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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Infections, antibiotic treatment and mortality in patients admitted to ICUs in countries considered to have high levels of antibiotic resistance compared to those with low levels.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing concern in ICUs worldwide. Infection with an antibiotic resistant (ABR) strain of an organism is associated with greater mortality than infection with the non-resistant strain, but there are few data assessing whether being admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with high levels of antimicrobial resistance is associated with a worse outcome than being admitted to an ICU with low rates of resistance. The aim of this study was, therefore, to compare the characteristics of infections and antibiotic treatments and patient outcomes in patients admitted to ICUs in countries considered as having high levels of antibiotic resistance and those admitted to ICUs in countries considered as having low levels of antibiotic resistance.
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Infections and use of antibiotics in patients admitted for severe acute pancreatitis: data from the EPIC II study.
Surg Infect (Larchmt)
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Infectious complications are frequent in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) but multinational epidemiologic data are lacking. The aim of the study was to analyze the characteristics of the infectious complications and antimicrobial use in this setting.
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Overexpression of fatty acid synthase in human gliomas correlates with the WHO tumor grade and inhibition with Orlistat reduces cell viability and triggers apoptosis.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
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Fatty acid synthase (FASN), catalyzing the de novo synthesis of fatty acids, is known to be deregulated in several cancers. Inhibition of this enzyme reduces tumor cell proliferation. Unfortunately, adverse effects and chemical instability prevent the in vivo use of the best-known inhibitors, Cerulenin and C75. Orlistat, a drug used for obesity treatment, is also considered as a potential FASN inhibitor, but its impact on glioma cell biology has not yet been described. In this study, we analyzed FASN expression in human glioma samples and primary glioblastoma cell cultures and the effects of FASN inhibition with Orlistat, Cerulenin and C75. Immunohistochemistry followed by densitometric analysis of 20 glioma samples revealed overexpression of FASN that correlated with the WHO tumor grade. Treatment of glioblastoma cells with these inhibitors resulted in a significant, dose-dependent reduction in tumor cell viability and fatty acid synthesis. Compared to Cerulenin and C75, Orlistat was a more potent inhibitor in cell cultures and cell lines. In LN229, cell-growth was reduced by 63.9 ± 8.7 % after 48 h and 200 µM Orlistat compared to controls; in LT68, the reduction in cell growth was 76.3 ± 23.7 %. Nuclear fragmentation assay and Western blotting analysis after targeting FASN with Orlistat demonstrated autophagy and apoptosis. Organotypic slice cultures treated with Orlistat showed reduced proliferation after Ki67 staining and increased caspase-3 cleavage. Our results suggest that FASN may be a therapeutic target in malignant gliomas and identify Orlistat as a possible anti-tumor drug in this setting.
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Assessment of the worldwide burden of critical illness: the Intensive Care Over Nations (ICON) audit.
Lancet Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Global epidemiological data regarding outcomes for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are scarce, but are important in understanding the worldwide burden of critical illness. We, therefore, did an international audit of ICU patients worldwide and assessed variations between hospitals and countries in terms of ICU mortality.
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Abdominal infections in the intensive care unit: characteristics, treatment and determinants of outcome.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Abdominal infections are frequent causes of sepsis and septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU) and are associated with adverse outcomes. We analyzed the characteristics, treatments and outcome of ICU patients with abdominal infections using data extracted from a one-day point prevalence study, the Extended Prevalence of Infection in the ICU (EPIC) II.
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The future of observational research and randomized controlled trials in red blood cell transfusion medicine.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are commonplace in the intensive care unit (ICU) with at least 30% of ICU patients receiving a RBC transfusion at some point during their ICU stay. However, which patients should be transfused and what transfusion trigger(s) should be used remains unclear. RBC transfusion can be associated with adverse effects, but anemia is also associated with worse outcomes. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted to try and answer some of the questions surrounding blood transfusion in critically ill patients. The need for blood transfusion and the benefit/risk ratio vary according to individual patient characteristics, including age and comorbidities, so large-scale RCTs in heterogeneous groups of patients may not be the most appropriate tool to investigate these issues; smaller RCTs in carefully defined patient groups may provide more useful information. Rigorous statistical analysis of large, carefully conducted observational studies will also help enhance our evidence-base in this field.
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Adjuvant selenium supplementation in the form of sodium selenite in postoperative critically ill patients with severe sepsis.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Plasma selenium (Se) concentrations are reduced in critically ill surgical patients, and lower plasma Se concentrations are associated with worse outcomes. We investigated whether adjuvant Se supplementation in the form of sodium selenite could improve outcomes in surgical patients with sepsis.
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Impact of infection on the prognosis of critically ill cirrhotic patients: results from a large worldwide study.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Infections are a leading cause of death in patients with advanced cirrhosis, but there are relatively few data on the epidemiology of infection in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with cirrhosis.
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Perioperative fluid therapy with tetrastarch and gelatin in cardiac surgery--a prospective sequential analysis*.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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To determine clinical outcomes of synthetic colloids, tetrastarch, and gelatin, used before and after cardiac surgery.
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End-stage renal disease and outcome in a surgical intensive care unit.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with an increased propensity for critical illness, but whether ESRD is independently associated with a greater risk of death after major surgical procedures is unclear.
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Incidence and prognosis of dysnatraemia in critically ill patients: analysis of a large prevalence study.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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The objective of this study is to assess the impact of dysnatraemia on mortality among intensive care unit (ICU) patients in a large, international cohort.
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The influence of gender on the epidemiology of and outcome from severe sepsis.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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INTRODUCTION: The impact of gender on outcome in critically ill patients is unclear. We investigated the influence of gender on the epidemiology of severe sepsis and associated morbidity and mortality in a large cohort of ICU patients in the region of Piedmont in Italy. METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of data from a prospective, multicenter, observational study in which all patients admitted to one of 24 participating medical and/or surgical ICUs between 3 April 2006 and 29 September 2006 were included. RESULTS: Of the 3,902 patients included in the study, 63.5% were male. Female patients were significantly older than male patients (66 ± 16 years vs. 63 ± 16 years, P < 0.001). Female patients were less likely to have severe sepsis and septic shock on admission to the ICU and to develop these syndromes during the ICU stay. ICU mortality was similar in men and women in the whole cohort (20.1% vs. 19.8%, P = 0.834), but in patients with severe sepsis was significantly greater in women than in men (63.5% vs. 46.4%, P = 0.007). In multivariate logistic regression analysis with ICU outcome as the dependent variable, female gender was independently associated with a higher risk of ICU death in patients with severe sepsis (odds ratio = 2.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.23 to 4.39, P = 0.009) but not in the whole cohort (odds ratio = 1.07, 95% confidence interval = 0.87 to 1.34). CONCLUSION: In this large regional Italian cohort of ICU patients, there were more male than female admissions. The prevalence of severe sepsis was lower in women than in men, but female gender was independently associated with a higher risk of death in the ICU for patients with severe sepsis.
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Fluctuations in serum sodium level are associated with an increased risk of death in surgical ICU patients.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Dysnatremia may have an impact on outcomes in critically ill patients, but this has not been widely investigated in surgical ICU patients. We investigated the epidemiology of dysnatremia in a large cohort of surgical ICU patients and evaluated the possible influence of the time of acquisition of dysnatremia and fluctuations in serum sodium concentrations on hospital mortality in these patients.
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Risk factors of aseptic bone resorption: a study after autologous bone flap reinsertion due to decompressive craniotomy.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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In patients who have undergone decompressive craniectomy, autologous bone flap reinsertion becomes necessary whenever the cerebral situation has consolidated. However, aseptic necrosis of the bone flap remains a concern. The aim of this study was to report possible perioperative complications in patients undergoing autologous bone flap reinsertion and to identify the risk factors that may predispose the bone flap to necrosis.
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The impact of age on outcome after major surgical procedures.
J Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of age on outcome in a large cohort of surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients.
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Microcirculatory alterations in patients with severe sepsis: impact of time of assessment and relationship with outcome.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Sepsis induces microvascular alterations that may play an important role in the development of organ dysfunction. However, the relationship of these alterations to systemic variables and outcome is still not well defined. We investigated which factors may influence microcirculatory alterations in patients with severe sepsis and whether these are independently associated with mortality.
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Organ dysfunction: general approach, epidemiology, and organ failure scores.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
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Multiorgan dysfunction syndrome represents a continuum of cumulative organ dysfunction from very mildly altered function to total and, rarely, irreversible organ failure and is the major cause of death in the intensive care unit (ICU). The terms multiple organ failure syndrome (MOFS), multiple organ system failure (MOSF), and multiple organ failure (MOF) have since been used to describe this syndrome. Infections were initially thought to be the main cause of multiorgan dysfunction; however, other insults, such as severe trauma, burn injuries, and noninfectious inflammatory diseases may precipitate a similar condition. In 2001, several North American and European intensive care societies revisited the definitions for sepsis and related conditions. Additional criteria indicative of physiological derangements were added to the traditional systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, including clinical abnormalities (altered mental status, ileus) and biochemical evidence of a sepsis response [procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), creatinine, or cytokine levels]. The use of organ failure scores to describe organ dysfunction in ICU patients was encouraged. The pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, hematologic, and central nervous systems are the organs most commonly considered when describing organ dysfunction/failure in the ICU. Scoring systems for organ dysfunction/failure were designed primarily as descriptive tools, aimed at establishing standardized definitions to stratify and compare patients in the ICU in terms of morbidity rather than mortality. Sequential evaluation of organ dysfunction during the ICU stay may track disease progression and may be useful prognostically. We discuss the various scoring systems developed over the past 2 decades and present a rational approach to their role in assessing and following critically ill patients.
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The obesity paradox in surgical intensive care unit patients.
Intensive Care Med
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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To investigate the possible impact of obesity, as assessed by body mass index (BMI), on outcome in surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients.
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Increased mortality associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in the intensive care unit: results from the EPIC II study.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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Controversy continues regarding whether the presence of meticillin resistance increases mortality risk in Staphylococcus aureus infections. In this study, we assessed the role of meticillin resistance in survival of patients with S. aureus infection included in the EPIC II point-prevalence study of infection in critically ill patients performed on 8 May 2007. Demographic, physiological, bacteriological and therapeutic data were collected for 13796 adult patients in 1265 participating Intensive Care Units (ICUs) from 75 countries on the study day. ICU and hospital outcomes were recorded. Characteristics of patients with meticillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections were compared. Co-morbidities, age, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II, site of infection, geographical region and MRSA/MSSA were entered into a multivariate model, and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for ICU and hospital mortality rates were calculated. On the study day, 7087 (51%) of the 13796 patients were classified as infected. There were 494 patients with MRSA infections and 505 patients with MSSA infections. There were no significant differences between the two groups in use of mechanical ventilation or haemofiltration/haemodialysis. Cancer and chronic renal failure were more prevalent in MRSA than in MSSA patients. ICU mortality rates were 29.1% and 20.5%, respectively (P<0.01) and corresponding hospital mortality rates were 36.4% and 27.0% (P<0.01). Multivariate analysis of hospital mortality for MRSA infection showed an adjusted OR of 1.46 (95% CI 1.03-2.06) (P=0.03). In ICU patients, MRSA infection is therefore independently associated with an almost 50% higher likelihood of hospital death compared with MSSA infection.
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Moderate-dose vasopressin therapy may impair gastric mucosal perfusion in severe sepsis: a pilot study.
Anesthesiology
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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The effects of moderate-dose vasopressin on gastric mucosal perfusion and its relation to global and hepatosplanchnic hemodynamic and oxygen transport variables were investigated in patients with severe sepsis.
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Renal effects of synthetic colloids and crystalloids in patients with severe sepsis: a prospective sequential comparison.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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Hydroxyethyl starch 200 is associated with renal impairment in sepsis, but hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 and gelatin are considered to be less harmful. We hypothesized that fluid therapy with only crystalloids would decrease the incidence of acute kidney injury.
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Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II in a surgical intensive care unit.
J Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
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The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of and outcome from heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II (HIT) in surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients.
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Is the SAPS II score valid in surgical intensive care unit patients?
J Eval Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2010
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We investigated the performance of the simplified acute physiology score II (SAPS II) in a large cohort of surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients and tested the hypothesis that customization of the score would improve the uniformity of fit in subgroups of surgical ICU patients.
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Techniques to assess tissue oxygenation in the clinical setting.
Transfus. Apher. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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The microcirculation plays an essential role in health and disease. Microvascular perfusion can be assessed directly using laser Doppler flowmetry and various imaging techniques or indirectly using regional capnometry and measurement of indicators of mismatch between oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption or indices of disturbed cellular oxygen utilization. Assessment of microvascular oxygen availability implies measurement of oxygen pressure or measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation. Microvascular function is assessed using other methods, including venous plethysmography. In this paper, I review current knowledge concerning assessment of the microcirculation with special emphasis on methods that could be used at the bedside.
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Early identification of sepsis.
Curr Infect Dis Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2010
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Early diagnosis is crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality from sepsis. Clinical suspicion is the first step to diagnosis, and necessitates meticulous history taking and complete clinical examination. Special attention should be paid to identifying foci of infection. Biomarkers of host response-including acute phase proteins, procalcitonin, and various cytokines-may be useful in the diagnosis and management of patients with sepsis. Rapid and reliable detection of pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns is also of utmost importance. Many new techniques have been developed to shorten the time required for pathogen detection, including nucleic acid-based technologies (eg, polymerase chain reaction, microarrays, and hybridization). The detection of pathogen-related antigens is another approach that is useful in the diagnosis of fungal infections, targeting fungal cell wall components such as galactomannan and (1?3)-?-D-glucan.
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Serial measurement of Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28) in a surgical intensive care unit.
J Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2010
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The aim of the study was to assess the use of the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28) in surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients and the relationship of the score to the type of surgery, severity of illness, and outcome in these patients.
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Anemia and blood transfusion in a surgical intensive care unit.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2010
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Studies in intensive care unit (ICU) patients have suggested that anemia and blood transfusions can influence outcomes, but these effects have not been widely investigated specifically in surgical ICU patients.
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Insulin-treated diabetes is not associated with increased mortality in critically ill patients.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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This was a planned substudy from the European observational Sepsis Occurrence in Acutely ill Patients (SOAP) study to investigate the possible impact of insulin-treated diabetes on morbidity and mortality in ICU patients.
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Characterization of buccal microvascular response in patients with septic shock.
Eur J Anaesthesiol
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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Microcirculatory alterations are thought to be responsible for much of the morbidity and mortality from sepsis. The aim of the present study was to characterize the buccal microvascular response in patients with septic shock using combined laser Doppler flowmetry/visual light spectroscopy measurements.
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Epidemiology of and factors associated with end-of-life decisions in a surgical intensive care unit.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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To investigate the epidemiology of and possible factors associated with end-of-life decisions in a surgical intensive care unit.
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Infections of respiratory or abdominal origin in ICU patients: what are the differences?
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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There are few data related to the effects of different sources of infection on outcome. We used the Sepsis Occurrence in Acutely ill Patients (SOAP) database to investigate differences in the impact of respiratory tract and abdominal sites of infection on organ failure and survival.
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International study of the prevalence and outcomes of infection in intensive care units.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. However, relatively little information is available about the global epidemiology of such infections.
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ARDS of early or late onset: does it make a difference?
Chest
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
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Differences in outcomes have been demonstrated for critically ill patients with late-onset compared with early-onset renal failure and late-onset compared with early-onset shock, which could cause a lead-time bias in clinical trials assessing potential therapies for these conditions. We used data from a large, multicenter observational study to assess whether late-onset ARDS was similarly associated with worse outcomes compared with early-onset ARDS.
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Effects of a predominantly hydroxyethyl starch (HES)-based and a predominantly non HES-based fluid therapy on renal function in surgical ICU patients.
Intensive Care Med
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2009
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To compare the effects of predominantly hydroxyethyl starch (HES 6% 130/0.4)-based with predominantly gelatin 4%-based fluid therapy on renal function in surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients.
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Does the time of onset of severe sepsis in a surgical intensive care unit influence mortality rates: a single-center retrospective analysis.
J Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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The purpose of this study was to investigate possible differences in characteristics and mortality rates between early- and late-onset severe sepsis in surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients.
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Characteristics and outcomes of cancer patients in European ICUs.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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Increasing numbers of cancer patients are being admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), either for cancer-related complications or treatment-associated side effects, yet there are relatively few data concerning the epidemiology and prognosis of cancer patients admitted to general ICUs. The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of critically ill cancer patients, and to evaluate their prognosis.
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Patterns and early evolution of organ failure in the intensive care unit and their relation to outcome.
Crit Care
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Recognition of patterns of organ failure may be useful in characterizing the clinical course of critically ill patients. We investigated the patterns of early changes in organ dysfunction/failure in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and their relation to outcome. METHODS: Using the database from a large prospective European study, we studied 2,933 patients who had stayed more than 48 hours in the ICU and described patterns of organ failure and their relation to outcome. Patients were divided into three groups: patients without sepsis, patients in whom sepsis was diagnosed within the first 48 hours after ICU admission, and patients in whom sepsis developed more than 48 hours after admission. Organ dysfunction was assessed by using the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score. RESULTS: A total of 2,110 patients (72% of the study population) had organ failure at some point during their ICU stay. Patients who exhibited an improvement in organ function in the first 24 hours after admission to the ICU had lower ICU and hospital mortality rates compared with those who had unchanged or increased SOFA scores (12.4 and 18.4% versus 19.6 and 24.5%, P < 0.05, pairwise). As expected, organ failure was more common in sepsis than in nonsepsis patients. In patients with single-organ failure, in-hospital mortality was greater in sepsis than in nonsepsis patients. However, in patients with multiorgan failure, mortality rates were similar regardless of the presence of sepsis. Irrespective of the presence of sepsis, delta SOFA scores over the first 4 days in the ICU were higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors and decreased significantly over time in survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Early changes in organ function are strongly related to outcome. In patients with single-organ failure, in-hospital mortality was higher in sepsis than in nonsepsis patients. However, in multiorgan failure, mortality rates were not influenced by the presence of sepsis.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.