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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Protective Effects of Kojic Acid on the Periphery Blood and Survival of Beagle Dogs after Exposure to a Lethal Dose of Gamma Radiation.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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In previous studies, it has been shown that pretreatment with kojic acid (KA) not only increased the 30 day survival rate of mice after exposed to a lethal dose of gamma radiation but also had significant radioprotective effects on the hematopoietic system, the immune system and DNA of mice exposed to a 4 Gy sublethal dose of radiation. Furthermore, pretreatment with KA has also been shown to protect Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells against ionizing radiation-induced damage. In this investigation, beagle dogs were used to evaluate whether KA could also be radioprotective in a large animal model. Dogs in the group pretreated with kojic acid after whole-body exposure to a lethal dose of 3 Gy gamma radiation had a 51 day survival rate of 66.7% versus the dogs in the 3 Gy irradiation only group, which all died within 16 days of postirradiation. General vital signs (body weight or temperature) of animals in the kojic acid pretreated group reduced and increased maximally at day 14 postirradiation and then reverted to normal levels gradually. The hematopoiesis studies indicated that the white blood cells/red blood cells, hemoglobin content and hematocrit of dogs pretreated with kojic acid decreased sharply at day 23/day 21 postirradiation, and then gradually elevated. In addition, the DNA content of dogs pretreated with KA were significantly increased compared with that of dogs in the irradiation group at day 4 postirradiation and the number of micronuclei in the group pretreated with kojic acid declined sharply compared with that of the irradiation only group. KA appears to possess marked protective effects from radiation-induced damage and therefore, may be a promising novel radioprotective agent.
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Low-loss plasmonic supermodes in graphene multilayers.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We investigate the supermodes in arbitrary layers of graphene sheets, which are collective guided modes formed by coupling of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in each graphene sheet. In terms of the dispersion relation, we analyse the effective indexes and mode profiles of the supermodes. Numerical simulations reveal that the supermodes can be well approximated by linear superposition of SPPs in individual graphene sheets. Among all the possible supermodes, there is an interesting one possessing both lowest propagation loss and shortest mode wavelength. The loss of the supermode decreases as the number of layers increases and saturates at about 5 layers. The graphene multilayers may find potential applications in low-loss plasmonic waveguides and so constructed optical devices.
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Preeclampsia Does Not Alter Vascular Growth and Expression of CD31 and Vascular Endothelial Cadherin in Human Placentas.
J. Histochem. Cytochem.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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Preeclampsia is characterized by maternal endothelial dysfunction (e.g., increased maternal vascular permeability caused by the disassembly of endothelial junction proteins). However, it is unclear if preeclampsia is associated with impaired vascular growth and expression of endothelial junction proteins in human placentas. Herein, we examined vascular growth in placentas from women with normal term (NT) and preeclamptic (PE) pregnancies using two endothelial junction proteins as endothelial markers: CD31 and vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-Cad). We also compared protein and mRNA expression of CD31 and VE-Cad between NT and PE placentas, and determined the alternatively spliced expression of CD31 using PCR. We found that CD31 and VE-Cad were immunolocalized predominantly in villous endothelial cells. However, capillary number density (total capillary number per unit villous area) and capillary area density (total capillary lumen area per unit villous area) as well as CD31 and VE-Cad protein and mRNA levels were similar between NT and PE placentas. PCR in combination with sequence analysis revealed a single, full-length CD31, suggesting that there are no alternatively spliced isoform of CD31 expressed in placentas. These data indicate that preeclampsia does not significantly affect vascular growth or the expression of endothelial junction proteins in human placentas.
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Plasmon-negative refraction at the heterointerface of graphene sheet arrays.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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We demonstrate negative refraction of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the heterointerface of two monolayer graphene sheet arrays (MGSAs) with different periods. The refraction angle is specifically related to the period ratio of the two MGSAs. By varying the incident Bloch momentum, the SPPs might be refracted in the direction normal to the heterointerface. Moreover, both positive and negative refraction could appear simultaneously. Because of the linear diffraction relation, the incident and refracted SPP beams experience diffraction-free propagation. The heterostructures composed of the MGSAs may find great applications in deep-subwavelength spatial light modulators, optical splitters, and switches.
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[The clinical classification of sigle pedicled double island free anterolateral thigh flaps].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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To summarize the anatomic characteristic of sigle pedicled double island free anterolateral thigh flaps and to evaluate its application and classification.
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Digital Transfer Growth of Patterned 2D Metal Chalcogenides by Confined Nanoparticle Evaporation.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Developing methods for the facile synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) metal chalcogenides and other layered materials is crucial for emerging applications in functional devices. Controlling the stoichiometry, number of the layers, crystallite size, growth location, and areal uniformity is challenging in conventional vapor-phase synthesis. Here, we demonstrate a method to control these parameters in the growth of metal chalcogenide (GaSe) and dichalcogenide (MoSe2) 2D crystals by precisely defining the mass and location of the source materials in a confined transfer growth system. A uniform and precise amount of stoichiometric nanoparticles are first synthesized and deposited onto a substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature. This source substrate is then covered with a receiver substrate to form a confined vapor transport growth (VTG) system. By simply heating the source substrate in an inert background gas, a natural temperature gradient is formed that evaporates the confined nanoparticles to grow large, crystalline 2D nanosheets on the cooler receiver substrate, the temperature of which is controlled by the background gas pressure. Large monolayer crystalline domains (?100 ?m lateral sizes) of GaSe and MoSe2 are demonstrated, as well as continuous monolayer films through the deposition of additional precursor materials. This PLD-VTG synthesis and processing method offers a unique approach for the controlled growth of large-area metal chalcogenides with a controlled number of layers in patterned growth locations for optoelectronics and energy related applications.
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[Catheter aspiration alone or combined with thrombolysis in the treatment of superior mesenteric artery embolism].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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To investigate the efficacy of catheter aspiration or combined with thrombolysis in the treatment of superior mesenteric artery embolism(SMAE).
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Lattice light-sheet microscopy: imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution.
Science
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Although fluorescence microscopy provides a crucial window into the physiology of living specimens, many biological processes are too fragile, are too small, or occur too rapidly to see clearly with existing tools. We crafted ultrathin light sheets from two-dimensional optical lattices that allowed us to image three-dimensional (3D) dynamics for hundreds of volumes, often at subsecond intervals, at the diffraction limit and beyond. We applied this to systems spanning four orders of magnitude in space and time, including the diffusion of single transcription factor molecules in stem cell spheroids, the dynamic instability of mitotic microtubules, the immunological synapse, neutrophil motility in a 3D matrix, and embryogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. The results provide a visceral reminder of the beauty and the complexity of living systems.
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Transurethral plasmakinetic resection of the prostate is a reliable minimal invasive technique for benign prostate hyperplasia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of plasmakinetic resection of the prostate (PKRP) versus transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for the treatment of patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was carried out. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. The pooled estimates of maximum flow rate, International Prostate Symptom Score, operation time, catheterization time, irrigated volume, hospital stay, transurethral resection syndrome, transfusion, clot retention, urinary retention and urinary stricture were assessed. There was no notable difference in International Prostate Symptom Score between TURP and PKRP groups during the 1-month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months follow-up period, while the pooled Q max at 1-month favored PKRP group. PKRP group was related to a lower risk rate of transurethral resection syndrome, transfusion and clot retention, and the catheterization time and operation time were also shorter than that of TURP. The irrigated volume, length of hospital stay, urinary retention and urinary stricture rate were similar between groups. In conclusion, our study suggests that the PKRP is a reliable minimal invasive technique and may anticipatorily prove to be an alternative electrosurgical procedure for the treatment of BPH.
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Selective and sensitive platform for function-based screening of potentially harmful furans.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Many furan-containing compounds have been reported to be toxic and/or carcinogenic. Furanoids have been found in a wide range of fruits, herbs, foods, and beverages. The risks for intake of toxic furans have been rising, due to the rapid growth of globe-wide consumption of natural products. The objective of the study was to develop an analytical platform to screen cis-enediones (cis-enedials or ?-ketoenals) resulting from metabolic activation of potentially harmful furans. 2,5-Dimethylfuran (DMF), a model furan compound, was incubated with rat liver microsomes supplemented with glutathione (GSH) and 4-bromobenzylamine (BBA) as trapping agents, to produce a GSH/BBA-derived pyrrole. The incubation mixture was monitored by acquiring neutral loss scan of 129 Da and precursor ion scans of m/z 272, 169, and 171 in polarity switch mode. Four individual chromatograms showed the respective peak with the same retention time. An additional six furan-containing compounds were tested by the same approach, and similar observation was obtained. The system also showed its extremely high sensitivity, and an estimate of the limit of detection for DMF bioactivated in rat liver microsomes was <100 fmol. We also applied inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to monitor the formation of the bromine-tagged pyrrole derivatives. Crude extracts obtained from traditional Chinese medicine Dioscorea bulbifera L., known to contain furanoditerpenoids, were analyzed by the approach. In conclusion, the platform has been proven selective, sensitive, effective, and reliable, and ICP MS allows us to estimate the resulting bromine-labeled pyrroles without authentic standards.
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2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) inhibits human ovarian cancer cell proliferation.
Cell Oncol (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, mediates a broad spectrum of biological processes, including ovarian growth and ovulation. Recently, we found that an endogenous AhR ligand (ITE) can inhibit ovarian cancer proliferation and migration via the AhR. Here, we tested whether 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, an exogenous AhR ligand) may exert similar anti-ovarian cancer activities using human ovarian cancer and non-cancerous human ovarian surface epithelial cells.
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Bacterioplankton communities respond to cadmium (Cd) exposure in coastal water microcosms with high temporal variability.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2014
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Multiple anthropogenic disturbances to bacterial diversity have been investigated in coastal ecosystems, where temporal variability in bacterioplankton community has been considered as ubiquitous processes. However, far less is known about the temporal dynamics of bacterioplankton community responding to pollution disturbances such as toxic metals. We used coastal water microcosms perturbed with 0, 10, 100, and 1000 ?g L(-1) of cadmium (Cd) for two weeks to investigate temporal variability, Cd-induced patterns, and their interaction in coastal bacterioplankton community and to reveal whether bacterial community structure would reflect Cd gradient in temporal varying system. Our results showed that bacterioplankton community structure shifted along the Cd gradient consistently after 4-day incubation, although it exhibited some resistance to Cd at low concentration (10 ?g L(-1)). Arm race between temporal variability and Cd exposure was observed, and the temporal variability overwhelmed Cd-induced patterns in bacterial community. Temporal succession of bacterial community was correlated with pH, dissolved oxygen, NO3 (-)-N, NO2 (-)-N, PO4 (3-)-P, dissolved organic carbon, and chlorophyll a, and each of these parameters contributed more to community variance than Cd did. However, elevated Cd levels did decrease the temporal turnover rate of community. Furthermore, key taxa, affiliated to family Flavobacteriaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Erythrobacteraceae, Piscirickettsiaceae, and Alteromonadaceae, showed high frequency of being associated with Cd level during two weeks. This study provides direct evidence that specific Cd-induced patterns in bacterioplankton community exist in highly varying manipulated coastal system. Future investigations on ecosystem-scale across longer temporal scales are needed to validate the observed pattern.
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The influence of binary processing additives on the performance of polymer solar cells.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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In this study, we report the investigation of the influence of binary processing additives, 1,8-octanedithiol (ODT) and 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) on the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs). It was found that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) can be enhanced to 8.55% from the PSCs processed with binary processing additives as compared with ?6.50% from the PSCs processed with either ODT or CN processing additives. With binary processing additives, the crystallinity of the electron donor polymer, poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2 ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl]], was elevated, which in turn facilitated charge transport within the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer, resulting in a high short-circuit current and large fill factor. By photophysical studies, we further found that the high PCE is majorly attributed to the minimized nongeminate recombination by controlling the kinetic film morphologies of the BHJ composite by binary solvent processing additives.
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Ultrafast waveform synthesis and characterization using coherent Raman sidebands in a reflection scheme.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Coherent Raman sidebands have the potential to serve as a source of single cycle pulses. We generate these sidebands by crossing two-color femtosecond laser pulses in a Raman-active crystal. We design a reflection scheme using spherical mirrors to combine coherent Raman sidebands. The sidebands and the driving pulses are refocused back to the Raman crystal and the relative spectral phases are retrieved from an interferogram based on the nonlinear Raman interaction. Furthermore, using a deformable mirror to adjust the spectral phases, we demonstrate that our setup is capable of synthesizing ultrafast waveforms using coherent Raman sidebands.
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Primary diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumor of the spine: a report of 3 cases and systemic review of the literature.
Turk Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Three patients with spinal primary diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumor (DTGCT) received surgical treatment in our department between 2002 and 2012. All 3 patients were female and aged 23, 33, and 44 years. The mean time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 17 months (range, 5-24 months). One case involved the C1 right lateral mass and C2 vertebral body, the second involved the C1-2 left lateral masses and C2 vertebral body, and the third involved the C5-7 left lateral mass and C6 vertebral body. All patients underwent computed tomographyguided biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of tenosynovial giant cell tumor. Gross total resection was achieved in all patients, including 2 piecemeal resections and 1 en-bloc resection. The mean follow-up time was 6 years (range, 1-11 years), and there was no sign of recurrence in the patients. Seventy cases have been identified so far in the English literature. The male to female ratio is 1:1.38. The mean patient age is 38.5 ± 17.9 years. The tumor distribution includes 32 cases in the cervical spine, 14 in the thoracic spine, 22 in the lumbar spine, and 1 in the sacrococcygeal region. The recurrence rate for patients who underwent gross total resection was 7.7%, and tumor progression was observed in 66.7% of patients who underwent subtotal resection. Above all, DTGCT is a rare primary spinal neoplasm. Preoperative image-guided biopsies play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment strategy. Gross total resection is the best treatment strategy and can reduce the recurrence rate.
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Dissociation between source and item memory in Parkinson's disease.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Episodic memory includes information about item memory and source memory. Many researches support the hypothesis that these two memory systems are implemented by different brain structures. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of item memory and source memory processing in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and to further verify the hypothesis of dual-process model of source and item memory.
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Estimating Position of Mobile Robots From Omnidirectional Vision Using an Adaptive Algorithm.
IEEE Trans Cybern
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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This paper presents a novel and simple adaptive algorithm for estimating the position of a mobile robot with high accuracy in an unknown and unstructured environment by fusing images of an omnidirectional vision system with measurements of odometry and inertial sensors. Based on a new derivation where the omnidirectional projection can be linearly parameterized by the positions of the robot and natural feature points, we propose a novel adaptive algorithm, which is similar to the Slotine-Li algorithm in model-based adaptive control, to estimate the robot's position by using the tracked feature points in image sequence, the robot's velocity, and orientation angles measured by odometry and inertial sensors. It is proved that the adaptive algorithm leads to global exponential convergence of the position estimation errors to zero. Simulations and real-world experiments are performed to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm.
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Selenium as a photoabsorber for inorganic-organic hybrid solar cells.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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As an inorganic photoabsorber, selenium was used in a mesoscopic solar cell with a hybrid organic-inorganic structure of TiO2/Se/P3HT/PEDOT:PSS/Ag, in which the Se layer was prepared by vacuum thermal deposition and post thermal treatment. The microstructure, photoelectrical properties, as well as the rationality in structural design of the solar cell were illustrated in detail. Finally, the hybrid solar cell demonstrated a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 2.63%.
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Enlight: web-based integration of GWAS results with biological annotations.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Identifying causal variants remains a key challenge in post-GWAS (genome-wide association study) era, as many GWAS single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (including imputed ones) fall into non-coding regions, making it difficult to associate statistical significance with predicted functionality. Therefore, we created a web-based tool, Enlight, which overlays functional annotation information, such as histone modification states, methylation patterns, transcription factor binding sites, eQTL and higher-order chromosomal structure, to GWAS results. Availability and implementation: Accessible by a Web browser at http://enlight.usc.edu.
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Multicolored-Fluorescence Switching of ICT-Type Organic Solids with Clear Color Difference: Mechanically Controlled Excited State.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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A donor-acceptor-type fluorophore containing a twisted diphenylacrylonitrile and triphenylamine has been developed by using the Suzuki reaction. The system indicates typical intramolecular charge-transfer properties. Upon mechanical grinding or hydrostatic pressure, the fluorophore reveals a multicolored fluorescence switching. Interestingly, a fluorescence color transition from green to red was clearly observed, and the change of photoluminescent (PL) wavelength gets close to 111?nm. The mechanisms of high-contrast mechanochromic behavior are fully investigated by techniques including powder XRD, PL lifetime, high-pressure PL lifetime, and Raman spectra analysis. The tremendous PL wavelength shift is attributed to gradual transition of excited states from the local excited state to the charge-transfer state.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of a stonefly species, Togoperla sp. (Plecoptera: Perlidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of a stonefly species, Togoperla sp. (Plecoptera: Perlidae), was sequenced. The 15,723?bp long genome has the standard metazoan complement of 37 genes and an A+T-rich region, which is the same as the insect ancestral genome arrangement.
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[Motion signal extraction method based on sEMG energy Gauss distribution characteristics].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Motion segment and extraction from continuous signals is the premise of surface electromyography (sEMG) analysis. For the problem that sEMG energy threshold required repeated manual testing to set, this the paper established a this mathematical model of continuous actions based on Gaussian sEMG energy curve, in which the energy threshold was set according to the distribution of Gaussian signal section, and differentiated the action signals from no-action signals combined with energy comparison method. The experiment results showed the method can achieve continuous repetitive action segmentation, and compared with manual segmentation of the same signal, has a higher degree of coincidence.
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External Application of the Volatile Oil from Blumea balsamifera May Be Safe for Liver - A Study on Its Chemical Composition and Hepatotoxicity.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Ainaxiang (Blumea balsamifera), also known as Sambong, is an important ancient medicinal herb in Southeast Asia. It is rich in volatile oil, and still widely used nowadays for skin wound healing and treatment of sore throats. We analyzed the volatile oil from Blumea balsamifera (BB oil) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Forty one components, including l-borneol, were identified. Next, the damaging effects of BB oil diluted with olive oil on liver at different concentrations (100%, 50%, 20%), were evaluated, using both normal and wounded skin. Plasma ALT, AST, ALP and TBili were assessed, along with liver histopathology. The results showed that serum levels of liver toxicity markers in the high concentration groups (100% w/v) increased compared with control groups, whereas no significant changes was observed in histopathology of liver samples. In the wound groups, treatment with BB oil resulted in a decrease in serum toxicity index, compared with normal animal groups. This study confirms the safety of short term BB oil consumption, though high BB oil doses may lead to mild liver injury and this response might be weakened in the case of cutaneous wounds. These results are expected to be helpful for guiding appropriate therapeutic use of BB oil.
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Re-expression of Lactotransferrin, a candidate tumor suppressor inactivated by promoter hypermethylation, impairs the malignance of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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Lactotransferrin (LTF) has been confirmed to act as a tumor suppressor in multiple cancers; however, its roles in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), one of malignant head and neck carcinomas, has not been explored.
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Protonolysis and thermolysis reactions of functionalised NHC-carbene boranes and borates.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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A set of ?-ketoimidazolium and ?-ketoimidazolinium salts of the general formula [R(1)C(O)CH2{CH[NCR(3)CR(3)N(R(2))]}]X (R(1) = (t)Bu, naphth; R(2) = (i)Pr, Mes, (t)Bu; R(3) = H, Me, (H)2; X = Cl, Br) show contrasting reactivity with superhydride bases MHBEt3; two are reduced to chiral ?-alcohol carbene-boranes R(1)CH(OH)CH2{C(BEt3)[NCR(3)CR(3)N(R(2))]} 2 (R(1) = (t)Bu; R(2) = (i)Pr, Mes; R(3) = H), two with bulky R(2) substituents are reduced to chiral ?-borate imidazolium salts [R(1)CH(OBEt3)CH2{CH[NCR(3)CR(3)N(R(2))]}]X 3 (R(1) = (t)Bu, naphth; R(2) = Mes, (t)Bu; R(3) = H, Me; X = Cl, Br), and the two saturated heterocycle derivatives remain unreduced but form carbene-borane adducts R(1)C(O)CH2{C(BEt3)[NCR(3)CR(3)N(R(2))]} 4 (R(1) = (t)Bu, naphth; R(2) = Mes; R(3) = (H)2). Heating solutions of the imidazolium borates 3 results in the elimination of ethane, in the first example of organic borates functioning as Brønsted bases and forming carbene boranes R(1)CH(OBEt2)CH2{C[NCR(3)CR(3)N(R(2))]} 5 (R(1) = naphth; R(2) = Mes; R(3) = Me). The 'abnormal' carbene borane of the form 2 R(1)CH(OH)CH2{CH[NC(BEt3)CR(3)N(R(2))]} (R(1) = (t)Bu; R(2) = (t)Bu; R(3) = H), is also accessible by thermolysis of 3, suggesting that the carbene-borane alcohol is a more thermodynamically stable combination than the zwitterionic imidazolium borate. High-temperature thermolysis also can result in complete cleavage of the alcohol arm, eliminating tert-butyloxirane and forming the B-N bound imidazolium borate 7. The strong dependence of reaction products on the steric and electronic properties of each imidazole precursor molecule is discussed.
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[Expressions of FOXC1 and MMP-7 in molecular subtypes of breast cancer and their association with clinicopathological characteristics].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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To investigate the expressions of FOXC1 and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7) in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer and their association with clinicopathological characteristics of the disease.
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Brain-targeted delivery of trans-activating transcriptor-conjugated magnetic PLGA/lipid nanoparticles.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Magnetic poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/lipid nanoparticles (MPLs) were fabricated from PLGA, L-?-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-amino (polyethylene glycol) (DSPE-PEG-NH2), and magnetic nanoparticles (NPs), and then conjugated to trans-activating transcriptor (TAT) peptide. The TAT-MPLs were designed to target the brain by magnetic guidance and TAT conjugation. The drugs hesperidin (HES), naringin (NAR), and glutathione (GSH) were encapsulated in MPLs with drug loading capacity (>10%) and drug encapsulation efficiency (>90%). The therapeutic efficacy of the drug-loaded TAT-MPLs in bEnd.3 cells was compared with that of drug-loaded MPLs. The cells accumulated higher levels of TAT-MPLs than MPLs. In addition, the accumulation of QD-loaded fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled TAT-MPLs in bEnd.3 cells was dose and time dependent. Our results show that TAT-conjugated MPLs may function as an effective drug delivery system that crosses the blood brain barrier to the brain.
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A bipolar transporter as an efficient green fluorescent emitter and host for red phosphors in multi- and single-layer organic light-emitting diodes.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Multifunctional donor-acceptor compound 4,4'-bis(dibenzothiophene-S,S-dioxide-2-yl)triphenylamine (DSTPA) was obtained by linking a strongly electron-withdrawing core and a strongly electron-donating core with a biphenyl bridge in linear spatial alignment. DSTPA not only has suitable HOMO and LUMO levels for easily accepting both holes and electrons, it was also demonstrated to have a high fluorescence quantum yield of 0.98 and a high triplet energy level of 2.39?eV. Versatile applications of DSTPA for bipolar transport, green fluorescent emission, and sensitizing a red phosphor were systematically investigated in a series of multi- and single-layer organic light-emitting devices. In traditional multilayer devices, it shows excellent performance both in an undoped fluorescent device (used as a green emitter and achieving maximum current and power efficiencies (CE and PE) of 12.6?cd?A(-1) and 9.4?Lm?W(-1) , respectively) and in a red phosphorescent device (used as a host and achieving maximum CE and PE of 26.4?cd?A(-1) and 26.3?Lm?W(-1) , respectively). Furthermore, DSTPA was also simultaneously used as an emitter, a hole transporter, and an electron transporter in a single-layer device showing CE and PE of 5.1?cd?A(-1) and 4.7?Lm?W(-1) , respectively. A single-layer red phosphorescent device with efficiencies of 11.7?cd?A(-1) and 12.6?Lm?W(-1) was obtained by doping DSTPA with a red phosphor. The performances of all of the devices in this work are comparable to the best of their corresponding classes in the literature.
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Phytoremediation of phenol using Polygonum orientale, including optimized conditions.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Removing phenol from wastewater has become a major challenge of international concern. Phytoremediation is a novel and eco-friendly method and is attracting an increasing amount of attention for treating phenol in wastewater. We studied the ability of Polygonum orientale, which is frequently present around water bodies and in wetlands in China, to phytoremediate phenol. We determined the inhibition concentration for phenol on P. orientale using emergency toxicology experiments and morphological observations. Isothermal and kinetic models were created to assess the adsorption process involved in phenol removal. Comparison tests in sterile conditions demonstrated that metabolic removal was the main way in which the phenol concentrations were decreased, and removal by adsorption played a smaller role. An orthogonal test was performed to determine the optimum conditions under which P. orientale will remove phenol, and these were found to be an initial phenol concentration of 5 mg L(-1), 100 % natural light, and a 13-day treatment time. These results provide a theoretical basis for increasing our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the removal of phenol by P. orientale and will help in developing its application in the greening of urban areas to provide both phytoremediation and esthetic landscaping.
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Evidence for progressive brain abnormalities in early schizophrenia: a cross-sectional structural and functional connectivity study.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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It has long been debated whether a progressive process is involved in schizophrenia. The aim of the current study was to determine whether a progressive process was involved in patients with early schizophrenia, who were drug naive or had received short-term minimal antipsychotic treatment to avoid the distortion through medication effects. Twenty-eight patients with schizophrenia with illness-duration of up to 3 years and twenty-six matched healthy controls were recruited. Structural and functional brain networks were examined based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The intergroup differences and correlation with illness duration in the patient group were surveyed. The schizophrenic patients showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the corpus callosum and corona radiata. Negative correlations of illness duration with FA values were observed in similar regions. During functional analysis, reduced functional connectivity between bilateral temporoparietal-junction (TPJ) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were found in the default mode network (DMN) in schizophrenic patients. In addition, the left TPJ showed gradually weaker functional connectivity with PCC and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in DMN as the duration of schizophrenia increased. The results suggested that early in the disease process patients have decreased connectivity in both structural and functional networks and that the weaker structural and functional connectivity negatively correlated with illness duration, which provided evidence for progressive brain abnormalities in early schizophrenia.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the subterranean termite, Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Abstract We have determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder. The total length of the R. chinensis is 15,925?bp with 65.27% A?+?T content. It consists of 13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, 2 rRNA genes and an A?+?T-rich control region. All the protein-coding genes used ATN as start codon. But the stop codons were TAA, TAG, and an incomplete termination codon (T) abutting an adjacent tRNA gene. The A?+?T-rich control region was 1125?bp in length with 67.02% A?+?T content.
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Interference between conscious and unconscious facial expression information.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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There is ample evidence to show that many types of visual information, including emotional information, could be processed in the absence of visual awareness. For example, it has been shown that masked subliminal facial expressions can induce priming and adaptation effects. However, stimulus made invisible in different ways could be processed to different extent and have differential effects. In this study, we adopted a flanker type behavioral method to investigate whether a flanker rendered invisible through Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS) could induce a congruency effect on the discrimination of a visible target. Specifically, during the experiment, participants judged the expression (either happy or fearful) of a visible face in the presence of a nearby invisible face (with happy or fearful expression). Results show that participants were slower and less accurate in discriminating the expression of the visible face when the expression of the invisible flanker face was incongruent. Thus, facial expression information rendered invisible with CFS and presented a different spatial location could enhance or interfere with consciously processed facial expression information.
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Myeloid-specific disruption of tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 promotes alternative activation of macrophages and predisposes mice to pulmonary fibrosis.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The alternative activation of M2 macrophages in the lungs has been implicated as a causative agent in pulmonary fibrosis; however, the mechanisms underlying M2 polarization are poorly characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the ubiquitously expressed Src homology domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 in this process. Shp2 inactivation augmented IL-4-mediated M2 polarization in vitro, suggesting that Shp2 regulates macrophage skewing and prevents a bias toward the M2 phenotype. Conditional removal of Shp2 in monocytes/macrophages with lysozyme M promoter-driven Cre recombinase caused an IL-4-mediated shift toward M2 polarization. Additionally, an increase in arginase activity was detected in Shp2(?/?) mice after i.p. injection of chitin, whereas Shp2-deficient macrophages showed enhanced M2 polarization and protection against schistosome egg-induced schistosomiasis. Furthermore, mutants were more sensitive than control mice to bleomycin-induced inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. Shp2 was associated with IL-4R? and inhibited JAK1/STAT6 signaling through its phosphatase activity; loss of Shp2 promoted the association of JAK1 with IL-4R?, which enhanced IL-4-mediated JAK1/STAT6 activation that resulted in M2 skewing. Taken together, these findings define a role for Shp2 in alveolar macrophages and reveal that Shp2 is required to inhibit the progression of M2-associated pulmonary fibrosis.
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Plasmonic routing in aperiodic graphene sheet arrays.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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We discover deep-subwavelength, low-loss, and diffraction-free surface plasmon polariton (SPP) beam routing effects in aperiodic graphene sheet arrays (a-GSAs). The a-GSAs are constructed by varying either the interlayer spaces between graphene or the individual graphene chemical potentials. The SPP beams can be accelerated or decelerated in the a-GSAs, resulting in beam routing in different paths. The wave fronts of the beams are always parallel to the propagation direction, allowing the generation of transverse radiation pressure. All of these behaviors of SPPs are demonstrated by fully vectorial simulation and Hamilton optics analysis.
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The role of lipid-based nano delivery systems on oral bioavailability enhancement of fenofibrate, a BCS II drug: comparison with fast-release formulations.
J Nanobiotechnology
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The aim of this study was to compare various formulations solid dispersion pellets (SDP), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) generally accepted to be the most efficient drug delivery systems for BCS II drugs using fenofibrate (FNB) as a model drug. The size and morphology of NLCs and SMEDDS was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Their release behaviors were investigated in medium with or without pancreatic lipase. The oral bioavailability of the various formulations was compared in beagle dogs using commercial Lipanthyl® capsules (micronized formulation) as a reference. The release of FNB from SDP was much faster than that from NLCs and SMEDDS in medium without lipase, whereas the release rate from NLCs and SMEDDS was increased after adding pancreatic lipase into the release medium. However, NLCs and SMEDDS increased the bioavailability of FNB to 705.11% and 809.10%, respectively, in comparison with Lipanthyl® capsules, although the relative bioavailability of FNB was only 366.05% after administration of SDPs. Thus, lipid-based drug delivery systems (such as NLCs and SMEDDS) may have more advantages than immediate release systems (such as SDPs and Lipanthyl® capsules).
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Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor regulates apoptotic sensitivity of colon cancer HCT116 cell line to TRAIL via JNK-p53 pathway.
Apoptosis
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) serves not only as an anchor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator but also participates in intracellular signal transduction events. In this study, we investigated whether uPAR could modulate TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cells HCT116. Using an antisense strategy, we established a stable HCT116 cell line with down-regulated uPAR. The sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis was evaluated by FACS analysis. Our results show that the inhibition of uPAR could sensitize HCT116 to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. uPAR inhibition changed the expression of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway proteins, including Bcl-2, Bax, Bid and p53, in a pro-apoptotic manner. We also found that the inhibition of uPAR down-regulated the phosphorylation of FAK, ERK and JNK. The inhibition of p53 by RNA interference rescued cells from enhanced apoptosis, thus indicating that p53 is critical for enhancing TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, JNK, but not ERK, inhibition involved in the up-regulation of p53. JNK negatively regulated p53 protein level. Overall, our results show that uPAR inhibition can sensitize colon cancer cells HCT116 to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via active p53 and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways that JNK inhibition is involved.
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Safety and efficacy of warfarin plus aspirin combination therapy for giant coronary artery aneurysm secondary to Kawasaki disease: a meta-analysis.
Cardiology
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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To compare the safety and efficacy of warfarin plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for the treatment of children with giant coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) secondary to Kawasaki disease (KD).
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In situ synthesis of uniform Fe2O3/BiOCl p/n heterojunctions and improved photodegradation properties for mixture dyes.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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The xFe2O3/yBiOCl composites (xFe/yBi, x/y = 0/100, 5/100, 10/100, 20/100, 30/100 and 40/100 molar ratios) are prepared for the first time through an in situ hydrolysis method under hydrothermal conditions. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS). The photodegradation performances of the xFe/yBi samples are investigated using a simulated industrial wastewater mixture containing both rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO). The uniform Fe2O3 nanocubes are found to be well distributed on the BiOCl nanosheets. Moreover, the xFe/yBi photocatalysts exhibit unexpectedly higher efficiencies than bare BiOCl or Fe2O3 under ultraviolet light irradiation (? ? 420 nm). Specifically, the degradation rates of the xFe/yBi samples at x/y = 5/100 and 10/100 are four times higher than that of bare BiOCl for MO-RhB mixed dye solutions. Their high photocatalytic activities are mainly attributed to the formation of stable p/n heterojunctions between Fe2O3 and BiOCl, which greatly improve the separation of photogenerated carriers. Importantly, the highly efficient and inexpensive xFe/yBi p/n heterojunctions are expected to be useful in practical industrial wastewater applications involving complicated toxic components.
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Communities of sediment ammonia-oxidizing bacteria along a coastal pollution gradient in the East China Sea.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) discharges has caused eutrophication in coastal zones. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) convert ammonia to nitrite and play important roles in N transformation. Here, we used pyrosequencing based on the amoA gene to investigate the response of the sediment AOB community to an N pollution gradient in the East China Sea. The results showed that AOB assemblages were primarily affiliated with Nitrosospira-like lineages, and only 0.4% of those belonged to Nitrosomonas-like lineage. The Nitrosospira-like lineage was separated into four clusters that were most similar to the sediment AOB communities detected in adjacent marine regions. Additionally, one clade was out grouped from the AOB lineages, which shared the high similarities with pmoA gene. The AOB community structures substantially changed along the pollution gradient, which were primarily shaped by NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, SO4(2)(-)-S, TP and Eh. These results demonstrated that coastal pollution could dramatically influence AOB communities, which, in turn, may change ecosystem function.
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[Effect of pressure on electron-phonon coupling constants of all-trans-beta-carotene].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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The present paper cited that R Tubino and other people introduced a kind of electron-phonon coupling constants with dimension, which can establish the relation with the Huang-Rhys factor and calculate the electron-phonon coupling constants of every C-C bond vibration mode. There are many reports about the visible absorption and Raman spectra of all-trans-beta-carotene with pressure. But the study about the Raman scattering cross section and the Huang-Rhys factor with pressure have not been reported now. Visible absorption and Raman spectra of all-trans-beta-carotene were measured in carbon disulfide in the pressure range from 0. 04 to 0. 60 GPa. The results indicated that the visible absorption spectra of beta-carotene in nonpolar solvent carbon disulfide are red-shifted with pressure increasing, but the frequency shifts towards higher frequencies in the Raman spectra, the Raman scattering cross section decreases, Huang-Rhys factor increases, and the electron-phonon coupling constants of CC bond vibration modes increase. The mechanism is that all-trans-beta-carotene caused by compression and a decrease in the structurally ordered properties of the molecules leads to narrow energy gap of the pi, shortens effective conjugation length, hinders delocalization of pi-electron, decreases the Raman scattering cross section, and increases the Huang-Rhys factor and the electron-phonon coupling constants.
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Field dissipation and storage stability of glufosinate ammonium and its metabolites in soil.
Int J Anal Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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A simple analytical method was developed to measure concentrations of glufosinate ammonium and its metabolites, 3-methylphosphinico-propionic acid (MPP) and 2-methylphosphinico-acetic acid (MPA), in field soil samples. To determine the minimum quantification limit, samples were spiked at different levels (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0?mg/kg). Soil samples were extracted with ammonium hydroxide solution 5% (v/v), concentrated, and reacted with trimethyl orthoacetate (TMOA) in the presence of acetic acid for derivatization. The derivatives were quantified by gas chromatography (GC) using a flame photometric detector (FPD). The linear correlation coefficients of glufosinate ammonium, MPP, and MPA in soil were 0.991, 0.999, and 0.999, respectively. The recoveries of this method for glufosinate ammonium, MPP, and MPA in soil were 77.2-95.5%, 98.3-100.3%, and 99.3-99.6% with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.8-4.1%, 0.4-1.4%, and 1.3-2.0%, respectively. Glufosinate ammonium dissipated rapidly in soil to MPA in hours and gradually degraded to MPP. The half-life of glufosinate ammonium degradation in soil was 2.30-2.93 days in an open field. In soil samples stored at -20°C glufosinate ammonium was stable for two months. The results of this study should provide guidance for the safe application of the herbicide glufosinate ammonium to agricultural products and the environment.
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Efficient production of 2,3-butanediol from corn stover hydrolysate by using a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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In this study, a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain X10 was newly isolated for 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Strain X10 could utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously without carbon catabolite repression. In addition, strain X10 possesses high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors including furfural, vanillin, formic acid, and acetic acid. In a fed-batch fermentation, 74.0g/L of 2,3-BD was obtained from corn stover hydrolysate, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 94.6%. Thus, this thermophilic B. licheniformis strain is a candidate for the development of efficient industrial production of 2,3-BD from corn stover hydrolysate.
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Flexible focus function consisting of convex function and image enhancement filter.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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We propose a new focus function ? that, like many of the existing focus functions, consists of a convex function and an image enhancement filter. ? is rather flexible because for any convex function and image enhancement filter, it is a focus function. We proved that ? is a focus function using a model and Jensen's inequality. Furthermore, we generated random ?s and experimentally applied them to simulated and real blurred images, finding that 98% and 99% of the random ?s, respectively, have a maximum value at the best-focused image and most of them decrease as the defocus increases. We also applied random ?s to motion-blurred images, blurred images in different-sized windows, and blurred images with different types of noise. We found that ? can be applied to motion blur and is robust to different-sized windows and different noise types.
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High percentage of ?1-globulin in serum protein is associated with unfavorable prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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The association of the percentage composition of serum protein in patients undergoing lung resections for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with overall survival and recurrence-free survival has never been investigated. Patients were selected consecutively from the database of the Bio-Bank of Shandong Provincial Hospital. We retrospectively examined the impact of preoperative percentage composition of serum protein detected by serum protein electrophoresis on survival. Furthermore, we investigated the relationships between the potential prognostic biomarkers and clinicopathological factors. A total of 390 patients were evaluated. The higher percentage of ?1-globulin in serum protein was significantly associated with histology type (p<0.001), worse tumor status (p<0.001) and higher pathological stage (p=0.004). The ?1-globulin percentage composition was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (hazard ratio 1.52, 95% CI 1.04-2.23, p=0.03). High percentage of ?1-globulin in serum protein was also related to short recurrence survival (hazard ratio 1.56, 95% CI 1.14-2.13, p=0.005). Our results showed that the percentage of ?1-globulin in serum protein may be an independent prognostic factor in NSCLC.
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Common dysregulation network in the human prefrontal cortex underlies two neurodegenerative diseases.
Mol. Syst. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Using expression profiles from postmortem prefrontal cortex samples of 624 dementia patients and non-demented controls, we investigated global disruptions in the co-regulation of genes in two neurodegenerative diseases, late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Huntington's disease (HD). We identified networks of differentially co-expressed (DC) gene pairs that either gained or lost correlation in disease cases relative to the control group, with the former dominant for both AD and HD and both patterns replicating in independent human cohorts of AD and aging. When aligning networks of DC patterns and physical interactions, we identified a 242-gene subnetwork enriched for independent AD/HD signatures. This subnetwork revealed a surprising dichotomy of gained/lost correlations among two inter-connected processes, chromatin organization and neural differentiation, and included DNA methyltransferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3A, of which we predicted the former but not latter as a key regulator. To validate the inter-connection of these two processes and our key regulator prediction, we generated two brain-specific knockout (KO) mice and show that Dnmt1 KO signature significantly overlaps with the subnetwork (P = 3.1 × 10(-12)), while Dnmt3a KO signature does not (P = 0.017).
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COMPARISON OF DRUSEN AND MODIFYING GENES IN AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT RADIAL DRUSEN AND AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Autosomal dominant radial drusen (ADRD), also termed Malattia Leventinese and Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy, causes early-onset vision loss because of mutation in EFEMP1. Drusen in an exceedingly rare ADRD human donor eye was compared with eyes affected with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study also elucidated whether variations in high-risk AMD genotypes modify phenotypic severity of ADRD.
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Antioxidant effects of grape vine cane extracts from different Chinese grape varieties on edible oils.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC), which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry.
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Ubiquitin-like protein FAT10 promotes the invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by modifying ?-catenin degradation.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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The ubiquitin-like protein FAT10 and the homeobox protein HOXB9 each promote metastatic progression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the clinicopathologic significance of FAT10 and HOXB9 in HCC and investigated a mechanistic role for FAT10 in HOXB9-mediated invasiveness and metastasis. Relative to adjacent normal tissues, FAT10 and HOXB9 were markedly overexpressed in HCC, where a positive correlation in their expression and associated malignant characteristics were found. RNAi-mediated silencing of FAT10 decreased HOXB9 expression and inhibited HCC invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. The effects of FAT10 silencing were reversed by HOXB9 overexpression, whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of HOXB9 decreased HCC invasion and metastasis driven by FAT10 overexpression. Mechanistically, FAT10 regulated HOXB9 expression by modulating the ?-catenin/TCF4 pathway, directly binding to ?-catenin and preventing its ubiquitination and degradation. Together, our results identified a novel HCC regulatory circuit involving FAT10, ?-catenin/TCF4, and HOXB9, the dysfunction of which drives invasive and metastatic character in HCC. Cancer Res; 74(18); 5287-300. ©2014 AACR.
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Increased TRPP2 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells from high-salt intake hypertensive rats: The crucial role in vascular dysfunction.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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High-salt intake is a major risk factor in the development of hypertension. The underlying mechanism of high sodium on the cardiovascular system has received extensive attention. TRPP2 (Polycystin-2) is a Ca(2+) permeable non-selective cation channel that mediates Ca(2+) mobilization to control vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contraction. Here, we investigated TRPP2 expression change in VSMCs from high-salt intake hypertensive rats and role of TRPP2 in the development of high-salt diet-induced hypertension.
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Study on salvianolic acid B in the reduction of epidural fibrosis in laminectomy rats.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Epidural fibrosis (EF) is a common complication after laminectomy. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is a major bioactive component of a traditional Chinese medical agent, Salvia miltiorrhiza, which has shown anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic and anti-proliferative properties. The object of this study was to investigate the effect of Sal B on the prevention of epidural fibrosis in laminectomy rats.
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Identification of centromeric regions on the linkage map of cotton using centromere-related repeats.
Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Centromere usually contains high-copy-number retrotransposons and satellite repeats, which are difficult to map, clone and sequence. Currently, very little is known about the centromere in cotton. Here, we sequenced a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) mapping to the centromeric region and predicted four long-terminal-repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. They were located in the heterochromatic centromeric regions of all 52 pachytene chromosomes in Gossypium hirsutum. Fiber-FISH mapping revealed that these retrotransposons span an area of at least 1.8Mb in the centromeric region. Comparative analysis showed that these retrotransposons generated similar, strong fluorescent signals in the D progenitor Gossypium raimondii but not in the A progenitor Gossypium herbaceum, suggesting that the centromere sequence of tetraploid cotton might be derived from the D progenitor. Centromeric regions were anchored on 13 chromosomes of D-genome sequence. Characterization of these centromere-related repeats and regions will enhance cotton centromere mapping, sequencing and evolutionary studies.
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A novel, molecularly imprinted polymer sensor made using an oligomeric methyl silsesquioxane-TiO2 composite sol on a glassy carbon electrode for the detection of procainamide hydrochloride.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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In this study, we designed a novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), oligomeric methyl silsesquioxane (O-MSSQ)-TiO2 composite sol, which was made using a sol-gel reaction. This polymer has structural rigidity and high surface area of O-MSSQ, as well as high bio-compatibility and relatively good conductivity of the TiO2. Next, a sensitive and selective imprinted electrochemical sensor was successfully constructed for the direct detection of procainamide hydrochloride by molecularly imprinting a film onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. Adding TiO2 resulted in a noticeable enhancement in the sensitivity of the MIP sensor. The performance of the O-MSSQ-TiO2 film was discussed, and the optimal conditions for detection were determined. The oxidative peak current increased linearly with the concentration of procainamide hydrochloride in the range of 4.00×10(-9)-4.97×10(-5)M using differential pulse voltammetry, and the detection limit was 1.30×10(-9)M with S/N=3. Furthermore, the sensor was applied to determine the procainamide hydrochloride content in a human blood serum sample. The recoveries of the sensors varied from 96.77% to 101.35%, indicating that the prepared sensor might be promising for the determination of procainamide hydrochloride in clinical tests. Moreover, the imprinted electrochemical sensor was used to selectively detect procainamide hydrochloride. The analytical application was conducted successfully and yielded accurate and precise results.
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Observations of a Metal-Insulator Transition and Strong Surface States in Bi2-x Sbx Se3 Thin Films.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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High-quality thin films of the topological insulator Bi2-x Sbx Se3 are grown by molecular beam epitaxy. A metal-insulator transition along with strong surface states - revealed by Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations - is observed as the Sb concentration is increased. This system represents a widely tunable platform for achieving high surface conduction, suppressing the bulk influence, and manipulating the band structure of topological insulators.
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ZBTB20 regulates nociception and pain sensation by modulating TRP channel expression in nociceptive sensory neurons.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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In mammals, pain sensation is initiated by the detection of noxious stimuli through specialized transduction ion channels and receptors in nociceptive sensory neurons. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are the key sensory transducers that confer nociceptors distinct sensory modalities. However, the regulatory mechanisms about their expression are poorly defined. Here we show that the zinc-finger protein ZBTB20 regulates TRP channels expression in nociceptors. ZBTB20 is highly expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia. Disruption of ZBTB20 in nociceptors led to a marked decrease in the expression levels of TRPV1, TRPA1 and TRPM8 and the response of calcium flux and whole-cell currents evoked by their respective specific agonists. Phenotypically, the mice lacking ZBTB20 specifically in nociceptors showed a defect in nociception and pain sensation in response to thermal, mechanical and inflammatory stimulation. Our findings point to ZBTB20 as a critical regulator of nociception and pain sensation by modulating TRP channels expression in nociceptors.
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Vitritis in Pediatric Genetic Retinal Disorders.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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To determine which types of pediatric retinal degeneration are associated with inflammatory cells in the anterior vitreous.
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Lattice-Boltzmann method for the simulation of multiphase mass transfer and reaction of dilute species.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Despite the popularity of the lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) in simulating multiphase flows, a general approach for modeling dilute species in multiphase systems is still missing. In this report we propose to modify the collision operator of the solute by introducing a modified redistribution scheme. This operator is based on local fluid variables and keeps the parallelism inherent to LBM. After deriving macroscopic transport equations, an analytical equation of state of the solute is exhibited and the method is proven constituting a unified framework to simulate arbitrary solute distribution between phases, including single-phase soluble compounds, amphiphilic species with a partition coefficient, and surface-adsorbed compounds.
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The Membrane Attack Complex in Aging Human Choriocapillaris: Relationship to Macular Degeneration and Choroidal Thinning.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common disease that can result in severe visual impairment. Abnormal regulation of the complement system has been implicated in its pathogenesis, and CFH polymorphisms contribute substantially to risk. How these polymorphisms exert their effects is poorly understood. We performed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis on young, aged, and AMD choroids to determine the abundance of the membrane attack complex (MAC) and performed immunofluorescence studies on eyes from 117 donors to evaluate the MAC in aging, early AMD, and advanced AMD. Morphometric studies were performed on eyes with high- or low-risk CFH genotypes. ELISA confirmed that MAC increases significantly with aging and with AMD. MAC was localized to Bruch's membrane and the choriocapillaris and was detectable at low levels as early as 5 years of age. Hard drusen were labeled with anti-MAC antibody, but large or confluent drusen and basal deposits were generally unlabeled. Labeling of retinal pigment epithelium was observed in some cases of advanced AMD, but not in early disease. Eyes homozygous for the high-risk CFH genotype had thinner choroids than low-risk homozygotes (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that increased complement activation in AMD and in high-risk genotypes can lead to loss of endothelial cells in early AMD. Treatments to protect the choriocapillaris in early AMD are needed.
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Prognostic value of poorly differentiated clusters in invasive breast cancer.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Our study aimed to assess the prognostic value of poorly differentiated clusters (PDCs) in invasive breast cancer.
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Coronavirus membrane-associated papain-like proteases induce autophagy through interacting with Beclin1 to negatively regulate antiviral innate immunity.
Protein Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Autophagy plays important roles in modulating viral replication and antiviral immune response. Coronavirus infection is associated with the autophagic process, however, little is known about the mechanisms of autophagy induction and its contribution to coronavirus regulation of host innate responses. Here, we show that the membrane-associated papain-like protease PLP2 (PLP2-TM) of coronaviruses acts as a novel autophagy-inducing protein. Intriguingly, PLP2-TM induces incomplete autophagy process by increasing the accumulation of autophagosomes but blocking the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. Furthermore, PLP2-TM interacts with the key autophagy regulators, LC3 and Beclin1, and promotes Beclin1 interaction with STING, the key regulator for antiviral IFN signaling. Finally, knockdown of Beclin1 partially reverses PLP2-TM's inhibitory effect on innate immunity which resulting in decreased coronavirus replication. These results suggested that coronavirus papain-like protease induces incomplete autophagy by interacting with Beclin1, which in turn modulates coronavirus replication and antiviral innate immunity.
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Field dissipation of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid in soil and apples.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The dissipation of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid in apples and soil was studied, and the half-life (DT50) was estimated in a field study carried out at three different locations for apples and four different locations for soil. Trifloxystrobin was sprayed on apples at 127 g a.i./ha for the dissipation study. Samples of apple and soil for the dissipation experiment were collected at time intervals of 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 45 days after treatment. The quantification of residues was done by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The DT50 of trifloxystrobin ranged from 0.54 to 8.8 and 4.8 to 9.5 days in soil and apples at different latitude sites. Photolysis may be the main dissipation pathway for trifloxystrobin, and the number of sunshine hours may be the main factor affecting the trifloxystrobin dissipation rate in the field. For trifloxystrobin acid residues in soil and apples, it first increased and then began decreasing. It was indicated that the risk of trifloxystrobin application in shorter sunshine hour area should be considered.
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Dissociation of decision making under ambiguity and decision making under risk: a neurocognitive endophenotype candidate for obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Evidence in the literature suggests that executive dysfunction is regarded as an endophenotype candidate for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Decision making is an important domain of executive function. However, the few studies that have investigated whether decision making is a potential endophenotype for OCD have produced inconsistent results. Differences in the findings across these studies may be attributed to several factors: different study materials, comorbidity, medication, etc. There are at least two types of decision making that differ mainly in the degree of uncertainty and how much useful information about consequences and their probabilities are provided to the decision maker: decision making under ambiguity and decision making under risk. The aim of the present study was to simultaneously examine decision making under ambiguity as assessed by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and decision making under risk as measured by the Game of Dice Task (GDT) in OCD patients and their unaffected first-degree relative (UFDR) for the first time. The study analyzed 55 medication-naïve, non-depressed OCD patient probands, 55 UFDRs of the OCD patients and 55 healthy matched comparison subjects (CS) without a family history of OCD with the IGT, the GDT and a neuropsychological test battery. While the OCD patients and the UFDRs performed worse than the CS on the IGT, they were unimpaired on the GDT. Our study supports the claim that decision making under ambiguity differs from decision making under risk and suggests that dissociation of decision making under ambiguity and decision making under risk may qualify to be a neurocognitive endophenotypes for OCD.
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Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome: a cross-disorder study.
Lauren M McGrath, Dongmei Yu, Christian Marshall, Lea K Davis, Bhooma Thiruvahindrapuram, Bingbin Li, Carolina Cappi, Gloria Gerber, Aaron Wolf, Frederick A Schroeder, Lisa Osiecki, Colm O'Dushlaine, Andrew Kirby, Cornelia Illmann, Stephen Haddad, Patience Gallagher, Jesen A Fagerness, Cathy L Barr, Laura Bellodi, Fortu Benarroch, O Joseph Bienvenu, Donald W Black, Michael H Bloch, Ruth D Bruun, Cathy L Budman, Beatriz Camarena, Danielle C Cath, Maria C Cavallini, Sylvain Chouinard, Vladimir Coric, Bernadette Cullen, Richard Delorme, Damiaan Denys, Eske M Derks, Yves Dion, Maria C Rosário, Valsama Eapen, Patrick Evans, Peter Falkai, Thomas V Fernandez, Helena Garrido, Daniel Geller, Hans J Grabe, Marco A Grados, Benjamin D Greenberg, Varda Gross-Tsur, Edna Grünblatt, Gary A Heiman, Sian M J Hemmings, Luis D Herrera, Ana G Hounie, Joseph Jankovic, James L Kennedy, Robert A King, Roger Kurlan, Nuria Lanzagorta, Marion Leboyer, James F Leckman, Leonhard Lennertz, Christine Lochner, Thomas L Lowe, Gholson J Lyon, Fabio Macciardi, Wolfgang Maier, James T McCracken, William McMahon, Dennis L Murphy, Allan L Naarden, Benjamin M Neale, Erika Nurmi, Andrew J Pakstis, Michele T Pato, Carlos N Pato, John Piacentini, Christopher Pittenger, Yehuda Pollak, Victor I Reus, Margaret A Richter, Mark Riddle, Mary M Robertson, David Rosenberg, Guy A Rouleau, Stephan Ruhrmann, Aline S Sampaio, Jack Samuels, Paul Sandor, Brooke Sheppard, Harvey S Singer, Jan H Smit, Dan J Stein, Jay A Tischfield, Homero Vallada, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, Susanne Walitza, Ying Wang, Jens R Wendland, Yin Yao Shugart, Euripedes C Miguel, Humberto Nicolini, Ben A Oostra, Rainald Moessner, Michael Wagner, Andrés Ruiz-Linares, Peter Heutink, Gerald Nestadt, Nelson Freimer, Tracey Petryshen, Danielle Posthuma, Michael A Jenike, Nancy J Cox, Gregory L Hanna, Helena Brentani, Stephen W Scherer, Paul D Arnold, S Evelyn Stewart, Carol A Mathews, James A Knowles, Edwin H Cook, David L Pauls, Kai Wang, Jeremiah M Scharf.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500 kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and the largest genome-wide CNV analysis in TS to date.
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Organic polymorphs: one-compound-based crystals with molecular-conformation- and packing-dependent luminescent properties.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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The present study of structure-property relationships and disclosure of fascinating amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) behavior of an organic molecule not only exhibits the individual effect of molecular conformation and arrangement on the emission properties of the crystal separately, but also indicates that some concealed elegant properties of organic solids can be achieved through manipulating the polymorphic form.
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Electrophysiological dynamics reveal distinct processing of stimulus-stimulus and stimulus-response conflicts.
Psychophysiology
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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The present study examined electroencephalogram profiles on a novel stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) task in order to elucidate the distinct brain mechanisms of stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (S-R) conflict processing. The results showed that the SRC effects on reaction times (RTs) and N2 amplitudes were additive when both S-S and S-R conflicts existed. We also observed that, for both RTs and N2 amplitudes, the conflict adaptation effects-the reduced SRC effect following an incongruent trial versus a congruent trial-were present only when two consecutive trials involved the same type of conflict. Time-frequency analysis revealed that both S-S and S-R conflicts modulated power in the theta band, whereas S-S conflict additionally modulated power in the alpha and beta bands. In summary, our findings provide insight into the domain-specific conflict processing and the modular organization of cognitive control.
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Patterns of somatic alterations between matched primary and metastatic colorectal tumors characterized by whole-genome sequencing.
Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients have poor prognosis after formation of distant metastasis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which genetic changes facilitate metastasis is critical for the development of targeted therapeutic strategies aimed at controlling disease progression while minimizing toxic side effects. A comprehensive portrait of somatic alterations in CRC and the changes between primary and metastatic tumors has yet to be developed. We performed whole genome sequencing of two primary CRC tumors and their matched liver metastases. By comparing to matched germline DNA, we catalogued somatic alterations at multiple scales, including single nucleotide variations, small insertions and deletions, copy number aberrations and structural variations in both the primary and matched metastasis. We found that the majority of these somatic alterations are present in both sites. Despite the overall similarity, several de novo alterations in the metastases were predicted to be deleterious, in genes including FBXW7, DCLK1 and FAT2, which might contribute to the initiation and progression of distant metastasis. Through careful examination of the mutation prevalence among tumor cells at each site, we also proposed distinct clonal evolution patterns between primary and metastatic tumors in the two cases. These results suggest that somatic alterations may play an important role in driving the development of colorectal cancer metastasis and present challenges and opportunities when considering the choice of treatment.
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High-resolution genomic copy number profiling of primary intraocular lymphoma by single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL) is a rare lymphoma. Because of difficulties in obtaining tissue samples, little is known about the disease's genetic features. In order to clarify these features, we carried out single nucleotide polymorphism array karyotyping of IOL using genomic DNA extracted from vitreous fluid. We analyzed 33 samples of IOLs consisting of 16 PIOLs, 12 IOLs with a central nervous system (CNS) lesion at diagnosis (IOCNSL), and five secondary IOLs following systemic lymphoma. All were B-cell type. We identified recurrent copy number (CN) gain regions in PIOLs, most frequently on chromosome 1q followed by 18q and 19q. Chromosome 6q was the most frequent loss region. Although these CN gain regions of PIOL were in common with those of IOCNSL, loss of 6q22.33 containing PTPRK and 9p21.3 containing CDKN2A were more frequently deleted in IOCNSL. Large CN loss in 6q was detected in three of four PIOL patients who had early CNS development and short survival periods, whereas long-term survivors did not have such deletions. There was a correlation between gain of the IL-10 gene located on 1q and intravitreal interleukin-10 concentration, which was higher in IOL than in benign uveitis. The results suggest that IOCNSL is a highly malignant form of PIOL that infiltrates into the CNS at an early stage. They also indicate that genetic differences between PIOL and primary CNS lymphoma need to be clarified.
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A New Stochastic Kriging Method for Modeling Multi-Source Exposure-Response Data in Toxicology Studies.
ACS Sustain Chem Eng
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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One of the most fundamental steps in risk assessment is to quantify the exposure-response relationship for the material/chemical of interest. This work develops a new statistical method, referred to as SKQ (stochastic kriging with qualitative factors), to synergistically model exposure-response data, which often arise from multiple sources (e.g., laboratories, animal providers, and shapes of nanomaterials) in toxicology studies. Compared to the existing methods, SKQ has several distinct features. First, SKQ integrates data across multiple sources and allows for the derivation of more accurate information from limited data. Second, SKQ is highly flexible and able to model practically any continuous response surfaces (e.g., dose-time-response surface). Third, SKQ is able to accommodate variance heterogeneity across experimental conditions and to provide valid statistical inference (i.e., quantify uncertainties of the model estimates). Through empirical studies, we have demonstrated SKQ's ability to efficiently model exposure-response surfaces by pooling information across multiple data sources. SKQ fits into the mosaic of efficient decision-making methods for assessing the risk of a tremendously large variety of nanomaterials and helps to alleviate safety concerns regarding the enormous amount of new nanomaterials.
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Anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flaps as the preferred flaps for reconstruction of oral and maxillofacial defects.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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The anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flap is one of the most commonly used flaps in reconstructive procedures, but its application in oral and maxillofacial defects has not been fully determined. Herein, we summarize the application of 1212 anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flaps in the repair of oral and maxillofacial defects and examine their benefits in maxillofacial reconstruction of these defects.
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Inhibitory effect of humanized anti-VEGFR-2 ScFv-As2O3-stealth nanoparticles conjugate on growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma: in vitro and in vivo studies.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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To investigate the inhibitory effect of humanized anti-VEGFR-2 ScFv-As2O3-stealth nanoparticles conjugate on growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma both in vitro and in vivo, which may be a potential agents with sensitivity and targeting ability for human hepatocellular cancer.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.