JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
c-Abl Modulates Tumor Cell Sensitivity to Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity.
Cancer Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) can modulate cancer cell signal transduction and recruit antitumor immune effector mechanisms-including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Although several clinically effective antibodies can promote ADCC, therapeutic resistance is common. We hypothesized that oncogenic signaling networks within tumor cells affect their sensitivity to ADCC. We developed a screening platform and targeted 60 genes derived from an EGFR gene network using RNAi in an in vitro ADCC model system. Knockdown of GRB7, PRKCE, and ABL1 enhanced ADCC by primary and secondary screens. ABL1 knockdown also reduced cell proliferation, independent of its ADCC enhancement effects. c-Abl overexpression decreased ADCC sensitivity and rescued the effects of ABL1 knockdown. Imatinib inhibition of c-Abl kinase activity also enhanced ADCC-phenocopying ABL1 knockdown-against several EGFR-expressing head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines by ex vivo primary natural killer cells. Our findings suggest that combining c-Abl inhibition with ADCC-promoting antibodies, such as cetuximab, could translate into increased therapeutic efficacy of mAbs. Cancer Immunol Res; 2(12); 1-13. ©2014 AACR.
Related JoVE Video
Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer (NEPC) Progressing From Conventional Prostatic Adenocarcinoma: Factors Associated With Time to Development of NEPC and Survival From NEPC Diagnosis-A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An often under-recognized late manifestation of prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa) is the development of treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC). The aim of this study is to identify the risk factors related to survival after NEPC diagnosis (NEPCS) and time from initial diagnosis of PCa to development of NEPC (TTNEPC).
Related JoVE Video
Transcriptional profiles of bovine in vivo pre-implantation development.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During mammalian pre-implantation embryonic development dramatic and orchestrated changes occur in gene transcription. The identification of the complete changes has not been possible until the development of the Next Generation Sequencing Technology.
Related JoVE Video
Soluble production and function of vascular endothelial growth factor/basic fibroblast growth factor complex peptide.
Biotechnol. Prog.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are important proangiogenic factors in tumor procession. The autocrine and paracrine bFGF and the VEGF in tumor tissue can promote tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. A VEGF/bFGF Complex Peptide (VBP3) was designed on the basis of epitope peptides from both VEGF and bFGF to elicit in vivo production of anti-bFGF and anti-VEGF antibodies. In this study, we reported on the production of recombinant VBP3 using high cell density fermentation. Fed-batch fermentation for recombinant VBP3 production was conducted, and the production procedure was optimized in a 10-L fermentor. The fraction of soluble VBP3 protein obtained reached 78% of total recombinant protein output under fed-batch fermentation. Purified recombinant VBP3 could inhibit tumor cell proliferation in vitro and stimulate C57BL/6 mice to produce high titer anti-VEGF and anti-bFGF antibodies in vivo. A melanoma-grafted mouse model and an immunohistochemistry assay showed that tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis were significantly inhibited in VBP3-vaccinated mice. These results demonstrated that soluble recombinant VBP3 could be produced by large-scale fermentation, and the product, with good immunogenicity, elicited production of high-titer anti-bFGF and anti-VEGF antibodies, which could be used as a therapeutic tumor vaccine to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2014.
Related JoVE Video
[Comparative study of three different methods for penile reconstruction].
Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the effect of three methods for penile reconstruction.
Related JoVE Video
A normative framework for the study of second-order sensitivity in vision.
J Vis
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
While the contrast sensitivity approach has been successful in evaluating the processing of first-order stimuli, there is a need to develop comparable ways of assessing second-order vision. Our purpose here is to establish normative data on second-order contrast-, orientation-, and motion-modulation sensitivity in humans. We propose a unified framework, applying the quick contrast sensitivity function (qCSF) method, which was recently developed for the rapid measurement of contrast sensitivity across the full spatial-frequency range (Lesmes, Lu, Baek, & Albright, 2010), to measure both first- and second-order sensitivity functions. We first show that the qCSF methodology can be successfully adapted to different kinds of first- and second-order measurements. We provide a normative dataset for both first- and second-order sensitivity, and we show that the sensitivity to all these stimuli is equal in the two eyes. Our results confirm some strong differences between first- and second-order processing, in accordance with the classical filter-rectify-filter model. They suggest a common contrast detection mechanism but different second-order mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
The 2011 IASLC/ATS/ERS pulmonary adenocarcinoma classification: a landmark in personalized medicine for lung cancer management.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In 2011, three authoritative academic communities, International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, the American Thoracic Society, and the European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ATS/ERS), published a novel lung adenocarcinoma histologic classification. The major modifications of this classification include the abolishment of the term "bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC)", the establishment of new classification systems for resection and small biopsy or cytology specimens, the emphasis of molecular test and comprehensive histologic evaluation for tumor specimens, etc. This new lung adenocarcinoma classification signifies the era of personalized medicine comes to real-world practice in lung cancer field. Here, we introduce the background why the lung adenocarcinoma classification needs to be revised, and what we should consider in clinical practice according to this new classification.
Related JoVE Video
Differential effects of Akt isoforms on somatic cell reprogramming.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Akt plays an important role in cell growth, proliferation and survival. The specific roles of the three Akt isoforms in somatic cell reprogramming have not been investigated. Here we report that, during iPSC generation, enhanced Akt1 activity promotes complete reprogramming mainly through increased activation of Stat3 in concert with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and, to a lesser extent, through promotion of colony formation. Akt1 augments Stat3 activity through activation of mTOR and upregulation of LIF receptor expression. Similarly, enhanced Akt2 or Akt3 activation also promotes reprogramming and coordinates with LIF to activate Stat3. Blocking Akt1 or Akt3 but not Akt2 expression prohibits cell proliferation and reprogramming. Furthermore, the halt in cell proliferation and reprogramming caused by mTOR and Akt inhibitors can be reversed by inhibition of GSK3. Finally, we found that expressing the GSK3? target Esrrb overrides inhibition of Akt and restores reprogramming. Our data demonstrated that during reprogramming, Akt promotes establishment of pluripotency through co-stimulation of Stat3 activity with LIF. Akt1 and Akt3 are essential for the proliferation of reprogrammed cells, and Esrrb supports cell proliferation and complete reprogramming during Akt signaling.
Related JoVE Video
Detoxification of corncob acid hydrolysate with SAA pretreatment and xylitol production by immobilized Candida tropicalis.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification.
Related JoVE Video
Pre-expanded cervico-acromial fasciocutaneous flap based on the supraclavicular artery for resurfacing post-burn neck scar contractures.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Post-burn cicatricle contractures of neck pose a challenge for plastic and reconstructive surgeons. To improve functional and cosmetic results, and to minimize the donor-site morbidity, we use pre-expanded cervico-acromial fasciocutaneous flap based on the supraclavicular artery as a feasible choice for resurfacing large skin defects of the neck.
Related JoVE Video
?-Synuclein Multimers Cluster Synaptic Vesicles and Attenuate Recycling.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The normal functions and pathologic facets of the small presynaptic protein ?-synuclein (?-syn) are of exceptional interest. In previous studies, we found that ?-syn attenuates synaptic exo/endocytosis [1, 2]; however, underlying mechanisms remain unknown. More recent evidence suggests that ?-syn exists as metastable multimers and not solely as a natively unfolded monomer [3-8]. However, conformations of ?-syn at synapses-its physiologic locale-are unclear, and potential implications of such higher-order conformations to synaptic function are unknown. Exploring ?-syn conformations and synaptic function in neurons, we found that ?-syn promptly organizes into physiological multimers at synapses. Furthermore, our experiments indicate that ?-syn multimers cluster synaptic vesicles and restrict their motility, suggesting a novel role for these higher-order structures. Supporting this, ?-syn mutations that disrupt multimerization also fail to restrict synaptic vesicle motility or attenuate exo/endocytosis. We propose a model in which ?-syn multimers cluster synaptic vesicles, restricting their trafficking and recycling, and consequently attenuate neurotransmitter release.
Related JoVE Video
Mitofusin 2 deficiency leads to oxidative stress that contributes to insulin resistance in rat skeletal muscle cells.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) is a dynamin-like protein anchored in the outer mitochondrial membrane that plays a crucial role in ensuring optimal mitochondrial morphological homeostasis. It has been shown that reduced expression of Mfn2 is associated with insulin resistance, but the mechanism is still unclear. We investigated whether Mfn2 deficiency leads to impaired insulin sensitivity via elevated oxidative stress. L6 skeletal muscle cells were treated with palmitate and Mfn2 expression was repressed by transfection with antisense Mfn2. Levels of antioxidant enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS), the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) were measured. The results showed palmitate-induced insulin resistance of skeletal muscle cells was accompanied by Mfn2 repression. Meanwhile, the cells had decreased ??m and activity of antioxidant enzymes which could increase production of ROS, phosphorylation of JNK and NF-?B. When Mfn2 was up-regulated in palmitate-treated cells, oxidative stress and insulin resistance was alleviated. Furthermore, knock-down of Mfn2 in control cells enhanced oxidative stress. Mfn2 deficiency led to increased superoxide concentration and activation of JNK as well as NF-?B associated with insulin signaling. In conclusion, Mfn2 is a potent repressor for oxidative stress and regulation of Mfn2 expression may prove to be a potential method to circumvent insulin resistance.
Related JoVE Video
[Repair of middle and lower face scars using alar thin expanded cervical flap with pedicle in anterior neck].
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the application of alar thin expanded cervical flap with pedicle in anterior neck for large scars on middle and lower face.
Related JoVE Video
The outcome of cryoablation in treating advanced pancreatic cancer: A comparison with palliative bypass surgery alone.
J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of palliative bypass surgery combined with cryoablation in treating patients with advanced pancreatic cancer and compare this combination therapy with palliative bypass surgery alone.
Related JoVE Video
Cystitis glandularis: A controversial premalignant lesion.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cystitis glandularis (CG) has been hypothesized as a potential precursor of adenocarcinoma, although this remains controversial. The present study reports data accumulated from 166 cases of cystitis glandularis with follow-up periods ranging between 0.5 and 17 years. The association between intestinal and typical CG and bladder carcinoma was retrospectively evaluated. The patients included in the present study had presented with typical (n=155) or intestinal (n=11) CG between 1994 and 2010. Of those patients, concurrent carcinoma of the bladder was identified in 15 (9.0%) patients, including two cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 1 case of sarcoma. The cases of carcinoma were identified either prior to or concurrently with the diagnosis of CG. Follow-up was available for 9/11 (81.8%) patients with intestinal CG. Nine months following transurethral fulguration, 8/11 (72.7%) patients were in complete remission and 1/11 (9.1%) complained of urgency and dysuria; two patients were lost to follow-up. The follow-up of the patients ranged from 0.7 to 4.5 years (median, 2.67 years; mean, 2.82 years). No evidence of subsequent carcinoma was identified in any of the patients during the follow-up of the intestinal and typical CG groups. In addition, there was no evidence of carcinoma subsequent to CG in either of the typical or intestinal CG groups. The results did not support that CG increases the future risk of malignancy in the short term and repeated cystoscopies over a short period of time are not recommended.
Related JoVE Video
The role of functional traits and individual variation in the co-occurrence of Ficus species.
Ecology
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The processes that structure assemblages of species in hyper-diverse genera, such as Ficus (Moraceae), are not well understood. Functional diversity of co-occurring species can reveal evidence for assembly processes; however, intraspecific variation may weaken species-level patterns. We studied whether functional and phylogenetic diversity of Ficus species indicated the effects of spatial variation in filters associated with topography or niche partitioning related to resource use and biotic interactions. We also asked whether individual trait patterns supported species-level patterns. We studied six traits (leaf area, succulence, specific leaf area [SLA], maximum diameter breast high [dbh], fruit size, and latex exudation) for 22 Ficus species and 335 individuals > or = 10 cm dbh on a 20-ha forest plot in China. We found that higher elevation was correlated to changes in mean and reduced diversity of five traits, possibly due to frequent disturbances at higher elevations that favored fast-growing, poorly defended species with high SLA. Maximum dbh showed phylogenetic conservatism but high diversity among co-occurring species, suggesting adult stature is an important axis of within-quadrat niche partitioning. At the individual level, trait patterns were qualitatively consistent but were stronger than species-level patterns, especially for the leaf traits with the greatest intraspecific variation (SLA and succulence). Individual-level SLA exhibited the strongest evidence for both traits among and within-quadrat niche partitioning and indicated elevational filtering. Local niche partitioning and elevational filtering likely play an important role in maintaining species and functional diversity in the most speciose genus at our study site. Our results highlight the importance of individual variation, as it may reveal otherwise obscured niche effects.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of hydrophilic variation and bioethanol production of furfural residues after delignification pretreatment.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Furfural residue (FR) is a waste lignocellulosic material with enormous potential for bioethanol production. In this study, bioethanol production from FR after delignification was compared. Hydrophilic variation was measured by conductometric titration to detect the relationship between hydrophilicity and bioethanol production. It was found that ethanol yield increased as delignification enhanced, and it reached up to 75.6% of theoretical yield for samples with 8.7% lignin. The amount of by-products decreased as delignification increased. New inflection points appeared in conductometric titration curves of samples that were partially delignified, but they vanished in the curves of the highly delignified samples. Total charges and carboxyl levels increased after slight delignification, and they decreased upon further delignification. These phenomena suggested some new hydrophilic groups were formed during pretreated delignification, which would be beneficial to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, some newly formed groups may act as toxicant to the yeast during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.
Related JoVE Video
Stereological investigation of the age-related changes of the myelinated fibers in the hippocampus of male rats.
Anat Rec (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The decline of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory during normal aging is not associated with neuron death and synapse loss. Until now, age-related changes in the myelinated fibers of the hippocampus have not been investigated. Therefore, in this study, the myelinated fibers in the hippocampi of young (6 months), middle-aged (18 months), and old-aged (28 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied with transmission electron microscope and stereological methods, following spatial learning tests in a Morris water maze. The results showed that hippocampus-dependent spatial learning was impaired in old-aged rats but that the total volume, length, and mean diameter of the myelinated fibers in the hippocampus, as well as the hippocampal volume, remained constant during the normal aging process. Our results suggest that the age-related decline in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning is not attributable to myelinated fiber changes in the hippocampus and that other, undetermined factors are responsible.
Related JoVE Video
Contribution of auditory nerve fibers to compound action potential of the auditory nerve.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sound-evoked compound action potential (CAP), which captures the synchronous activation of the auditory nerve fibers (ANFs), is commonly used to probe deafness in experimental and clinical settings. All ANFs are believed to contribute to CAP threshold and amplitude: low sound pressure levels activate the high-spontaneous rate (SR) fibers, and increasing levels gradually recruit medium- and then low-SR fibers. In this study, we quantitatively analyze the contribution of the ANFs to CAP 6 days after 30-min infusion of ouabain into the round window niche. Anatomic examination showed a progressive ablation of ANFs following increasing concentration of ouabain. CAP amplitude and threshold plotted against loss of ANFs revealed three ANF pools: 1) a highly ouabain-sensitive pool, which does not participate in either CAP threshold or amplitude, 2) a less sensitive pool, which only encoded CAP amplitude, and 3) a ouabain-resistant pool, required for CAP threshold and amplitude. Remarkably, distribution of the three pools was similar to the SR-based ANF distribution (low-, medium-, and high-SR fibers), suggesting that the low-SR fiber loss leaves the CAP unaffected. Single-unit recordings from the auditory nerve confirmed this hypothesis and further showed that it is due to the delayed and broad first spike latency distribution of low-SR fibers. In addition to unraveling the neural mechanisms that encode CAP, our computational simulation of an assembly of guinea pig ANFs generalizes and extends our experimental findings to different species of mammals. Altogether, our data demonstrate that substantial ANF loss can coexist with normal hearing threshold and even unchanged CAP amplitude.
Related JoVE Video
Association of serine racemase gene variants with type 2 diabetes in the Chinese Han population.
J Diabetes Investig
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A genome-wide association study in the Chinese Han population has identified several novel genetic variants of the serine racemase (SRR) gene in type 2 diabetes. Our purpose was to systematically evaluate the contribution of SRR variants in the Chinese Han population. rs391300 and rs4523957 in SRR were genotyped respectively in the two independent populations. A meta-analysis was used to estimate the effects of SRR in 21,305 Chinese Han individuals. Associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms and diabetes-related phenotypes were analyzed among 2,615 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients and 5,029 controls. Neither rs391300 nor rs4523957 were associated with type 2 diabetes in populations. Furthermore, meta-analysis did not confirm an association between type 2 diabetes and SRR. In the controls, rs391300-A and rs4523957-G were associated with higher 30-min plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test. The present study did not confirm that SRR was associated with type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Side arm strategy for catalyst design: modifying bisoxazolines for remote control of enantioselection and related.
Acc. Chem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In asymmetric catalysis, the remote control of enantioselection is usually difficult due to the long distance communication between the chiral center of the catalyst and the reactive site of the substrate. The development of efficient and highly enantioselective catalysts for such reactions is of great importance and highly desirable. The stereocontrol over an asymmetric reaction is a delicate process (ca. 3.0 kcal/mol difference in transition states can lead to >99/1 enantiomeric selectivity at room temperature), it therefore requires fine-tuning on the electronic nature of the central metal together with a precisely created cavity to accommodate the substrates and reagents. We envision that a solution is the design of new catalysts by finding an easy and efficient way to tune the electronic properties, the chiral space, and the shape of the catalytic site. Since an extra coordination group in the organometallic complex could not only alter the microenvironment around the metal center in a three-dimensional manner but also tune the electronic properties of the metal center, about 10 years ago, we introduced a side arm strategy for ligand/catalyst design. This Account describes our efforts toward this goal. Based on this side arm strategy, we have developed two series of ligands based on the bisoxazoline framework; namely, trisoxazoline (TOX) ligands and side armed bisoxazoline (SaBOX). The "side arms" are shown to play multiple roles in different cases, for example, as a ligating group, a steric group, or a directing group, which are dependent on the metal and the functionality at the side arm. Metal catalysts based on these ligands have proven to be highly efficient for a number of asymmetric transformations, including Friedel-Crafts reaction, Kinugasa reaction, Nazarov reaction, 1,2-Stevens rearrangement, Cannizzaro reaction, and cyclopropanation. In comparison with the parent BOX ligands, the metal catalysts based on these TOX and SaBOX ligands usually exhibit higher efficiency and diastereo- and enantioselectivity with better impurity tolerance and stability. Moreover, in several TOX-metal complex catalyzed reactions such as Friedel-Crafts reaction and [3 + 2] cycloaddition, stereoselectivity could be switched based on reaction conditions. These ligands were particularly prominent in the remote controls of enantioselection such as the conjugate additions to alkylidene malonates and ring-opening/cyclization cascades of cyclopropanes, for which high stereoselectivity is usually difficult to achieve due to the poor chiral communication. The works by us and other groups have demonstrated that the side arm strategy can be employed as a general principle for ligand and catalyst design and should not be limited to the BOX scaffolds and the reactions described in this Account. Wide application of the new strategy in organometallic homogeneous catalysis can be anticipated.
Related JoVE Video
Remote ester groups switch selectivity: diastereodivergent synthesis of tetracyclic spiroindolines.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stereocontrol in the synthesis of structurally complex molecules, especially those with all-carbon quaternary stereocenters, remains a challenge. Here, we reported the preparation of a class of tetracyclic cyclopenta-fused spiroindoline skeletons through Cu(II)-catalyzed intramolecular [3 + 2] annulation reactions of donor-acceptor cyclopropanes with indoles. Both cis- and trans-diastereomers of tetracyclic spiroindolines are accessed with high selectivities by altering the remote ester groups of cyclopropanes. The origins of this stereocontrol are identified using DFT calculations: attractive interactions between the ester group and arene favor the generation of the trans isomer, while the formation of the cis isomer is preferred when steric repulsions become predominant.
Related JoVE Video
A Review of CO2 Sequestration Projects and Application in China.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In 2008, the top CO2 emitters were China, United States, and European Union. The rapid growing economy and the heavy reliance on coal in China give rise to the continued growth of CO2 emission, deterioration of anthropogenic climate change, and urgent need of new technologies. Carbon Capture and sequestration is one of the effective ways to provide reduction of CO2 emission and mitigation of pollution. Coal-fired power plants are the focus of CO2 source supply due to their excessive emission and the energy structure in China. And over 80% of the large CO2 sources are located nearby storage reservoirs. In China, the CO2 storage potential capacity is of about 3.6 × 10(9)?t for all onshore oilfields; 30.483 × 10(9)?t for major gas fields between 900?m and 3500?m of depth; 143.505 × 10(9)?t for saline aquifers; and 142.67 × 10(9)?t for coal beds. On the other hand, planation, soil carbon sequestration, and CH4-CO2 reforming also contribute a lot to carbon sequestration. This paper illustrates some main situations about CO2 sequestration applications in China with the demonstration of several projects regarding different ways of storage. It is concluded that China possesses immense potential and promising future of CO2 sequestration.
Related JoVE Video
Tbx1 modulates endodermal and mesodermal differentiation from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The T-box transcriptional factor (Tbx) family of transcriptional factors has distinct roles in a wide range of embryonic differentiation or response pathways. Tbx1, a T-box transcription factor, is an important gene for the human congenital disorder 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology offers new opportunities for both elucidation of the pathogenesis of diseases and the development of stem-cell-based therapies. In this study, we generated iPSCs from Tbx1(-/-) and Tbx1(+/+) fibroblasts and investigated the spontaneous differentiation potential of iPSCs by detailed lineage analysis of the iPSC-derived embryoid bodies. Undifferentiated Tbx1(-/-) and Tbx1(+/+) iPSCs showed similar expression levels of pluripotent markers. The ability of the Tbx1(-/-) iPSCs to generate endodermal and mesodermal lineages was compromised upon spontaneous differentiation into embryonic bodies. Restoration of Tbx1 expression in the Tbx1(-/-) iPSCs to normal levels using an inducible lentiviral system rescued these cells from the potential of defective differentiation. Interestingly, overexpression of Tbx1 in the Tbx1(-/-) iPSCs to higher levels than in the Tbx1(+/+) iPSCs again led to a defective differentiation potential. Additionally, we observed that expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 10 and FGF8 was downregulated in the Tbx1(-/-) iPSC-derived cells, which suggests that Tbx1 regulates the expression of FGFs. Taken together, our results implicated the Tbx1 level as an important determinant of endodermal and mesodermal lineage differentiation during embryonic development.
Related JoVE Video
[Effects of moxibustion on concentration of extracellular potassium ion in acupoint under different status].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe different effects of moxibustion on extracellular potassium ion in acupoint under physiological and pathological status and provide experimental evidence for exploring action mechanism of moxibustion on acupoint local.
Related JoVE Video
Coregulation of genetic programs by the transcription factors NFIB and STAT5.
Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mammary-specific genetic programs are activated during pregnancy by the common transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5. More than one third of these genes carry nuclear factor I/B (NFIB) binding motifs that coincide with STAT5 in vivo binding, suggesting functional synergy between these two transcription factors. The role of NFIB in this governance was investigated in mice from which Nfib had been inactivated in mammary stem cells or in differentiating alveolar epithelium. Although NFIB was not required for alveolar expansion, the combined absence of NFIB and STAT5 prevented the formation of functional alveoli. NFIB controlled the expression of mammary-specific and STAT5-regulated genes and chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing established STAT5 and NFIB binding at composite regulatory elements containing histone H3 lysine dimethylation enhancer marks and progesterone receptor binding. By integrating previously published chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing data sets, the presence of NFIB-STAT5 modules in other cell types was investigated. Notably, genomic sites bound by NFIB in hair follicle stem cells were also occupied by STAT5 in mammary epithelium and coincided with enhancer marks. Many of these genes were under NFIB control in both hair follicle stem cells and mammary alveolar epithelium. We propose that NFIB-STAT5 modules, possibly in conjunction with other transcription factors, control cell-specific genetic programs.
Related JoVE Video
Immature visual neural system in children reflected by contrast sensitivity with adaptive optics correction.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to explore the neural development status of the visual system of children (around 8 years old) using contrast sensitivity. We achieved this by eliminating the influence of higher order aberrations (HOAs) with adaptive optics correction. We measured HOAs, modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) of six children and five adults with both corrected and uncorrected HOAs. We found that when HOAs were corrected, children and adults both showed improvements in MTF and CSF. However, the CSF of children was still lower than the adult level, indicating the difference in contrast sensitivity between groups cannot be explained by differences in optical factors. Further study showed that the difference between the groups also could not be explained by differences in non-visual factors. With these results we concluded that the neural systems underlying vision in children of around 8 years old are still immature in contrast sensitivity.
Related JoVE Video
White matter injuries induced by MK-801 in a mouse model of schizophrenia based on NMDA antagonism.
Anat Rec (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The etiology of schizophrenia (SZ) is complex and largely unknown. Neuroimaging and postmortem studies have suggested white matter disturbances in SZ. In the present study, we tested the white matter deficits hypothesis of SZ using a mouse model of SZ induced by NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. We found that mice with repeated chronic MK-801 administration showed increased locomotor activity in the open field test, less exploration of a novel environment in the hole-board test, and increased anxiety in the elevated plus maze but no impairments were observed in coordination or motor function on accelerating rota-rod. The total white matter volume and corpus callosum volume in mice treated with MK-801 were significantly decreased compared to control mice treated with saline. Myelin basic protein and 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase were also significantly decreased in the mouse model of SZ. Furthermore, we observed degenerative changes of myelin sheaths in the mouse model of SZ. These results provide further evidence of white matter deficits in SZ and indicate that the animal model of SZ induced by MK-801 is a useful model to investigate mechanisms underlying white matter abnormalities in SZ.
Related JoVE Video
Enhancement of fermentable sugar yield by competitive adsorption of non-enzymatic substances from yeast and cellulase on lignin.
BMC Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Enhancement of enzymatic digestibility by some supplementations could reduce enzyme loading and cost, which is still too high to realize economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. A recent study indicates that yeast hydrolysates (YH) have improved the efficiency of cellulases on digestibility of furfural residues (FR). In the current work, the components of YH were separated by centrifugation and size exclusion chromatography and finally characterized in order to better understand this positive effect.
Related JoVE Video
5'-Methylthioadenosine attenuates ischemia reperfusion injury after liver transplantation in rats.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
5'-Methylthioadenosine (MTA) is a nucleoside generated from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) during polyamine synthesis. Previous study has indicated that MTA regulated the production of inflammatory mediators by modulating the activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway. The objective of this study was to determine whether MTA possessed anti-inflammatory properties during rat liver transplantation. Sprague Dawley (SD) to SD rat orthotropic liver transplantation was performed according to the Kamada's technique. Donors in MTA group were given a single dose of MTA (96 ?mol/kg, intraperitoneal) 30 min before surgery (n?=?36), and the control group were given the same volume of normal saline (n?=?36) intraperitoneally. The histopathologic change in the liver was analyzed. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), inhibitors of kappa B alpha (I?B?) degradation, NF-?B transcriptional activity, and MAPK activation were determined at 3, 6, and 24 h after reperfusion. Pretreatment with MTA significantly improved liver function, attenuated hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) by downregulating TNF-? level and suppressing inflammatory reaction after liver transplantation. Moreover, MTA also inhibited the I?B? degradation, NF-?B transcriptional activity, and the activation of MAPK signal. MTA protected against hepatic IRI by suppressing inflammatory reaction following liver transplantation. The mechanism for this effect of MTA is mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting the activation of NF-?B and MAPK signal pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic significance of preoperative fibrinogen in patients with colon cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the prognostic significance of preoperative fibrinogen levels in colon cancer patients.
Related JoVE Video
Resection or cryosurgery relates with pancreatic tumor type: primary pancreatic cancer with previous non-pancreatic cancer or secondary metastatic cancer within the pancreas.
Pancreatology
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the incidence of primary pancreatic cancer with previous non-pancreatic cancer (PPC) and secondary metastatic cancer within the pancreas (SMC) to elucidate the differential diagnosis and treatment of these lesions.
Related JoVE Video
Methylprednisolone inhibits the proliferation and affects the differentiation of rat spinal cord-derived neural progenitor cells cultured in low oxygen conditions by inhibiting HIF-1? and Hes1 in vitro.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although there is much controversy over the use of methylprednisolone (MP), it is one of the main drugs used in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI). The induction of the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is considered a promising mode of treatment for SCI. However, the effects of MP on spinal cord-derived endogenous NPCs in a low oxygen enviroment remain to be delineated. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of MP on NPCs cultured under low oxygen conditions in vitro and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved. Fetal rat spinal cord-derived NPCs were harvested and divided into 4 groups: 2 groups of cells cultured under normal oxygen conditions and treated with or without MP, and 2 groups incubated in 3% O2 (low oxygen) treated in a similar manner. We found that MP induced suppressive effects on NPC proliferation even under low oxygen conditions (3% O2). The proportion of nestin-positive NPCs decreased from 51.8±2.46% to 36.17±3.55% following the addition of MP and decreased more significantly to 27.20±2.68% in the cells cultured in 3% O2. In addition, a smaller number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells and a greater number of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)-positive cells was observed following the addition of MP under both normal (normoxic) and low oxygen (hypoxic) conditions. In response to MP treatment, hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and the Notch signaling pathway downstream protein, Hes1, but not the upstream Notch-1 intracelluar domain (NICD), were inhibited. After blocking NICD with a ?-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) MP still inhibited the expression of Hes1. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms responsible for the MP-induced inhibition of proliferation and its effects on differentiation and suggest that HIF-1? and Hes1 play an important role in this effect.
Related JoVE Video
Processing Deficits of Motion of Contrast-Modulated Gratings in Anisometropic Amblyopia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several studies have indicated substantial processing deficits for static second-order stimuli in amblyopia. However, less is known about the perception of second-order moving gratings. To investigate this issue, we measured the contrast sensitivity for second-order (contrast-modulated) moving gratings in seven anisometropic amblyopes and ten normal controls. The measurements were performed with non-equated carriers and a series of equated carriers. For comparison, the sensitivity for first-order motion and static second-order stimuli was also measured. Most of the amblyopic eyes (AEs) showed reduced sensitivity for second-order moving gratings relative to their non-amblyopic eyes (NAEs) and the dominant eyes (CEs) of normal control subjects, even when the detectability of the noise carriers was carefully controlled, suggesting substantial processing deficits of motion of contrast-modulated gratings in anisometropic amblyopia. In contrast, the non-amblyopic eyes of the anisometropic amblyopes were relatively spared. As a group, NAEs showed statistically comparable performance to CEs. We also found that contrast sensitivity for static second-order stimuli was strongly impaired in AEs and part of the NAEs of anisometropic amblyopes, consistent with previous studies. In addition, some amblyopes showed impaired performance in perception of static second-order stimuli but not in that of second-order moving gratings. These results may suggest a dissociation between the processing of static and moving second-order gratings in anisometropic amblyopia.
Related JoVE Video
Improved derivation efficiency and pluripotency of stem cells from the refractory inbred C57BL/6 mouse strain by small molecules.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The ability of small molecules to maintain self-renewal and to inhibit differentiation of pluripotent stem cells has been well-demonstrated. Two widely used molecules are PD 98059 (PD), an inhibitor of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK), and SC1 (Pluripotin), which inhibits the RasGAP and ERK pathways. However, no studies have been conducted to compare their effects on the pluripotency and derivation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from inbred mice C57BL/6, an important mouse strain frequently used to model behavior, cognitive functions, immune system, and metabolic disorders in humans and also the first mouse strain chosen to be sequenced for its entire genome. We found significantly increased derivation efficiency of ES cells from in vivo fertilized embryos (fES) of C57BL/6 with the use of PD (71.4% over the control of 35.3%). Because fES and ES from cloned embryos (ntES) are not distinguishable in transcription or translation profiles, we used ntES cells to compare the effect of small molecules on their in vitro characteristics, in vitro differentiation ability, and the ability to generate full-term ntES-4N pups by tetraploid complementation. NtES cells exhibited typical ES characteristics and up-regulated Sox2 expression in media with either small-molecule. Higher rates of full term ntES-4N pup were generated by the supplementation of PD or SC1. We obtained the highest efficiency of ntES-4N pup generation ever reported from this strain by supplementing ES medium with SC1. Lastly, we compared the pluripotency of fES, ntES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells of C57BL/6 background using the tetraploid complementation assay. A significant increase in implantation sites and the number of full-term pups were obtained when fES, ntES, and iPS cells were cultured with SC1 compared to the control ES medium. In conclusion, supplementing ES cell culture medium with PD and SC1 increases the derivation efficiency and pluripotency, respectively, of stem cells derived from the refractory inbred C57BL/6 strain.
Related JoVE Video
Ataxin-3 expression correlates with the clinicopathologic features of gastric cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the expression of Ataxin-3 in human gastric cancer tissues and cell lines, and explore its clinical pathologic significance.
Related JoVE Video
Replication of association study between type 2 diabetes mellitus and IGF2BP2 in Han Chinese population.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The association between IGF2BP2 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been repeatedly confirmed among different ethnic populations. However, in several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from the Chinese Han population, the gene IGF2BP2 has not been replicated. The results of relevant studies for the association between IGF2BP2 and T2DM showed controversy in Chinese Han population. It is necessary to systematically evaluate the contribution of common variants in IGF2BP2 to T2DM in Chinese Han population.
Related JoVE Video
A highly efficient and enantioselective intramolecular Cannizzaro reaction under TOX/Cu(II) catalysis.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An asymmetric intramolecular Cannizzaro reaction of aryl and alkyl glyoxals with alcohols has been realized with an unprecedented high level of enantioselectivity, on the basis of a newly developed congested TOX ligand and a gradual liberation protocol of active glyoxals from glyoxal monohydrates. Preliminary results suggested a mechanism of enantioselective addition of alcohols to glyoxals contributing most to the stereoselectivity, other than by the dynamic kinetic resolution of hemiacetal intermediates.
Related JoVE Video
Search for genetic determinants of sulfonylurea efficacy in type 2 diabetic patients from China.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic variance can influence the efficacy of glibenclamide in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term clinical efficacy and safety of adding cilostazol to dual antiplatelet therapy for patients undergoing PCI: a meta-analysis of randomized trials with adjusted indirect comparisons.
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Objective: To assess the long-term clinical efficacy and safety of adding cilostazol to aspirin plus clopidogrel (triple antiplatelet therapy, TAT) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and explore its role in the era of new generation adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-receptor antagonists. Methods: PUBMED, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing TAT versus dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT), followed by a manual search. Then, a meta-analysis of RCTs comparing TAT versus standard DAT in patients undergoing PCI was performed. Furthermore, indirect comparisons of TAT versus new generation ADP-receptor antagonist based DAT (prasugrel or ticagrelor based DAT) were undertaken, with standard DAT as a common comparator. The included end-points were major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), death, myocardial infarction (MI), stent thrombosis, bleeding and other drug adverse events. Results: Twelve RCTs with a total of 31,789 patients were included. Compared with standard DAT (n?=?2551), TAT (n?=?2545) significantly reduced the incidence of MACE (OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.47-0.68, P?
Related JoVE Video
Fast vesicle transport is required for the slow axonal transport of synapsin.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although it is known that cytosolic/soluble proteins synthesized in cell bodies are transported at much lower overall velocities than vesicles in fast axonal transport, the fundamental basis for this slow movement is unknown. Recently, we found that cytosolic proteins in axons of mouse cultured neurons are conveyed in a manner that superficially resembles diffusion, but with a slow anterograde bias that is energy- and motor-dependent (Scott et al., 2011). Here we show that slow axonal transport of synapsin, a prototypical member of this rate class, is dependent upon fast vesicle transport. Despite the distinct overall dynamics of slow and fast transport, experimentally induced and intrinsic variations in vesicle transport have analogous effects on slow transport of synapsin as well. Dynamic cotransport of vesicles and synapsin particles is also seen in axons, consistent with a model where higher-order assemblies of synapsin are conveyed by transient and probabilistic associations with vesicles moving in fast axonal transport. We posit that such dynamic associations generate the slow overall anterogradely biased flow of the population ("dynamic-recruitment model"). Our studies uncover the underlying kinetic basis for a classic cytosolic/soluble protein moving in slow axonal transport and reveal previously unknown links between slow and fast transport, offering a clearer conceptual picture of this curious phenomenon.
Related JoVE Video
Correlation of Nrf2 and HIF-1? in glioblastoma and their relationships to clinicopathologic features and survival.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common, aggressive, and proliferative among all brain tumors. The prognosis of GB is still far from satisfactory currently, thus demanding great modification and enhancement, which may be acquired by the help of the molecular target therapy. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a pivotal transcriptional factor of cellular responses to oxidative stress, was observed to function remarkably in cancer pathobiology. In the current study, we analyzed the correlation between Nrf2 and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) in GB, together with their association to the features and survival of clinicopathology.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion for the detection of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The diagnostic value of TMPRSS2:ERG detection in patients with prostate cancer is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to consolidate current evidence regarding the use of TMPRSS2:ERG detection assays to diagnose prostate cancers. PubMed, Web of knowledge and other databases were searched for relevant original articles published until July 30, 2013. Methodological quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) tool. Studies that investigated the presence of TMPRSS2:ERG in the body fluid, needle biopsy and prostatectomy tissue of patients with prostate cancer were identified and reviewed. Sensitivities, specificities, and positive likelihood ratios (LR+) and negative likelihood ratios (LR-) of TMPRSS2:ERG detection in individual studies were calculated and meta-analyzed by random effects model. Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Overall sensitivity of TMPRSS2:ERG detection assays was 47.4 % (95 % CI, 45.5-49.3 %); specificity, LR+, and LR- was 92.6 % (95 % CI, 91.5-93.7 %), 8.94 (95 % CI, 5.65-14.13) and 0.49 (95 % CI, 0.43-0.55). The pooled sensitivity and specificity in the body fluid subgroup was 44.7 % (95 % CI, 41.5-47.9 %) and 85.8 % (95 % CI, 83.5-87.8 %), respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity based on the reverse transcripts PCR was 49.0 % (95 % CI, 45.9-52.1 %) and 90.2 % (95 % CI, 88.2-92.0 %), respectively. TMPRSS2:ERG may not be used as first-line screening test. However, due to the high specificity, TMPRSS2: ERG detection maybe can serve as a quick and noninvasive method for confirming prostate cancer diagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
Nanoparticle-based immunochromatographic test strip with fluorescent detector for quantification of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase: an exposure biomarker of organophosphorus agents.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A nanoparticle-based fluorescence immunochromatographic test strip (FITS) coupled with a hand-held detector for highly selective and sensitive detection of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an exposure biomarker of organophosphate (OP) pesticides and nerve agents, is reported. In this approach, OP-AChE adducts were selectively captured by quantum dot-tagged anti-AChE antibodies (Qdot-anti-AChE) and zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs). The sandwich-like immunoreactions were performed among the Qdot-anti-AChE, OP-AChE and ZrO2 NPs to form a Qdot-anti-AChE-OP-AChE-ZrO2 complex, which was detected by recording the fluorescence intensity of Qdots captured during the test line. Paraoxon was used as the model OP pesticide. Under optimal conditions, this portable FITS immunosensor demonstrates a highly linear absorption response over the range of 0.01 nM to 10 nM OP-AChE, with a detection limit of 4 pM, coupled with good reproducibility. Moreover, the FITS immunosensor has been validated with OP-AChE spiked human plasma samples. This is the first report on the development of ZrO2 NP-based FITS for the detection of the OP-AChE adduct. The FITS immunosensor provides a sensitive and low-cost sensing platform for on-site screening/evaluating OP pesticides and nerve agents poisoning.
Related JoVE Video
Reaction of trisubstituted alkenes with iron porphyrin carbenes: facile synthesis of tetrasubstituted dienes and cyclopentadienes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The unprecedented reaction of trisubstituted alkenes with iron porphyrin carbenes has been successfully developed. Both multiply substituted 1,3-butadiene and cyclopentadiene products are readily accessible with high efficiency and selectivity in good yields.
Related JoVE Video
[Preparation of anti-zearalenone monoclonal antibody and preliminary establishment of colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay for zearalenone].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To prepare the monoclonal antibody against zearalenone (ZEN) toxin and preliminarily establish the colloidal gold immunochromatographic detection method for ZEN.
Related JoVE Video
Enriched environment induces higher CNPase positive cells in aged rat hippocampus.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It had been reported that enriched environment was beneficial for the brain cognition and for the neurons and synapses in hippocampus. Previous study reported that the oligodendrocyte density in hippocampus was increased when the rats were reared in the enriched environment from weaning to adulthood. However, biological conclusions based on density were difficult to interpret because the changes in density could be due to an alteration of total quantity and/or an alteration in the reference volume. In the present study, we used unbiased stereological methods to investigate the effect of enriched environment on the total number of 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) positive cells in CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus in aged rats. Our results indicated that there was significant difference in the total numbers of CNPase positive cells in both CA1 and DG between enriched environment group and standard environment group. The present study provided the first evidence for the protective effects of enriched environment on the CNPase positive cells in aged hippocampus.
Related JoVE Video
Iron-catalyzed three-component reaction: multiple C-C bond cleavages and reorganizations.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An unexpected three-component iron-catalyzed reaction, comprising C-C bond cleavages in two components together with three times the cyclopropane formation and ring opening, is developed. The current reaction provides an unprecedented and efficient approach for the synthesis of cyclopentadienes in high yields.
Related JoVE Video
Gene Expression Profiles at Moxibustioned Site (ST36): A Microarray Analysis.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As a major alternative therapy in Traditional Chinese Medicine, it has been demonstrated that moxibustion could generate a series of molecular events in blood, spleen, and brain, and so forth. However, what would happen at the moxibustioned site remained unclear. To answer this question, we performed a microarray analysis with skin tissue taken from the moxibustioned site also Zusanli acupoint (ST36) where 15-minute moxibustion stimulation was administrated. The results exhibited 145 upregulated and 72 downregulated genes which responded immediately under physiological conditions, and 255 upregulated and 243 downregulated genes under pathological conditions. Interestingly, most of the pathways and biological processes of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under pathological conditions get involved in immunity, while those under physiological conditions are involved in metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
Ylide Hydrolysis in Tandem Reactions: A Highly Z/E-Selective Access to 3-Alkylidene Dihydrobenzofurans and Related Analogues.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An efficient synthetic approach to benzoheterocycles has been developed based on the hydrolysis of key ylide intermediates in a tandem reaction, upon which a variety of 3-alkylidene dihydrobenzofurans and related benzoheterocyclic products can be obtained in high yields with excellent Z/E selectivity.
Related JoVE Video
[Clinical application of oral and lip acupuncture].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The origin, manipulations, including needling tools, postures of patients, selection of points, sterilization and specific manipulations, indications, instructions and contraindications of oral and lip acupuncture are sorted and summarized. It lays foundation to the national standard of oral acupuncture manipulations. It is also supposed to be adopted as clinical practice standard, and is going to be popularized in clinics.
Related JoVE Video
Effects and Safety of Allogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Intravenous Infusion in Active Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients Who Failed NSAIDs: A 20 Week Clinical Trial.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of intravenous infusion of allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients who are refractory to or could not tolerate the side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Method: AS patients enrolled in this study received 4 intravenous infusions (IVI) of MSCs on days 0,7,14, and 21. The percentage of ASAS20 responders (the primary endpoint) at the 4th week and the mean ASAS20 response duration (the secondary endpoint) were used to assess treatment response to MSC infusion and duration of the therapeutic effects. Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score Containing C-reactive Protein (ASDAS-CRP) and other pre-established evaluation indices were also adopted to evaluate the clinical effects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to detect changes of bone marrow edema in the spine. The safety of this treatment was also evaluated. Results: Thirty-one patients were included, and the percentage of ASAS20 responders reached 77.4% at the 4th week and the mean ASAS20 response duration was 7.1 weeks. The mean ASDAS-CRP score decreased from 3.6±0.6 to 2.4±0.5 at the 4th week, and then increased to 3.2±0.8 at the 20th week. The average total inflammation extent (TIE) detected by MRI decreased from 533,482.5 at baseline to 480,692.3 at the 4th week (p>0.05) and 400,547.2 at the 20th week (p<0.05). No adverse effects were noted. Conclusion: Intravenous infusion of MSCs is a feasible, safe, and promising treatment for patients with AS.
Related JoVE Video
Improvement of the enzymatic hydrolysis of furfural residues by pretreatment with combined green liquor and hydrogen peroxide.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A potential commercial pretreatment for furfural residues (FRs) was investigated by using a combination of green liquor and hydrogen peroxide (GL-H2O2). The results showed that 56.2% of lignin removal was achieved when the sample was treated with 0.6 g H2O2/g-DS (dry substrate) and 6 mL GL/g-DS at 80 °C for 3 h. After 96 h hydrolysis with 18 FPU/g-cellulose for cellulase, 27 CBU/g-cellulose for ?-glucosidase, the glucose yield increased from 71.2% to 83.6%. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was used to reduce the degradation of H2O2, the glucose yield increased to 90.4% after the addition of 1% (w/w). The untreated FRs could bind more easily to cellulase than pretreated FRs could. The structural changes on the surface of sample were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the surface lignin could be effectively removed during pretreatment, thereby decreasing the enzyme-lignin binding activity. Moreover, the carbonyl from lignin plays an important role in cellulase binding.
Related JoVE Video
Activity-induced convergence of APP and BACE-1 in acidic microdomains via an endocytosis-dependent pathway.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The convergence of APP (substrate) and BACE-1 (enzyme) is a rate-limiting, obligatory event triggering the amyloidogenic pathway-a key step in Alzheimers disease (AD) pathology. However, as both APP/BACE-1 are highly expressed in brain, mechanisms precluding their unabated convergence are unclear. Exploring dynamic localization of APP/BACE-1 in cultured hippocampal neurons, we found that after synthesis via the secretory pathway, dendritic APP/BACE-1-containing vesicles are largely segregated in physiologic states. While BACE-1 is sorted into acidic recycling endosomes, APP is conveyed in Golgi-derived vesicles. However, upon activity induction-a known trigger of the amyloidogenic pathway-APP is routed into BACE-1-positive recycling endosomes via a clathrin-dependent mechanism. A partitioning/convergence of APP/BACE-1 vesicles is also apparent in control/AD brains, respectively. Considering BACE-1 is optimally active in an acidic environment, our experiments suggest that neurons have evolved trafficking strategies that normally limit APP/BACE-1 proximity and also uncover a pathway routing APP into BACE-1-containing organelles, triggering amyloidogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
The early changes in behavior and the myelinated fibers of the white matter in the Tg2576 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimers disease.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recently, increasing evidences have indicated that abnormal behavior and white matter changes had appeared before senile plaques were formed in Alzheimers disease (AD). However, the exact nature of these changes in behavior and white matter structure in early AD are unclear. This study used the Morris water maze, an ELISA assay, a transmission electron microscopic technique and new stereological methods to investigate the behavior, A? protein expression and white matter structure of Tg2576 transgenic mice at four ages. Only 10 months of age, the time latency in the Morris water maze tasks for Tg2576 transgenic mice were significantly longer than that of wild-type mice. The concentration of A?40 protein in the white matter of the Tg2576 transgenic mice was significantly increased in four ages mice, but the A?42 protein was significantly increased only in the 6-month-old mice. In 10-month-old mice, the axon volume in the white matter of the Tg2576 transgenic mice was significantly decreased when compared to the wild-type mice. These results suggest that the deposition of A? in the white matter of Tg2576 transgenic mice appeared before the spatial memory decline. The early detection of the A? content in the white matter of AD might help diagnose suspected AD. In addition, the axon changes in the white matter of AD might be one of the morphological causes of the behavioral deficits observed in 10-month-old transgenic mouse models of AD, and protecting the axons in the white matter might be an important method for delaying the progression of AD.
Related JoVE Video
A novel fluorescence-quenching immunochromatographic sensor for detection of the heavy metal chromium.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel fluorescence quenching immunochromatographic sensor (ICS) was developed for detecting chromium (Cr(3+)) within 15 min utilizing the fluorescence quenching function of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs). The sensor performed with a positive readout. When the low concentrations of Cr(3+) samples were applied, detection signals of the test line (T line) were quenched, whereas when higher concentration Cr(3+) samples (1.56 ng/mL) were applied, the detection signal of the T line appeared. The detection signal intensity of the T line increased with increasing concentrations of Cr(3+). The low detection limit of developed fluorescence quenching ICS was 1.56 ng/mL. The fluorescence quenching ICS has a linear range of detection of Cr(3+) comprising between 6.25 ng/mL to 800 ng/mL. The recoveries of the fluorescence quenching ICS to detect Cr(3+) in tap water ranged from 94.7% to 101.7%. This result indicated that the developed sensor gave higher sensitivity and reliable reproducibility. It could provide a general detection method for small analyte in water samples.
Related JoVE Video
Direct analysis of trichloropyridinol in human saliva using an Au nanoparticles-based immunochromatographic test strip for biomonitoring of exposure to chlorpyrifos.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A portable immunochromatographic strip-based biosensor for direct detection of trichloropyridinol (TCP), a specific biomarker of exposure to chlorpyrifos, in human saliva sample is presented. In this approach, a series of immunoreactions was performed on the test strip, where the targeted analytes (TCP) bound to the Au nanoparticles-labeled antibodies on the conjugate pad to form analyte-Au-antibody conjugates, and then free Au-labeled antibodies were captured by TCP-BSA in the test zone. Captured Au nanoparticles, increased with decreased levels of analytes, can be observed visibly without any equipment and later quantified by a colorimetric reader. Several experimental parameters were optimized including Au nanoparticle-to-TCP antibody coupling ratio, the amount of Au-labeled TCP antibody, immunoreaction time, the pretreatment of sample pad and the preparation of stock solution of Au-TCP antibody that realize sensitivity, selectivity and direct detection of TCP. Under optimal conditions, this biosensor displays a highly linear range of 0.625-20 ng/mL TCP, with a detection limit of 0.47 ng/mL. Moreover, the immunosensor was successfully used for direct analysis of human saliva sample without any pretreatment. These results demonstrate that this Au nanoparticles-based immunochromatographic test strip (ITS) provides a simple, accurate, and quantitative tool for TCP detection and holds a great promise for point-of-care and in-field analysis of other biomarkers.
Related JoVE Video
Water as an activator for palladium(II)-catalyzed olefin polymerization.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
By a reasonable combination of the Wacker reaction and olefin polymerization processes, water proves to be an excellent activator for the palladium(II)-catalyzed polymerization of ethylene and it provides a safe, environmental-friendly and handy initiator for olefin polymerization. The activity of the olefin polymerization is comparable to reactions catalyzed by the corresponding alkylated cationic palladium complexes.
Related JoVE Video
Reliable, verifiable and efficient monitoring of biodiversity via metabarcoding.
Ecol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To manage and conserve biodiversity, one must know what is being lost, where, and why, as well as which remedies are likely to be most effective. Metabarcoding technology can characterise the species compositions of mass samples of eukaryotes or of environmental DNA. Here, we validate metabarcoding by testing it against three high-quality standard data sets that were collected in Malaysia (tropical), China (subtropical) and the United Kingdom (temperate) and that comprised 55,813 arthropod and bird specimens identified to species level with the expenditure of 2,505 person-hours of taxonomic expertise. The metabarcode and standard data sets exhibit statistically correlated alpha- and beta-diversities, and the two data sets produce similar policy conclusions for two conservation applications: restoration ecology and systematic conservation planning. Compared with standard biodiversity data sets, metabarcoded samples are taxonomically more comprehensive, many times quicker to produce, less reliant on taxonomic expertise and auditable by third parties, which is essential for dispute resolution.
Related JoVE Video
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with extensive involvement of the bladder in an adolescent: a case report.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare lesion of unclear pathogenesis that shows a wide, highly variable spectrum of clinical behavior. We describe the case of a 17-year-old boy with a large IMT that infiltrated the bladder, ileocecal junction, peritoneum and pelvic retroperitoneal space. The tumor was associated with extensive toughening and thickening of the bladder, and, although it showed a tendency for invasive growth, it affected mainly the bladder and adjacent tissue. To the best of our knowledge, this case report is the first to describe an IMT involving the entire bladder and several adjacent pelviabdominal organs. The bladder wall was tough and could hardly be cut by scalpel. Levels of inflammatory response markers such as C-reactive protein fell after surgery.
Related JoVE Video
High-maintenance-dose clopidogrel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite routine use of clopidogrel, adverse cardiovascular events recur among some patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). To optimize antiplatelet therapies, we performed a meta-analysis to quantify the efficacy of high versus standard-maintenance-dose clopidogrel in these patients.
Related JoVE Video
Regional brain structural abnormality in meal-related functional dyspepsia patients: a voxel-based morphometry study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Brain dysfunction in functional dyspepsia (FD) has been identified by multiple neuroimaging studies. This study aims to investigate the regional gray matter density (GMD) changes in meal-related FD patients and their correlations with clinical variables, and to explore the possible influence of the emotional state on FD patientss brain structures.
Related JoVE Video
A simple photoactivation and image analysis module for visualizing and analyzing axonal transport with high temporal resolution.
Nat Protoc
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We describe a strategy for analyzing axonal transport of cytosolic proteins (CPs) using photoactivatable GFP-PAGFP-with modifications of standard imaging components that can be retroactively fitted to a conventional epifluorescence microscope. The photoactivation and visualization are nearly simultaneous, allowing studies of proteins with rapidly mobile fractions. Cultured hippocampal neurons are transfected with PAGFP-tagged constructs, a discrete protein population within axons is photoactivated, and then the activated population is tracked by live imaging. We show the utility of this method in analyzing axonal transport of CPs that have inherent diffusible pools and distinguish this transport modality from passive diffusion and vesicle transport. The analytical tools used to quantify the motion are also described. Aside from the time needed for preparation of neuronal cultures/transfection, the experiment takes 2-3 h, during which time several axons can be imaged and analyzed. These methods should be easy to adopt by most laboratories and may also be useful for monitoring CP movement in other cell types.
Related JoVE Video
Oxidative stress, inflammation, and autophagic stress as the key mechanisms of premature age-related hearing loss in SAMP8 mouse Cochlea.
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In our aging society, age-related hearing loss (ARHL) or presbycusis is increasingly important. Here, we study the mechanism of ARHL using the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) which is a useful model to probe the effects of aging on biological processes.
Related JoVE Video
A newly-designed PE-supported arsine for efficient and practical catalytic Wittig olefination.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A newly designed PE-supported arsine has been developed as an excellent catalyst for catalytic Wittig-type olefination. Simple ketones, in particular inactive ketones prove to be suitable substrates for the first time. This reaction provides an easy access to di-, tri-, and tetra-substituted olefins in high yield.
Related JoVE Video
Enriched environment increases the total number of CNPase positive cells in the corpus callosum of middle-aged rats.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars)
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It had been reported that enriched environment was beneficial for the brain cognition, neurons and synapses in cortex and hippocampus. With diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), several studies recently found the trained-induced larger corpus callosum. However, the effect of enriched environment on the oligodendrocytes in corpus callosum has not been explored with the unbiased stereological methods. In current study, the effect of enriched environment on the total number of 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) positive cells in middle-aged rat corpus callosum was investigated by means of immunohistochemical techniques and the unbiased stereological methods. We found that, when compared to standard rats, the spatial learning capacity of enriched-environment rats was significantly increased. The total number of the CNPase positive cells in the corpus callosum of enriched-environment middle-aged rats was significantly increased when compared to standard rats. The present study provided, to the best of our knowledge, the first evidence of environmental enrichment-induced increases in the total number of CNPase positive cells in the corpus callosum of middle-aged rats.
Related JoVE Video
Ghrelin-attenuated cognitive dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetic encephalopathy is clinically characterized by acquired behavior and cognitive dysfunction but its pathogenesis is not clear. This study aimed to explore the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy and the mechanisms of ghrelin to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in diabetic rats. Thirty-six streptozotocin diabetic rat models were established; 12 weeks later, all the rats were randomly divided into 3 groups [diabetic model group (D), ghrelin treatment group (T1), and ghrelin and D-lys-3-GHRP-6 treatment group (T2)] of 12 each. Twelve normoglycemic rats were classified in the normal group (N). Learning and memory behaviors were measured using a spatial version of the Morris water maze test. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB), phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB), phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), caspase-3, and Bcl-xl protein expressions in the hippocampi of all the rats were detected using immunohistochemistry. The mRNA expressions of BDNF, CREB, and caspase-3 were examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The hippocampus neuronal apoptosis was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling method. We found that learning and memory level in the ghrelin treatment group improved significantly, expression of Bcl-xl, BDNF, CREB, p-CREB, and p-ERK1/2 in the hippocampus was increased in the ghrelin treatment group, and the number of apoptotic neurons in the hippocampus decreased remarkably. Our results showed that the changes of BDNF, CREB, and hippocampus neuronal apoptosis might be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy. We suggested that ghrelin improved cognitive ability in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by improving the expressions of BDNF and CREB and by attenuating hippocampus neuronal apoptosis. The effects of ghrelin depend on the receptor of ghrelin, GHSR-1a, and ERK1/2 pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Sorafenib enhances pemetrexed cytotoxicity through an autophagy-dependent mechanism in cancer cells.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pemetrexed (ALIMTA) is a folate anti-metabolite that has been approved for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, and has been shown to stimulate autophagy. In the present study, we sought to further understand the role of autophagy in the response to pemetrexed and to test if combination therapy could enhance the level of toxicity through altered autophagy in tumor cells. The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib (NEXAVAR), used in the treatment of renal and hepatocellular carcinoma, suppresses tumor angiogenesis and promotes autophagy in tumor cells. We found that sorafenib interacted in a greater than additive fashion with pemetrexed to increase autophagy and to kill a diverse array of tumor cell types. Tumor cell types that displayed high levels of cell killing after combination treatment showed elevated levels of AKT, p70 S6K and/or phosphorylated mTOR, in addition to class III RTKs such as PDGFRb and VEGFR1, known in vivo targets of sorafenib. In xenograft and in syngeneic animal models of mammary carcinoma and glioblastoma, the combination of sorafenib and pemetrexed suppressed tumor growth without deleterious effects on normal tissues or animal body mass. Taken together, the data suggest that premexetred and sorafenib act synergistically to enhance tumor killing via the promotion of a toxic form of autophagy that leads to activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, and predict that combination treatment represents a future therapeutic option in the treatment of solid tumors.
Related JoVE Video
Novel online monitoring and alert system for anaerobic digestion reactors.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Effective monitoring and diagnosis of anaerobic digestion processes is a great challenge for anaerobic digestion reactors, which limits their stable operation. In this work, an online monitoring and alert system for upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors is developed on the basis of a set of novel evaluating indexes. The two indexes, i.e., stability index S and auxiliary index a, which incorporate both gas- and liquid-phase parameters for UASB, enable a quantitative and comprehensive evaluation of reactor status. A series of shock tests is conducted to evaluate the response of the monitoring and alert system to organic overloading, hydraulic, temperature, and toxicant shocks. The results show that this system enables an accurate and rapid monitoring and diagnosis of the reactor status, and offers reliable early warnings on the potential risks. As the core of this system, the evaluating indexes are demonstrated to be of high accuracy and sensitivity in process evaluation and good adaptability to the artificial intelligence and automated control apparatus. This online monitoring and alert system presents a valuable effort to promote the automated monitoring and control of anaerobic digestion process, and holds a high promise for application.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.