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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Clinical malaria case definition and malaria attributable fraction in the highlands of western Kenya.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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In African highland areas where endemicity of malaria varies greatly according to altitude and topography, parasitaemia accompanied by fever may not be sufficient to define an episode of clinical malaria in endemic areas. To evaluate the effectiveness of malaria interventions, age-specific case definitions of clinical malaria needs to be determined. Cases of clinical malaria through active case surveillance were quantified in a highland area in Kenya and defined clinical malaria for different age groups.
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Evaluating larval mosquito resource partitioning in western Kenya using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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In sub-Saharan Africa, malaria, transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito, remains one of the foremost public health concerns. Anopheles gambiae, the primary malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa, is typically associated with ephemeral, sunlit habitats; however, An. gambiae larvae often share these habitats with other anophelines along with other disease-transmitting and benign mosquito species. Resource limitations within habitats can constrain larval density and development, and this drives competitive interactions among and between species.
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Modest additive effects of integrated vector control measures on malaria prevalence and transmission in western Kenya.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The effect of integrating vector larval intervention on malaria transmission is unknown when insecticide-treated bed-net (ITN) coverage is very high, and the optimal indicator for intervention evaluation needs to be determined when transmission is low.
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Utility of health facility-based malaria data for malaria surveillance.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Currently, intensive malaria control programs are being implemented in Africa to reduce the malaria burden. Clinical malaria data from hospitals are valuable for monitoring trends in malaria morbidity and for evaluating the impacts of these interventions. However, the reliability of hospital-based data for true malaria incidence is often questioned because of diagnosis accuracy issues and variation in access to healthcare facilities among sub-groups of the population. This study investigated how diagnosis and treatment practices of malaria cases in hospitals affect reliability of hospital malaria data.
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Topography as a modifier of breeding habitats and concurrent vulnerability to malaria risk in the western Kenya highlands.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2011
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Topographic parameters such as elevation, slope, aspect, and ruggedness play an important role in malaria transmission in the highland areas. They affect biological systems, such as larval habitats presence and productivity for malaria mosquitoes. This study investigated whether the distribution of local spatial malaria vectors and risk of infection with malaria parasites in the highlands is related to topography.
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Predation efficiency of Anopheles gambiae larvae by aquatic predators in western Kenya highlands.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2011
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The current status of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes and the effects of insecticides on non-target insect species have raised the need for alternative control methods for malaria vectors. Predation has been suggested as one of the important regulation mechanisms for malaria vectors in long-lasting aquatic habitats, but the predation efficiency of the potential predators is largely unknown in the highlands of western Kenya. In the current study, we examined the predation efficiency of five predators on Anopheles gambiae s.s larvae in 24 hour and semi- field evaluations.
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Insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership, usage, and malaria transmission in the highlands of western Kenya.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) are known to be highly effective in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality. However, usage varies among households, and such variations in actual usage may seriously limit the potential impact of nets and cause spatial heterogeneity on malaria transmission. This study examined ITN ownership and underlying factors for among-household variation in use, and malaria transmission in two highland regions of western Kenya.
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Changing patterns of malaria epidemiology between 2002 and 2010 in Western Kenya: the fall and rise of malaria.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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The impact of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) on reducing malaria incidence is shown mainly through data collection from health facilities. Routine evaluation of long-term epidemiological and entomological dynamics is currently unavailable. In Kenya, new policies supporting the provision of free ITNs were implemented nationwide in June 2006. To evaluate the impacts of ITNs on malaria transmission, we conducted monthly surveys in three sentinel sites with different transmission intensities in western Kenya from 2002 to 2010.
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Alternative splicing of the Anopheles gambiae Dscam gene in diverse Plasmodium falciparum infections.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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In insects, including Anopheles mosquitoes, Dscam (Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule) appears to be involved in phagocytosis of pathogens, and shows pathogen-specific splice-form expression between divergent pathogen (or parasite) types (e.g. between bacteria and Plasmodium or between Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum). Here, data are presented from the first study of Dscam expression in response to genetic diversity within a parasite species.
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A cohort study of Plasmodium falciparum infection dynamics in Western Kenya Highlands.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2010
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The Kenyan highlands were malaria-free before the 1910s, but a series of malaria epidemics have occurred in the highlands of western Kenya since the 1980s. Longitudinal studies of the genetic structure, complexity, infection dynamics, and duration of naturally acquired Plasmodium falciparum infections are needed to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of malaria epidemiology in the complex Kenyan highland eco-epidemiological systems where malaria recently expanded, as well as the evaluation of control measures.
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Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for rapid identification of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2009
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The main malaria vectors of sub-Saharan Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis are morphologically indistinguishable, but often occur in sympatry and differ in feeding preference and vector competence. It is important to assess vector species identity for understanding the vectorial system and establishing appropriate vector control measures. The currently available species diagnosis methods for An. gambiae sensu latu require equipment to which public health practitioners in many African countries may not have access. This report describes a loop-mediated isothermal amplification technique (LAMP) for An. gambiae species diagnosis. The LAMP method was tested in single mosquito legs and whole body. The sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP method, in reference to the conventional rDNA-polymerse chain reaction (PCR) method, ranged from 0.93 to 1.00. The LAMP-based species identification method can be performed in a water bath and completed within 65 minutes, representing an alternative method for rapid and field applicable vector species diagnosis.
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High prevalence of asymptomatic plasmodium falciparum infections in a highland area of western Kenya: a cohort study.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
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Transmission of malaria in an area of hypoendemicity in the highlands of western Kenya is not expected to lead to rapid acquisition of immunity to malaria. However, the subpopulation of individuals with asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection may play a significant role as an infection reservoir and should be considered in malaria-control programs. Determination of the spatiotemporal dynamics of asymptomatic subpopulations provides an opportunity to estimate the epidemiological importance of this group to malaria transmission.
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Habitat stability and occurrences of malaria vector larvae in western Kenya highlands.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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Although the occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the valleys of western Kenya highlands is well documented, knowledge of larval habitats in the uphill sites is lacking. Given that most inhabitants of the highlands actually dwell in the uphill regions, it is important to develop understanding of mosquito breeding habitat stability in these sites in order to determine their potential for larval control.
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Genetic structure of Plasmodium falciparum populations between lowland and highland sites and antimalarial drug resistance in Western Kenya.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Human travel to malaria endemic lowlands from epidemic highlands has been shown to increase the risk of malaria infections in the highlands. In order to gain insight on the impact of human travel, we examined prevalence, genetic variability and population genetic structure of Plasmodium falciparum in asymptomatic children from one highland site and three surrounding malaria endemic lowland sites in Western Kenya, using multilocus microsatellite genotyping. We further analyzed the frequencies of mutations at the genes conferring resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. We found a significant decrease in malaria prevalence in the highland site from 2006 to 2007, 1 year after the introduction of the artemisinin-based combination therapy as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria and the scale-up of insecticide-treated bed nets. Population genetic diversity, measured by the number of observed and effective microsatellite alleles and Neis unbiased genetic diversity, was high and comparable for both highland and lowland populations. Analysis of molecular variance did not detect a significant genetic structure across highland and lowland regions. Similarly, mutations at key antimalarial-resistance codons of the pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr and pfdhps genes were found at comparable high frequencies in all four sites. High level of gene flow and lack of significant genetic structure in malaria parasites between highland and lowland areas suggest the importance of human travel in shaping parasite population structure.
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Alterations in Plasmodium falciparum genetic structure two years after increased malaria control efforts in western Kenya.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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The impact of malaria intervention measures (insecticide-treated net use and artemisinin combination therapy) on malaria genetics was investigated at two sites in western Kenya: an endemic lowland and an epidemic highland. The genetic structure of the parasite population was assessed by using microsatellites, and the prevalence of drug-resistant mutations was examined by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Two years after intervention, genetic diversity remained high in both populations. A significant decrease in the prevalence of quintuple mutations conferring resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine was detected in both populations, but the mutation prevalence at codon 1246 of the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance 1 gene had increased in the highland population. The decrease in sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-resistant mutants is encouraging, but the increase in P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 gene mutations is worrisome because these mutations are linked to resistance to other antimalarial drugs. In addition, the high level of genetic diversity observed after intervention suggests transmission is still high in each population.
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The ecology of mosquitoes in an irrigated vegetable farm in Kumasi, Ghana: abundance, productivity and survivorship.
Parasit Vectors
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Irrigated vegetable farms within the city of Kumasi, Ghana, create hotspots for the breeding of malaria vectors, which could lead to high transmission of malaria. This study investigated the abundance and productivity of mosquitoes in an irrigated vegetable farm in Kumasi, Ghana.
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Comparative transcriptome analyses of deltamethrin-resistant and -susceptible Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes from Kenya by RNA-Seq.
PLoS ONE
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Malaria causes more than 300 million clinical cases and 665,000 deaths each year, and the majority of the mortality and morbidity occurs in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to the lack of effective vaccines and wide-spread resistance to antimalarial drugs, mosquito control is the primary method of malaria prevention and control. Currently, malaria vector control relies on the use of insecticides, primarily pyrethroids. The extensive use of insecticides has imposed strong selection pressures for resistance in the mosquito populations. Consequently, resistance to pyrethroids in Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa, has become a major obstacle for malaria control. A key element of resistance management is the identification of resistance mechanisms and subsequent development of reliable resistance monitoring tools. Field-derived An. gambiae from Western Kenya were phenotyped as deltamethrin-resistant or -susceptible by the standard WHO tube test, and their expression profile compared by RNA-seq. Based on the current annotation of the An. gambiae genome, a total of 1,093 transcripts were detected as significantly differentially accumulated between deltamethrin-resistant and -susceptible mosquitoes. These transcripts are distributed over the entire genome, with a large number mapping in QTLs previously linked to pyrethorid resistance, and correspond to heat-shock proteins, metabolic and transport functions, signal transduction activities, cytoskeleton and others. The detected differences in transcript accumulation levels between resistant and susceptible mosquitoes reflect transcripts directly or indirectly correlated with pyrethroid resistance. RNA-seq data also were used to perform a de-novo Cufflinks assembly of the An. gambiae genome.
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Variation in exposure to Anopheles gambiae salivary gland peptide (gSG6-P1) across different malaria transmission settings in the western Kenya highlands.
Malar. J.
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The existing metrics of malaria transmission are limited in sensitivity under low transmission intensity. Robust surveillance systems are needed as interventions to monitor reduced transmission and prevention of rapid reintroduction. Serological tools based on antibody responses to parasite and vector antigens are potential tools for transmission measurements. The current study sought to evaluate antibody responses to Anopheles gambiae salivary gland peptide (gSG6- P1), as a biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles bites, in different transmission settings and seasons. The comparison between anti-MSP-1(19) IgG immune responders and non-responders allowed exploring the robustness of the gSG6-P1 peptide as a surveillance tool in an area of decreasing malaria transmission.
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Marked variation in MSP-119 antibody responses to malaria in western Kenyan highlands.
BMC Infect. Dis.
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Assessment of malaria endemicity at different altitudes and transmission intensities, in the era of dwindling vector densities in the highlands, will provide valuable information for malaria control and surveillance. Measurement of serum anti-malarial antibodies is a useful marker of malaria exposure that indicates long-term transmission potential. We studied the serologic evidence of malaria endemicity at two highland sites along a transmission intensity cline. An improved understanding of the micro-geographic variation in malaria exposure in the highland ecosystems will be relevant in planning effective malaria control.
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Effects of co-habitation between Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus aquatic stages on life history traits.
Parasit Vectors
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The effective measures for the control of malaria and filariasis vectors can be achieved by targeting immature stages of anopheline and culicine mosquitoes in productive habitat. To design this strategy, the mechanisms (like biotic interactions with conspecifc and heterospecific larvae) regulating mosquito aquatic stages survivorship, development time and the size of emerging adults should be understood. This study explored the effect of co-habitation between An. gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus on different life history traits of both species under different densities and constant food supply in the habitats of the same size under semi-natural conditions.
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The ecology of Anopheles mosquitoes under climate change: case studies from the effects of deforestation in East African highlands.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
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Climate change is expected to lead to latitudinal and altitudinal temperature increases. High-elevation regions such as the highlands of Africa and those that have temperate climate are most likely to be affected. The highlands of Africa generally exhibit low ambient temperatures. This restricts the distribution of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of malaria, filariasis, and Onyongnyong fever. The development and survival of larval and adult mosquitoes are temperature dependent, as are mosquito biting frequency and pathogen development rate. Given that various Anopheles species are adapted to different climatic conditions, changes in climate could lead to changes in species composition in an area that may change the dynamics of mosquito-borne disease transmission. It is important to consider the effect of climate change on rainfall, which is critical to the formation and persistence of mosquito breeding sites. In addition, environmental changes such as deforestation could increase local temperatures in the highlands; this could enhance the vectorial capacity of the Anopheles. These experimental data will be invaluable in facilitating the understanding of the impact of climate change on Anopheles.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.