revealed that this mutant and five other strains, belong to an intermediate subgenotype (inter-subgenotype), which is characterized by extensive mutations, especially in the signal peptide and N-glycosylation sites. The results of this study demonstrate the genetic diversity of PRRSV in Southern China and provide basic knowledge of the PRRSV epidemic in this region.
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Optical imaging of visual cortical responses evoked by transcorneal electrical stimulation with different parameters.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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The use of phosphenes evoked by transcorneal electrical stimulation (TcES) has been proposed as a means of residual visual function evaluation and candidate selection before implantation of retinal prostheses. Compared to the subjective measures, measurement of neuronal activity in visual cortex can objectively and quantitatively explore their response properties to electrical stimulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate systematically the properties of cortical responses evoked by TcES.
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A low bandgap asymmetrical squaraine for high-performance solution-processed small molecule organic solar cells.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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A novel asymmetrical squaraine ASQ-5 bearing indoline as an end capper exhibits a low bandgap of 1.43 eV and a broad absorption band in the Vis-NIR region of 550-850 nm in thin films, hence renders solution-processed organic solar cells with an impressive Jsc of up to 11.03 mA cm(-2) and an excellent PCE of 4.29%.
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Who is the best donor for a related HLA haplotype-mismatched transplant?
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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The best donor for a related donor for a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype-mismatched transplant for hematological neoplasms is controversial. We studied outcomes in 1210 consecutive transplant recipients treated on a uniform protocol. Younger donors and male donors were associated with less nonrelapse mortality (NRM; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01-0.39; P = .008 and HR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.49-0.85; P = .002) and better survival (HR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.54-0.97; P = .033 and HR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.59-0.91; P = .005). Father donors were associated with less NRM (HR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.45-0.95; P = .02), acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (HR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.55-0.86; P = .001), and better survival (HR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.50-0.87; P = .003) compared with mother donors. Children donors were associated with less acute GVHD than sibling donors (HR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.31-0.91; P = .01). Older sister donors were inferior to father donors with regard to NRM (HR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.10-3.20; P = .02) and survival (HR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.05-2.40; P = .03). Noninherited maternal antigen-mismatched sibling donors were associated with the lowest incidence of acute GVHD compared with parental donors and noninherited paternal antigen-mismatched sibling donors. Specific HLA disparities were not significantly correlated with transplant outcomes. Our data indicate which HLA haplotype-mismatched related donors are associated with the best transplant outcomes in persons with hematological neoplasms.
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Interleukin-1?/IRAK-1 inflammatory signaling contributes to persistent gankyrin activation during hepatocarcinogenesis.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a prototype of inflammation-associated cancer. Oncoprotein Gankyrin, mostly increases in HCC, plays a critical role in HCC development and metastasis. However, the exact mechanism of Gankyrin upregulation in HCC remains unclear. A Gankyrin luciferase reporter was developed to screen potential regulator for Gankyrin from a list of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and IL-1? was found as one of its activators. In clinical pre-malignant and malignant liver diseases samples, enhanced IL-1?/IRAK-1 signaling accompanied by increased Gankyrin was observed. Lower expression of Gankyrin and phospho-IRAK-1 are favorable prognostic markers for HCC. A similar correlation was observed in the diethylnitrosamine (DEN) model of rat hepatocarcinogenesis. The results from Gankyrin reporter activity, real-time PCR, or immunoblot further confirmed the upregulation of Gankyrin by IL-1?/IRAK-1 inflammatory signaling. Moreover, a series of Gankyrin's truncated reporters were constructed, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) were performed to analyze the properties of Gankyrin promoter. Mechanistically, the core promoter of Gankyrin contains the binding site of NF-Y family members, which can recruit histone acetyltransferase (HAT) co-activator p300 or CBP to promote Gankyrin transcription. Conversely, knockdown of NF-Y, p300, or CBP inhibits Gankyrin expression. IL-1? stimulation causes sequential phosphorylation of IRAK-1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p300, and enhances the recruitment of the p300/CBP/NF-Y complex to Gankyrin promoter. Inhibition of phospho-JNK impairs IL-1?/IRAK-1 signaling-mediated upregulation of Gankyrin. Thus, the finding of IL-1?/IRAK-1 signaling promoting Gankyrin expression via JNK and NF-Y/p300/CBP complex provides a fresh view on inflammation-enhanced hepatocarcinogenesis. (Hepatology 2014;).
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The role of c2orf68 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in human colorectal cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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The aim of the research is to determine whether c2orf68 gene plays a role in the carcinogenesis of human colorectal cancer and to study the function of c2orf68 belonging to the UPF0561 family. The mRNA expression levels of c2orf68 were examined in 30 pairs of human colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues and adjacent normal colorectal tissues by qRT-PCR. The SW480 and SW620 cell lines were transfected with siRNA against the c2orf68 gene and set gene. The expressed mRNA levels of Akt, PI3K, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase3, c-Myc, cyclinD1, pp2a and set were determined by qRT-PCR, and the protein levels of C2ORF68, c-Myc, PP2A and SET were examined by Western blot. Cell proliferation was tested by MTT assay, and apoptosis and cell cycle were studied by flow cytometry. Cancer metastasis assay was performed by transwell chamber. The c2orf68 mRNA expression was down-regulated in 63.33 % of the cancer samples, and a positive correlation was found between the mRNA expression of c-Myc and pp2a that of c2orf68. Meanwhile, there was a negative correlation between the mRNA expression of c2orf68 and set. The c2orf68 mRNA was significantly down-regulated in SW480(-c2orf68) and SW620(-c2orf68) cells. The inhibitory rate in the two cell lines was, respectively, 65.2 and 71.6 % by qRT-PCR. A 22.7 % inhibition on cell proliferation in SW480(-c2orf68) cells and a 21.2 % inhibition in SW620(-c2orf68) cells were observed using the MTT assay. Flow cytometry analysis indicates that the cell apoptosis rate was 21.42 % in SW480(-c2orf68) cells and 17.78 % in SW620(-c2orf68) cells, whereas the percentage of G1 phase cells was 61.8 and 58.6 % in SW480(-c2orf68) and SW620(-c2orf68) cells, respectively. In addition, the mRNA expression of set and Bax was up-regulated after c2orf68 interfered in SW480(-c2orf68) and SW620(-c2orf68) cells, whereas that of Bcl-2, c-Myc, cyclinD1, caspase3 and pp2a was down-regulated. Consistent with the mRNA results, the protein expression of C2ORF68, PP2A and c-Myc was down-regulated, whereas that of SET was up-regulated. Our data thus suggest that c2orf68 promotes carcinogenesis through the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway.
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Synthesis and characterization of symmetric cyclooctatetraindoles: exploring the potential as electron-rich skeletons with extended ?-systems.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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A facile one-pot tetramerization of indolin-2-one with phosphoryl chloride was applied for the first convenient direct synthesis of C2v-symmetric cyclooctatetraindole with an 8? annulene as the center. Tetra- and octa-arylated cyclooctatetraindole derivatives functionalized with fluorescent fluorene and pyrene units were thus facilely synthesized and characterized.
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Adverse effects of high glucose levels on somite and limb development in avian embryos.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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Gestational diabetes has an adverse impact on fetal musculoskeletal development, but the mechanism involved is still not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of high glucose on the developing somites and their derivate using the chick embryo as a model. We demonstrated that under high glucose, the number of generated somites was reduced and their morphology altered in 2-day old chick embryos. In addition, high glucose repressed the development of the limb buds in 5.5-day old chick embryos. We also demonstrated that high glucose abridged the development of the sclerotome and the cartilage in the developing limb bud. The sonic hedgehog (Shh) gene has been reported to play a crucial role in the development and differentiation of sclerotome. Hence, we examined how Shh expression in the sclerotome was affected under high glucose. We found that high glucose treatment significantly inhibited Shh expression. The high glucose also impaired myotome formation at trunk level - as revealed by immunofluorescent staining with MF20 antibodies. In the neural tube, we established that Wnt3a expression was also significantly repressed. In summary, our study demonstrates that high glucose concentrations impair somite and limb bud development in chick embryos, and suggests that Shh and Wnt genes may play a role in the underlying mechanism.
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Distribution of venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine in a fatal case.
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Venlafaxine is an extensively used antidepressant drug; it is considered to be quite safe and only a few pure cases of fatal poisoning have been reported. Here we describe a fatal case of venlafaxine self-poisoning including detailed tissue distribution of the drug and its metabolite O-desmethylvenlafaxine and the exact time sequence of events, as reported in the patient's clinical record. Qualitative analyses were performed by GC-MS while quantitative analyses were carried out by LC-MS/MS. We then compared our results with those of previously published cases. Fatal venlafaxine poisoning often occurs after the intake of an extremely elevated number of tablets, corresponding to tens of grams of the drug, or it can be due to interaction between the drug and other substances. In the present case, no other drugs or ethanol were found and death occurred 12h after ingesting only 3g of venlafaxine, despite timely medical treatment.
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Endoscopic classification can predict the infiltrative growth patterns of early-stage esophageal cancer: a retrospective study of 133 patients at a single academic tertiary care center.
Cancer Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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The relationships between two endoscopic classification systems (type I and II) and the infiltrative growth patterns (INF) of early esophageal cancers were evaluated. Among type I carcinomas, the INFs were mainly INFb in the polypoid and mixed types, INFa in the superficial type, and INFc in the excavated type. Among type II carcinomas, INFa was the main pattern in the surface-propagating type, whereas INFb was observed in the intraluminal, bilateral, and mixed types. INFb and INFc were observed in the intramural type. Our results indicate that the superficial and surface-propagating types had the weakest infiltrative potential, whereas the excavated and intramural types had the highest infiltrative potential.
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Functional classification and mutation analysis of a synpolydactyly kindred.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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The aim of the present study was to analyze a congenital syndactyly/polydactyly kindred and propose a new functional classification method of clinical significance. The modes of inheritance and mutational mechanisms were also determined using genetic analyses. Hand and foot anatomy and functions were measured using photographic images, X-ray imaging and grip ability tests. Genetic analysis comprised the genotyping of polymorphic microsatellite markers at known polydactyly-associated loci and the sequencing of the candidate gene. A functional classification system was devised to divide the clinical features into three types, which included mild, moderate or severe deformity. The family was concluded to have syndactyly type II with autosomal dominant inheritance. The microsatellites, D2S2310 and D2S2314, at the 2q31-32 chromosome, which have previously been associated with synpolydactyly type I, were found to be associated with the disorder in the current family. A 27-bp insertion mutation was identified in the affected individuals in the HOXD13 gene at this locus. The insertion added a further nine alanine residues to the polyalanine stretch within the encoded protein. In conclusion, the functional classification method described in the present study may be used to guide surgical approaches to treatment. A family was identified in whom expansion of the polyalanine tract in the HOXD13 gene causes autosomal dominant hereditary synpolydactyly.
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Integration of micro-filtration into osmotic membrane bioreactors to prevent salinity build-up.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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The high salinity remains as one of major obstacles of the osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR). In this study, a new pathway was explored to prevent the salinity build-up by integrating the micro-filtration (MF) membrane to the OMBR (MF-OMBR). The results indicated that the salinity characterized by conductivity in the MF-OMBR was effectively alleviated and controlled at a lower value of about 5 mS/cm, and the stable flux of forward osmosis (FO) membrane correspondingly increased to approximately 5.5L/(m(2)h). Besides, the addition of MF membrane in the OMBR could increase the total organic carbon (TOC) and ammonium nitrogen (NH3-N) removals due to the activated sludge by improving the microbial activity. The membrane fouling especially the reversible fouling in the MF-OMBR was severer compared to that in the conventional OMBR, which resulted in a lower water flux than the expectation due to the increase of filtration resistance and external concentration polarization.
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Clinical characteristics of 92 patients with temporal lobe focal cortical dysplasia identified by pathological examination.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is frequently associated with focal epilepsy, and a broad spectrum of histopathology is included in the diagnosis of FCD. In 2011, an International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) task force proposed an international consensus for a classification system to better characterise specific clinicopathological FCD entities. The clinical characteristics of patients with FCD should be confirmed according to the new ILAE classification. We retrospectively analysed 92 patients who had undergone surgical treatment for temporal lobe epilepsy and received a pathological diagnosis of FCD. The pathological sections were re-examined and diagnosed according to the 2011 ILAE classification. The clinical data from patients with different FCD subtypes were evaluated, including a detailed history regarding spontaneous abortions, trauma, ischaemic injury, encephalitis, and febrile seizures at an early age. The age of epilepsy onset, duration of epilepsy, age at surgery, seizure frequency, history of febrile seizures, and seizure type, particularly whether the seizures were secondarily generalised tonic-clonic seizures, were recorded. Clinical differences were found in the patients with temporal lobe FCD. The associated FCD subtypes have unique clinical characteristics, including a later age of epilepsy onset and a shorter duration of epilepsy, especially in FCD Type IIIc; and a high susceptibility to febrile seizures was observed in FCD Type IIIa.
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Picosecond pulsed electric fields induce apoptosis in a cervical cancer xenograft.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of picosecond pulsed electric fields (psPEF) on a cervical cancer xenograft. Human cervical cancer xenografts were established in nude mice by transplantation of HeLa cells, and the tumors were then treated with psPEF. The histological changes were observed by hematoxylin?eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy. The rate of tumor cell apoptosis was determined using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl?transferase?mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The mitochondrial transmembrane potential of the tumor cells was detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy, and the activity of caspase?3, ?8, ?9 and ?12 was determined. The inhibitory rate seven days post?psPEF treatment was also calculated. The results showed that exposure to psPEF led to an increased rate of apoptosis, collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and activation of caspases. The inhibitory rate was 9.11% at day 7. The results of the present study indicate that psPEF may induce apoptosis in a cervical cancer xenograft through the endoplasmic reticulum stress and caspase?dependent signaling pathways.
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Enantioselective HPLC determination and pharmacokinetic study of secnidazole enantiomers in rats.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Secnidazole is a long-lasting nitroimidazole antimicrobial agent that is used as racemic mixture in clinical settings. We developed and validated an enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography method to determine secnidazole enantiomers in rat plasma. Secnidazole enantiomers and S-(-)-ornidazole (internal standard) were extracted from 50 ?L of rat plasma using diethyl ether-dichloromethane (3:2, v/v). Baseline resolution (Rs=2.45) was achieved within 7.0 min on a Chiral-AGP column (150 mm × 4.0mm, 5 ?m) at 20°C. The mobile phase consisted of 10mM ammonium acetate-methanol (96:4, v/v) and was delivered at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min with ultraviolet detection at 318 nm. The method was linear over the concentration range 0.500-100 ?g/mL for both enantiomers. The lower limit of quantification was 0.500 ?g/mL for both enantiomers. The relative standard deviation values for intra- and inter-day precision were 0.8-8.6 and 1.8-8.2% for S-(+)-secnidazole and R-(-)-secnidazole, respectively. The relative error values of accuracy ranged from -7.8 to 1.1% for S-(+)-secnidazole and from -7.3 to -0.1% for R-(-)-secnidazole. The method was successfully used to determine the pharmacokinetic properties of secnidazole enantiomers in rats after administration of the racemate and individual enantiomers. The pharmacokinetic results indicate that the disposition of secnidazole enantiomers is not stereoselective and chiral inversion and enantiomer-enantiomer interaction do not occur in rats.
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Effect of two-linked mutations of the FMO3 gene on itopride metabolism in Chinese healthy volunteers.
Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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Itopride is an effective gastroprokinetic agent mainly used for the treatment of functional dyspepsia. Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) has been confirmed to be the key enzyme involved in the main itopride metabolic pathway. We investigated whether the FMO3 genotypes can affect itopride metabolism in Chinese healthy volunteers.
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Quercetin significantly inhibits the metabolism of caffeine, a substrate of cytochrome P450 1A2 unrelated to CYP1A2*1C??(-2964G>A) and *1F (734C>A) gene polymorphisms.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Quercetin is abundant in plants and human diets. Previous studies indicated that quercetin inhibited the activity of CYP1A2, and the combination of quercetin with the substrates of CYP1A2 might produce herb-drug interactions. This research aims to determine the effects of quercetin and the CYP1A2 gene polymorphisms, namely, CYP1A2*1C??(-2964G>A) and *1F (734C>A), on the metabolism of caffeine.
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Hollow-fiber-supported liquid-phase microextraction using an ionic liquid as the extractant for the pre-concentration of bisphenol A, 17-?-estradiol, estrone and diethylstilbestrol from water samples with HPLC detection.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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A new method for the determination of four endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) (bisphenol A, 17-?-estradiol, estrone and diethylstilbestrol) in water samples has been developed using polypropylene hollow-fiber-supported ionic liquid (IL, 1-Octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C8MIM][PF6]) microextraction [HF-liquid-phase microextraction (LPME)] combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV. This method was used to investigate pollutants in surface water, on the Neijiang River, located at Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province. Several parameters (sample pH, volume of accepter phase, ionic strength) were investigated. Under the optimum extraction conditions (sample pH, 2.0; volume of extraction solvent, 2.5 ?L; ionic strength, 2.57) the proposed method offered: good linearity range, 0.15-100 ?g L(-1), with the correlation coefficients (r(2)) of 0.9996, 0.9994, 0.9990 and 0.9984, respectively; low limits of detection, 0.03, 0.05, 0.10, 0.05 ?g L(-1) (S/N = 3) for bisphenol A, 17-?-estradiol, estrone and diethylstilbestrol, respectively; good reproducibility (relative standard deviation (RSD), 8.41, 7.61, 9.00, 7.22%, respectively, n = 5); satisfactory recoveries (80.2-107.1%, n = 5); and high enrichment factors, 5,240, 3,693, 2,425 and 2,086, were achieved, for the four chemicals, respectively. Using the proposed HF-LPME, among 15 sampling sites along Neijiang River, bisphenol A, diethylstilbestrol and 17-?-estradiol were detected in some sites, all of which were the near suburban sampling sites. The results indicate that the role of municipal sewage is an important source of EDC contamination.
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[Survey of the coverage and influencing factors of pit and fissure sealants in primary and middle school of Hangzhou city].
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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To investigate the coverage of pit and fissure sealants in primary and middle school students of Hangzhou city, and to explore the causes of unsealing students.
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Biodiesel production from non-edible Silybum marianum oil using heterogeneous solid base catalyst under ultrasonication.
Ultrason Sonochem
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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The aim of this study is to investigate modified TiO2 doped with C4H4O6HK as heterogeneous solid base catalyst for transesterification of non-edible, Silybum marianum oil to biodiesel using methanol under ultrasonication. Upon screening the catalytic performance of modified TiO2 doped with different K-compounds, 0.7 C4H4O6HK doped on TiO2 was selected. The preparation of the catalyst was done using incipient wetness impregnation method. Having doped modified TiO2 with C4H4O6HK, followed by impregnation, drying and calcination at 600 °C for 6 h, the catalyst was characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, BET, TGA, UV and the Hammett indicators. The yield of the biodiesel was proportional to the catalyst basicity. The catalyst had granular and porous structures with high basicity and superior performance. Combined conditions of 16:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil, 5 wt.% catalyst amount, 60 °C reaction temperature and 30 min reaction time was enough for maximum yield of 90.1%. The catalyst maintained sustained activity after five cycles of use. The oxidative stability which was the main problem of the biodiesel was improved from 2.0 h to 3.2h after 30 days using ascorbic acid as antioxidant. The other properties including the flash point, cetane number and the cold flow ones were however, comparable to international standards. The study indicated that Ti-0.7-600-6 is an efficient, economical and environmentally, friendly catalyst under ultrasonication for producing biodiesel from S. marianum oil with a substantial yield.
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Multiplicative effects model with internal standard in mobile phase for quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assays suffer from signal instability caused by the gradual fouling of the ion source, vacuum instability, aging of the ion multiplier, etc. To address this issue, in this contribution, an internal standard was added into the mobile phase. The internal standard was therefore ionized and detected together with the analytes of interest by the mass spectrometer to ensure that variations in measurement conditions and/or instrument have similar effects on the signal contributions of both the analytes of interest and the internal standard. Subsequently, based on the unique strategy of adding internal standard in mobile phase, a multiplicative effects model was developed for quantitative LC-MS assays and tested on a proof of concept model system: the determination of amino acids in water by LC-MS. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method could efficiently mitigate the detrimental effects of continuous signal variation, and achieved quantitative results with average relative predictive error values in the range of 8.0-15.0%, which were much more accurate than the corresponding results of conventional internal standard method based on the peak height ratio and partial least squares method (their average relative predictive error values were as high as 66.3% and 64.8%, respectively). Therefore, it is expected that the proposed method can be developed and extended in quantitative LC-MS analysis of more complex systems.
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Massive exudative retinal detachment following photodynamic therapy for retinal hemangioma in von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a common treatment on retinal capillary hemangioma. We applied PDT to a patient with von Hippel-Lindau(VHL) syndrome and she developed severe massive exudative retinal detachment the next day, which is a rare complication for PDT. After intraocular anti-VEGF agent and peribulbar dexamethasone several times to the patient, her subretinal fluid disappeared and hemangiomas atrophied. Treatment with Anti-VEGF agent and corticosteroid is effective for such complication.
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Relationship between gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight, prenatal blood pressure and dystocia in pregnant Chinese women.
Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Little is known about the optimal cut-off point of fasting plasma glucose for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus for pregnant Chinese women. This study investigates the relationship between gestational fasting plasma glucose and several variables: neonatal birth weight, prenatal blood pressure and dystocia rate of pregnant women. In this study, we hoped to provide a useful tool to screen gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant Chinese women.
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Critical role of cellular cholesterol in bovine rotavirus infection.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is a non-enveloped dsRNA virus that cause neonatal calf diarrhea. Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enrich membrane mircodomains that play a vital role in many cellular processes. In this study, the effect of cellular cholesterol depletion on infection of MA-104 cells with bovine rotavirus was investigated.
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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of D-ring opened galantamine analogs as multifunctional anti-Alzheimer agents.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Facing the multifactorial nature of Alzheimer's disease, twelve dibenzofuran/carbazole derivatives, which can be considered as the D-ring opened analogs of galantamine, have been designed and synthesized as multifunctional anti-Alzheimer agents. In vitro tests revealed that compounds 3 and 5, which bear a nitrate moiety in the molecule, showed a potent inhibition activity towards AChE and compound 3 showed a good A?42 aggregation inhibitory activity. Moreover, 3 and 5 could also release a relative low concentration of NO in vitro and they did not show toxicity to neuronal cells, while exerted a neuroprotective effect against the A?-induced toxicity. More importantly, compound 3 showed a significant spatial memory improving effect in vivo, and a good safety in the ex vivo toxicity study.
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Involvement of SET in the Wnt signaling pathway and the development of human colorectal cancer.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The SET oncoprotein is involved in cancer progression by modulating multiple cellular processes, including the inhibition of the tumor suppressor, protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A). Based upon these multiple activities, we hypothesized that targeted inhibition of SET is likely to have multiple discrete and measurable effects on cancer cells. In the present study, the mRNA expression levels of SET, PP2A and ?-catenin were examined in 31 pairs of human colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues and corresponding adjacent normal colorectal tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A small interfering RNA targeting SET was transfected into the human colon carcinoma cell lines, LS174T and SW480. The mRNA levels of SET, PP2A, ?-catenin, c-Myc, E-cadherin and p53 were determined by qPCR analysis and the protein levels of SET, c-Myc, PP2A and ?-catenin were examined by western blot analysis. mRNA expression levels of SET and ?-catenin were found to be elevated in 22 (70.9%) samples, while PP2A expression levels were upregulated in eight (25.8%) samples. In addition, the knockdown of SET mRNA expression caused the upregulation of PP2A and c-Myc in the two cell lines, whereas ?-catenin, E-cadherin and p53 mRNA expression was downregulated. Consistent with these results, the protein expression of ?-catenin and c-Myc was found to be downregulated, whereas PP2A was upregulated at the protein level. Based on these results, we proposed that SET is essential in the carcinogenesis of human colorectal adenocarcinoma. In addition, it is suggested that SET promotes carcinogenesis through regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway.
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Novel calibration model maintenance strategy for solving the signal instability in quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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In this contribution, a multiplicative effects model with a parameter accounting for the variations in overall sensitivity over time was proposed to reduce the effects of signal instability on quantitative results of LC-MS/MS. This method allows the use of calibration models constructed from large standard sets without having to repeat their measurement even though variations occur in sensitivity and baseline signal intensity. The performance of the proposed method was tested on two proof-of-concept model systems: the determination of the target peptide in two sets of peptide digests mixtures and the quantification of melamine and metronidazole in two sets of milk powder samples. Experimental results confirmed that multiplicative effects model could provide quite satisfactory concentration predictions for both systems with average relative predictive error values far lower than the corresponding values of various models investigated in this paper. Considering its capability in solving the problem of signal instability across samples and over time in LC-MS/MS assays and its implementation simplicity, it is expected that the multiplicative effects model can be developed and extended in many application areas such as the quantification of specific protein in cells and human plasma and other complex systems.
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Preparation, characterization, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Bi3+-Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide complex.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Two new Bi3+-Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (BiHEP) complexes were prepared using Bi3+ and two purified polysaccharides from H. erinaceus (HEPs), respectively. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, CD, SEM, AFM, XRD, and TG. The anti-Helicobacter pylori (Hp) activities in vitro by agar dilution assay of the complexes were evaluated. The molecular weights of HEPs were 197 and 20 kDa, respectively. All the analyses confirmed the formation of new BiHEP complexes with lower content of Bi3+ compared with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS), the most utilized bismuth preparation clinically. Furthermore, HEPs themselves have definite inhibition effects on Hp, and BiHEP complexes have lower content of Bi exhibited strong inhibition effects on Hp (MIC=20 ?g/mL), similar to that of CBS with higher content of Bi. The study provides a basis for further development of multiple treatments of Hp infection or new medicines.
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Li(+)-conductive polymer-embedded nano-Si particles as anode material for advanced Li-ion batteries.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Si has been considered as a promising alternative anode for next-generation lithium ion batteries (LIBs), but the commercial application of Si anodes is still limited due to their poor cyclability. In this paper, we propose a new strategy to enhance the long-term cyclability of Si anode by embedding nano-Si particles into a Li(+)-conductive polymer to form a Si/polymer composite with core-shell structure, in which nano-Si cores act as active Li-storage phase and the polymeric matrix serves not only as a strong buffer to accommodate the volume change, but also as a protection barrier to prevent the direct contact of Si surface with electrolyte, so as to maintain the mechanical integrity of Si anode and suppress the repeated destruction and construction of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the Si surface. To realize this strategy, we synthesize a Si/PPP (polyparaphenylene) composite simply by ball-milling the Si nanoparticles with PPP polymer that has n-doping activity. Our experimental results demonstrate that the thus-prepared Si/PPP composite exhibits a high capacity of 3184 mA h g(-1) with an initial coulombic efficiency of 78%, an excellent rate capability with a considerably high capacity of 1670 mA h g(-1) even at a very high rate of 16 A g(-1), and a long-term cyclability with 60% capacity retention over 400 cycles, showing a great prospect for battery application. In addition, this structural design could be adopted to other Li-storable metals or alloys for developing cycle-stable anode materials for Li-ion batteries.
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Mixing of Chromatic and Luminance Retinal Signals in Primate Area V1.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Vision emerges from activation of chromatic and achromatic retinal channels whose interaction in visual cortex is still poorly understood. To investigate this interaction, we recorded neuronal activity from retinal ganglion cells and V1 cortical cells in macaques and measured their visual responses to grating stimuli that had either luminance contrast (luminance grating), chromatic contrast (chromatic grating), or a combination of the two (compound grating). As with parvocellular or koniocellular retinal ganglion cells, some V1 cells responded mostly to the chromatic contrast of the compound grating. As with magnocellular retinal ganglion cells, other V1 cells responded mostly to the luminance contrast and generated a frequency-doubled response to equiluminant chromatic gratings. Unlike magnocellular and parvocellular retinal ganglion cells, V1 cells formed a unimodal distribution for luminance/color preference with a 2- to 4-fold bias toward luminance. V1 cells associated with positive local field potentials in deep layers showed the strongest combined responses to color and luminance and, as a population, V1 cells encoded a diverse combination of luminance/color edges that matched edge distributions of natural scenes. Taken together, these results suggest that the primary visual cortex combines magnocellular and parvocellular retinal inputs to increase cortical receptive field diversity and to optimize visual processing of our natural environment.
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Impacts of sludge retention time on sludge characteristics and membrane fouling in a submerged osmotic membrane bioreactor.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Sludge retention time (SRT) is a feasible method to alleviate the salt accumulation in the osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) by discharging the waste activated sludge. In this study, effects of SRT on sludge characteristics and membrane fouling were investigated using a submerged OMBR under two SRTs of 10 and 15d. The results showed that the lower SRT was helpful for alleviating the salt accumulation and flux decline. Besides that, the removal of NH3-N was significantly influenced by SRT. SRT also had a strong effect on soluble microbial products (SMP) and microbial activity due to the variation of salinity. Microbial diversity analysis indicated that the high salinity environment in the OMBR significantly affected the microbial communities. The flux decline in the OMBR was mainly attributed to the reduced driving force resulting from the salt accumulation, and the reversible fouling was the dominant forward osmosis (FO) membrane fouling in the OMBR.
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Modulation of nonneutralizing HIV-1 gp41 responses by an MHC-restricted TH epitope overlapping those of membrane proximal external region broadly neutralizing antibodies.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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A goal of HIV-1 vaccine development is to elicit broadly neutralizing Abs (BnAbs), but current immunization strategies fail to induce BnAbs, and for unknown reasons, often induce nonneutralizing Abs instead. To explore potential host genetic contributions controlling Ab responses to the HIV-1 Envelope, we have used congenic strains to identify a critical role for MHC class II restriction in modulating Ab responses to the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of gp41, a key vaccine target. Immunized H-2(d)-congenic strains had more rapid, sustained, and elevated MPER(+) Ab titers than those bearing other haplotypes, regardless of immunogen, adjuvant, or prime or boost regimen used, including formulations designed to provide T cell help. H-2(d)-restricted MPER(+) serum Ab responses depended on CD4 TH interactions with class II (as revealed in immunized intra-H-2(d/b) congenic or CD154(-/-) H-2(d) strains, and by selective abrogation of MPER restimulated, H-2(d)-restricted primed splenocytes by class II-blocking Abs), and failed to neutralize HIV-1 in the TZM-b/l neutralization assay, coinciding with lack of specificity for an aspartate residue in the neutralization core of BnAb 2F5. Unexpectedly, H-2(d)-restricted MPER(+) responses functionally mapped to a core TH epitope partially overlapping the 2F5/z13/4E10 BnAb epitopes as well as nonneutralizing B cell-Ab binding residues. We propose that class II restriction contributes to the general heterogeneity of nonneutralizing gp41 responses induced by Envelope. Moreover, the proximity of TH and B cell epitopes in this restriction may have to be considered in redesigning minimal MPER immunogens aimed at exclusively binding BnAb epitopes and triggering MPER(+) BnAbs.
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Validation of a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of all-trans retinoic acid in human plasma and its application to a bioequivalence study.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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A sensitive, reliable and specific LC-MS-MS method was developed and validated for the identification and quantitation of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in human plasma. Acitretin was used as the internal standard (IS). After liquid-liquid extraction of 500 ?L plasma with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ATRA and the IS were chromatographed on a HyPURITY C18 column (150 mm×2.1 mm, 5 ?m) with the column temperature set at 40 °C. The mobile phase was consisted of 40% phase A (MTBE-methanol-acetic acid, 50:50:0.5, v/v) and 60% phase B (water-methanol-acetic acid, 50:50:0.5, v/v) with a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via the positive electrospray ionization interface using the transition m/z 301.4?123.1 for ATRA and m/z 326.9?177.1 for IS, respectively. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.45-217.00 ng/mL (r?0.999) with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 0.45 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions values were below 8% relative standard deviation and the accuracy was from 98.98% to 106.19% in terms of relative error. The validated method was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study of ATRA in Chinese healthy volunteers.
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Crystal engineering of an nbo topology metal-organic framework for chemical fixation of CO2 under ambient conditions.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Crystal engineering of the nbo metal-organic framework (MOF) platform MOF-505 with a custom-designed azamacrocycle ligand (1,4,7,10-tetrazazcyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetra-p-methylbenzoic acid) leads to a high density of well-oriented Lewis active sites within the cuboctahedral cage in MMCF-2, [Cu2(Cu-tactmb)(H2O)3(NO3)2]. This MOF demonstrates high catalytic activity for the chemical fixation of CO2 into cyclic carbonates at room temperature under 1?atm pressure.
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Association of pSTAT3-VEGF signaling pathway with peritumoral edema in newly diagnosed glioblastoma: an immunohistochemical study.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It is well recognized that peritumoral edema is vasogenic cerebral edema in malignant glioma, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced by phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (pSTAT3) strongly contributes to tumor angiogenesis in glioblastoma. However, there is no study with regard to the correlation between pSTAT3 or VEGF and peritumoral edema. Such evidence may contribute to providing new targets for the management of peritumoral cerebral. In this study, newly diagnosed glioblastoma tissues from 84 patients were collected to investigate pSTAT3 and VEGF expression by immunohistochemistry, and peritumoral edema was detected by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. We found that a significantly positive correlation emerged between VEGF and pSTAT3 expression (P = 0.000) in glioblastoma tissues, but they were not related to patient gender and age (P > 0.05); the expression of pSTAT3 and VEGF were associated with peritumoral edema extent (P = 0.005), but not with edema shape (P > 0.05). Therefore, the pSTAT3-VEGF signaling pathway, which is correlated with peritumoral edema extent, might be a regulatory mechanism in the course of peritumoral edema formation during glioblastoma tumorigenesis and progression, thereby suggesting that STAT3 inhibition might be helpful for alleviation of peritumoral cerebral edema.
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Mechanisms for steep pulse irreversible electroporation technology to kill human large cell lung cancer cells L9981.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To explore the mechanisms for steep pulse irreversible electroporation technology to kill the lung cancer cell L9981. The apoptosis, cells mitochondrial membrane potential, internal PH changes and the intra-cellular calcium ions concentration were detected after steep pulses acted on the human large cell lung cancer cell L9981. Apoptosis test results indicated that cancer cells mainly experienced necrosis and apoptosis. Along with the increase of electric parameters, the proportion of the necrotic cells increased rapidly; the detection of cells mitochondrial membrane potential indicated that membrane potential occurred depolarization. Steep pulse can cause cancer cells to produce death and apoptosis .The PH value indicated that intracellular PH level down jumped. Internal PH became more acidic and led to cell death. The detection of intra-cellular calcium ions concentration showed that the number of free calcium significantly increased, and this change had killing effects on cell death and apoptosis. Steep pulse could induce cell apoptosis.
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A PKA activity sensor for quantitative analysis of endogenous GPCR signaling via 2-photon FRET-FLIM imaging.
Front Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Neuromodulators have profound effects on behavior, but the dynamics of their intracellular effectors has remained unclear. Most neuromodulators exert their function via G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). One major challenge for understanding neuromodulator action is the lack of dynamic readouts of the biochemical signals produced by GPCR activation. The adenylate cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (PKA) module is a central component of such biochemical signaling. This module is regulated by several behaviorally important neuromodulator receptors. Furthermore, PKA activity is necessary for the induction of many forms of synaptic plasticity as well as for the formation of long-term memory. In order to monitor PKA activity in brain tissue, we have developed a 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2pFLIM) compatible PKA sensor termed FLIM-AKAR, which is based on the ratiometric FRET sensor AKAR3. FLIM-AKAR shows a large dynamic range and little pH sensitivity. In addition, it is a rapidly diffusible cytoplasmic protein that specifically reports net PKA activity in situ. FLIM-AKAR expresses robustly in various brain regions with multiple transfection methods, can be targeted to genetically identified cell types, and responds to activation of both endogenous GPCRs and spatial-temporally specific delivery of glutamate. Initial experiments reveal differential regulation of PKA activity across subcellular compartments in response to neuromodulator inputs. Therefore, the reporter FLIM-AKAR, coupled with 2pFLIM, enables the study of PKA activity in response to neuromodulator inputs in genetically identified neurons in the brain, and sheds light on the intracellular dynamics of endogenous GPCR activation.
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Raman spectroscopy analysis of the biochemical characteristics of molecules associated with the malignant transformation of gastric mucosa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The purpose of this study was to comparatively analyze the signature Raman spectra of genomic DNA, nuclei, and tissue of normal gastric mucosa and gastric cancer and to investigate the biochemical transformation of molecules associated with gastric mucosa malignancy.
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[8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome cured by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: two case reports and literature review].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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To report 2 rare cases of 8p11 meyloproliferative syndrome cured by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
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[Measurement of peak velocity variation of common carotid artery with bedside ultrasound to estimate preload in surgery ICU].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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To investigate the feasibility and accuracy of bedside ultrasound measuring peak velocity variation of common carotid artery to estimate preload of the patients in surgery ICU.
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[Influence of 20% lipid emulsion on drug concentration, distribution volume and pharmacology effect of continuous infusion of propofol in rabbits].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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To investigate the influence of 20% lipid emulsion on drug plasma concentration, distribution volume and pharmacology effect of propofol administered with constant rate intravenous infusion in rabbits.
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Induction of HIV-1 broad neutralizing antibodies in 2F5 knock-in mice: selection against membrane proximal external region-associated autoreactivity limits T-dependent responses.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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A goal of HIV-1 vaccine development is to elicit broadly neutralizing Abs (BnAbs). Using a knock-in (KI) model of 2F5, a human HIV-1 gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER)-specific BnAb, we previously demonstrated that a key obstacle to BnAb induction is clonal deletion of BnAb-expressing B cells. In this study of this model, we provide a proof-of-principle that robust serum neutralizing IgG responses can be induced from pre-existing, residual, self-reactive BnAb-expressing B cells in vivo using a structurally compatible gp41 MPER immunogen. Furthermore, in CD40L-deficient 2F5 KI mice, we demonstrate that these BnAb responses are elicited via a type II T-independent pathway, coinciding with expansion and activation of transitional splenic B cells specific for 2F5s nominal gp41 MPER-binding epitope (containing the 2F5 neutralization domain ELDKWA). In contrast, constitutive production of nonneutralizing serum IgGs in 2F5 KI mice is T dependent and originates from a subset of splenic mature B2 cells that have lost their ability to bind 2F5s gp41 MPER epitope. These results suggest that residual, mature B cells expressing autoreactive BnAbs, like 2F5 as BCR, may be limited in their ability to participate in T-dependent responses by purifying selection that selectively eliminates reactivity for neutralization epitope-containing/mimicked host Ags.
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Bis(1-ethyl-4,4-bipyridin-1-ium) bis-(1,2-di-cyano-ethene-1,2-di-thiol-ato-?(2) S,S)nickelate(II).
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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In the anion of the title compound, (C12H13N2)[Ni(C4N2S2)2], the Ni(II) atom is coordinated by four S atoms from two 1,2-di-cyano-ethene-1,2-di-thiol-ate (mnt) ligands in a suqare-planar geometry. Weak C-H?N and C-H?S hydrogen bonds between the 1-ethyl-4,4-bipyridin-1-ium cations and mnt anions and weak ?-? inter-actions between the pyridine rings of the cations [centroid-centroid distances = 3.808?(3) and 3.972?(3)?Å] lead to a two-dimensional network parallel to (010).
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Improved outcomes using G-CSF-mobilized blood and bone marrow grafts as the source of stem cells compared with G-PB after HLA-identical sibling transplantation in patients with acute leukemia.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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This retrospective study compared the transplantation outcomes of 98 consecutive patients with acute leukemia. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was performed using G-CSF-mobilized bone marrow and blood (G-BM&PB) or G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood (G-PB) from HLA-identical sibling donors. The G-BM&PB and G-PB groups displayed significantly different neutrophil recovery rates (medians of 15 vs. 14 d, respectively; p = 0.009) but similar platelet recovery rates. The cumulative incidences of grades II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) in the G-BM&PB and G-PB cohorts were similar (16.2 ± 4.7% vs. 21.8 ± 7.4%, respectively; p = 0.676), but the incidences of grades III-IV aGVHD were significantly different (5.5 ± 3.1% vs. 18.9 ± 7.1%, respectively; p = 0.042). The G-BM&PB and G-PB cohorts displayed similar cumulative incidences of chronic GVHD (cGVHD, 49.1 ± 5.7% vs. 42.7 ± 6.8%, respectively; p = 0.465), one-yr cumulative incidences of treatment-related mortality (16.5 ± 3.5% vs. 24.4 ± 4.1%, respectively; p = 0.220), and five-yr cumulative incidences of relapse (13.9 ± 4.8% vs. 26.8 ± 7.2%, respectively; p = 0.113). The five-yr probability of leukemia-free survival (LFS) was significantly higher in the G-BM&PB group than in the G-PB group (77.8 ± 5.2% vs. 57.6 ± 8.6%, respectively; p = 0.023). Multivariate analysis identified G-PB as an independent risk factor for grades III-IV aGVHD and LFS. Our results suggest that HLA-identical transplantation with G-BM&PB results in superior clinical outcomes compared with G-PB for patients with acute leukemia.
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Hypertensive cardiac remodeling effects of lignan extracts from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. bark--a famous traditional Chinese medicine.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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The lignan extracts from the tree bark of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., a famous traditional Chinese medicine, have been demonstrated to have inhibitory effects on aldose reductase activity in spontaneously hypertensive rat myocardium. This study was aimed to investigate the hypertensive cardiac remodeling effects of the lignan extracts together with epalrestat. Ten-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 12, each) and administered 100 mg/kg/d of captopril (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor), 100 mg/kg/d of epalrestat (aldose reductase inhibitor) or 300 mg/kg/d of lignan extracts by gavage for 16 weeks. Sex-, age-, and number-matched normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats with spontaneously hypertensive rats were treated with distilled water (vehicle) as controls. Systolic blood pressures were measured periodically. Echocardiography examination was taken when rats were 24 weeks old. We found that both captopril and lignan extracts lowered blood pressure, and inhibited aldose reductase activity similarly to epalrestat. Echocardiography examination and histomorphometry indices were improved in all treated groups (p < 0.05). Therefore, lignan extracts could prevent hypertensive cardiac remodeling, which is likely related to aldose reductase inhibition.
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The olfactory signal transduction for attractive odorants in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Biotechnol. Adv.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Olfaction in Caenorhabditis elegans is a versatile and sensitive strategy to seek food and avoid danger by sensing volatile chemicals emitted by the targets. The ability to sense attractive odor is mainly accomplished by the AWA and AWC neurons. Previous studies have shown the components of the olfaction signal pathway in these two amphid chemosensory neurons, but integration of the individual signaling components requires further elucidation. Here we review the progresses in our understanding of signal pathways for attractive olfaction involving AWA and AWC neurons, and discuss how the different signal molecules might employ the common molecular cascades to transduce the olfactory system and guide behavior in each neuron.
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Phylogenetic analysis and molecular characteristics of 17 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates in Southern China from 2010 to 2011.
Microb. Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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We analyzed the complete genomic sequences of 17 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates from Southern China obtained between 2010 and 2011 and found that four of seven isolates from 2011 were closely related to the JXA1-R strain (vaccine virus of JXA1). This close relationship between field isolates and China domestic vaccine viruses has not been reported to date. The occurrence of vaccine-like viruses potentially creates a threat for the pig breeding industry and brings difficulties for control of this disease.
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Neuroprotective effects of prior exposure to enriched environment on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: the possible molecular mechanism.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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Increasing evidence shows that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury is neuroprotective in animal models. Recent studies have demonstrated that animals housed in an enriched environment condition after an experimental stroke obtained a better functional outcome than those housed in a standard condition. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of enriched environment exposure prior to injury. The current study examined the neuroprotective effects of prior enriched environment exposure after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, weighing 55-65g at the beginning of the experiment, were randomly assigned to a pre-ischemic enriched environment (PIEE) or pre-ischemic standard condition (PISC) group for 1 month. They were weighed on days1, 7, 18, and 28, and their locomotor activity was tracked during the period between 9:00am and 3:00pm daily. After 1 month, ischemia was induced by occluding the middle cerebral artery for 90min, followed by reperfusion. After approximately 24h of the operation, functional outcomes were assessed using the beam-walking test and a neurological evaluation scale in all rats. We measured the expression of extracellular signal regulated protein kinases1/2 (ERK1/2) by western blotting and gene expression levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthasen (iNOS) by Real-Time PCR in the cortical area affected by ischemia. Finally, we measured the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which is a biomarker of oxidative stress. The results showed that rats in the PIEE group had lighter weight than those in the PISC group. The functional outcomes of rats in the PIEE group were better than those in the PISC group, and substances associated with inflammation, such as MDA, nNOS, iNOS, and phospho-ERK1/2, were lower in the PIEE group compared with the PISC group. These results indicate that enriched environment may provide neuroprotection via ischemic preconditioning and enhance resilience to cerebral ischemia.
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Common tolerance mechanisms, but distinct cross-reactivities associated with gp41 and lipids, limit production of HIV-1 broad neutralizing antibodies 2F5 and 4E10.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Developing an HIV-1 vaccine has been hampered by the inability of immunogens to induce broadly neutralizing Abs (BnAbs) that protect against infection. Previously, we used knockin (KI) mice expressing a prototypical gp41-specific BnAb, 2F5, to demonstrate that immunological tolerance triggered by self-reactivity of the 2F5 H chain impedes BnAb induction. In this study, we generate KI models expressing H chains from two other HIV-1 Abs, 4E10 (another self-/polyreactive, anti-gp41 BnAb) and 48d (an anti-CD4 inducible, nonpolyreactive Ab), and find a similar developmental blockade consistent with central B cell deletion in 4E10, but not in 48d VH KI mice. Furthermore, in KI strains expressing the complete 2F5 and 4E10 Abs as BCRs, we find that residual splenic B cells arrest at distinct developmental stages, yet exhibit uniformly low BCR densities, elevated basal activation, and profoundly muted responses to BCR ligation and, when captured as hybridoma mAb lines, maintain their dual (gp41/lipid) affinities and capacities to neutralize HIV-1, establishing a key role for anergy in suppressing residual 2F5- or 4E10-expressing B cells. Importantly, serum IgGs from naive 2F5 and 4E10 KI strains selectively eliminate gp41 and lipid binding, respectively, suggesting B cells expressing 2F5 or 4E10 as BCRs exhibit specificity for a distinct spectrum of host Ags, including selective interactions by 2F5 BCR(+) B cells (i.e., and not 4E10 BCR(+) B cells) with those mimicked by its gp41 neutralization epitope.
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Enhanced beta-catenin expression and inflammation are associated with human ectopic tubal pregnancy.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Is there a molecular link between Wnt signaling in fallopian tube inflammation and ectopic tubal implantation?
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Ultrasonic spectrum analysis for in vivo characterization of tumor microstructural changes in the evaluation of tumor response to chemotherapy using diagnostic ultrasound.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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There is a strong need for early assessment of tumor response to chemotherapy in order to avoid the adverse effects of unnecessary chemotherapy and to allow early transition to second-line therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of ultrasonic spectral analysis for the in vivo characterization of changes in tumor microstructure in the evaluation of tumor response to chemotherapy using diagnostic ultrasound.
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[Relationship between early serum albumin variation and prognosis in patients with severe acute pancreatitis treated in ICU].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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To investigate the relationship between serum albumin variation within 24 hours of ICU admission and prognosis in critically ill patients with sever acute pancreatitis(SAP).
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[The effect of nicotinamide N-methytransferase overexpression on biological behaviors of SMMC7721 hepatocellar carcinoma cell line].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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To study the effect of over expressed nicotinamide N-methytransferase (NNMT) on the malignant biological behaviors of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC7721.
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Safety, pharmacokinetic, and efficacy studies of oral DB868 in a first stage vervet monkey model of human African trypanosomiasis.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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There are no oral drugs for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness). A successful oral drug would have the potential to reduce or eliminate the need for patient hospitalization, thus reducing healthcare costs of HAT. The development of oral medications is a key objective of the Consortium for Parasitic Drug Development (CPDD). In this study, we investigated the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of a new orally administered CPDD diamidine prodrug, 2,5-bis[5-(N-methoxyamidino)-2-pyridyl]furan (DB868; CPD-007-10), in the vervet monkey model of first stage HAT. DB868 was well tolerated at a dose up to 30 mg/kg/day for 10 days, a cumulative dose of 300 mg/kg. Mean plasma levels of biomarkers indicative of liver injury (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase) were not significantly altered by drug administration. In addition, no kidney-mediated alterations in creatinine and urea concentrations were detected. Pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma confirmed that DB868 was orally available and was converted to the active compound DB829 in both uninfected and infected monkeys. Treatment of infected monkeys with DB868 began 7 days post-infection. In the infected monkeys, DB829 attained a median C(max) (dosing regimen) that was 12-fold (3 mg/kg/day for 7 days), 15-fold (10 mg/kg/day for 7 days), and 31-fold (20 mg/kg/day for 5 days) greater than the IC50 (14 nmol/L) against T. b. rhodesiense STIB900. DB868 cured all infected monkeys, even at the lowest dose tested. In conclusion, oral DB868 cured monkeys with first stage HAT at a cumulative dose 14-fold lower than the maximum tolerated dose and should be considered a lead preclinical candidate in efforts to develop a safe, short course (5-7 days), oral regimen for first stage HAT.
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Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase genetic polymorphisms A503V and rs2868177 do not significantly affect warfarin stable dosage in Han-Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement.
Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2013
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To investigate the influence of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) polymorphisms (A503V and rs2868177) on warfarin stable dosage (WSD) in Han-Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement (MHVR).
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Electrical stimulation with a penetrating optic nerve electrode array elicits visuotopic cortical responses in cats.
J Neural Eng
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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A visual prosthesis based on penetrating electrode stimulation within the optic nerve (ON) is a potential way to restore partial functional vision for blind patients. We investigated the retinotopic organization of ON stimulation and its spatial resolution.
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Contrast-enhanced US quantitatively detects changes of tumor perfusion in a murine breast cancer model during adriamycin chemotherapy.
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
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Currently used morphologic criteria have limitations in assessing tumor response to chemotherapy because of the relatively slow tumor shrinkage as measured by conventional morphologic imaging. Functional imaging techniques show promising results in early assessment of tumor response to treatment.
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A one-step RT-PCR array for detection and differentiation of zoonotic influenza viruses H5N1, H9N2, and H1N1.
J. Clin. Lab. Anal.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Rapid and comprehensive pathogen identification is crucial in zoonotic influenza diagnosis.
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The impact of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2013
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Upregulation of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) has been reported to be associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumors. However, the impact of LAT1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the expression of LAT1 in HCC was associated with established clinicopathological features. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to detect LAT1 mRNA expression in 23 pairs of fresh-frozen HCC tissues and corresponding noncancerous tissues. Results showed that LAT1 mRNA expression level in HCC tissues was significantly higher than that in corresponding noncancerous tissues. To investigate the association between LAT1 protein expression and clinicopathological characteristics of HCC, immunohistochemistry was performed in 148 archived paraffin-embedded HCC samples. High LAT1 expression in HCC was associated significantly with tumor size (P = 0.032), histological differentiation (P = 0.003), and tumor stage (P = 0.01). Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated that patients with a high expression of LAT1 have a significantly increased risk of shortened survival time. Moreover, stepwise Cox regression showed that LAT1 expression may be an independent prognostic factor. Collectively, our study demonstrated that LAT1was overexpressed in HCC and could be served as a potential prognostic marker.
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Effect of a single-dose rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of pitavastatin in healthy volunteers.
Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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As an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase that catalyses the first step of cholesterol synthesis, pitavastatin undergoes little hepatic metabolism; however, it is a substrate of uptake and efflux transporters. Since pitavastatin is potentially co-administered with agents that affect transporter activities, the pharmacokinetics of pitavastatin was investigated on the effects of a single-dose rifampin in healthy volunteers.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.