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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Respiratory dysrhythmia in dementia with Lewy bodies: a cross-sectional study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimers disease (AD). DLB is characterised by intracytoplasmic inclusions called Lewy bodies that are often seen in the brainstem. Because modulation of the respiratory rhythm is one of the most important functions of the brainstem, patients with DLB may exhibit dysrhythmic breathing. This hypothesis has not yet been systematically studied. Therefore, we evaluated the association between DLB and dysrhythmic breathing.
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(-)-Xanthatin up-regulation of the GADD45? tumor suppressor gene in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells: role of topoisomerase II? inhibition and reactive oxygen species.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Previously, we reported that (-)-xanthatin, a naturally occurring xanthanolide present in the Cocklebur plant, exhibits potent anti-proliferative effects on human breast cancer cells, accompanied by an induction of the growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 45? (GADD45?), recognized recently as a novel tumor suppressor gene. However, the mechanisms mediating this activation were unknown. Topoisomerase II? (Topo II?) inhibition has been reported to produce a cell death response accompanied by an atypical DNA laddering fragmentation profile, similar to that noted previously for (-)-xanthatin. Therefore we hypothesized that (-)-xanthatins GADD45? activation was mediated through the Topo II? pathway. Here, we identify that (-)-xanthatin does function as a catalytic inhibitor of Topo II?, promoting DNA damage. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were elevated in cells treated with this agent. Mechanistically, it was determined that the induced levels of GADD45? mRNA resulting from (-)-xanthatin exposures were stabilized by coordinately produced ROS, and that the consequent induction of GADD45? mRNA, GADD45? protein and ROS generation were abrogated by co-treatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Taken together, the data support the concept that Topo II? inhibition by (-)-xanthatin is a trigger that stimulates expression of DNA damage-inducible GADD45? mRNA and that concomitantly produced ROS act downstream to further enhance the GADD45? mRNA/GADD45? protein induction process, resulting in breast cancer cell death.
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Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by accidental kerosene ingestion in an elderly patient with dementia: a case report.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon condition caused by aspiration of oil-based substances, occurring mainly in children. Here, we report the case of an 83-year-old patient with Alzheimers disease who presented with coughing and hypoxia. The diagnosis of acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by accidental kerosene ingestion was made on the basis of the patients clinical history, and typical radiological and cytological findings. The patients cognitive impairment and an unsafe environment, in which the patients 91-year-old husband stored kerosene in an old shochu bottle, were responsible for the accidental ingestion. Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis for acute respiratory disorders in the rapidly aging population.
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Cannabidiol-2,6-dimethyl ether as an effective protector of 15-lipoxygenase-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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15-Lipoxygenase (15-LOX) is one of the key enzymes responsible for the formation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), a major causal factor for atherosclerosis. Both enzymatic (15-LOX) and non-enzymatic (Cu(2+)) mechanisms have been proposed for the production of ox-LDL. We have recently reported that cannabidiol-2,6-dimethyl ether (CBDD) is a selective and potent inhibitor of 15-LOX-catalyzed linoleic acid oxygenation (Takeda et al., Drug Metab. Dispos., 37, 1733-1737 (2009)). In the LDL, linoleic acid is present as cholesteryl linoleate, the major fatty acid esterified to cholesterol, and is susceptible to oxidative modification by 15-LOX or Cu(2+). In this investigation, we examined the efficacy of CBDD on i) 15-LOX-catalyzed oxygenation of cholesteryl linoleate, and ii) ox-LDL formation catalyzed by 15-LOX versus Cu(2+)-mediated non-enzymatic generation of this important mediator. The results obtained demonstrate that CBDD is a potent and selective inhibitor of ox-LDL formation generated by the 15-LOX pathway. These studies establish CBDD as both an important experimental tool for characterizing 15-LOX-mediated ox-LDL formation, and as a potentially useful therapeutic agent for treatment of atherosclerosis.
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?-Sitosteryl (6-O-linoleoyl)-glucoside of soybean (Glycine max L.) crude extract inhibits Y-family DNA polymerases.
J Oleo Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2010
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In the screening of selective DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitors, we isolated an acylated steryl glycoside, ?-sitosteryl (6-O-linoleoyl)-glucoside (compound 1), from the waste extract of soybean (Glycine max L.) oil. This compound exhibited a marked ability to inhibit the activities of eukaryotic Y-family pols (pols ?, ? and ?), which are repair-related pols. Among mammalian Y-family pols, the activity of mouse pol ? was most strongly inhibited by compound 1, with an IC(50) value of 10.2 ┬ÁM. On the other hand, compound 1 had no effect on the activities of other eukaryotic pols such as A-family (pol ?), B-family (pols ?, ?, and ?), or X-family (pols ?, ? and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase) pols. In addition, compound 1 had no effect on prokaryotic pols or other DNA metabolic enzymes such as calf primase of pol ?, T7 RNA polymerase, T4 polynucleotide kinase, or bovine deoxyribonuclease I. Compound 1 consists of 3 groups: ?-sitosteryl (compound 2), linoleic acid (compound 3), and D-glucose (compound 4). Compound 3 inhibited the activities of all mammalian pols tested, but compounds 2 and 4 did not have any effect on the tested pols. Kinetic studies showed that the inhibition of pol ? activity by compound 1 was noncompetitive with both the DNA template-primer and nucleotide substrate, whereas compound 3-induced inhibition was competitive with the DNA template-primer and noncompetitive with the nucleotide substrate. The relationship between the structure of compound 1 and the selective inhibition of eukaryotic Y-family pols is discussed.
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Novel terpenoids, trichoderonic acids A and B isolated from Trichoderma virens, are selective inhibitors of family X DNA polymerases.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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Trichoderonic acids A (1) and B (2), novel terpenoids, and (+)-heptelidic acid (3) isolated from cultures of a fungus, Trichoderma virens, and their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis. These compounds selectively and competitively inhibited the activities of mammalian DNA polymerases beta, lambda (pols beta, lambda), and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) in family X of pols, and compound 2 was a stronger inhibitor than compound 1 or 3. On the other hand, compounds 1-3 did not influence the activities of the other families (A-, B-, and the Y-families) of the mammalian pols tested, and showed no effect on the activities of plant pol alpha, fish pol delta, prokaryotic pol, or the other DNA metabolic enzymes tested. Compound 2 suppressed the growth of two human cancer cell lines, cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa) and breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7). The results suggest that these compounds identified inhibition among the families of mammalian pols.
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[A case of limbic encephalitis with small cell lung carcinoma in which the cognitive function improved and redeteriorated during tumor therapy].
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2010
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We report the findings regarding a 70-year-old man with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. He presented with a chief complaint of inability to recall any events. He had been well until one month before admission, and then he abruptly began to show progressive amnesia. At admission, the patients score on the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS-R) showed a decline to 13/30, thus indicating the existence of severe disorientation and an impaired memory. The brain CT and EEG showed no specific abnormalities and an analysis of cerebrospinal fluid showed only a mild increase in the total protein level. A chest X-ray film revealed a mass in the right hilum, while a histological analysis of the biopsied specimen finally established a diagnosis of small cell lung carcinoma. The FDG-PET and the enhanced brain MRI showed a single small metastatic lesion in the cerebellum. After the 1st course of chemotherapy and whole brain radiation, cognitive function, especially the short-term memory, remarkably improved and the HDS-R score increased to 21/30. However, the tumor again increased in size during the 3(rd) and 4(th) courses of chemotherapy. Interestingly, cognitive function also worsened again and the score of HDS-R declined to 15/30, 20 weeks after the start of chemotherapy. Limbic encephalitis can be associated with malignant tumors, such as small cell lung carcinoma, and some reported cases have shown a cognitive improvement after tumor therapy. In our case, we also observed a reworsening of the cognitive function in association with the acquired chemoresistence.
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Tocotrienol distribution in foods: estimation of daily tocotrienol intake of Japanese population.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Tocotrienol (T3) is an unsaturated form of natural vitamin E that has been focused on because of its potential health benefits (i.e., antioxidative, antihypercholesterolemic, and antiangiogenic effects). The presence of T3 in some plant sources (e.g., rice bran and palm oil) is known, but its distribution in other edible sources and its daily intake remain unclear. In this study, we aimed at clarifying the distribution of T3 in various food sources and estimating the daily T3 intake of Japanese population. T3 contents of 242 food items and 64 meal items were measured by using normal-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection. As for the results, T3 contents were nondetectable to 12 mg T3/kg wet wt of food items, and nondetectable to 1.3 mg T3/item of processed (cooked) meal. Accordingly, the daily intake of T3 was estimated as 1.9-2.1 mg T3/day/person. The estimated daily intake of T3 appears rather low compared with the intake of tocopherol (8-10 mg/day/person as reported in the Japanese National Nutrition Survey), and additional T3 is important for its therapeutic aspects.
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[A case of a primary effusion lymphoma in the elderly].
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2009
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We report a 90-year-old man who was given a diagnosis of pleural effusion lymphoma (PEL) based on the detailed immunochemical and DNA analyses of the pleural effusion. He was bed-ridden and on enteral nutrition due to severe Alzheimers disease, and also had diabetes mellitus. He was transferred to our hospital with fever and massive pleural effusion. A cytological examination of the pleural effusion revealed class 5 atypical lymphocytes with a high nucleus/cytoplasm ratio. The origin of the atypical cells could not be determined by flow cytometry of the pleural effusion, which only suggested the existence of inflammatory changes. Considering his general physical status, further investigations were not performed. The respiratory failure progressed, and he died on the 45(th) hospital day. At autopsy, no atypical cells were identified in his organs other than in the right thoracic space. We conducted immunochemical staining after making a cell block from the effusion sample. Most of the atypical cells were CD30 positive, with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8)-associated protein. A PCR analysis of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene detected monoclonal rearrangement, thus indicating the atypical cells to be involved in the B-cell lineage. These findings led to a final diagnosis of PEL. PEL is a rare type of lymphoma confined to the body cavities without any prominent tumor mass, and its pathogenesis is related to HHV-8 infection. PEL develops mostly in immunocompromised patients, such as those with AIDS. However, it may also occur in elderly patients as well. We should therefore also consider the possibility of PEL in elderly patients presenting with pleural effusion of unknown origin.
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3-O-methylfunicone, a selective inhibitor of mammalian Y-family DNA polymerases from an Australian sea salt fungal strain.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2009
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We isolated a pol inhibitor from the cultured mycelia extract of a fungal strain isolated from natural salt from a sea salt pan in Australia, which was identified as 3-O-methylfunicone by spectroscopic analyses. This compound selectively inhibited the activities of mammalian Y-family DNA polymerases (pols) (i.e., pols eta, iota and kappa). Among these pols, human pol kappa activity was most strongly inhibited, with an IC(50) value of 12.5 microM. On the other hand, the compound barely influenced the activities of the other families of mammalian pols, such as A-family (i.e., pol gamma), B-family (i.e., pols alpha, delta and epsilon) or X-family (i.e., pols beta, lambda and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase), and showed no effect on the activities of fish pol delta, plant pols, prokaryotic pols and other DNA metabolic enzymes, such as calf primase of pol alpha, human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase, human telomerase, T7 RNA polymerase, mouse IMP dehydrogenase (type II), human topoisomerases I and II, T4 polynucleotide kinase or bovine deoxyribonuclease I. This compound also suppressed the growth of two cultured human cancer cell lines, HCT116 (colon carcinoma cells) and HeLa (cervix carcinoma cells), and UV-treated HeLa cells exhibited lower clonogenic survival in the presence of inhibitor.
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Structure and activity relationship of monogalactosyl diacylglycerols, which selectively inhibited in vitro mammalian replicative DNA polymerase activity and human cancer cell growth.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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The glycoglycerolipid, monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG), containing two alpha-linolenic acids (C18:3), was isolated from bitter melon as a potent and selective inhibitor of mammalian DNA polymerase (pol) species such as pols alpha, gamma, delta, and epsilon with IC(50) values of 17.6-37.2muM. This MGDG also suppressed the growth of six human cancer cell lines, although normal human cell lines were not affected. This compound (i.e., MGDG-C18:3-C18:3) was a stronger inhibitor than both MGDG-C18:1-C18:0 and MGDG-C18:0-C18:0. In this study, we discussed the structure-function relationship in the selective inhibition of mammalian replicative pols and human cancer cell proliferation by MGDGs.
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The high frequency of periodic limb movements in patients with Lewy body dementia.
J Psychiatr Res
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Although dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimers disease (AD), the clinical diagnosis is frequently difficult. Because both REM sleep behavior disorders and Parkinsons disease also have alpha-synucleinopathy similar to DLB, and show an increase in periodic limb movements (PLM), we evaluated the association between DLB and PLM, which may serve as an additional information to differentiate AD and DLB.
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Antimicrobial peptide defensin: identification of novel isoforms and the characterization of their physiological roles and their significance in the pathogenesis of diseases.
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci.
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Defensins comprise a family of cationic antimicrobial peptides containing a specific six-cysteine motif. Their contribution to the host defense against microbial invasion and the control of normal flora have been previously described. Some of the ?-defensin isoforms are predominantly expressed in the epididymis and showed a region-specific expression pattern in the epididymis, which thus suggested that these isoforms may possess epididymis-specific functions in addition to antimicrobial activities. A sequence variant of the ?-defensin 126 gene has been shown to be associated with reductions in the human sperm function, thus supporting this hypothesis. Furthermore, defensins have the capacity to chemoattract immune cells and induce the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Mice expressing human neutrophil ?-defensin showed more severe lung injuries after the aspiration of acidic contents than did control mice. Recent investigations regarding copy number variations of human defensin genes also suggest the significance of defensin in the pathogenesis or the worsening of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, sepsis and psoriasis.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.