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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Reversible Intermolecular E-H Oxidative Addition to a Geometrically Deformed and Structurally Dynamic Phosphorous Triamide.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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The synthesis and reactivity of geometrically constrained tricoordinate phosphorus (?3-P) compounds supported by tridentate triamide chelates (N[o-NR-C6H4]23-, R = Me or iPr) is reported. Studies indicate that 2 (P{N[o-NMe-C6H4]2}) adopts a Cs-symmetric structure in the solid state. VT-NMR studies demonstrate a low energy inversion at phosphorus in solution (?G?expt298 = 10.7(5) kcal/mol), for which DFT calculations implicate an edge-inversion mechanism via a metastable C2-symmetric intermediate. In terms of reactivity, compound 2 exhibits poor nucleophilicity, but undergoes oxidative addition at ambient temperature of diverse O-H and N-H containing compounds (including alcohols, phenols, carboxylic acids, amines, and anilines). The resulting pentacoordinate adducts 2•[H][OR] and 2•[H][NHR] are characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography, and their structures (which span the pseudorotation coordinate between trigonal bipyramidal and square planar) are evaluated in terms of negative hyperconjugation. At elevated temperatures, the oxidative addition is shown to be reversible for volatile alcohols and amines.
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Injection-locked operation of an optically pumped semiconductor laser.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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We demonstrate a single-frequency, continuous-wave, optically pumped semiconductor laser (OPSL) using an injection-locking technique. Parameters such as output coupling, injection power, and injection wavelength are investigated. With the proper parameters, the output power of the injection-locked laser exceeds the output power of its free-running condition. With 1.5 W of injection power from the master laser, over 9 W of output power is achieved at 1015 nm.
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Potential Biomarker Panel for Predicting Organ Dysfunction and Acute Coagulopathy in a Polytrauma Porcine Model.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Traumatic injury remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and patients who survived the initial insult are susceptible to an overwhelming inflammatory dysfunction that will lead to acute coagulopathy of trauma (ACOT) and subsequently multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). MODS related scoring systems, while they measure organ dysfunction, present clinical markers and single cytokine estimates are unable to predict accurately the events of MODS in clinical setting to aid risk stratification. In this study, a pig model comprising the lethal triad of trauma was used to determine prognostic patterns of early circulating trauma markers so as to predict the development of MODS and ACOT. We measured early expression of several biomarkers (NGAL, HMGB1, CRP, TNF-?, hFABP and D-dimers) and clinical parameters for various organ injuries and abnormalities (Creatinine, CKMB, AST and Maximum Clot Firmness) at later time points. The strength of association between the early expression of several biomarkers to the development of MODS and ACOT in polytraumatised pigs was tested using the Spearman's correlation coefficient. These biomarkers were found useful to predict the onset of renal, cardiac, hepatic and haemostatic abnormalities. The findings show that these biomarkers could help in identify, guide and streamline damage control surgery and earlier intervention to reverse the detrimental outcomes of MODS and ACOT.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0.
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Heliostat design for the daylighting system.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The daylighting system is designed to guide sunlight into buildings for illumination. It has the best illumination performance when sunlight vertically impinges on the collector of the daylighting system, while it has low performance when sunlight impinges obliquely. To overcome the problem, this paper investigates the design of a heliostat that reflects sunlight vertically onto a daylighting system. This study proposes a 3×3 mirror matrix heliostat, which is different from the traditional heliostat with one single mirror. With the heliostat, the system efficiency increases as high as 3.32 times.
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Automatic slice selection and diagnosis of breast strain elastography.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Generally speaking, breast imaging experts and physicians select a representative slice from the strain elastographic image sequences to diagnose the tumor. Given the strain image qualities, it is difficult to make a successful diagnosis using human eyes only. The main purpose of this study is to develop an automatic and reliable method to select the representative slice from the elastography cine loops and/or video and then diagnose the tumor by means of the elastographic features generated from the selected slice.
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Silencing of miRNA-148a by hypermethylation activates the integrin-mediated signaling pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in carcinogenesis by suppressing oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Various studies have identified numerous miRNAs and their diverse targets; however, the consequences of dysregulated miRNAs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unclear. For this study, we found that miR-148a is downregulated through hypermethylation in NPC biopsies and NPC cell lines compared with adjacent normal and NP cells respectively. Promoter assays demonstrated that upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1) is a crucial transcription factor that activates miR-148a promoter activity. EMSA assays confirmed that purified USF1 binds better toward the unmethylated than the methylated CG-containing USF1 consensus probe. The ectopic expression of miR-148a inhibits cell migration in NPC cells through the suppression of integrin-mediated signaling by targeting VAV2, WASL and ROCK1. Biochemical and functional assays provided supporting evidence that these 3 genes are the downstream targets of miR-148a in NPC cells. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting analysis revealed that the 3 oncogenic targets of miR-148a were overexpressed in NPC biopsies, suggesting that the inactivation of miR-148a caused by DNA methylation promotes NPC progression. Overall, our findings revealed that miR-148a can act as tumor suppressor miRNA and serve as a biomarker as well as a therapeutic target for NPC.
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2',4'-Dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone, from buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus, induces apoptosis in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells through a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism.
Cytotechnology
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Nowadays, much effort is being devoted to detect new substances that not only significantly induce the death of tumor cells, but also have little side effect on normal cells. Our previous study showed that 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone (DMC) exhibited significant cytotoxic potential with an IC50 value of 32.3 ± 1.13 ?M against SMMC-7721 cells and could induce SMMC-7721 cells apoptosis. In the present study, we found that DMC was almost nontoxic to human normal liver L-02 and human normal fetal lung fibroblast HFL-1 cells as their IC50 values (111.0 ± 4.57 and 152.0 ± 4.83 µM for L-02 and HFL-1 cells, respectively) were much higher. To further explore the apoptotic mechanism of DMC, we investigated the role of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the apoptosis induced by DMC in SMMC-7721 cells. Our results suggested that the cytotoxicity and the generation of intracellular ROS were inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Reversal of apoptosis in NAC pretreated cells indicated the involvement of ROS in DMC-induced apoptosis. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) induced by DMC was significantly blocked by NAC. NAC also prevented the decrease of Caspase-3 and -9 activities, the increase of Bcl-2 protein expression and the decrease of p53 and PUMA protein expressions. Together, these results indicated that ROS played a key role in the apoptosis induced by DMC in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells.
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Promoter hypermethylation and silencing of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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The treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) following early detection is associated with good outcomes. Therefore, the survival and prognosis of OSCC patients could be hugely improved by identifying reliable biomarkers for the early diagnosis of the disease. Our previous methylation microarray analysis results have suggested that the gene encoding tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) is a potential clinical predictor as well as a key regulator involved in OSCC malignancy.
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Static magnetic field attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced multiple organ failure: a histopathologic study in mice.
Int. J. Radiat. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Abstract Purpose: Previous studies demonstrated that static magnetic fields (SMF) were effective in down-regulating the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to provide histological evidence of SMF attenuating LPS-induced multiple organ failure (MOF). Materials and Methods: In this study, BALB/cByNarl (5 weeks, weighing 20 to 25 g) mice were chosen as test subjects. The tested animals were challenged with 50 mg/kg LPS after they were exposed to a continuous SMF for 2 h. The survival rate and pathological changes in lungs, kidneys, and livers of the LPS-challenged mice were examined with and without SMF treatment. In addition, the effects of SMF exposure on body temperature control of the LPS-challenged mice were monitored. Results: Our results showed that at 30 h the survival rate of LPS-challenged mice increased 3.6 fold (P < 0.05). In addition, 6 h after LPS injection, the average body temperature of SMF-exposed mice was 1.07°C lower than that of unexposed animals. Tissue biopsies demonstrated that SMF exposure reduced damage to the lungs, livers, and kidneys in the LPS-challenged mice. Conclusions: SMFs show potential as a viable prophylactic alternative for controlling LPS-induced MOF.
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Field-programmable lab-on-a-chip based on microelectrode dot array architecture.
IET Nanobiotechnol
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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The fundamentals of electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) digital microfluidics are very strong: advantageous capability in the manipulation of fluids, small test volumes, precise dynamic control and detection, and microscale systems. These advantages are very important for future biochip developments, but the development of EWOD microfluidics has been hindered by the absence of: integrated detector technology, standard commercial components, on-chip sample preparation, standard manufacturing technology and end-to-end system integration. A field-programmable lab-on-a-chip (FPLOC) system based on microelectrode dot array (MEDA) architecture is presented in this research. The MEDA architecture proposes a standard EWOD microfluidic component called 'microelectrode cell', which can be dynamically configured into microfluidic components to perform microfluidic operations of the biochip. A proof-of-concept prototype FPLOC, containing a 30 × 30 MEDA, was developed by using generic integrated circuits computer aided design tools, and it was manufactured with standard low-voltage complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, which allows smooth on-chip integration of microfluidics and microelectronics. By integrating 900 droplet detection circuits into microelectrode cells, the FPLOC has achieved large-scale integration of microfluidics and microelectronics. Compared to the full-custom and bottom-up design methods, the FPLOC provides hierarchical top-down design approach, field-programmability and dynamic manipulations of droplets for advanced microfluidic operations.
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GaN-based light-emitting diodes with graphene/indium tin oxide transparent layer.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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We have demonstrated a gallium nitride (GaN)-based green light-emitting diode (LED) with graphene/indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent contact. The ohmic characteristic of the p-GaN and graphene/ITO contact could be preformed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 min. The specific contact resistance of p-GaN/graphene/ITO (3.72E-3 ?·cm²) is one order less than that of p-GaN/ITO. In addition, the 20-mA forward voltage of LEDs with graphene/ITO transparent (3.05 V) is 0.09 V lower than that of ITO LEDs (3.14 V). Besides, We have got an output power enhancement of 11% on LEDs with graphene/ITO transparent contact.
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Garlic essential oil protects against obesity-triggered nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through modulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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This study investigated the protective properties of garlic essential oil (GEO) and its major organosulfur component (diallyl disulfide, DADS) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal or high-fat diet (HFD) with/without GEO (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) or DADS (10 and 20 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. GEO and DADS dose-dependently exerted antiobesity and antihyperlipidemic effects by reducing HFD-induced body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, and serum biochemical parameters. Administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg GEO and 20 mg/kg DADS significantly decreased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver, accompanied by elevated antioxidant capacity via inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 expression during NAFLD development. The anti-NAFLD effects of GEO and DADS were mediated through down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, as well as stimulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. These results demonstrate that GEO and DADS dose-dependently protected obese mice with long-term HFD-induced NAFLD from lipid accumulation, inflammation, and oxidative damage by ameliorating lipid metabolic disorders and oxidative stress. The dose of 20 mg/kg DADS was equally as effective in preventing NAFLD as 50 mg/kg GEO containing the same amount of DADS, which demonstrates that DADS may be the main bioactive component in GEO.
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Chronic musculoskeletal pain: Ultrasound guided pain control.
Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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The review demonstrates the unique advantages of ultrasonography in pain control. Several imaging modalities can be used to guide pain control, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and radiography. Ultrasonography has unique advantages over these other modalities in terms of its non-ionizing radiation, real-time imaging, portability, and cost-effectiveness. Ultrasonography with color Doppler and elastography can provide safer guidance to avoid blood vessels and the nerve trunk when using steroid or xylocaine infusions to encase the nerve trunk. This review focuses on the control of chronic pain in the upper limbs, lower limbs, and trunk.
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[The impact of nurse-led case management on the quality of HIV care].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Monitoring the quality of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care and evaluating the effectiveness of HIV case management programs (CMPs) as approaches to raising the rate of HIV care retention and to improving the efficacy of viral suppression after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are important focuses of research worldwide.
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Imaging neurovascular function and functional recovery after stroke in the rat striatum using forepaw stimulation.
J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Negative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response in the striatum has been observed in several studies during peripheral sensory stimulation, but its relationship between local field potential (LFP) remains to be elucidated. We performed cerebral blood volume (CBV) fMRI and LFP recordings in normal rats during graded noxious forepaw stimulation at nine stimulus pulse widths. Albeit high LFP-CBV correlation was found in the ipsilateral and contralateral sensory cortices (r=0.89 and 0.95, respectively), the striatal CBV responses were neither positively, nor negatively correlated with LFP (r=0.04), demonstrating that the negative striatal CBV response is not originated from net regional inhibition. To further identify whether this negative CBV response can serve as a marker for striatal functional recovery, two groups of rats (n=5 each) underwent 20- and 45-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) were studied. No CBV response was found in the ipsilateral striatum in both groups immediately after stroke. Improved striatal CBV response was observed on day 28 in the 20-minute MCAO group compared with the 45-minute MCAO group (P<0.05). This study shows that fMRI signals could differ significantly from LFP and that the observed negative CBV response has potential to serve as a marker for striatal functional integrity in rats.
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Drying effect on flavonoid composition and antioxidant activity of immature kumquat.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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A seven flavonoids in hot water extract of immature kumquat (Citrus japonica var. margarita) were identified and quantified (mg/100g fresh fruit): 3',5'-di-C-?-glucopyranosylphloretin (DGPP, 285.9±2.9mg/100g), acacetin 8-C-neohesperidoside (margaritene, 136.2±2.6mg/100g), acacetin 6-C-neohesperidoside (isomargaritene, 119.1±1.8mg/100g), fortunellin (acacetin 7-O-neohesperidoside, 28.5±0.7mg/100g), apigenin 8-C-neohesperidoside (16.9±0.1mg/100g), poncirin (isosakuranetin 7-O-neohesperidoside, 5.1±0.1mg/100g), and rhoifolin (apigenin 7-O-neohesperidoside, 2.0±0.1mg/100g). When immature kumquat was dried at 110 and 130°C for 0.5h, the antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and identified flavonoids increased. The UV absorbance of browning products of immature kumquat dried at 130°C for 1.5h increased dramatically, while the identified flavonoids decreased. Therefore, it was concluded that drying below 130°C for 1.0h, could release phenolic compounds, which resulted in the increasing antioxidant activity. Drying at 130°C for 1.5h, it might be due to the effect of formed browning products.
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[Application of multiple quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction approach for rapid prenatal diagnosis of common chromosome aneuploidies].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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To assess the value of multiple quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) approach for rapid prenatal diagnosis of common chromosomal aneuploidies.
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Dynamic perfusion and diffusion MRI of cortical spreading depolarization in photothrombotic ischemia.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) is known to exacerbate ischemic damage, as the number of CSDs correlates with the final infarct volumes and suppressing CSDs improves functional outcomes. To investigate the role of CSD in ischemic damage, we developed a novel rat model of photothrombotic ischemia using a miniature implantable optic fiber that allows lesion induction inside the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. We were able to precisely control the location and the size of the ischemic lesion, and continuously monitor dynamic perfusion and diffusion MRI signal changes at high temporal resolution before, during and after the onset of focal ischemia. Our model showed that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the ischemic core dropped immediately after lesion onset by 20±6 and 41±23%, respectively, and continually declined over the next 5h. Meanwhile, CSDs were observed in all animals (n=36) and displayed either a transient decrease of ADC by 17±3% or an increase of CBF by 104±15%. All CSDs were initiated from the rim of the ischemic core, propagated outward, and confined to the ipsilesional cortex. Additionally, we demonstrated that by controlling the size of perfusion-diffusion mismatch (which approximates the penumbra) in our model, the number of CSDs correlated with the mismatch area rather than the final infarct volume. This study introduces a novel platform to study CSDs in real-time with high reproducibility using MRI.
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Effects of deer velvet extract from Formosan sika deer on the embryonic development and anti-oxidative enzymes mRNA expression in mouse embryos.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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The deer velvet or its extracts has been widely used in clinic. It has been used in promoting reproductive performances and treating of oxidation and aging process. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of velvet extract from Formosan sika deer (Formosan sika deer; Cervus nippon taiouanus, FSD) velvet on mouse embryonic development and anti-oxidant ability in vitro.
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Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of butoconazole nitrate in human plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of butoconazole in human plasma. Human plasma samples of 0.2 ?L were pretreated by a single step protein precipitation procedure and analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) electrospray tandem mass spectrometer system. The compounds were eluted isocratically on an Inertsil ODS-SP column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 3 ?m), ionized using a positive ion atmospheric pressure electrospray ionization source and analyzed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The ion transitions monitored were m/z 412.8?165.1 for butoconazole and m/z 453.4?230.3 for the internal standard. The chromatographic run time was 3.5 min per injection, with retention time of 2.47 min and 2.15 min for butoconazole and repaglinide, respectively. The method was validated to be linear over the range of 20 to 8000 pg/mL (r>0.999) by using a weighted (1/x(2)) quadratic regression. The mean recovery rate was more than 86.7%, and the intra- and inter-day precision of the quality control samples (QCs) was less than 8.3% and the accuracy ranged from 96.0% to 110.2%, which indicated that the quantitative method was reliable and accurate. The method is simple, rapid, and has been applied successfully to a pharmacokinetics study of butoconazole nitrate suppositories in healthy Chinese females.
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Robust deep brain stimulation functional MRI procedures in rats and mice using an MR-compatible tungsten microwire electrode.
Magn Reson Med
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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To develop a series of robust and readily adoptable protocols for the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS)-functional MRI (fMRI) in rodents.
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Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase attenuates hepatocellular carcinoma cell adhesion stimulated by adipokine resistin.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Resistin, adipocyte-secreting adipokine, may play critical role in modulating cancer pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistin on HCC adhesion to the endothelium, and the mechanism underlying these resistin effects.
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Cyclin D1 G870A polymorphism and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in a Chinese population.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Cyclin D1, encoded by the gene CCND1, is a regulatory protein in the cell cycle transition from G1 phase to S phase. A common polymorphism (G870A) in the exon 4 of CCND1 gene affects splicing of the CCND1 transcript and may cause uncontrollable cellular growth. Therefore, the CCND1 G870A polymorphism may influence an individual's susceptibility to the development of certain tumors. The present study was performed to test the association between G870A polymorphism in the CCND1 gene and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk in a Chinese population. We extracted the peripheral blood samples from 220 patients with HCC and 220 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and direct DNA sequencing were performed to detect the polymorphism. The CCND1 genotype distribution among HCC patients was not significantly different from that among healthy controls (P=0.08). Compared with the wild-type GG genotype, neither the variant AA genotype nor the variant genotypes containing the A allele were associated with risk of HCC. However, stratification analysis by HBV carrier status revealed that the variant genotypes containing the A allele were associated with a significantly increased risk of HCC among HBsAg-positive individuals (adjusted OR=3.87; 95 % CI=1.12, 13.30). These results suggest that the CCND1 G870A polymorphism may increase the risk of HBV-related HCC in the Chinese population.
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The evolving practice of hybrid natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) for rectal cancer.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has emerged as the area of focus in laparoscopic surgery. Hybrid NOTES (hNOTES) has some potential advantages for treating rectal cancer.
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Partial restoration of cardiac function with ?PDZ nNOS in aged mdx model of Duchenne cardiomyopathy.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Transgenic gene deletion/over-expression studies have established the cardioprotective role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). However, it remains unclear whether nNOS-mediated heart protection can be translated to gene therapy. In this study, we generated an adeno-associated virus (AAV) nNOS vector and tested its therapeutic efficacy in the aged mdx model of Duchenne cardiomyopathy. A PDZ domain-deleted nNOS gene (?PDZ nNOS) was packaged into tyrosine mutant AAV-9 and delivered to the heart of ~14-month-old female mdx mice, a phenotypic model of Duchenne cardiomyopathy. Seven months later, we observed robust nNOS expression in the myocardium. Supra-physiological ?PDZ nNOS expression significantly reduced myocardial fibrosis, inflammation and apoptosis. Importantly, electrocardiography and left ventricular hemodynamics were significantly improved in treated mice. Additional studies revealed increased phosphorylation of phospholamban and p70S6K. Collectively, we have demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of the AAV ?PDZ nNOS vector in a symptomatic Duchenne cardiomyopathy model. Our results suggest that the cardioprotective role of ?PDZ nNOS is likely through reduced apoptosis, enhanced phospholamban phosphorylation and improved Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling. Our study has opened the door to treat Duchenne cardiomyopathy with ?PDZ nNOS gene transfer.
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Mediating effects of social support on depression and quality of life among patients with HIV infection in Taiwan.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Few empirical studies have evaluated the mediating effects of quality of life (QoL) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The purposes of this study were to identify the predictors of QoL and to test the mediating effects of social support on depression and QoL among patients enrolled in an HIV case-management program in Taiwan. A cross-sectional, descriptive correlation design collected data from 108 HIV-infected individuals. Individuals were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory II, the short version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-BREF), and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support between September 2007 and April 2010. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics (including age, gender, and mode of transmission) and clinical information (including CD4 count and time since diagnosis with HIV), the study findings showed that QoL was significantly and positively correlated with both social support and the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and was negatively correlated with depression and time since diagnosis with HIV. The strongest predictors for QoL were depression followed by the initiation of HAART and social support, with an R(2) of 0.40. Social support partially mediated the relationship between depression and QoL. Health professionals should enhance HIV-infected individuals' social support to alleviate the level of depression and further increase the QoL among PLWHA.
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Thyroid metastasis from breast cancer presenting with diffuse microcalcifications on sonography: a case report.
J Clin Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Microcalcifications are frequently associated with papillary thyroid cancers. Metastatic nodules from extrathyroid malignancies may mimic primary thyroid neoplasm on sonography, but do not present with microcalcifications. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with a history of invasive ductal carcinomas of bilateral breasts, status post surgery and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Four years after surgery, thyroid sonography revealed diffuse microcalcifications without nodular component. Core needle biopsy confirmed thyroid metastasis from primary breast cancer.
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In-band asymmetry compensation for accurate time/phase transport over optical transport network.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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The demands of precise time/phase synchronization have been increasing recently due to the next generation of telecommunication synchronization. This paper studies the issues that are relevant to distributing accurate time/phase over optical transport network (OTN). Each node and link can introduce asymmetry, which affects the adequate time/phase accuracy over the networks. In order to achieve better accuracy, protocol level full timing support is used (e.g., Telecom-Boundary clock). Due to chromatic dispersion, the use of different wavelengths consequently causes fiber link delay asymmetry. The analytical result indicates that it introduces significant time error (i.e., phase offset) within 0.3397?ns/km in C-band or 0.3943?ns/km in L-band depending on the wavelength spacing. With the proposed scheme in this paper, the fiber link delay asymmetry can be compensated relying on the estimated mean fiber link delay by the Telecom-Boundary clock, while the OTN control plane is responsible for processing the fiber link delay asymmetry to determine the asymmetry compensation in the timing chain.
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BTLA exhibits immune memory for ?? T cells in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis.
Am J Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Despite past extensive studies, the role of B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) in ?? T cells in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (ATB) remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that BTLA expression on ?? T cells is decreased in patients with M. tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Particularly, BTLA expression levels are likely critical for ?? T cells to manifest and maintain an active central memory phenotype with high capacity for secretion of IFN-? and perforin, which are important for immune memory against TB infection. BTLA(high) ?? T cells also exhibited higher capacity in response to Mtb peptide stimulation. In contrast to the role of BTLA played for negative regulation of immune responses, our data in the current studies suggest that BTLA expression on ?? T cells is likely associated with protective immune memory against Mtb infection in the setting of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. This previous unappreciated role for BTLA may have implications for prevention and treatment of patients with Mtb infection.
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Characterization of the cryptic AV3 promoter of ageratum yellow vein virus in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A cryptic prokaryotic promoter, designated AV3 promoter, has been previously identified in certain begomovirus genus, including ageratum yellow vein virus isolate NT (AYVV-NT). In this study, we demonstrated that the core nucleotides in the putative -10 and -35 boxes are necessary but not sufficient for promoter activity in Escherichia coli, and showed that AYVV-NT AV3 promoter could specifically interact with single-stranded DNA-binding protein and sigma 70 of E. coli involved in transcription. Several AYVV-NT-encoded proteins were found to increase the activity of AV3 promoter. The transcription start sites downstream to AV3 promoter were mapped to nucleotide positions 803 or 805 in E. coli, and 856 in Nicotiana benthamiana. The eukaryotic activity of AV3 promoter and the translatability of a short downstream open reading frame were further confirmed by using a green fluorescent protein reporter construct in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells. These results suggested that AV3 promoter might be a remnant of evolution that retained cryptic activity at present.
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CD4? T cells expressing latency-associated peptide and Foxp3 are an activated subgroup of regulatory T cells enriched in patients with colorectal cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Latency-associated peptide (LAP) - expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important for immunological self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. In order to investigate the role of LAP in human CD4?Foxp3? Tregs, we designed a cross-sectional study that involved 42 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The phenotypes, cytokine-release patterns, and suppressive ability of Tregs isolated from peripheral blood and tumor tissues were analyzed. We found that the population of LAP-positive CD4?Foxp3? Tregs significantly increased in peripheral blood and cancer tissues of CRC patients as compared to that in the peripheral blood and tissues of healthy subjects. Both LAP? and LAP? Tregs had a similar effector/memory phenotype. However, LAP? Tregs expressed more effector molecules, including tumor necrosis factor receptor II, granzyme B, perforin, Ki67, and CCR5, than their LAP? negative counterparts. The in vitro immunosuppressive activity of LAP? Tregs, exerted via a transforming growth factor-?-mediated mechanism, was more potent than that of LAP? Tregs. Furthermore, the enrichment of LAP? Treg population in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of CRC patients correlated with cancer metastases. In conclusion, we found that LAP? Foxp3? CD4? Treg cells represented an activated subgroup of Tregs having more potent regulatory activity in CRC patients. The increased frequency of LAP? Tregs in PBMCs of CRC patients suggests their potential role in controlling immune response to cancer and presents LAP as a marker of tumor-specific Tregs in CRC patients.
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Thymoquinone induces cell death in human squamous carcinoma cells via caspase activation-dependent apoptosis and LC3-II activation-dependent autophagy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Thymoquinone (TQ), an active component of Nigella sativa or black cumin, elicits cytotoxic effects on various cancer cell lines. However, the anti-cancer effects of TQ on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remain unclear.
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Genotoxic Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Colibactin is a nonribosomal peptide-polyketide synthesized by multi-enzyme complexes encoded by the pks gene cluster. Colibactin-producing Escherichia coli have been demonstrated to induce host DNA damage and promote colorectal cancer (CRC) development. In Taiwan, the occurrence of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) has been suggested to correlate with an increasing risk of CRC, and Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant PLA pathogen in Taiwan.
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CD44 gene polymorphisms and environmental factors on oral cancer susceptibility in Taiwan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the fourth leading cause of male cancer death in Taiwan. Exposure to environmental carcinogens is the primary risk factor for developing OSCC. CD44, a well-known tumor marker, plays a crucial role in tumor cell differentiation, invasion, and metastasis. This study investigated CD44 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with environmental risk factors to determine OSCC susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics.
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Realization of Metal-Insulator Transition and Oxidation in Silver Nanowire Percolating Networks by Terahertz Reflection Spectroscopy.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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Metal nanowires (NWs) enable versatile applications in printed electronics and optoelectronics by serving as thin and flexible transparent electrodes. The performance of metal NWs as thin electrodes is highly correlated to the connectivity of NW meshes. Percolation threshold of metal NW films corresponds to the minimum density of NWs to form the transparent, yet conductive metal NW networks. Here, we determine the percolation threshold of silver NW (AgNW) networks by using morphological analysis terahertz (THz) reflection spectroscopy. From the divergent behavior of carrier scattering time and the increase of carrier backscattering factor, the critical NW density at which crossover from Drude to non-Drude behavior of THz conductivity occurs can be unambiguously determined for AgNW thin films. Furthermore, the natural oxidation of AgNWs which causes the gradual reduction of the connectivity of AgNW network is also realized by the THz spectroscopy. The selective oxidation of NW-to-NW junctions weakens the ohmic contact and for AgNWs near a critical density, it can even lead to metal-insulator transition. The presented results offer invaluable information to accelerate the deployment of metal nanowires for next-generation electronics and optoelectronics on flexible substrates.
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Use of sonography in assessing elbow medial collateral ligament injury after arm wrestling.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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Medial collateral ligament injury is an infrequent occurrence in arm wrestlers. We report here a male patient who injured his left elbow while arm wrestling. Ultrasonography showed a medial collateral ligament tear. We assessed both elbows using ultrasonography at his 3-year follow-up visit. Dynamic ultrasonography showed a decreased gap at the ulnotrochlear joint space in his left elbow. A medial collateral ligament tear in his right elbow was also evident using ultrasonography. This case report shows the advantages of ultrasonography, especially dynamic ultrasonography, in the evaluation of elbow injury. Ultrasonography provides more information than valgus stress radiography, arthrography, and magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of medial collateral ligament injury. In addition, the contralateral side can readily be assessed for comparison during ultrasonography.
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13% Efficiency Hybrid Organic/Silicon-Nanowire Heterojunction Solar Cell via Interface Engineering.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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Interface carrier recombination currently hinders the performance of hybrid organic-silicon heterojunction solar cells for high-efficiency low-cost photovoltaics. Here, we introduce an intermediate 1,1-bis[(di-4-tolylamino)phenyl]cyclohexane (TAPC) layer into hybrid heterojunction solar cells based on silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and conjugate polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The highest power conversion efficiency reaches a record 13.01%, which is largely ascribed to the modified organic surface morphology and suppressed saturation current that boost the open-circuit voltage and fill factor. We show that the insertion of TAPC increases the minority carrier lifetime because of an energy offset at the heterojunction interface. Furthermore, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy reveals that TAPC can effectively block the strong oxidation reaction occurring between PEDOT:PSS and silicon, which improves the device characteristics and assurances for reliability. These learnings point toward future directions for versatile interface engineering techniques for the attainment of highly efficient hybrid photovoltaics.
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Case Management Interventions for HIV-Infected Individuals.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Engagement of HIV-positive persons into care and achieving optimal antiretroviral treatment outcomes is a fundamental HIV prevention strategy. Case management model was recommended as a beneficial model of care for patients with a new HIV diagnosis, focusing on individuals with unmet needs, and linking them with the coordinated health and social services to achieve desired outcomes. HIV case management is population-driven and programs are designed to respond to the unique needs of the client population they serve, such as substance users, homeless, youth, and prison inmates. This view found 28 studies addressing effectiveness and impacts of case management intervention for people living with or at risk of HIV/AIDS. Effectiveness of case management intervention was categorized as follows: decreased mortality and improve health outcomes, linkage to and retention in care, decreased unmet needs, and reducing risky behaviors.
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[Study on the start-up of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process in biological activated carbon reactor].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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In order to shorten the start-up time of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) reactor, biological activated cabon reactor was applied. Three lab scale UASB reactors were seeded with anaerobic sludge, fed with synthetic wastewater containing ammonia and nitrite, and supplemented with granular activated carbon on day 0, 33 and 56, respectively. The nitrogen removal performance of the first reactor, into which GAC was added on day 0, showed no significant improvement in 90 days. After being suspended for about one month, the secondary start-up of this reactor succeeded in another 33 days (totally 123 days). 49 d and 85 d were taken for the other two reactors started up by the addition of GAC on day 33 and 56, respectively. After the reactors were started up, the average removal rates of total nitrogen were 89.8%, 86.7% and 86.7%, respectively. The start-up process could be divided into four stages, namely, the bacterial autolysis phase, the lag phase, the improve phase and the stationary phase, and the best time for adding GAC carrier was right after the start of the lag phase.
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Infection of pericytes in vitro by Japanese encephalitis virus disrupts the integrity of the endothelial barrier.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Though the compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a pathological hallmark of Japanese encephalitis-associated neurological sequelae, the underlying mechanisms and the specific cell types involved are not understood. BBB characteristics are induced and maintained by cross talk between brain microvascular endothelial cells and neighboring elements of the neurovascular unit. In this study, we show a potential mechanism of disruption of endothelial barrier integrity during the course of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection through the activation of neighboring pericytes. We found that cultured brain pericytes were susceptible to JEV infection but were without signs of remarkable cytotoxicity. JEV-infected pericytes were found to release biologically active molecules which activated ubiquitin proteasome, degraded zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and disrupted endothelial barrier integrity in cultured brain microvascular endothelial cells. Infection of pericytes with JEV was found to elicit elevated production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), which contributed to the aforementioned endothelial changes. We further demonstrated that ubiquitin-protein ligase E3 component n-recognin-1 (Ubr 1) was a key upstream regulator which caused proteasomal degradation of ZO-1 downstream of IL-6 signaling. During JEV central nervous system trafficking, endothelial cells rather than pericytes are directly exposed to cell-free viruses in the peripheral bloodstream. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that subsequent to primary infection of endothelial cells, JEV infection of pericytes might contribute to the initiation and/or augmentation of Japanese encephalitis-associated BBB breakdown in concerted action with other unidentified barrier disrupting factors.
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Study of neurovascular coupling functions for transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats using electrocorticography functional photoacoustic microscopy (ECoG-fPAM).
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Recently, the functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM) system has been proven to be a reliable imaging technique for measuring the total hemoglobin concentration (HbT), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) in single cerebral blood vessels of rats. In this study, we report for the first time the combination of electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings and fPAM (ECoG-fPAM) to investigate functional hemodynamic changes and neuro-vascular coupling in single cortical arterioles of rats with electrical forepaw stimulation after photothrombotic stroke. Because of the optical focusing nature of our fPAM system, photo-induced ischemic stroke targeting on single cortical arterioles can be easily conducted with simple adaptation. Functional cerebral HbT, CBV and SO2 changes associated with the induced stroke in selected arterioles from the anterior cerebral artery system were imaged with a 36 × 65-µm spatial resolution. The ECoG-fPAM system complements existing imaging techniques and has the potential to offer a favorable tool for explicitly studying cerebral hemodynamics and neuro-vascular coupling in small animal models of photo-induced ischemic stroke.
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High prevalence of anal human papillomavirus infection and associated risky behaviors in men infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Taiwan.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence, types, and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in outpatient clinics at an AIDS designated hospital in Taiwan. Anal swabs were collect and PCR (polymerase chain reaction) was used to analyze the types of anal HPV infection. HPV DNA was detected in 74.2% of the 198 participants, including high-risk types (40.4%), low-risk types (18.2%) and multiple-types (6%). The most common types were HPV 16 (13.1%), 6 (10.4%), 11 (7.1%) and 18 (6.1%). The significant risk factor for being infected with any type or a high-risk type of HPV was having sexual partners (>3) in the preceding 6 months. Low-risk type of anal HPV infection was associated with a history of anal lesions. Our findings support the need for regular follow-up of all HIV/HPV coinfected patients and their partners to allow early detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
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A consistency approach for evaluation of biosimilar products.
J Biopharm Stat
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Recently, biosimilars have attracted much attention from sponsors and regulatory authorities, while patents on early biological products will soon expire in the next few years. The European Medicines Agency (EMEA) of the European Union (EU) published a guideline on similar biological medicinal products for approval of these products in 2005 . Based on the foundational principles of the EMEA guideline, biosimilars are expected to be similar, not identical, to the innovator biologics they seek to copy. In this article, we develop a consistency approach for assessment of similarity between a biosimilar product and the innovator biologic. A method for sample size determination for conducting a clinical trial to assess the biosimilar product is also proposed. A numerical example is given to illustrate applications of the proposed approach in different scenarios.
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Barbronia weberi (Clitellata, Hirudinida, Salifidae) has ovary cords of the Erpobdella type.
J. Morphol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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The organization of the ovaries in representative of the Salifidae (Hirudinida, Erpobdelliformes) was studied at the ultrastructural level for the first time. Like in other leeches, the ovaries of Barbronia weberi are composed of an outer envelope (i.e., an ovisac made up of two coelomic epithelia, muscle cells, and connective tissue) and several internal units, which are broadly similar to the ovary cords found in representatives of the Erpobdellidae. There are usually 6-8 ovary cords that are twisted or cambered with a narrow apical part and a broader, irregularly shaped distal end in each ovisac of B. weberi. Each ovary cord is built from somatic and germ-line cells and the latter tend to form multicellular cysts that are equipped with a central cytoplasmic core (cytophore). There are two morphologically different subpopulations of germ-line cells: oocytes and more numerous nurse cells. Growing oocytes form protuberances on the ovary cord surface and eventually detach from the cord and float freely in the ovisac lumen, whereas the other components of germ-line cysts (i.e., nurse cells and cytophore) degenerate. It should be pointed out that there is a prominent gradient of germ-cell development along the long axis of the cord. The somatic cells form the ovary cord envelope (the so-called spongiosa cells) and also penetrate the spaces between germ-line cells. Both kinds of the somatic cells, that is, those forming the cord envelope and the somatic cells that are associated with oocytes (follicular cells) have a well-developed system of intercellular channels. Additionally, one prominent somatic cell, the apical cell, was found at the apical tip of each ovary cord. Because the aforementioned features of ovary cords found in B. weberi are very similar (with a few minor exceptions) to the ovary cords that have been described in Erpobdella octoculata and E. johanssoni, we propose the term "ovary cords of the Erpobdella type" for them. Our results support a close phylogenetic relationship between Salifidae and Erpobdellidae. J. Morphol., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Scalable one-step assembly of an inexpensive photoelectrode for water oxidation by deposition of a Ti- and Ni-containing molecular precursor on nanostructured WO3.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Photoactive in one step! A nanocomposite water-oxidation photocatalyst was assembled by a straightforward and one-step spin-coating procedure of a Ti- and Ni-containing molecule on nanostructured WO3. The photoanode oxidizes water to O2 with good activity and stability in alkaline solution, and thereby features light absorption, charge separation and water-oxidation catalysis (see scheme).
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Chemical constituents from Dendropanax dentiger.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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Nineteen compounds and an HPLC inseparable mixture, composed of compounds 20 and 21, were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Dendropanax dentiger (Harms ex Diels) Merr. Of these, syringin (1) is the most abundant, 6-O-apiofuranosyl dendranthemoside A (16) is a new megastigmane glycoside, and 3-methoxy-D-mannono-1,4-lactone (21) is a new hexono-1,4-lactone. Their structures were elucidated based on NMR spectroscopic and MS analyses.
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Integrins-FAK-Rho GTPases pathway in endothelial cells sense and response to surface wettability of plasma nanocoatings.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Vascular endothelial cell (EC) adhesion and migration are essential processes in re-endothelialization of implanted biomaterials, which are affected by surface properties of implanted materials such as surface wettability. Our previous study demonstrated that, as model substrates, EC adhesion/migration showed an opposite behavior on the hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces of plasma SiOx:H nanocoatings. Extending our previous works, the expression and distribution of crucial proteins in integrins-FAK-Rho GTPases signaling pathways were examined, respectively. The results showed that a hydrophilic surface could enhance the expression of focal adhesion protein associated with cell adhesion; however, the hydrophobic surface could improve the expression of Rho GTPases associated with cell migration and phosphorylation level of FAK, revealing the potential reason of surface wettability mediating different cells adhesion/migration behaviors. These findings reveal the relationship and molecular mechanism of endothelial cell adhesion/migration, which was expected to guide the surface modification of implants for accelerating endothelialization.
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Functional MRI reveals frequency-dependent responses during deep brain stimulation at the subthalamic nucleus or internal globus pallidus.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents a widely used therapeutic tool for the symptomatic treatment of movement disorders, most commonly Parkinsons disease (PD). High frequency stimulation at both the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and internal globus pallidus (GPi) has been used with great success for the symptomatic treatment of PD, although the therapeutic mechanisms of action remain elusive. To better understand how DBS at these target sites modulates neural circuitry, the present study used functional blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map global brain responses to DBS at the STN and GPi of the rat. Robust activation centered in the ipsilateral motor cortex was observed during high frequency stimulation at either target site, with peak responses observed at a stimulation frequency of 100Hz. Of note, frequency tuning curves were generated, demonstrating that cortical activation was maximal at clinically-relevant stimulation frequencies. Divergent responses to stimulation were noted in the contralateral hemisphere, with strong cortical and striatal negative BOLD signal during stimulation of the GPi, but not STN. The frequency-dependence of the observed motor cortex activation at both targets suggests a relationship with the therapeutic effects of STN and GPi DBS, with both DBS targets being functionally connected with motor cortex at therapeutic stimulation frequencies.
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EGCG-rich green tea extract stimulates sRAGE secretion to inhibit S100A12-RAGE axis through ADAM10-mediated ectodomain shedding of extracellular RAGE in type 2 diabetes.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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The receptor for advanced glycation of end products (RAGE) plays a critical role in the progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) is one of the RAGE variants, which acts as a decoy domain receptor and competes with RAGE, thus contributing to prevention of T2D. In this study, we conducted clinical trials of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) rich green tea extract (300-900 mg/day) to investigate the effect of EGCG on relationship between S100A12 RAGE ligand and diverse sRAGE in T2D. Moreover, mechanism of sRAGE production also confirmed in vitro. Our data indicated that EGCG could stimulate sRAGE circulation but inhibited RAGE ligand in T2D, and ADAM10-mediated ectodomain shedding of extracellular RAGE was mainly involved in EGCG-stimulated sRAGE circulation. The present evidence indicates that EGCG has a potential to block S100A12-RAGE axis by stimulating sRAGE production through ADAM10-mediated ectodomain shedding of extracellular RAGE. Therefore, EGCG contributes to nutritional strategies for diabetes, not only because of its efficient antioxidant activity to scavenge free radicals, but also because of its ability stimulating sRAGE release in the circulation. Additionally, ADAM10-induced ectodomain shedding of extracellular RAGE leading to sRAGE circulation should be a potential of passive mechanism of sRAGE production to block S100A12-RAGE axis-related pathogenesis of proinflammation and diabetes.
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SPIO nanoparticle-stabilized PAA-F127 thermosensitive nanobubbles with MR/US dual-modality imaging and HIFU-triggered drug release for magnetically guided in vivo tumor therapy.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Nanobubbles can serve as promising, next-generation theranostic platforms for ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and combined magnetic targeting (MT) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-triggered drug release for tumor therapy. Nanobubble-based dual contrast enhancement agents encapsulated with perfluoropentane and stabilized with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles have been synthesized through a single-step emulsion process from thermosensitive F127 and polyacrylic acid (PAA). Both US and MR imaging contrast can be optimized by varying the shell thickness and SPIO-embedded concentration. The US contrast can be enhanced from a mean gray value of 62 to 115, and the MR r2 value can be enhanced from 164 to 208 (s(-1)mM (-1)Fe) by increasing the SPIO concentration from 14.1 to 28.2mg/mL, respectively. In vivo investigations of SPIO-embedded nanobubbles in excised tumors under external MT revealed that the US and MR signals change quantitatively compared to the same site without MT. This combined strategy enables the nanobubbles to enhance both passive targeting (increasing the permeability by HIFU) and physical MT of chemotherapeutic drugs to tumors. The integration of functionalities makes this nanobubble system a powerful and viable new tool to achieve simultaneous in vivo tumor imaging and efficacious cancer therapy.
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Cross-modal sensory integration of visual-tactile motion information: instrument design and human psychophysics.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Information obtained from multiple sensory modalities, such as vision and touch, is integrated to yield a holistic percept. As a haptic approach usually involves cross-modal sensory experiences, it is necessary to develop an apparatus that can characterize how a biological system integrates visual-tactile sensory information as well as how a robotic device infers object information emanating from both vision and touch. In the present study, we develop a novel visual-tactile cross-modal integration stimulator that consists of an LED panel to present visual stimuli and a tactile stimulator with three degrees of freedom that can present tactile motion stimuli with arbitrary motion direction, speed, and indentation depth in the skin. The apparatus can present cross-modal stimuli in which the spatial locations of visual and tactile stimulations are perfectly aligned. We presented visual-tactile stimuli in which the visual and tactile directions were either congruent or incongruent, and human observers reported the perceived visual direction of motion. Results showed that perceived direction of visual motion can be biased by the direction of tactile motion when visual signals are weakened. The results also showed that the visual-tactile motion integration follows the rule of temporal congruency of multi-modal inputs, a fundamental property known for cross-modal integration.
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Neurovascular coupling: in vivo optical techniques for functional brain imaging.
Biomed Eng Online
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Optical imaging techniques reflect different biochemical processes in the brain, which is closely related with neural activity. Scientists and clinicians employ a variety of optical imaging technologies to visualize and study the relationship between neurons, glial cells and blood vessels. In this paper, we present an overview of the current optical approaches used for the in vivo imaging of neurovascular coupling events in small animal models. These techniques include 2-photon microscopy, laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi), functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM), functional near-infrared spectroscopy imaging (fNIRS) and multimodal imaging techniques. The basic principles of each technique are described in detail, followed by examples of current applications from cutting-edge studies of cerebral neurovascular coupling functions and metabolic. Moreover, we provide a glimpse of the possible ways in which these techniques might be translated to human studies for clinical investigations of pathophysiology and disease. In vivo optical imaging techniques continue to expand and evolve, allowing us to discover fundamental basis of neurovascular coupling roles in cerebral physiology and pathophysiology.
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Suppressive effects of anthrax lethal toxin on megakaryopoiesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) is a major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis. LT challenge suppresses platelet counts and platelet function in mice, however, the mechanism responsible for thrombocytopenia remains unclear. LT inhibits cellular mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which are vital pathways responsible for cell survival, differentiation, and maturation. One of the MAPKs, the MEK1/2-extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway, is particularly important in megakaryopoiesis. This study evaluates the hypothesis that LT may suppress the progenitor cells of platelets, thereby inducing thrombocytopenic responses. Using cord blood-derived CD34(+) cells and mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells to perform in vitro differentiation, this work shows that LT suppresses megakaryopoiesis by reducing the survival of megakaryocytes. Thrombopoietin treatments can reduce thrombocytopenia, megakaryocytic suppression, and the quick onset of lethality in LT-challenged mice. These results suggest that megakaryocytic suppression is one of the mechanisms by which LT induces thrombocytopenia. These findings may provide new insights for developing feasible approaches against anthrax.
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Breast elastography diagnosis based on dynamic sequence features.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Each dynamic elastography contains multiple images; therefore, physicians need to determine the most representative image from the scanned sequence to make diagnosis. To eliminate interobserver variations on diagnoses and help doctors providing correct treatments, the authors developed an objective computer-aided diagnostic scheme without requiring manually selecting representative images for diagnosis.
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Computer-aided diagnosis for 3-d power Doppler breast ultrasound.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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In recent studies, both tumor morphology and vascularity played an important role in differentiating breast tumors. In this article, a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system was proposed to quantify the tumor morphology of vascularity on three-dimensional (3-D) power Doppler breast ultrasound (PDUS) images. We segmented the tumor margin by the level set method and skeletonized vessels by the 3-D thinning algorithm from 3-D PDUS data to capture the B-mode and vascularity features. The B-mode features including texture, shape and ellipsoid fitting and the vascularity features containing volume, complexity, length, radius and tortuosity were used to differentiate breast tumors. In the experiment, 82 biopsy-verified lesions including 41 benign and 41 malignant lesions were used to test the performance of the proposed system. The proposed method performed well, achieving accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and Az values of 85.37% (70/82), 85.37% (35/41), 85.37% (35/41) and 0.9104, respectively.
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Ultra high-resolution fMRI and electrophysiology of the rat primary somatosensory cortex.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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High-resolution functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging (fMRI) has been used to study brain functions at increasingly finer scale, but whether fMRI can accurately reflect layer-specific neuronal activities is less well understood. The present study investigated layer-specific cerebral-blood-volume (CBV) fMRI and electrophysiological responses in the rat cortex. CBV fMRI at 40×40 ?m in-plane resolution was performed on an 11.7-T scanner. Electrophysiology used a 32-channel electrode array that spanned the entire cortical depth. Graded electrical stimulation was used to study activations in different cortical layers, exploiting the notion that most of the sensory-specific neurons are in layers II-V and most of the nociceptive-specific neurons are in layers V-VI. CBV response was strongest in layer IV of all stimulus amplitudes. Current source density analysis showed strong sink currents at cortical layers IV and VI. Multi-unit activities mainly appeared at layers IV-VI and peaked at layer V. Although our measures showed scaled activation profiles during modulation of stimulus amplitude and failed to detect specific recruitment at layers V and VI during noxious electrical stimuli, there appears to be discordance between CBV fMRI and electrophysiological peak responses, suggesting neurovascular uncoupling at laminar resolution. The technique implemented in the present study offers a means to investigate intracortical neurovascular function in the normal and diseased animal models at laminar resolution.
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The HLJ1-targeting drug screening identified Chinese herb andrographolide that can suppress tumour growth and invasion in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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HLJ1 is a novel tumour suppressor and is a potential druggable target for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this report, using a promoter-containing enhancer region as the HLJ1-targeting drug-screening platform, we identified several herbal compounds from a Chinese herbal bank with the capacity to enhance HLJ1 promoter activity and suppress tumour growth and invasion of NSCLC. Among the herbal drugs identified, the andrographolide (from Andrographis paniculata [Burm. f.] Nees.) most significantly induced HLJ1 expression and suppressed tumorigenesis both in vitro and in vivo. The andrographolide upregulates HLJ1 via JunB activation, which modulates AP-2? binding at the MMP-2 promoter and represses the expression of MMP-2. In addition, silencing of HLJ1 partially reverses the inhibition of cancer-cell invasion by andrographolide. Microarray transcriptomic analysis was performed to comprehensively depict the andrographolide-regulated signalling pathways. We showed that andrographolide can affect 939 genes (analysis of variance, false discovery rate < 0.05) that are dominantly involved in the cell cycle, apoptosis and adhesion-related biological signalling, including mitogen-activated protein kinase, focal adhesion and tight junction pathways, indicating the diverse effects of andrographolide on anticancer invasion and proliferation. In conclusion, the HLJ1-targeting drug-screening platform is useful for screening of novel anticancer compounds. Using this platform, we identified andrographolide is a promising new anticancer agent that could suppress tumour growth and invasion in NSCLC.
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Noise-induced synchronization, desynchronization, and clustering in globally coupled nonidentical oscillators.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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We study ensembles of globally coupled, nonidentical phase oscillators subject to correlated noise, and we identify several important factors that cause noise and coupling to synchronize or desynchronize a system. By introducing noise in various ways, we find an estimate for the onset of synchrony of a system in terms of the coupling strength, noise strength, and width of the frequency distribution of its natural oscillations. We also demonstrate that noise alone can be sufficient to synchronize nonidentical oscillators. However, this synchrony depends on the first Fourier mode of a phase-sensitivity function, through which we introduce common noise into the system. We show that higher Fourier modes can cause desynchronization due to clustering effects, and that this can reinforce clustering caused by different forms of coupling. Finally, we discuss the effects of noise on an ensemble in which antiferromagnetic coupling causes oscillators to form two clusters in the absence of noise.
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Activation of IFN-?/STAT/IRF-1 in hepatic responses to Klebsiella pneumoniae infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Klebsiella pneumoniae-caused liver abscess (KLA) has become a health problem in Taiwan and is continually reported in other countries. Diabetes mellitus, the most common metabolic disorder, underlies half of the KLA patients in Taiwan. The clinical impact of KLA has been well-documented. Nevertheless, the molecular basis regarding how K. pneumoniae causes liver infection, particularly in diabetic individuals, remains unclear.
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Hemoglobin levels and weaning outcome of mechanical ventilation in difficult-to-wean patients: a retrospective cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The effect of hemoglobin levels on the weaning outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients remains under debate, particularly for the patients with difficult weaning. This study aims to evaluate the effect of hemoglobin levels on weaning outcomes in difficult-to-wean patients.
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A novel prokaryotic promoter identified in the genome of some monopartite begomoviruses.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Geminiviruses are known to exhibit both prokaryotic and eukaryotic features in their genomes, with the ability to express their genes and even replicate in bacterial cells. We have demonstrated previously the existence of unit-length single-stranded circular DNAs of Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV, a species in the genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) in Escherichia coli cells, which prompted our search for unknown prokaryotic functions in the begomovirus genomes. By using a promoter trapping strategy, we identified a novel prokaryotic promoter, designated AV3 promoter, in nts 762-831 of the AYVV genome. Activity assays revealed that the AV3 promoter is strong, unidirectional, and constitutive, with an endogenous downstream ribosome binding site and a translatable short open reading frame of eight amino acids. Sequence analyses suggested that the AV3 promoter might be a remnant of prokaryotic ancestors that could be related to certain promoters of bacteria from marine or freshwater environments. The discovery of the prokaryotic AV3 promoter provided further evidence for the prokaryotic origin in the evolutionary history of geminiviruses.
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A simplified immune suppression scheme leads to persistent micro-dystrophin expression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy dogs.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Highly abbreviated micro-dystrophin genes have been intensively studied for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene therapy. Following adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene transfer, robust microgene expression is achieved in murine DMD models in the absence of immune suppression. Interestingly, a recent study suggests that AAV gene transfer in dystrophic dogs may require up to 18 weeks immune suppression using a combination of three different immune-suppressive drugs (cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and anti-dog thymocyte globulin). Continued immune suppression is not only costly but also may cause untoward reactions. Further, some of the drugs (such as anti-dog thymocyte globulin) are not readily available. To overcome these limitations, we developed a novel 5-week immune suppression scheme using only cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. AAV vectors (either AV.RSV.AP that expresses the heat-resistant human alkaline phosphatase gene, or AV.CMV.?Dys that expresses the canine R16-17/H3/?C microgene) at 2.85×10(12) vg particles were injected into adult dystrophic dog limb muscles under the new immune suppression protocol. Sustained transduction was observed for nearly half year (the end of the study). The simplified immune suppression strategy described here may facilitate preclinical studies in the dog model.
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A Programmable Implantable Microstimulator SoC With Wireless Telemetry: Application in Closed-Loop Endocardial Stimulation for Cardiac Pacemaker.
IEEE Trans Biomed Circuits Syst
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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A low-power, wireless, and implantable microstimulator system on chip with smart powering management, immediate neural signal acquisition, and wireless rechargeable system is proposed. A system controller with parity checking handles the adjustable stimulus parameters for the stimulated objective. In the current paper, the rats intra-cardiac electrogram is employed as the stimulated model in the animal study, and it is sensed by a low-voltage and low-power monitoring analog front end. The power management unit, which includes a rectifier, battery charging and detection, and a regulator, is used for the power control of the internal circuits. The stimulation data and required clock are extracted by a phase-locked-loop-based phase shift keying demodulator from an inductive AC signal. The full chip, which consumes 48 ?W only, is fabricated in a TSMC 0.35 ?m 2P4M standard CMOS process to perform the monitoring and pacing functions with inductively powered communication in the in vivo study.
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Tournefortia sarmentosa extract attenuates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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Tournefortia sarmentosa Lam. (Boraginaceae), a Chinese herbal medicine, is commonly used as a detoxicant or anti-inflammatory agent.
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EMR2 receptor ligation modulates cytokine secretion profiles and cell survival of lipopolysaccharide-treated neutrophils.
Chang Gung Med J
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 2 (EMR2) is an adhesion G protein-coupled receptor previously shown to potentiate neutrophil responses to a number of inflammatory stimuli. EMR2 activation promotes neutrophil adhesion and migration, and augments production of reactive oxygen species and degranulation. In this study, we examined the effect of EMR2 ligation by its specific antibody on the cytokine expression profile and cell survival of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated neutrophils.
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Clinicopathologic features and prognostic analysis of MSI-high colon cancer.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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The objectives of the study were to estimate the incidence and clarify the clinicopathologic feature of sporadic microsatellite instability (MSI)-high (MSI-H) colon cancer. Furthermore, the role of MSI in colon cancer prognosis was also investigated.
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Primary care for diabetes mellitus: perspective from older patients.
Patient Prefer Adherence
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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Care of diabetes mellitus in the elderly requires an additional perspective to take into account impaired cognitive function, physical function, low level of education, and difficulty making lifestyle changes. Existing services tend to be driven by the views of tertiary and secondary care staff, rather than those of primary care staff and elderly patients. This study aimed to explore the attitudes and preferences of elderly patients with diabetes mellitus towards primary care (clinical care and community program).
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Quantification and recognition of parkinsonian gait from monocular video imaging using kernel-based principal component analysis.
Biomed Eng Online
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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The computer-aided identification of specific gait patterns is an important issue in the assessment of Parkinsons disease (PD). In this study, a computer vision-based gait analysis approach is developed to assist the clinical assessments of PD with kernel-based principal component analysis (KPCA).
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Detecting and quantifying pADPr in vivo.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2011
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Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP) participate in diverse biological processes contributing to cellular homeostasis or exacerbating injury. PARP catalyzes the addition of ADP-ribose molecules (pADPr) to the target proteins, a process termed poly-ADP-ribosylation. Overactivation of PARP, as reflected by increased poly-ADP-ribosylation, accumulation of pADPr-modified proteins or free pADPr, contributes to the depletion of NAD(+) and mitochondrial dysfunction, potentially leading to cell death via apoptosis or necrosis. Since PARP over-activation has been identified as a key contributor to the pathobiology of many diseases, monitoring PARP 1 activation by detecting and quantifying pADPr may provide valuable mechanistic insights as well as facilitating therapeutic drug monitoring for PARP inhibitors.Several non-isotopic immunodetection methods for quantifying pADPr are discussed: western blotting of poly-ADP-ribosylated proteins, cellular localization of pADPr by immunohistochemistry, quantification of pADPr by enzyme-linked immunoassay and small-scale two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.