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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Morphine drives internal ribosome entry site-mediated hnRNP K translation in neurons through opioid receptor-dependent signaling.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) binds to the promoter region of mu-opioid receptor (MOR) to regulate its transcriptional activity. How hnRNP K contributes to the analgesic effects of morphine, however, is largely unknown. We provide evidence that morphine increases hnRNP K protein expression via MOR activation in rat primary cortical neurons and HEK-293 cells expressing MORs, without increasing mRNA levels. Using the bicistronic reporter assay, we examined whether morphine-mediated accumulation of hnRNP K resulted from translational control. We identified potential internal ribosome entry site elements located in the 5' untranslated regions of hnRNP K transcripts that were regulated by morphine. This finding suggests that internal translation contributes to the morphine-induced accumulation of hnRNP K protein in regions of the central nervous system correlated with nociceptive and antinociceptive modulatory systems in mice. Finally, we found that down-regulation of hnRNP K mediated by siRNA attenuated morphine-induced hyperpolarization of membrane potential in AtT20 cells. Silencing hnRNP K expression in the spinal cord increased nociceptive sensitivity in wild-type mice, but not in MOR-knockout mice. Thus, our findings identify the role of translational control of hnRNP K in morphine-induced analgesia through activation of MOR.
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MicroRNA-mediated regulation of extracellular matrix formation modulates somatic cell reprogramming.
RNA
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to reach an embryonic stem cell-like state by overexpression of defined factors. Recent studies have greatly improved the efficiency of the reprogramming process but the underlying mechanisms regulating the transition from a somatic to a pluripotent state are still relatively unknown. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small noncoding RNAs that primarily regulate target gene expression post-transcriptionally. Here we present a systematic and comprehensive study of microRNAs in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) during the early stage of cell fate decisions and reprogramming to a pluripotent state, in which significant transcriptional and epigenetic changes occur. One microRNA found to be highly induced during this stage of reprogramming, miR-135b, targeted the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes including Wisp1 and Igfbp5. Wisp1 was shown to be a key regulator of additional ECM genes that serve as barriers to reprogramming. Regulation of Wisp 1 is likely mediated through biglycan, a glycoprotein highly expressed in MEFs that is silenced in reprogrammed cells. Collectively, this report reveals a novel link between microRNA-mediated regulation of ECM formation and somatic cell reprogramming, and demonstrates that microRNAs are powerful tools to dissect the intracellular and extracellular molecular mechanisms of reprogramming.
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Applications of digital holographic microscopy in therapeutic evaluation of Chinese herbal medicines.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Therapeutic use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) is a new approach to treat neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The detection of soma volume and neurite outgrowth of living neurons is a highly relevant biomarker related to various application fields, including therapy efficacy and drug safety evaluation. Through the use of digital holographic microscopy (DHM), we may evaluate the therapeutic effect of CHMs in curing neurodegeneration. Panax ginseng has been used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for centuries. In this study, DHM is applied to monitor the three-dimensional morphology change of retinoic acid-induced human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells during Panax ginseng treatment. We demonstrate the capability of DHM to detect noninvasively SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis and rescue through the measurement of neuronal volume and neurite outgrowth regulation without any labeling reagent. Through DHM, we observed the phase images of the rapidly shrinking cells with decreasing soma volume and shortening neurite outgrowth during glutamate treatments. Then shrinkage in glutamate-induced cells is significantly alleviated during Panax ginseng treatment. The results through DHM are consistent with the result from MTT assay for assessing cell viability during Panax ginseng treatment. Thus, we suggest that application of DHM for measuring soma volume and neurite outgrowth of living neurons may be one appropriate therapeutic evaluation for CHMs.
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Excellent mid-term durability of the On-X mechanical aortic valve in the pulmonary position with a low international normalized ratio.
J. Heart Valve Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Although the pulmonary position has been preferred for the placement of homografts or bioprosthetic valves, the limited longevity of these implants makes reoperation almost unavoidable. Good durability of mechanical valves in the pulmonary position has been reported. The mid-term outcomes were analyzed of patients who received an On-X mechanical heart valve for pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) with a relatively low International Normalized Ratio (INR).
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Comparison of the detection rates of RT-PCR and virus culture using a combination of specimens from multiple sites for enterovirus-associated encephalomyelitis during enterovirus 71 epidemic.
Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Enterovirus (EV) 71 may cause severe neurological illness in the pediatric population. The present study aimed to compare the detection rates of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with pan-EV/EV71 type- specific primers and virus culture (VC) for the identification of EV and EV71 using specimens from multiple sites. In total, specimens from throat/rectal swabs, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and blood from 66 patients diagnosed with EV encephalomyelitis were subjected to both RT-PCR and VC for detecting the presence of pan-EV and EV71. The results revealed that the positive RT-PCR rate was higher in throat swabs (60.6%) and rectum swabs (50.0%) than in CSF (16.7%) and blood (15.6%). The same trend was also observed in case of VC: throat swabs (22.7%), rectum swabs (10.6%), and blood (3.0%). The detection rate of EV encephalomyelitis by RT-PCR was 90.9% for all samples, 63.6% of which were subtyped as EV71. The detection rates of RT-PCR were superior to those of VC, and identification using specimens from throat/rectal swabs yielded higher positive results. These findings may help physicians to identify the etiologies at an early stage during EV71 epidemics and to make emergent medical decisions for minimizing patient morbidity and mortality.
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An efficient estimator of Hurst exponent through an autoregressive model with an order selected by data induction.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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The discrete-time fractional Gaussian noise (DFGN) has been proven to be a regular process. Therefore, an autoregressive (AR) model of an infinite order can describe DFGN based on Wold and Kolmogorov theorems. A fast estimation algorithm on the Hurst exponent of DFGN or discrete-time fractional Brownian motion (DFBM) has been proposed, but the algorithm did not consider the order selection of AR model. Recently, a Hurst exponent estimator based on an AR model with six existing methods of order selection has been proposed to raise the accuracy of estimating the Hurst exponent. Although the estimation accuracy has been confirmed to be better than the one without order selection, the estimator still requires computing all parameter sets through the Levinson algorithm. In order to lower computational cost, this paper proposes an efficient method of order selection, simply called data induction, which uses simulation data to induce an appropriate threshold of terminating the Levinson algorithm before computing all parameter sets. Experimental results show that the proposed data-induction method has a competitive advantage over six existing methods of order selection in terms of lowering computational cost and raising the accuracy.
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Disruption of ldlr causes increased LDL-c and vascular lipid accumulation in a zebrafish model of hypercholesterolemia.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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Hyperlipidemia and arterial cholesterol accumulation are primary causes of cardiovascular events. Monogenic forms of hyperlipidemia and recent genome-wide association studies indicate that genetics plays an important role. Zebrafish are a useful model for studying the genetic susceptibility to hyperlipidemia owing to conservation of many components of lipoprotein metabolism, including those related to LDL, ease of genetic manipulation, and in vivo observation of lipid transport and vascular calcification. We sought to develop a genetic model for lipid metabolism in zebrafish, capitalizing on one well-understood player in LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) transport, the LDL receptor (ldlr), and an established in vivo model of hypercholesterolemia. We report that morpholinos targeted against the gene encoding ldlr effectively suppressed its expression in embryos during the first 8 days of development. The ldlr morphants exhibited increased LDL-c levels that were exacerbated by feeding a high cholesterol diet. Increased LDL-c was ameliorated in morphants upon treatment with atorvastatin. Furthermore, we observed significant vascular and liver lipid accumulation, vascular leakage, and plaque oxidation in ldlr-deficient embryos. Finally, upon transcript analysis of several cholesterol-regulating genes, we observed changes similar to those seen in mammalian systems, suggesting that cholesterol regulation may be conserved in zebrafish. Taken together, these observations indicate conservation of ldlr function in zebrafish and demonstrate the utility of transient gene knockdown in embryos as a genetic model for hyperlipidemia.
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Does awareness effect the restorative function and perception of street trees?
Front Psychol
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Urban streetscapes are outdoor areas in which the general public can appreciate green landscapes and engage in outdoor activities along the street. This study tested the extent to which the degree of awareness of urban street trees impacts attention restoration and perceived restorativeness. We manipulated the degree of awareness of street trees. Participants were placed into four groups and shown different images: (a) streetscapes with absolutely no trees; (b) streetscapes with flashes of trees in which participants had minimal awareness of the content; (c) streetscapes with trees; and (d) streetscapes with trees to which participants were told to pay attention. We compared the performance of 138 individuals on measures of attention and their evaluations of perceived restorativeness. Two main findings emerged. First, streetscapes with trees improved the performance of participants on attentional tests even without their awareness of the trees. Second, participants who had raised awareness of street trees performed best on the attentional test and rated the streetscapes as being more restorative. These findings enhance our knowledge about the role of an individual's awareness of restorative elements and have implications for designers and individuals who are at risk of attentional fatigue.
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Atopic diseases and systemic lupus erythematosus: an epidemiological study of the risks and correlations.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Both atopic diseases and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are immune disorders that may lead to physical complications or multi-system comorbidities. This population-based case-control study was designed to evaluate the risk of SLE associated with atopic diseases. Using a national insurance claims dataset in Taiwan, we identified 1673 patients newly diagnosed with SLE and 6692 randomly selected controls frequency matched for gender, age and index date. The odds ratios (OR) for SLE were calculated for associations with allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis and asthma. The SLE patients were predominantly female (82.5%) with a mean age of 40.1 (SD = 18.2). The patients with SLE had a higher rate of atopic dermatitis (6.81% vs. 3.06%), and asthma (10.6% vs. 7.64%) was approximately 2 times more common in the patients with lupus than in those without. The patients with atopic disease (atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and asthma) were at a significant risk for SLE. The overall risk for SLE increased as the number of atopic diseases increased from 1.46 to 2.29, compared with-individuals without the diseases (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, this population-based case-control study demonstrates a significant relationship between atopic diseases and the risk of SLE, especially for females. Atopic dermatitis plays a stronger role than other types of atopic disease in association with SLE.
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Pulmonary embolism in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based cohort study.
COPD
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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To evaluate the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Taiwan.
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Emergency department visits by adults for psychiatric medication adverse events.
JAMA Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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In 2011, an estimated 26.8 million US adults used prescription medications for mental illness.
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A Hurst exponent estimator based on autoregressive power spectrum estimation with order selection.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The discrete-time fractional Gaussian noise (DFGN) has been proven to be a regular process. According to Wold and Kolmogorov theorems, this process can be described as an autoregressive (AR) model of an infinite order. An estimator for the Hurst exponent based on autoregressive power spectrum estimation has been proposed, but without considering order selection. In this paper, six common order selection methods for the AR model were used to select appropriate orders of the AR model in order to raise the accuracy of estimating the Hurst exponent. Experimental results show that these six AR methods with considering order selection are more accurate than the original AR method without considering order selection.
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The novel regulations of MEF2A, CAMKK2, CALM3, and TNNI3 in ventricular hypertrophy induced by arsenic exposure in rats.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Arsenic is a ubiquitous toxic compound that exists naturally in many sources such as soil, groundwater, and food; in which vast majority forms are arsenite (As(3+)) or arsenate (As(5+)). The mechanism of arsenic detoxification in humans still remains obscured. Epidemiologic studies documented that arsenic pollution caused black foot disease, cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, hypotension, cardiomyopathy), bladder cancer and skin cancer in many countries in which Taiwan is considered as high arsenic exposure country for long time ago. However, the effects of arsenic to cardiac functions still lacked of investigation while some studies mainly focus on inflammatory and cancer mechanisms. In the present study, we found cardiac hypertrophy signaling may be the most significant pathway for up regulated genes in arsenic exposed patients via bioinformatics approach. To verify our bioinformatics prediction, arsenic was fed orally to rats at different concentration based on previous studies in Taiwan. Using hemodynamic method as the main tool to measure the changes in blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and left ventricular contractility index, the findings suggest that highly exposure to arsenic lead to hypertension; elevated left ventricular diastolic pressure and alteration in cardiac contractility which are supposed to be the interaction between arsenic and cardiac nerves activity via the changing in calcium homeostasis. Collectively, based on our real-time PCR and western blot data strongly suggest that calcium homeostasis may also go through MEF2A, TNNI3, CAMKK2, CALM3 and cardiac hypertrophy relative signaling pathway.
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Type 1 diabetes, cardiovascular complications and sesame ( zh? má).
J Tradit Complement Med
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Diabetes is a major concern among medical practitioners, with the annual mortality rate increasing up to 26.9% in a person aged 65 years or older and 11.3% in the adult. There are many serious complications associated with diabetes, particularly cardiovascular complications due to microvascular diseases. A prerequisite to reduce the risk of microvascular and neurologic complications of type 1 diabetes is normoglycemia. Insulin therapy is the most common treatment used nowadays in type 1 diabetes. However, this method still has many disadvantages such as increased episode of severe hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia unawareness, increased weight gain, transient exacerbation of pre-existing retinopathy, etc. Using insulin pump (the insulin pump is a medical device used for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion to manage the insulin level in the treatment of diabetes mellitus), is associated with known disadvantages including increased ketoacidosis, infection at the infusion site, and the treatment being less suitable in young children (less than 7 years of age). Therefore, alternative treatment for diabetes is still in great demand. We took the approach of traditional Chinese medicine to discuss this matter. Sesame ( Zh? Má), a herb, has been used medicinally for thousands of years in almost all the countries in the world. The beneficial effects of sesame in remediating diabetes, such as hypoglycemic effects, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, improving fat metabolism, and reducing cholesterol, have been demonstrated in many studies,. However, reports on the effects of sesame in remediating cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients are limited, which necessitates further studies on the effects of sesame on cardiovascular complications.
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Outcome of patients with bulky IB (? 6 cm) cervical squamous cell carcinoma with and without cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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To study the surgical morbidity and outcomes of patients with markedly bulky cervical squamous cell carcinoma (? 6 cm Cx-SCC) who underwent radical hysterectomy (RH) with and without neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT).
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In vitro growth conditions and development affect differential distributions of RNA in axonal growth cones and shafts of cultured rat hippocampal neurons.
Mol. Cell. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Local synthesis of proteins in the axons participates in axonogenesis and axon guidance to establish appropriate synaptic connections and confer plasticity. To study the transcripts present in the growth cones and axonal shafts of cultured rat hippocampal neurons, two chip devices, differing in their abilities to support axonal growth and branching, are designed and employed here to isolate large quantities of axonal materials. Cone-, shaft- and axon-residing transcripts with amounts higher than that of a somatodendritic transcript, Actg1 (?-actin), are selected and classified. Since the chips are optically transparent, distribution of transcripts over axons can be studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Three transcripts, Cadm1 (cell adhesion molecule 1), Nefl (neurofilament light polypeptide), and Cfl1 (non-muscle cofilin) are confirmed to be preferentially localized to the growth cones, while Pfn2 (profilin2) is preferentially localized to the shafts of those axons growing on the chip that restricts axonal growth. The different growing conditions of axons on chips and on conventional coverslips do not affect the cone-preferred localization of Cadm1 and shaft-preferred localization of Pfn2, but affect the distributions of Nefl and Cfl1 over the axons at 14th day in vitro. Furthermore, the distributions of Cadm1 and Nefl over the axons growing on conventional coverslips undergo changes during in vitro development. Our results suggest a dynamic nature of the mechanisms regulating the distributions of transcripts in axonal substructures in a manner dependent upon both growth conditions and neuronal maturation.
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Benzodiazepine use and risk of stroke: a retrospective population-based cohort study.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between benzodiazepine (BZD) use and risk of incident stroke by utilizing data from 2000 to 2003 from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan.
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Impact of abuse-deterrent OxyContin on prescription opioid utilization.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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We quantified the degree to which the August 2010 reformulation of abuse-deterrent OxyContin affected its use, as well as the use of alternative extended-release and immediate-release opioids.
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Submental ultrasound measurement of dynamic tongue base thickness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Dynamic tongue base thickness (TBT) may be an important anatomic factor in airway narrowing in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The development of an accurate clinical assessment of the retroglossal airway in patients with OSA is still evolving. Submental ultrasound was used to investigate the association between measurements of TBT in response to negative airway pressure and the existence of OSA. Twenty OSA patients and 20 control participants underwent ultrasound measurement of TBT on eupneic breathing and with the Mueller maneuver, as well as clinical and polysomnographic assessments. Logistic regression analyses indicated that after adjustment for confounding factors, independent predictors of OSA included TBT in response to negative airway pressure, as measured by submental ultrasound with the Mueller maneuver (odds ratio: 2.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.15-3.87, p < 0.05), and the difference between TBT with the Muller maneuver and that without the Mueller maneuver (odds ratio: 2.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.09-5.58, p < 0.05). Ultrasound measurement of TBT during the Mueller maneuver provides a quantitative assessment of the retroglossal airway in OSA patients with minimal invasiveness and easy accessibility.
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Nationwide population-based cohort study on the association of acute coronary syndrome in patients with malignancies.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Patients with malignancy are suggestive of having a tendency toward an association with vascular thrombosis risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible relationship between malignancy and the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Taiwan.
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Regulation of virus-induced inflammatory response by Dunaliella salina alga extract in macrophages.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Previous reports have suggested that many constituents within various algal samples are able to attenuate LPS-induced inflammatory effects. To date no report has been published on the regulation of virus-induced inflammatory response of Dunaliella salina carotenoid extract. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effect of D. salina carotenoid extract on pseudorabies virus (PRV)-infected RAW 264.7 macrophages was investigated. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of D. salina carotenoid extract on PRV-infected RAW 264.7 cells by measuring cell viability, cytotoxicity, production of inflammatory mediators such as NO, iNOS, COX-2, pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-virus replication by plaque assay. We found down-regulation of the expression of the iNOS, COX-2 and pro-inflammatory genes IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and MCP-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Although there was no effect on viral replication, there were tendencies toward lower virus titer and tendencies toward higher cell survival. Most importantly, we found that inhibition of TLR9, PI3K and Akt phosphorylation plays a crucial role in the extract-mediated NF-?B regulation by modulating IKK-I?B signaling in PRV-infected RAW264.7 cells. These results indicate that D. salina carotenoid extracts inhibited inflammation by inhibition of NF-?B activation by TLR9 dependent via PI3K/Akt inactivation.
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Laboratory testing for and diagnosis of nutritional deficiencies in pregnancy before and after bariatric surgery.
J Womens Health (Larchmt)
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Bariatric surgery can reduce the risk of obesity-related complications of pregnancy, but may cause essential nutrient deficiencies. To assess adherence to laboratory testing guidelines, we examined frequency of testing for and diagnosis of deficiency during preconception and pregnancy using claims data in women with a delivery and bariatric surgery.
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Increased depression risk among patients with chronic osteomyelitis.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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Inflammatory processes, which provoke alternations of neurotransmitter metabolism, neuroendocrine function, and neuroplasticity in the brain, might promote depression. In depression patients who do not exhibit risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, Parkinson's disease and dementia, particularly in young people, inflammation is a likely risk factor for depression. We explored whether chronic osteomyelitis (COM), a chronic inflammatory disease, increases depression risk.
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Prognostic factors of primary fallopian tube cancer in a single institute in Taiwan.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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To improve the understanding of primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) through an analysis of possible clinical and pathologic determinants of prognosis.
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Inhibitory effect of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) flower on lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of proinflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 cells through NF-?B, ERK, and JAK2/STAT3 inactivation.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) flower ethanolic extract (LFEE) was found to contain five flavanoids [total amount, 102.73 ± 5.50 mg/g of dried extract (gDE)], nine phenolic acids (total amount, 60.31 ± 4.52 mg/gDE), and proanthocyanidin A2 (79.31 ± 2.95 mg/gDE). LFEE was used to evaluate the inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced pro-inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that LFEE treatment could suppress the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the productions of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and the secretions of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?)] in the LPS-mediated RAW264.7 cells. The attenuation of LPS-induced inflammatory responses by LFEE was found to be closely related to the inhibition of the translocation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) p50/p65 subunits correlated with suppression of the activation of the inhibitor of ?B kinase (IKK) ?/? and downregulation of activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3).
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Improvement of emission uniformity by using micro-cone patterned PDMS film.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Micro-patterned PDMS film was fabricated and combined with LED chip on board (COB) package to improve the emission uniformity of LED chip. The micro scale patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) was used as a mold to fabricate micro-cone patterned PDMS (MC-PDMS) film. A strong scattering effect from this MC-PDMS film can be verified by the high haze ratio and the Bi-directional Transmission effect. The angle dependent color temperature measurement system was used to measure the ?CCT of COB with and without MC-PDMS. The measurement results indicate that the ?CCT was reduced from 1025K to 428K. This improvement can effectively eliminate the yellow ring effect of LED chip. This technology can be thus considered as a cost-effective way for the next generation of light source packages.
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Splenectomy in trauma patients is associated with an increased risk of postoperative type II diabetes: a nationwide population-based study.
Am. J. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Animal studies indicate that splenocytes may act as precursors of ?-islet secretory cells in the pancreas. This study aimed to assess the risk of postoperative type II diabetes after splenectomy in trauma patients.
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Cobra bite wound infection caused by Shewanella algae.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Shewanella wound infections after snake bites are rare. We report the case of a Shewanella algae wound infection associated with a cobra bite in a 27-year-old woman. The isolate was confirmed by sequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA gene. This case expands the reported spectrum of infection caused by S. algae and raises the possibility that S. algae could be a causative pathogen in wound infections resulting from snake bites.
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Kinome-wide functional analysis highlights the role of cytoskeletal remodeling in somatic cell reprogramming.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The creation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from somatic cells by ectopic expression of transcription factors has galvanized the fields of regenerative medicine and developmental biology. Here, we report a kinome-wide RNAi-based analysis to identify kinases that regulate somatic cell reprogramming to iPSCs. We prepared 3,686 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviruses targeting 734 kinase genes covering the entire mouse kinome and individually examined their effects on iPSC generation. We identified 59 kinases as barriers to iPSC generation and characterized seven of them further. We found that shRNA-mediated knockdown of the serine/threonine kinases TESK1 or LIMK2 promoted mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, decreased COFILIN phosphorylation, and disrupted Actin filament structures during reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Similarly, knockdown of TESK1 in human fibroblasts also promoted reprogramming to iPSCs. Our study reveals the breadth of kinase networks regulating pluripotency and identifies a role for cytoskeletal remodeling in modulating the somatic cell reprogramming process.
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PP2 prevents ?-adrenergic stimulation of cardiac pacemaker activity.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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One of the main strategies for cancer therapy is to use tyrosine kinase inhibitors for inhibiting tumor proliferation. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the potential risks of cardiac arrhythmias (such as prolonged QT interval) of these drugs. We report here that a widely used selective inhibitor of Src tyrosine kinases, 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2), can inhibit and prevent ?-adrenergic stimulation of cardiac pacemaker activity. First, in dissected rat sinus node, PP2 inhibited and prevented the isoproterenol-induced increase of spontaneous beating rate. Second, in isolated rat sinus node myocytes, PP2 suppressed the hyperpolarization-activated "funny" current (traditionally called cardiac pacemaker current, I(f)) by negatively shifting the activation curve and decelerating activation kinetics. Third, in isolated rat sinus node myocytes, PP2 decreased the Src kinase activity, the cell surface expression, and tyrosine phosphorylation of hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-modulated channel 4 (HCN4) channel proteins. Finally, in human embryonic kidney 293 cells overexpressing recombinant human HCN4 channels, PP2 reversed the enhancement of HCN4 channels by isoproterenol and inhibited 573x, a cyclic adenosine momophosphate-insensitive human HCN4 mutant. These results demonstrated that inhibition of Src kinase activity in heart by PP2 decreased and prevented ?-adrenergic stimulation of cardiac pacemaker activity. These effects are mediated, at least partially, by a cAMP-independent attenuation of channel activity and cell surface expression of HCN4, the main channel protein that controls the heart rate.
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High incidence of stroke in young women with sleep apnea syndrome.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Patients with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) carry a higher stroke risk. The differential stroke risk between sex and among different age groups has not yet been specifically addressed in previous studies.
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Resonant modes of 12-fold symmetric defect free photonic quasicrystal.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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This work investigates the resonant modes of a 12-fold symmetric defect free photonic quasicrystal (PQC) nanorod array using finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation. Localized modes can exist in PQC without introducing defects due to the lack of translational symmetry. The resonant modes of the unit cell PQC and the one time expanded PQC from unit cell are systematically examined. The resonant spectrum is that of a single rod modified by the interaction among PQC nanorods. The mode confinement is contributed by guided resonance and destructive interference scattering. The self-scaling similarity of resonant spectrum and mode profile are also investigated.
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Global distribution pattern of histological subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer: a database analysis and systematic review.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Epithelial ovarian cancer is basically a heterogeneous disease with different chemosensitivity and distinct molecular alternations for each histological subtype. In order to assess whether the results of clinical trials can be extrapolated to a new country, it is critical to first examine whether the relative frequencies is homogenous across countries.
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Increased risk of Kawasaki disease in children with common allergic diseases.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Growing evidence reveals a link between Kawasaki disease (KD) and allergic diseases. This population-based case-control study is to investigate the onset of allergic diseases in children and the associated risks of KD.
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Utilization of primary and obstetric care after medically complicated pregnancies: an analysis of medical claims data.
J Gen Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Because pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, are risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, post-delivery follow-up is recommended.
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Injectable cell constructs fabricated via culture on a thermoresponsive methylcellulose hydrogel system for the treatment of ischemic diseases.
Adv Healthc Mater
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Cell transplantation via direct intramuscular injection is a promising therapy for patients with ischemic diseases. However, following injections, retention of transplanted cells in engrafted areas remains problematic, and can be deleterious to cell-transplantation therapy. In this Progress Report, a thermoresponsive hydrogel system composed of aqueous methylcellulose (MC) blended with phosphate-buffered saline is constructed to grow cell sheet fragments and cell bodies for the treatment of ischemic diseases. The as-prepared MC hydrogel system undergoes a sol-gel reversible transition upon heating or cooling at ?32 °C. Via this unique property, the grown cell sheet fragments (cell bodies) can be harvested without using proteolytic enzymes; consequently, their inherent extracellular matrices (ECMs) and integrative adhesive agents remain well preserved. In animal studies using rats and pigs with experimentally created myocardial infarction, the injected cell sheet fragments (cell bodies) become entrapped in the interstices of muscular tissues and adhere to engraftment sites, while a minimal number of cells exist in the group receiving dissociated cells. Moreover, transplantation of cell sheet fragments (cell bodies) significantly increases vascular density, thereby improving the function of an infarcted heart. These experimental results demonstrate that cell sheet fragments (cell bodies) function as a cell-delivery construct by providing a favorable ECM environment to retain transplanted cells locally and consequently, improving the efficacy of therapeutic cell transplantation.
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Using temperature-time integration as a critical parameter in using monopolar radiofrequency ablations.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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It is generally believed that radiofrequency energy delivered to the tissue determines the RFA lesion size. The purpose of this study was to re-evaluate this relationship and propose a potentially parameter of temperature-time integration as a better indicator of RFA lesion size. Using an Ex Vivo lesioning model, fixed 300 J RFA lesions were created under target temperature settings of 65, 75, and 85 °C. The lesion sizes were recorded and compared. Under the target temperature of 65 and 75 °C, the RFA procedures were sustained for a period of time after reaching the target temperature. The correlation between the lesion size and the sustained time (Ts) after reaching the target temperature was calculated. Under the same amount of energy output (300 J), the lesion size created under the three different target temperatures (65, 75, and 85 °C) differs significantly. When the target temperature was set to 75 °C, the correlation coefficient between the Ts and the lesion area and the maximal effective radius (Mer) were 0.913 and 0.971, respectively. When the target temperature was set to 65 °C, the correlation coefficient between the Ts and the lesion area and the Mer were 0.962 and 0.923, respectively. The RFA lesion size is not proportional to the total delivered energy. The Temperature-time integration appears to be a much better indicator that critically influences the lesion size.
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High yield production of pigeon circovirus capsid protein in the E. coli by evaluating the key parameters needed for protein expression.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is considered to be a viral agent central to the development of young pigeon disease syndrome (YPDS). The Cap protein, a structural protein encoded by the cap (or C1) gene of PiCV, has been shown to be responsible for not only capsid assembly, but also has been used as antigen for detecting antibody when the host is infected with PiCV. The antigenic characteristics of the Cap protein potentially may allow the development of a detection kit that could be applied to control PiCV infection. However, poor expression and poor protein solubility have hampered the production of recombinant Cap protein in the bacteria. This study was undertaken to develop the optimal expression of recombinant full-length Cap protein of PiCV using an E. coli expression system.
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Preliminary study of acoustic analysis for evaluating speech-aid oral prostheses: Characteristic dips in octave spectrum for comparison of nasality.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Acoustic analysis is often used in speech evaluation but seldom for the evaluation of oral prostheses designed for reconstruction of surgical defect. This study aimed to introduce the application of acoustic analysis for patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) due to oral surgery and rehabilitated with oral speech-aid prostheses.
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Prevalence and treatment of pain in EDs in the United States, 2000 to 2010.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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To describe changes in the prevalence and severity of pain and prescribing of non-opioid analgesics in US emergency departments (EDs) from 2000 to 2010.
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An evolutionarily conserved long noncoding RNA TUNA controls pluripotency and neural lineage commitment.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Here, we generated a genome-scale shRNA library targeting long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) in the mouse. We performed an unbiased loss-of-function study in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and identified 20 lincRNAs involved in the maintenance of pluripotency. Among these, TUNA (Tcl1 Upstream Neuron-Associated lincRNA, or megamind) was required for pluripotency and formed a complex with three RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). The TUNA-RBP complex was detected at the promoters of Nanog, Sox2, and Fgf4, and knockdown of TUNA or the individual RBPs inhibited neural differentiation of mESCs. TUNA showed striking evolutionary conservation of both sequence- and CNS-restricted expression in vertebrates. Accordingly, knockdown of tuna in zebrafish caused impaired locomotor function, and TUNA expression in the brains of Huntington's disease patients was significantly associated with disease grade. Our results suggest that the lincRNA TUNA plays a vital role in pluripotency and neural differentiation of ESCs and is associated with neurological function of adult vertebrates.
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Pneumococcal pneumonia infection is associated with end-stage renal disease in adult hospitalized patients.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Pneumococcal disease leads to renal complications ranging from persistent proteinuria to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in pediatric patients. However, long-term renal effects after pneumococcal pneumonia infection in adult patients remains largely unknown. To evaluate this we conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study consisting of 18,733 adult patients at the time of pneumococcal pneumonia diagnosis, using claims data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) with a comparison cohort of 73,409 age- and gender-matched patients without pneumococcal pneumonia. The overall incidence rate ratio of ESRD was 23% higher in those with pneumococcal pneumonia than in those without pneumococcal pneumonia (5.26 vs. 3.10 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.29). In addition, the risk of developing ESRD was associated with covariates including age, gender, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and heart failure. The ESRD cumulative incidence curve showed a considerably higher risk of ESRD in those with pneumococcal pneumonia than in those without pneumococcal pneumonia (significant by log-rank test). Thus, pneumococcal pneumonia may be associated with an increased risk of ESRD in adult patients. A long-term follow-up of renal function is recommended for adult hospitalized patients with pneumococcal pneumonia infection.
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Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the nasopharynx: A case report and review of the literature.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Plasmacytoma is an extremely rare and discrete solitary mass of neoplastic monoclonal plasma cells. Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) tends to occur during the fifth and seventh decades of life and is rarely diagnosed in younger patients. Only four cases of EMP have been previously reported in relatively young patients. Here we report a 15-year-old patient presenting with long-term nasal obstruction, who was found to have EMP of the nasopharynx. The patient was treated with surgery followed by radiotherapy with a satisfactory outcome. To the best of our knowledge, this study describes the the youngest individual with nasopharyngeal EMP to be reported in the literature.
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Association between XRCC3 Thr241Met SNP and systemic lupus erythematosus in Han Chinese patients in Taiwan, and a meta-analysis of healthy populations.
J. Clin. Lab. Anal.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) plays a crucial role in mammalian DNA repair processes. The polymorphism of XRCC3, rs861539 (Thr > Met at codon 241), is common in populations worldwide. This study analyzed the relationship between this functional single nucleotide polymorphism and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the Han Chinese population in Taiwan (HC-TW).
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Genome-wide functional analysis reveals factors needed at the transition steps of induced reprogramming.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Although transcriptome analysis can uncover the molecular changes that occur during induced reprogramming, the functional requirements for a given factor during stepwise cell-fate transitions are left unclear. Here, we used a genome-wide RNAi screen and performed integrated transcriptome analysis to identify key genes and cellular events required at the transition steps in reprogramming. Genes associated with cell signaling pathways (e.g., Itpr1, Itpr2, and Pdia3) constitute the major regulatory networks before cells acquire pluripotency. Activation of a specific gene set (e.g., Utf1 or Tdgf1) is important for mature induced pluripotent stem cell formation. Strikingly, a major proportion of RNAi targets (? 53% to 70%) includes genes whose expression levels are unchanged during reprogramming. Among these non-differentially expressed genes, Dmbx1, Hnf4g, Nobox, and Asb4 are important, whereas Nfe2, Cdkn2aip, Msx3, Dbx1, Lzts1, Gtf2i, and Ankrd22 are roadblocks to reprogramming. Together, our results provide a wealth of information about gene functions required at transition steps during reprogramming.
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Efficiency improvement of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with reactive plasma deposited AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The flip chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (FC UV-LEDs) with a wavelength of 365 nm are developed with the ex situ reactive plasma deposited (RPD) AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) by an atmospheric pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (AP MOCVD). The ex situ RPD AlN nucleation layer can significantly reduce dislocation density and thus improve the crystal quality of the GaN epitaxial layers. Utilizing high-resolution X-ray diffraction, the full width at half maximum of the rocking curve shows that the crystalline quality of the epitaxial layer with the (RPD) AlN nucleation layer is better than that with the low-temperature GaN (LT-GaN) nucleation layer. The threading dislocation density (TDD) is estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which shows the reduction from 6.8?×?10(7) cm(-2) to 2.6?×?10(7) cm(-2). Furthermore, the light output power (LOP) of the LEDs with the RPD AlN nucleation layer has been improved up to 30 % at a forward current of 350 mA compared to that of the LEDs grown on PSS with conventional LT-GaN nucleation layer.
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Increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a population-based cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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There is increasing evidence that autoimmune disease is associated with development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aim to assess the relationship between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and COPD risk in a nationwide population.
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Skewed distribution of IL-7 receptor-?-expressing effector memory CD8+ T cells with distinct functional characteristics in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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CD8(+) T cells play important roles in anti-tumor immunity but distribution profile or functional characteristics of effector memory subsets during tumor progression are unclear. We found that, in oral squamous carcinoma patients, circulating CD8(+) T cell pools skewed toward effector memory subsets with the distribution frequency of CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells and CCR7(-) CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells negatively correlated with each other. A significantly higher frequency of CD127(lo) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells or CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells among total CD8(+) T cells was found in peripheral blood or tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, but not in regional lymph nodes. The CD127(hi) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells or CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells maintained significantly higher IFN-?, IL-2 productivity and ex vivo proliferative capacity, while the CD127(lo) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells or CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells exhibited higher granzyme B productivity and susceptibility to activation induced cell death. A higher ratio of CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells to CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells was associated with advanced cancer staging and poor differentiation of tumor cells. Therefore, the CD127(lo) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells and CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells are functionally similar CD8(+) T cell subsets which exhibit late differentiated effector phenotypes and the shift of peripheral CD8(+) effector memory balance toward CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells is associated with OSCC progression.
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The long noncoding RNA THRIL regulates TNF? expression through its interaction with hnRNPL.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2013
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Thousands of large intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been identified in the mammalian genome, many of which have important roles in regulating a variety of biological processes. Here, we used a custom microarray to identify lincRNAs associated with activation of the innate immune response. A panel of 159 lincRNAs was found to be differentially expressed following innate activation of THP1 macrophages. Among them, linc1992 was shown to be expressed in many human tissues and was required for induction of TNF? expression. Linc1992 bound specifically to heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (hnRNPL) and formed a functional linc1992-hnRNPL complex that regulated transcription of the TNF? gene by binding to its promoter. Transcriptome analysis revealed that linc1992 was required for expression of many immune-response genes, including other cytokines and transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators of TNF? expression, and that knockdown of linc1992 caused dysregulation of these genes during innate activation of THP1 macrophages. Therefore, we named linc1992 THRIL (TNF? and hnRNPL related immunoregulatory LincRNA). Finally, THRIL expression was correlated with the severity of symptoms in patients with Kawasaki disease, an acute inflammatory disease of childhood. Collectively, our data provide evidence that lincRNAs and their binding proteins can regulate TNF? expression and may play important roles in the innate immune response and inflammatory diseases in humans.
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Risk of subsequent attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder in children with febrile seizures.
Arch. Dis. Child.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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In this study, we obtained relevant data from a nationwide cohort database to investigate the risk of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with a history of febrile seizures (FS).
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Sleep Disorders and Increased Risk of Subsequent Acute Coronary Syndrome in Individuals without Sleep Apnea: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Studies investigating the relationship between nonapnea sleep disorders and the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are scant. This study evaluated whether the risk of ACS is associated with sleep disorders other than sleep apnea in Taiwan.
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Spinal Cord Injury Increases the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study.
Spine J
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Previous studies on the risk and prevalence of diabetes among spinal cord injury (SCI) patients are limited and controversial.
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Hepatoprotection of Noni Juice against Chronic Alcohol Consumption: Lipid Homeostasis, Antioxidation, Alcohol Clearance, and Anti-inflammation.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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Chronic alcohol consumption leads to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Naturally fermented noni juice (NJ) contains polyphenols, polysaccharides, and some trace minerals. This study explored protective effects of NJ against chronic alcohol consumption. Mice were assigned randomly to one of the following groups: (1) control, control liquid diet and distilled water; (2) alcohol, alcohol liquid diet and distilled water; (3) Alc+NJ_1X, alcohol liquid diet and 5 mL NJ/kg BW; (4) Alc+NJ_2X, alcohol liquid diet and 10 mL NJ/kg BW; (5) Alc+NJ_3X, alcohol and 15 mL NJ/kg BW for 4 weeks. NJ decreased (p < 0.05) serum AST, ALT, and alcohol levels and liver lipids, as well as increased (p < 0.05) daily fecal lipid outputs in alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ supplementation not only down-regulated (p < 0.05) lipogenesis but also up-regulated (p < 0.05) fatty acid ?-oxidation in livers of alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ also accelerated alcohol clearance via increased (p < 0.05) hepatic ADH and ALDH activities. NJ increased (p < 0.05) hepatic TEAC and GSH levels but decreased (p < 0.05) TBARS value and TLR2/4, P38, ERK 1/2, NF?B P65, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-?, and IL-1? expressions in alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ promotes hepatoprotection against alcohol-induced injury due to regulations of lipid homeostasis, antioxidant status, alcohol metabolism, and anti-inflammatory responses.
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Association Between Periodontitis Needing Surgical Treatment and Subsequent Diabetes Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Backgrounds: It is well known that diabetic patients have higher extent and severity of periodontitis, but the backward relationship is little investigated. We assessed the relationship between periodontitis needing dental surgery and subsequent type 2 diabetes in those non-diabetes. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study employing data from the national health insurance system of Taiwan. The periodontitis cohort involved 22,299 patients, excluding those with diabetes already or diagnosed with diabetes within 1 year from baseline. Each study subject was randomly frequency matched by age, gender and index year with 1 individual from the general population without periodontitis. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of periodontitis on the risk of diabetes. Results: The mean follow up period is 5.47± 3.54 years. Overall, the subsequent incidence of type 2 diabetes was 1.24-fold higher in the periodontitis cohort than in the control cohort, with an adjusted hazard ration of 1.19(95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.29) after controlling for sex, age and co-morbidities. Conclusions: This is the largest and nation-based study examining the risk of diabetes in Asian patients with periodontitis. Those periodontitis patients needing dental surgery have increased risk of future diabetes within 2 years than those periodontitis participants without dental surgery.
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Electrically driven green, olivine, and amber color nanopyramid light emitting diodes.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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We report the fabrication and studies of electrically driven green, olivine, and amber color nanopyramid GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs). InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) were grown on the nanopyramid semipolar facets. Compared with the commonly used (0001) c-plane MQWs, the semipolar facet has lower piezoelectric field, resulting in much faster radiative recombination efficiency. This is important for high In content MQWs. The measured internal quantum efficiencies for green, olivine, and amber color LED are 30%, 25%, and 21%, respectively. The radiative and non-radiative lifetime of the semipolar MQWs are also investigated.
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Core small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle splicing factor SmD1 modulates RNA interference in Drosophila.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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RNAi is an evolutionarily conserved gene regulatory process that operates in a wide variety of organisms. During RNAi, long double-stranded RNA precursors are processed by Dicer proteins into ?21-nt siRNAs. Subsequently, siRNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) that contain Argonaute-family proteins and guide RISC to target RNAs via complementary base pairing, leading to posttranscriptional gene silencing. Select pre-mRNA splicing factors have been implicated in RNAi in fission yeast, worms, and flies, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we show that SmD1, a core component of the Drosophila small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle implicated in splicing, is required for RNAi and antiviral immunity in cultured cells and in vivo. SmD1 interacts with both Dicer-2 and dsRNA precursors and is indispensable for optimal siRNA biogenesis. Depletion of SmD1 impairs the assembly and function of the small interfering RISC without significantly affecting the expression of major canonical siRNA pathway components. Moreover, SmD1 physically and functionally associates with components of the small interfering RISC, including Argonaute 2, both in flies and in humans. Notably, RNAi defects resulting from SmD1 silencing can be uncoupled from defects in pre-mRNA splicing, and the RNAi and splicing machineries are physically and functionally distinct entities. Our results suggest that Drosophila SmD1 plays a direct role in RNAi-mediated gene silencing independently of its pre-mRNA splicing activity and indicate that the dual roles of splicing factors in posttranscriptional gene regulation may be evolutionarily widespread.
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Non-apnea Sleep Disorder Increases the Risk of Periodontal Disease: A Retrospective Population-Based Cohort Study (Version 3).
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether non-apnea sleep disorder patients with comorbidity have an increased risk of periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: Patients newly diagnosed with non-apnea sleep disorders (NA-SD) in 1997-2010 were identified as the study cohort from the Taiwan National Health Insurance (TNHI) database. For each NA-SD patient, two matched controls without sleep disorders were randomly selected for comparison. Results: The overall incidence rate ratio of severe periodontal diseases was 39% higher in the NA-SD cohort than in the without NA-SD cohort (7.93 vs. 5.69 per 1,000 person-years), with an adjusted HR of 1.36, (95% CIs = 1.30-1.43). The effect of NA-SD on the risk of severe periodontal diseases was higher in young patients, and middle-aged patients, as compared with patients over 65 years of age (? 35 years of age, HR = 1.13, 95% CIs = 1.04-1.24; 35-50 years of age, HR = 1.73, 95% CIs = 1.61-1.86; 50- 65 years of age, HR =1.69, 95% CI = 1.58-1.81). Conclusion: Non-apnea sleep disorder might increase the risk of periodontal disease.
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Urinary tract stone raises subsequent risk for urinary tract cancer: a population-based cohort study.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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To evaluate the association between urinary tract stone (UTS) and urinary tract cancer (UTC) in Taiwanese patients, as the results of epidemiological studies about the relationship between UTS and the development of UTC remain inconclusive.
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Ambulatory diagnosis and treatment of nonmalignant pain in the United States, 2000-2010.
Med Care
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Escalating rates of prescription opioid use and abuse have occurred in the context of efforts to improve the treatment of nonmalignant pain.
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Toll-like receptor 9 SNPs are susceptible to the development and progression of membranous glomerulonephritis: 27 years follow-up in Taiwan.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether toll-like receptors 9 (TLR9) gene polymorphisms (rs352139 and rs352140) were markers of susceptibility to the development and progression of membranous nephropathy (MGN) in Taiwanese patients. The polymorphisms were investigated by polymerase chain reaction in 397 Taiwanese individuals (134 MGN patients and 263 controls). Patients with malignancy, chronic infectious diseases, lupus nephritis, or drug-induced secondary MGN were excluded from the study. Data showed AA genotype at rs352139 SNP or GG genotype at rs352140 SNP may indicate higher risk for MGN (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.02-2.35, at rs352139 SNP; OR?=?1.57; 95% CI?=?1.03-2.39, at rs352140 SNP). However, MGN patients with A-G haplotype were susceptible for decreased creatinine clearance rate and for seriously tubule-interstitial fibrosis. The result suggests for the first time that TLR9 (rs352139 and rs352140) polymorphisms may contribute to the development and progression of MGN.
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A nationwide population cohort study: Irritable bowel syndrome is a risk factor of osteoporosis.
Eur. J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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The goal of the study is to determine the relationship between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and osteoporosis in Taiwan.
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Change in claims-based diabetes medications is a diabetes improvement indicator.
Am J Manag Care
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Because laboratory test results are less available to researchers than claims data, a claims-based indicator of diabetes improvement would be valuable.
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Rheumatoid arthritis increases the risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism: a nationwide cohort study.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Studies on the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) are scarce. This study identifies the effects of RA on the risks of developing DVT and PE in a nationwide prospective cohort study.
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Hypoxia-induced therapeutic neovascularization in a mouse model of an ischemic limb using cell aggregates composed of HUVECs and cbMSCs.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Cell transplantation for therapeutic neovascularization holds great promise for treating ischemic diseases. This work prepared three-dimensional aggregates of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and cord-blood mesenchymal stem cells (cbMSCs) with different levels of internal hypoxia by a methylcellulose hydrogel system. We found that few apoptosis occurred in these cell aggregates, despite developing a hypoxic microenvironment in their inner cores. Via effectively switching on the hypoxia-inducible factor-1?-dependent angiogenic mechanisms, culturing the internally hypoxic HUVEC/cbMSC aggregates on Matrigel resulted in formation of extensive and persistent tubular networks and significant upregulation of pro-angiogenic genes. As the level of internal hypoxia created in cell aggregates increased, the robustness of the tubular structures developed on Matrigel increased, and expression levels of the pro-angiogenic genes also elevated. Transplantation of hypoxic HUVEC/cbMSC aggregates into a mouse model of an ischemic limb significantly promoted formation of functional vessels, improved regional blood perfusion, and attenuated muscle atrophy and bone losses, thereby rescuing tissue degeneration. Notably, their therapeutic efficacy was clearly dependent upon the level of internal hypoxia established in cell aggregates. These analytical results demonstrate that by establishing a hypoxic environment in HUVEC/cbMSC aggregates, their potential for therapeutic neovascularization can be markedly enhanced.
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Does use of tetracyclic antidepressant-mirtazapine reduce cancer risk in depression patients?
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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We conducted a nested case-control study to evaluate the association between risk of cancer and mirtazapine use in depression patients in Taiwan.
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Inhibition of notch signaling protects mouse lung against zymosan-induced injury.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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Notch signaling, a critical pathway in cell fate determination, is well known to be involved in immune and inflammatory reactions, whereas its role in acute lung injury (ALI) remains unclear. Here, we report that notch signal activity is upregulated in lung tissue harvested from an ALI mouse model (induced by zymosan). We showed that notch signal activity in lung tissue was increased 6 h after zymosan injection and peaked at 24 h. Inhibition of notch signaling by either pre- or post-zymosan treatment with N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-(S)-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) significantly reduced lung injury, characterized by improvement in lung histopathology, lung permeability (protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung wet-to-dry weight ratio), lung inflammation (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell count, lung myeloperoxidase, and tumor necrosis factor ?), and also alleviated systemic inflammation and tissue damage, thus increasing the 7-day survival rate in zymosan-challenged mice. In conclusion, the role of notch signaling is functionally significant in the development of ALI. Inhibition of notch signaling by pretreatment or posttreatment with DAPT likely exerts its effects in part by mediating the expression of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and influencing tissue neutrophil recruitment. These results also imply that notch inhibitors may help attenuate local inflammatory lung damage.
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The state of overuse measurement: a critical review.
Med Care Res Rev
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Health care overuse contributes to unnecessary expenditures and patient exposure to harm. Understanding and addressing this problem requires a comprehensive set of valid metrics. This article describes and critiques the current state of overuse measurement through a review of the published and gray literature, measures clearinghouses and ongoing work by major measure developers. Our review identified 37 fully specified measures and 123 measurement development opportunities. Many services were considered overuse due to the extension of diagnostic or screening services to low-risk populations. There were more diagnostic or therapeutic overuse measures than for screening or monitoring/surveillance. Imaging services is a major focus of current measures, but opportunities exist to expand overuse measurement in medication, laboratory services. Future development of overuse measures would benefit from new empirical research and clinical guidelines focused on identifying indications or populations for which there is likely to be no or low benefit.
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Rasch analysis of the Mental Health Recovery Measure.
Am J Occup Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Consumer-oriented recovery among people with mental illness has been discussed for more than two decades, but few reliable and valid recovery measurements are currently available. This study used Rasch methods to assess the Mental Health Recovery Measure (MHRM). Participants were 156 adults with mental illness who lived in the community. After the Rasch analyses, the MHRM was modified to a 26-item measure with a 4-point Likert scale. Unidimensionality was confirmed for the revised MHRM, and it also showed proper rating scale functioning and high reliability. The revised MHRM is sufficient to assess only those in the initial and middle stages of recovery. More high-recovery-level items are needed to assess people in a high-recovery stage. Occupational therapists can use the revised MHRM in future quantitative studies and program evaluation.
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Patterns of recurrence and second primary tumors in oral squamous cell carcinoma treated with surgery alone.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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The aim of the present study is to review the recurrence patterns and incidence of second primary tumors (SPTs) in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) who underwent surgery alone without postoperative adjuvant therapy. Data on patients recorded in the head and neck cancer registry of Cathay General Hospital were reviewed. A total of 72 patients with T1-3N0 OSCC who underwent surgery alone were included. Among the 72 patients, 44 had T1 tumors, 22 had T2 tumors, and 6 had T3 tumors. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 77.3%, the recurrence-free survival rate was 74.1%, and the SPT-free survival rate was 73%. Eighteen (25%) patients had disease recurrence (regional recurrence in nine patients, local recurrence in seven patients, and locoregional recurrence in two patients). Most patients with local recurrence alone (6/7 patients, 85.7%) could be salvaged with treatment. However, locoregional control was obtained in only five (45.5%) of 11 patients with neck recurrence after surgical salvage therapy. At the time of analysis, 20 patients developed SPTs, and 15 (75%) of the SPTs were in the oral cavity. The annual incidence of SPT was 5%. Neck recurrence and SPT were associated with 48.4% and 24.4% lower 5-year OS rates, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that neck recurrence was a significant risk factor for low OS (p = 0.008). Neck recurrence was the most important prognostic factor for OS. The incidence of SPT development was high. Regular and long-term monitoring for recurrence and development of SPTs is necessary to improve the survival rate.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.