JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A new species and species-group of Simulium (Simulium) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thailand.
J. Med. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Simulium (Simulium) atipornae sp. nov. is described from females, males, pupae, and larvae in Thailand. This new species is characterized in the female by the claw with a small subbasal tooth, ovipositor valve triangular with its inner margin nearly straight; in the male by the style with a short subbasal protuberance and ventral plate Y-shaped, with toothed posterior margin; and in the pupa by the head and thoracic integument almost bare and gill with six filaments. Taxonomic notes are given to compare this new species with nine related species. A new species-group, the christophersi species-group, is proposed to accommodate S. atipornae sp. nov. and nine related species.
Related JoVE Video
A new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Malaysia, with keys to 32 species of the Simulium ceylonicum species-group.
J. Med. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Simulium (Gomphostilbia) leparense sp. nov. is described from females, males, and pupae collected from Peninsular Malaysia. This new species is assigned to the ceylonicum species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia, and is characterized by the female and male scuta covered with dark-brown short hairs, smaller number of male upper-eye facets, presence of shiny paired spots on the male abdominal segments 2-8, and absence of grapnel-shaped hooklets on the pupal abdominal segment 9. The male and pupa of S. capillatum Takaoka, which was originally described from larvae collected from Sarawak and Sabah, are described for the first time. Keys to identify all 32 species of the Simulium ceylonicum species-group including 27 species from other countries are provided for females, males, pupae, and mature larvae.
Related JoVE Video
Scanning electron microscopy of Anopheles hyrcanus group (Diptera: Culicidae) eggs in Thailand and an ultrastructural key for species identification.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The eggs of Anopheles argyropus, Anopheles crawfordi, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles nitidus, Anopheles paraliae, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles pursati, and Anopheles sinensis are described with the aid of scanning electron micrographs. Comparisons of the egg structure among the eight species showed that the eggs differed with respect to the following characteristics: the deck-complete (An. argyropus, An. nigerrimus, An. paraliae, An. peditaeniatus, and An. sinensis); variable (complete, split and incomplete decks found together within an egg batch/An. crawfordi); and division into an area at each end (An. nitidus and An. pursati). The ratios of the entire length per maximal deck width within the area covered by floats were 3.33-6.86 (An. sinensis), 8.78-18.20 (An. peditaeniatus), 13.67-22 (An. nigerrimus), 26.33-44.25 (An. paraliae), and 26.99-75.94 (An. argyropus). The numbers of float ribs were 21-27 (An. peditaeniatus) and 28-34 (An. nigerrimus), and the total numbers of anterior and posterior tubercles were 6-8 (An. paraliae) and 9-11 (An. argyropus). Exochorionic sculpturing was of reticulum type (An. argyropus, An. crawfordi, An. nigerrimus, An. nitidus, An. paraliae, An. peditaeniatus, and An. sinensis) and pure tubercle type (An. pursati). Attempts are proposed to construct a robust key for species identification based on the morphometrics and ultrastructures of eggs under scanning electron microscopy.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic compatibility between Anopheles lesteri from Korea and Anopheles paraliae from Thailand.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess differentiation and relationships between Anopheles lesteri and Anopheles paraliae we established three and five iso-female lines of An. lesteri from Korea and An. paraliae from Thailand, respectively. These isolines were used to investigate the genetic relationships between the two taxa by crossing experiments and by comparing DNA sequences of ribosomal DNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and subunit II (COII). Results of reciprocal and F1-hybrid crosses between An. lesteri and An. paraliae indicated that they were compatible genetically producing viable progenies and complete synaptic salivary gland polytene chromosomes without inversion loops in all chromosome arms. The pairwise genetic distances of ITS2, COI and COII between these morphological species were 0.040, 0.007-0.017 and 0.008-0.011, respectively. The specific species status of An. paraliae in Thailand and/or other parts of the continent are discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Morphological and molecular characterization of a microsporidian parasite, Takaokaspora nipponicus n. gen., n. sp. from the invasive rock pool mosquito, Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus.
J. Invertebr. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new genus and species of Microsporidia, Takaokaspora nipponicus n. gen., n. sp. is described from Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Theobald) and Ochlerotatus hatorii (Yamada) based on light microscope and ultrastructural morphology, developmental features, transmission cycles and comparative sequence analyses of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA). The microsporidium is both vertically and horizontally transmitted, exhibits dimorphic development alternating between diplokaryotic and monokaryotic stages and produces two morphologically distinct spores, one in larvae and another in adult females. Horizontal transmission of infection to larval mosquitoes occurs via direct oral ingestion of uninucleate spores that are produced in vertically-infected larval hosts. Development in horizontally-infected hosts is diplokaryotic following karyokinesis of uninucleate schizonts and binary fission to produce small (4.3?m × 2.0?m) membrane free, ovoid, binucleate spores that are confined to adult female reproductive tissues (ovariole sheath and oviducts). Vertical transmission of the microsporidium from adult females to larval progeny takes place via surface contamination of the egg (transovum). Microsporidian development in vertically-infected larvae is haplophasic with unpaired nuclei throughout, producing rosette-shaped sporogonial plasmodia contained within a thin non-persistent sporophorous vesicle and culminating in the formation of membrane free, uninucleate, conical spores (7.0?m×2.8?m). Development is confined to host fat body tissue which appears as swollen white masses in the thorax and selected segments of the abdomen causing larvae to appear abnormally distorted and results in death during the third and fourth instar stages. The SSU rDNA sequences obtained from the two morphologically identical microsporidia isolated from Oc. j. japonicus and Oc. hatorii were nearly identical and unique when compared with GenBank entries of all other mosquito-parasitic species. Phylogenetic trees constructed by Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and bootstrap analyses using the Neighbor Joining search parameter yielded similar typologies. In each case, the novel microsporidium was the sister group to the clade containing Parathelohania species from Anopheles mosquitoes and the monotypic Novothelohania ovalae from Ochlerotatus caspius showing approximately 10-13% sequence divergence to those two genera providing strong support for establishment as a separate genus.
Related JoVE Video
DNA barcoding for the identification of eight species members of the Thai Hyrcanus Group and investigation of their stenogamous behavior.
C. R. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Eight species members of the Thai Hyrcanus Group were identified based on the intact morphology and molecular analysis (COI barcoding, 658 bp) of F1-progenies. Five iso-female lines of each species were pooled in order to establish stock colonies. A stenogamous colony of each species was investigated by making 200 and 300 newly emerged adult females and males co-habit in a 30 cm cubic cage for one week. After ovipositon, the spermathecae of females were examined for sperms. The results revealed that Anopheles argyropus, Anopheles crawfordi, Anopheles nitidus, Anopheles pursati, Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles paraliae and Anopheles peditaeniatus yielded insemination rates of 0%, 0%, 0%, 31%, 33%, 42%, 50% and 77%, respectively. Continuous selection to establish stenogamous colonies indicated that An. sinensis, An. pursati, An. nigerrimus, An. paraliae and An. peditaeniatus provided insemination rates of 33-34%, 27-31%, 42-58%, 43-57% and 61-86% in 1, 2, 5, 6 and 20 generations of passages, respectively.
Related JoVE Video
Macrogenomic evidence for the origin of the black fly Simulium suzukii (Diptera: Simuliidae) on Okinawa Island, Japan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the geographic origin of the black fly Simulium suzukii on Okinawa Island, Japan, macrogenomic profiles derived from its polytene chromosomes were compared with those of mainland and other insular populations of S. suzukii and of the isomorphic Simulium tani species complex. The Okinawan population is a chromosomally unique cytoform, designated D, which is essentially monomorphic and differs by about 27 fixed rearrangements from the chromosomal standard sequence for the subgenus Simulium and by two fixed differences from its nearest known relative, representing the type of S. suzukii, on the main islands of Japan. Chromosomal band sequences revealed two additional, sympatric cytoforms of S. suzukii, designated A and B, each with species status, in Korea, and a third cytoform, designated C, on Hokkaido, Japan. A new cytoform, K, of S. tani from Malaysia, representing the type of S. tani, is more closely related to cytoforms in Thailand, as are populations from Taiwan previously treated as S. suzukii but more closely aligned with S. tani and newly recognized as cytoform L of the latter nominal species. Rooting of chromosomal band sequences by outgroup comparisons allowed directionality of chromosomal rearrangements to be established, enabling phylogenetic inference of cytoforms. Of 41 macrogenomic rearrangements discovered in the five new cytoforms, four provide evidence for a stepwise origin of the Okinawan population from populations characteristic of the main islands of Japan. The macrogenomic approach applied to black flies on Okinawa Island illustrates its potential utility in defining source areas for other species of flies including those that might pose medical and veterinary risks.
Related JoVE Video
Variation in number and formation of repeat sequences in the rDNA ITS2 region of five sibling species in the Anopheles barbirostris complex in Thailand.
J. Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Repeat sequences of approximately 100 base pairs in length were found in the rDNA ITS2 region of Anopheles barbirostris van der Wulp (Diptera: Culicidae) species A1, A2, A3, A4, and An. campestris-like in the An. barbirostris complex. Variation in the number of repeats was observed among the five sibling species. Specifically, 10 repeats were observed in A1, eight in A2, A4, and campestris-like, and three in A3. Based on similarities in the sequences of the repeats, related repeats were classified into nine groups. Although A2, A4, and the campestris-like species had the same number of repeats, the ITS2 region of the three species contained different groups of repeats. Excluding the repeat sequences facilitated good alignment of the ITS2 region in the five sibling species. Phylogenetic analyses of the 95 isolines were compared with results obtained from mitochondrial genes (COI and COII). The results revealed marked differences among the five sibling species, particularly regarding the ITS2 region of A3, which was more distinct from the other four species than COI and COIL Repeat sequences in the ITS2 region of other Anopheles species retrieved from GenBank also were analyzed. New repeat sequences were found in An. beklemishevi Stegnii and Kabanova, An. crucians Wiedemann and An. funestus Giles, suggesting that the occurrence of repeat sequences in the ITS2 region are not rare in anopheline mosquitoes.
Related JoVE Video
Simulium (Gomphostilbia) taitungense, a new species of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Taiwan, with description of the male of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) tuenense Takaoka.
Trop Biomed
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Simulium (Gomphostilbia) taitungense sp. nov. is described on the basis of reared adult, pupal and mature larval specimens collected from Taitung, Taiwan. This new species is placed in the ceylonicum species-group within the subgenus Gomphostilbia and is distinguished from related known species by the characteristic colour markings on the ventral surface of the head capsule and on the dorsal surface of the abdomen in the larva. The male of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) tuenense Takaoka, which was originally described from a pharate pupa and a larva, is described for the first time; the association of the adult stage with the larval stage was confirmed by the comparison of the sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene; this species is also placed in the ceylonicum species-group.
Related JoVE Video
Augmented antihypertensive effect of a fixed combination formula of candesartan and hydrochlorothiazide combined with furosemide in a patient on peritoneal dialysis.
Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 38-year-old female patient on peritoneal dialysis (PD) due to type 1 diabetic nephropathy with a well-preserved residual renal function did not respond well to the conventional antihypertensive therapy consisting of candesartan, furosemide, and bunazosin. Switching candesartan for a fixed combination formula of candesartan plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) while the rest of the other two agents remained unchanged led to the remarkable reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) without significant changes in the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR), body weight (BW), and residual renal function. This case suggests that when used in combination, diuretics acting on different functional segment of the nephron hold greater potential for enhanced antihypertensive effect, especially in patients on PD whose residual renal function is well preserved. A small dose of HCTZ with an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) may partially explain the therapeutic benefit of this combination therapy in terms of a reliable hypotensive effect, a better adherence, and fewer side effects.
Related JoVE Video
Analysis of female salivary gland proteins of the Anopheles barbirostris complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Electrophoretic protein profiles of female salivary glands of five sibling species within the Anopheles barbirostris complex, namely A. barbirostris species A1 (Forms A, B, and D), A2, A3, and A4 and Anopheles campestris-like (Forms B and E), were analyzed. At least eight major and several minor protein bands were detected in the glands of each species, of which each morphological region contained different major proteins. The protein profiles distinguished the five sibling species. The variability in major proteins among species was observed in the 40-48, 32-37, and 10-18 kDa ranges. No difference in protein profiles was found in different cytogenetic forms. Polymorphism of the protein profiles within species was only noted in species A4. The lowest major protein (marker) band of each species showed remarkably different relative mobility on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. NanoLC-MS analysis revealed that the marker protein of some species matched with a protein involving in blood feeding, gSG6, of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles freeborni. These results might be useful for construction of an additional tool to distinguish the five sibling species and lead to further study on the evolution of blood feeding and pathogen transmission.
Related JoVE Video
Cytogenetic and molecular evidence for an additional new species within the taxon Anopheles barbirostris (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
ITS2 DNA sequences of 42 isoline colonies of Anopheles barbirostris species A1 and A2 were analyzed and a new genetic species, temporarily designated as species A4 (Chiang Mai), was revealed. The large sequence divergences of the ITS2 (0.116-0.615), COI (0.023-0.048), and COII (0.030-0.040) genes between A. barbirostris species A4/A1 (Chiang Mai), A4/A2 (Phetchaburi), A4/A3 (Kanchanaburi), and A4/Anopheles campestris-like Form E (Chiang Mai) provided good supporting evidence. Species A1, A2, A3, and A4 share a mitotic karyotype of Form A (X(1), X(2), Y(1)). Crossing experiments between species A4 and the other four species yielded strong reproductive isolation producing few and/or non-hatched eggs and inviable and/or abnormal development of the reproductive system of F(1) progenies. Moreover, available F(1) hybrid larvae showed asynaptic polytene chromosome arms. Hence, molecular and cytogenetic evidence strongly support the existence of A. barbirostris species A4, which is more closely related to A. campestris-like Form E than to species A1, A2, and A3. Additionally, crossing experiments among 12 and seven isolines of different cytological forms of species A1 (A, B, C, D) and A2 (A, B), respectively, yielded fertile and viable F(1) progenies. Thus, different karyotypic forms occurring in natural populations of species A1 and A2 merely represent intraspecies variation of sex chromosomes due to the extra blocks of heterochromatin.
Related JoVE Video
Successful effect of triple blockade of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system on massive proteinuria in a patient with chronic kidney disease.
Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to membranous nephropathy with daily urinary protein excretion exceeding 5 g did not respond well to dual therapy with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB). Addition of the mineralocorticoid receptor blocker (MRB), spironolactone, led to moderate reduction in daily urinary protein excretion. However, spironolactone had to be inevitably discontinued due to gynecomastia. Replacement of spironolactone with the selective MRB, eplerenone, added to the preceding treatment with ACE-I and ARB, resulted in remarkable reduction of daily urinary protein excretion to less than 0.2 g. This case suggests that triple blockade of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system with ACE-I, ARB, and MRB could be useful for CKD patients with massive proteinuria.
Related JoVE Video
Karyotypic variation and geographic distribution of Anopheles campestris-like (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Seventy-one isolines of Anopheles campestris-like were established from wild-caught females collected from human-biting and animal-biting traps at 12 locations in Thailand. All isolines had an average branch summation of seta 2-VI pupal skins ranging from 20.3-30.0 branches, which is in the range of An. campestris (17-58 branches). They showed three different karyotypes based on the amount of extra heterochromatin in the sex chromosomes, namely Forms B (X2, Y2), E (X1, X2, X3, Y5) and a new karyotypic Form F (X2, X3, Y6). Form B has been found only in Chaing Mai and Kamphaeng Phet populations, while Forms E and F are widely distributed throughout the species range. Genetic crosses between the 12 isolines, which were arbitrarily selected as representatives of An. campestris-like Forms B, E and F, revealed genetic compatibility that provided viable progeny through F2 generations, suggesting a conspecific nature of these karyotypic forms. These results are supported by the very low intraspecies variation (genetic distance < 0.005) of ITS2, COI and COII from genomic DNA of the three karyotypic forms.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of combined antihypertensive therapy with losartan/hydrochlorothiazide on uric acid metabolism.
Intern. Med.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Jikei Optimal Antihypertensive Treatment (JOINT) study originally evaluated the effect of a fixed-dose formulation of losartan (LOS) (50 mg) plus 12.5 hydrochrolthiazide (HCTZ) for achieving better blood pressure (BP) control in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. This study is a sub-analysis of the JOINT study, focusing on the effect of LOS/HCTZ on the uric acid (UA) metabolism.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.