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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Passively Q-switched Nd:YAlO3 nanosecond laser using MoS2 as saturable absorber.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We report on the first passively Q-switched Nd:YAlO3 laser at ~1079.5 nm using MoS2 as saturable absorber. The MoS2 saturable absorber is fabricated by transferring the liquid-phase-exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets onto a BK7 glass substrate. By inserting the glass MoS2 saturable absorber into a plano-concave Nd:YAlO3 laser cavity, we obtain a stable Q-switched laser operation with a maximum average output power of 0.26 W corresponding to a pulse repetition rate of 232.5 kHz, a pulse width of 227 ns and a pulse energy of about 1.11 ?J. The results experimentally confirm the promising application of the new kind of 2D material, few-layer MoS2, in solid state lasers.
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[The application value of the procalcitonin clearance rate on therapeutic effect and prognosis of ventilator associated pneumonia].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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To assess the disease severity and prognosis value by observing the kinetic change of serum procalcitonin (PCT) and PCT clearance rate (PCTc) in the patients with ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP).
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A Population Pharmacokinetic Model of Valproic Acid in Pediatric Patients with Epilepsy: A Non-Linear Pharmacokinetic Model Based on Protein-Binding Saturation.
Clin Pharmacokinet
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Valproic acid (VPA) follows a non-linear pharmacokinetic profile in terms of protein-binding saturation. The total daily dose regarding VPA clearance is a simple power function, which may partially explain the non-linearity of the pharmacokinetic profile; however, it may be confounded by the therapeutic drug monitoring effect. The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for VPA based on protein-binding saturation in pediatric patients with epilepsy.
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Gold(I)-Catalyzed Polycyclization of Linear Dienediynes to Seven-Membered Ring-Containing Polycycles via Tandem Cyclopropanation/Cope Rearrangement/C-H Activation.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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A novel gold(I)-catalyzed polycyclization of easily prepared linear dienediynes has been developed for the construction of fused 5,7,6-tricyclic ring systems in one step with high diastereocontrol. The polycyclization, a formal [4 + 3]/C-H activation reaction, takes place through gold(I)-catalyzed intramolecular cyclopropanation of diene with diyne, Cope rearrangement of cis-alkenylalkynylcyclopropane, aliphatic C-H activation via a seven-membered-ring allene intermediate, and [1,2]-H and -G (H or OAc) shifts.
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[Clinical characterization of severe orbital complications after endoscopic sinus surgery].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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To summarize the clinical feature of severe orbital complications after endoscopic sinus surgery and to explore the precautions.
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Multiplexed Modular Genetic Targeting of Quantum Dots.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2014
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While DNA-directed nanotechnology is now a well-established platform for bioinspired nanoscale assembly in vitro, the direct targeting of various nanomaterials in living biological systems remains a significant challenge. Hybrid biological systems with integrated and targeted nanomaterials may have interesting and exploitable properties, so methods for targeting various nanomaterials to precise biological locations are required. Fluorescence imaging has benefited from the use of nanoparticles with superior optical properties compared to fluorescent organic dyes or fluorescent proteins. While single-particle tracking (SPT) in living cells with genetically encoded proteins is limited to very short trajectories, the high photon output of genetically targeted and multiplexed quantum dots (QDs) would enable long-trajectory analysis of multiple proteins. However, challenges with genetic targeting of QDs limit their application in these experiments. In this report, we establish a modular method for targeting QD nanoparticles selectively to multiple genetically encoded tags by precomplexing QD-streptavidin conjugates with cognate biotinylated hapten molecules. This approach enables labeling and SPT of multiple genetically encoded proteins on living cells at high speed and can label expressed proteins in the cytosol upon microinjection into living cells. While we demonstrate labeling with three distinct QD conjugates, the approach can be extended to other specific hapten-affinity molecule interactions and alternative nanoparticles, enabling precise directed targeting of nanoparticles in living biological systems.
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Ultrasonography and Computed Tomography Diagnostic Evaluation of Budd-Chiari Syndrome Based on Radical Resection Exploration Results.
Ultrasound Q
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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The current study used exploration during radical resection, which reveals the vascular lesion directly, as a criterion standard to evaluate and compare sonography and computed tomography (CT) diagnosis.
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Imprinted gold 2D nanoarray for highly sensitive and convenient PSA detection via plasmon excited quantum dots.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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We designed and fabricated two new nanostructured biosensing chips, with which the sensitive detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) as low as 100 pg ml(-1) can be achieved, by measuring the plasmon enhanced fluorescence through a conventional dark field microscope. The gold nanostructure arrays, one with gold nanopillars of 140 nm, the other with gold nanoholes of 140 nm, were fabricated via nanoimprinting onto glass substrate, as localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) generators to enhance the fluorescent emission of fluorophore, e.g. quantum dot (QD). A sandwich bioassay of capture anti-PSA antibody (cAb)/PSA/detection anti-PSA (dAb) labeled by QD-655 was established on the nanostructures, and the perfect LSPR excitation distance (10-15 nm) between the nanostructure and QD-655 was simulated and controlled by a cleft cAb fragment and streptavidin modified QD. QD was chosen in this study due to its photo stability, broad Stokes shift, and long lifetime. As far as we know, this is the first time that QD is applied for PSA detection on the uniform nanostructured sensing chips based on the LSPR enhanced fluorescence. Due to the miniaturized nanoarray sensing chip (1.8 mm × 1.8 mm), the convenience and specificity for the detection of PSA via the sandwich assay, and the high optical detection sensitivity, the platform has great potential for the development of a portable point-of-care (POC) system for outpatient diagnosis and treatment monitoring.
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Nafion Film Based Micro-nanofluidic Device for Concurrent DNA Preconcentration and Separation in Free Solution.
Microfluid Nanofluidics
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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This paper presents a Nafion film based micro-nanofluidic device for concurrent DNA preconcentration and separation. The principle of the device is based on the combination of (a) ion concentration polarization phenomenon at the junction of the microchannel and the nanochannels in the Nafion film to form opposing electrophoretic and electroosmotic forces acting on the DNAs, and (b) end-labeled free solution electrophoresis to harness the charge-to-mass ratio for molecular differentiation. The experiments successfully demonstrated concurrent preconcentration and separation of DNA mixture in free solution within 240s, yielding concentration ratios up to 1,150X and separation resolution of 1.85. The effect of applied electric field on the concentration and separation performance was also investigated. The device can be used as a key sample preparation element in conjunction with micro- or nano-fluidic sensors for microTAS functionality.
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[Dipylidium caninum infection in an infant: one case report].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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This paper reports the diagnosis and therapy of one case of Dipylidium caninum infection in an infant.
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A central role for the mammalian target of rapamycin in LPS-induced mice anorexia.
J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin induces profound anorexia. However, the LPS-provoked pro-inflammatory signaling cascades and the neural mechanisms underlying the development of anorexia are not clear. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of metabolism, cell growth and protein synthesis. This study aimed to determine whether mTOR pathway is involved in LPS-induced anorexia. Effects of LPS on hypothalamic gene/protein expression of mice were measured by RT-PCR or western blot. To determine whether inhibition of mTOR signaling could attenuate LPS-induced anorexia, we performed an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, on LPS-treated male mice. Here, we showed that LPS stimulates the mTOR signaling pathway through the enhanced phosphorylation of mTORSer2448 and p70S6kThr389. We also showed that LPS administration increased the phosphorylation of FoxO1Ser256, the p65 subunit of NF?B (P<0.05) and FoxO1/3aThr24/32 (P<0.01). Blocking the mTOR pathway significantly attenuated the LPS-induced anorexia by decreasing the phosphorylation of p70S6KThr389, FoxO1Ser256 and FoxO1/3aThr24/32. These results suggest promising approaches for the prevention and treatment of LPS-induced anorexia.
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A novel aggregation-induced emission based fluorescent probe for an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) assay and inhibitor screening.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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A 'turn-on' fluorescent probe based on aggregation-induced emission (AIE) has been developed. It exhibits excellent selectivity and sensitivity for monitoring angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity both in solutions and in living cells as well as for screening ACE inhibitors in vitro.
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Regional optimal allocation for reducing waste loads via artificial neural network and particle swarm optimization: a case study of ammonia nitrogen in Harbin, northeast China.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Cutting external waste loads can improve water quality. Allocation for reducing waste loads should consider changing variables, such as river flows and pollutant emissions. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) method and coupling artificial neural network (ANN) models have been applied to optimize reduction rates of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) loads from sewage outlets in Harbin, northeast China. For the planned water quality functional section (WQFS), the NH3-N concentration is related to emitted pollutant loads and can be well predicted by ANN linkage models. Further, NH3-N load reduction rates of all outlets are optimized by PSO with the water quality standard target. The highest NH3-N concentrations occur in January and February, a typical low-flow period in Harbin. The results delivered optimum NH3-N reduction rates for the five outlets, for January and February 2011. All predicted NH3-N concentrations after the reduction meet the water quality standard. The results indicate that the outlet with the highest NH3-N load has the biggest reduction rate in each WQFS, and outlets in the WQFS with higher background NH3-N concentrations need to cut more NH3-N loads. Decision-makers should not only focus on the outlet with the highest NH3-N emission load, but also ensure that the NH3-N concentration of upper WQFS meets the water quality goal.
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Label-free Molecular Beacons for Biomolecular Detection.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Biomolecular detection and imaging methods provide quantitative measurements essential for biological research. In this context, molecular beacon based sensors have emerged as powerful, no-wash imaging agents, providing target-specific fluorescent activation for nucleic acids, proteins, and small molecules. Conventional molecular beacons require double-labeled DNA sequences, which are costly and time-consuming to prepare. To address this issue, we developed DNA based label-free molecular beacons consisting of two regions: a signal-generating region based on human telomeric G-quadruplex sequence that activates Thioflavin T fluorescence and a target recognition sequence designed to interact in a molecular beacon format. We demonstrated the utility of these probes for the selective detection of DNA, RNA, and protein. Multiple probes were applied against a single target to achieve improved brightness in fluorescence detection of nucleic acid targets. This label-free strategy provides a straightforward, cost-effective alternative to fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides in biomolecular detection and imaging.
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Dual inhibition of topoisomerases I and II? by ruthenium(ii) complexes containing asymmetric tridentate ligands.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Five novel ruthenium(ii) complexes, [Ru(dtzp)(dppt)](2+) (), [Ru(dtzp)(pti)](2+) (), [Ru(dtzp)(ptn)](2+) (), [Ru(dtzp)(pta)](2+) () and [Ru(dtzp)(ptp)](2+) () (where dtzp = 2,6-di(thiazol-2-yl)pyridine, dppt = 3-(1,10-phenanthroline-2-yl)-5,6-diphenyl-as-triazine), pti = 3-(1,10-phenanthroline-2-yl)-as-triazino-[5,6-f]isatin, ptn = 3-(1,10-phenanthroline-2-yl)-as-triazino[5,6-f]naphthalene, pta = 3-(1,10-phenanthroline-2-yl)-as-triazino[5,6-f]acenaphthylene, and ptp = 3-(1,10-phenanthroline-2-yl)-as-triazino[5,6-f]-phenanthrene), were synthesised and characterised. The structures of complexes were determined by X-ray diffraction. The DNA binding behaviours of the complexes were studied by spectroscopic and viscosity measurements. The results suggested that the Ru(ii) complexes, except for complex , bind to DNA in an intercalative mode. Topoisomerase inhibition and DNA strand passage assay confirmed that Ru(ii) complexes , , and acted as efficient dual inhibitors of topoisomerases I and II?. In vitro cytotoxicity assays indicated that these complexes exhibited anticancer activity against various cancer cell lines. Ruthenium(ii) complexes were confirmed to preferentially accumulate in the nucleus of cancer cells and induced DNA damage. Flow cytometric analysis and AO/EB staining assays indicated that these complexes induced cell apoptosis. With the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, the Ru(ii) complexes induce apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway.
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Simultaneous Phase Unwrapping and Removal of chemical Shift (SPURS) using Graph Cuts: Application in Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) is a magnetic resonance imaging technique that reveals tissue magnetic susceptibility. It relies on having a high quality field map, typically acquired with a relatively long echo spacing and long final TE. Applications of QSM outside the brain require the removal of fat contributions to the total signal phase. However, current water/fat separation methods applied on typical data acquired for QSM suffer from three issues: inadequacy when using large echo spacing, over-smoothing of the field maps and high computational cost. In this paper, the general phase wrap and chemical shift problem is formulated using a single species fitting and is solved using graph cuts with conditional jump moves. This method is referred as Simultaneous Phase Unwrapping and Removal of chemical Shift (SPURS). The result from SPURS is then used as the initial guess for a voxel-wise Iterative Decomposition of water and fat with Echo Asymmetric and Least-squares estimation (IDEAL). The estimated three-dimensional field maps are used to compute Quantitative Susceptibility Maps (QSM) in body regions outside of the brain, such as the liver. Experimental results show substantial improvements in field map estimation, water/fat separation and reconstructed QSM compared to two existing water/fat separation methods on 1.5T and 3T magnetic resonance human data with long echo spacing and rapid field map variation.
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Mechanism of Inhibition for BMS-791325, a Novel Non-nucleoside Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus NS5B Polymerase.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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HCV infection is an urgent global health problem that has triggered a drive to discover therapies that specifically target the virus. BMS-791325 is a novel direct antiviral agent (DAA) specifically targeting HCV NS5B, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Robust viral clearance of HCV was observed in infected patients treated with BMS-791325 in combination with other anti-HCV agents in Phase 2 clinical studies. Biochemical and biophysical studies revealed that BMS-791325 is a time-dependent, non-competitive inhibitor of the polymerase. Binding studies with NS5B genetic variants (WT, L30S and P495L) exposed a two-step, slow-binding mechanism, but details of the binding mechanism differed for each of the polymerase variants. For the clinically relevant resistance variant (P495L) the rate of initial complex formation and dissociation is similar to WT, but the kinetics of the second step is significantly faster, showing that this variant impacts the final tight complex. The resulting shortened residence time translates into the observed decrease in inhibitor potency. The L30S variant has a significantly different profile. The rate of initial complex formation and dissociation is 7-10 times faster for the L30S variant compared to WT; however, the forward and reverse rates to form the final complex are not significantly different. The impact of the L30S variant on the inhibition profile and binding kinetics of BMS-791325 provides experimental evidence for the dynamic interaction of fingers and thumb domains in an environment that supports the formation of active replication complexes and the initiation of RNA synthesis.
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[Study of screening nephroprotective bioactive substances based on triple-color fluorescence probes in Carthami flos].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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In this study, an approach based on triple-color fluorescence probes was developed for screening potential nephro-protective bioactive substances. Three fluorescent probes (i. e. FDA, MTR and Hoechst 33342) were used to label HK-2 cells injured by doxorubicin hydrochloride, and cellular fluorescence images were subsequently acquired and analyzed by a cellular-fluorescence image microscopy platform. The established method was applied to screening 53 components of Carthami Flos, and three components C17, C18 and C19 were found to exhibit nephroprotective effects against doxorubicin hydrochloride induced injury on HK-2 cells. Eight compounds (i. e. hydroxysafflor yellow A, 6-hydroxykaempferol-3-O-rutinoside-6-O-glucoside, 6-hydroxykaempferol-3,6-di-O-gluco-side or 6-hydroxykaempferol-6, 7-di-O-glucoside, 6-hydroxykaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, 6-hydroxykaempferol-3-O-glucoside or 6-hydroxykaempferol-7-O-glucoside, rutin, isoquercetin, and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside) in components C17, C18 and C19 were preliminarily identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Isoquercetin, rutin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and hydroxysafflor yellow A were confirmed by comparing with reference substances, Further study indicated that these four compounds had moderate nephroprotective effects, while isoquercetin showed a significant nephroprotective effect in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that isoquercetin, rutin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and hydroxysafflor yellow A might be the nephroprotective bioactive substances in Carthami Flos.
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A DRD1 Polymorphism Predisposes to Lung Cancer among Those Exposed to Secondhand Smoke during Childhood.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Lung cancer has a familial component which suggests a genetic contribution to its etiology. Given the strong evidence linking smoking with lung cancer, we studied miRNA-related loci in genes associated with smoking behavior. CHRNA, CHRNB gene families, CYP2A6, and DRD1 (dopamine receptor D1) were mined for SNPs that fell within the seed region of miRNA binding sites and then tested for associations with risk in a three-stage validation approach. A 3'UTR (untranslated region) SNP in DRD1 was associated with a lower risk of lung cancer among individuals exposed to secondhand smoke during childhood [OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60-0.79; P < 0.0001]. This relationship was evident in both ever (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.62-0.88; P = 0.001) and never smokers (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.47-0.79; P < 0.0001), European American (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53-0.80; P < 0.0001), and African American (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.62-0.88; P = 0.001) populations. Although much remains undefined about the long-term risks associated with exposure to secondhand smoke and heterogeneity between individuals in regard to their susceptibility to the effects of secondhand smoke, our data show an interaction between an SNP in the 3'UTR of DRD1 and exposure to secondhand smoke during childhood. Further work is needed to explore the mechanistic underpinnings of this SNP and the nature of the interaction between DRD1 and exposure to secondhand smoke during childhood. Cancer Prev Res; 7(12); 1-9. ©2014 AACR.
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Residential proximity to major roadways and prevalent hypertension among postmenopausal women: results from the Women's Health Initiative San Diego Cohort.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Living near major roadways has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular events and worse prognosis. Residential proximity to major roadways may also be associated with increased risk of hypertension, but few studies have evaluated this hypothesis.
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Risk Factors and Management of Gestational Diabetes.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is considered to be a typical condition of glucose intolerance in which a woman previously undiagnosed with diabetes exhibits high levels of blood glucose during the third trimester of pregnancy. It can hence be defined as any degree of intolerance to glucose with its first recognition only during the pregnancy. Approximately 7 % of all cases of pregnancy are found to be variedly complicated with GDM and this result in more than 200,000 cases annually. In US only, GDM has been found to complicate about 7-14 % cases annually, and the trend seems to have increased by 35-100 % in the recent years. A history of GDM can be considered to be one of the sturdiest risk factors concerning the development of type 2 diabetes. Among women who have a history of GDM, the risk of developing classical type 2 diabetes usually ranges from 20 to 50 %. Evidences collected from various efficacy trials suggest that lifestyle interventions like weight management can modulate and prevent type 2 diabetes in at-risk individuals. The cornerstone of GDM management is glycemic control, and hence, it is attributed to be the main focus of attention for the therapy. In this review, we have tried to highlight the various risk factors associated with GDM along with the available therapeutic options in the treatment and management of the disease.
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Microsecond molecular dynamics simulations of lipid mixing.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of membranes are often hindered by the slow lateral diffusion of lipids and the limited time scale of MD. In order to study the dynamics of mixing and characterize the lateral distribution of lipids in converged mixtures, we report microsecond-long all-atom MD simulations performed on the special-purpose machine Anton. Two types of mixed bilayers, POPE:POPG (3:1) and POPC:cholesterol (2:1), as well as a pure POPC bilayer, were each simulated for up to 2 ?s. These simulations show that POPE:POPG and POPC:cholesterol are each fully miscible at the simulated conditions, with the final states of the mixed bilayers similar to a random mixture. By simulating three POPE:POPG bilayers at different NaCl concentrations (0, 0.15, and 1 M), we also examined the effect of salt concentration on lipid mixing. While an increase in NaCl concentration is shown to affect the area per lipid, tail order, and lipid lateral diffusion, the final states of mixing remain unaltered, which is explained by the largely uniform increase in Na(+) ions around POPE and POPG. Direct measurement of water permeation reveals that the POPE:POPG bilayer with 1 M NaCl has reduced water permeability compared with those at zero or low salt concentration. Our calculations provide a benchmark to estimate the convergence time scale of all-atom MD simulations of lipid mixing. Additionally, equilibrated structures of POPE:POPG and POPC:cholesterol, which are frequently used to mimic bacterial and mammalian membranes, respectively, can be used as starting points of simulations involving these membranes.
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A method of analysis for T-2 toxin and neosolaniol by UPLC-MS/MS in apple fruit inoculated with Trichothecium roseum.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Trichothecenes are one of the most important groups of mycotoxins produced by Trichothecium roseum, which causes core rot of apple. A reliable and sensitive method was developed and successfully applied for the rapid detection of trichothecenes including T-2 toxin and neosolaniol in harvested apple using UPLC-MS/MS. After the extraction of the two mycotoxins from the apple matrix with methanol/water (80/20, v/v), the concentrated extracts were cleaned-up by PriboFast M270 columns and then analysed by UPLC-MS/MS. T-2 toxin and neosolaniol were effectively separated as unique peaks. The validity of this method was established by its linearity (R(2) ? 0.9995), precision (relative standard deviation ? 3.6%), accuracy, selectivity, limit of detection of 2-5 ?g kg(-1), limit of quantification of 5-10 ?g kg(-1) and average recovery of 73-96%. Levels of T-2 toxin were found in the range 7.1-128.4 µg kg(-1) in the core rot lesion of three cultivars apple (cvs. Red Delicious, Fuji and Ralls). T-2 was detected not only in the lesion, but also in the tissue without any disease symptoms. However, neosolaniol was only detected in the lesion on 'Red Delicious' apples. In addition, the concentration of T-2 toxin in the susceptible cultivar (cv. Fuji) was significantly higher than that in the resistant one (cv. Ralls). This method proved to be suitable at detecting T-2 and neosolaniol simultaneously in apples infected with T. roseum.
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[Isolation and charcterizaiton of a polyketide synthase gene cluster from Usnea longissima].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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To isolate polyketide synthase (PKS) gene from medicinal Usnea longissima lichen forming fungi, and identify the function of obtained PKS.
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Azithromycin Attenuates Pulmonary Inflammation and Emphysema in Smoking-Induced COPD Model in Rats.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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The role of inflammation and immunity in COPD treatment is increasingly being recognized. The relationship between anti-inflammation/immunoregulation and emphysema in COPD lungs remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of azithromycin (Azm) on the development of emphysema in smoking-induced COPD in rats.
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Two cases of human thelaziasis as confirmed by mitochondrial cox1 sequencing in China.
Pathog Glob Health
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Two special cases of human thelaziasis were reported in China: an old farmer with heavy infection by 36 worms and a 7-year-old boy with infection by eight worms. Thelazia callipaeda was morphologically identified and confirmed by mitochondrial cox1 gene sequencing.
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Tyrosine phosphorylation of GluK2 up-regulates kainate receptor-mediated responses and downstream signaling after brain ischemia.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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Although kainate receptors play important roles in ischemic stroke, the molecular mechanisms underlying postischemic regulation of kainate receptors remain unclear. In this study we demonstrate that Src family kinases contribute to the potentiation of kainate receptor function. Brain ischemia and reperfusion induce rapid and sustained phosphorylation of the kainate receptor subunit GluK2 by Src in the rat hippocampus, implicating a critical role for Src-mediated GluK2 phosphorylation in ischemic brain injury. The NMDA and kainate receptors are involved in the tyrosine phosphorylation of GluK2. GluK2 binds to Src, and the tyrosine residue at position 590 (Y590) on GluK2 is a major site of phosphorylation by Src kinases. GluK2 phosphorylation at Y590 is responsible for increases in whole-cell currents and calcium influx in response to transient kainate stimulation. In addition, GluK2 phosphorylation at Y590 facilitates the endocytosis of GluK2 subunits, and the activation of JNK3 and its substrate c-Jun after long-term kainate treatment. Thus, Src phosphorylation of GluK2 plays an important role in the opening of kainate receptor channels and downstream proapoptosis signaling after brain ischemia. The present study reveals an additional mechanism for the regulation of GluK2-containing kainate receptors by Src family kinases, which may be of pathological significance in ischemic stroke.
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Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and serum leptin in older adults: results from the MOBILIZE Boston study.
J. Occup. Environ. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution has been linked to increased risk of obesity and diabetes and may be associated with higher serum levels of the adipokine leptin, but this hypothesis has not been previously evaluated in humans.
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[Effect of different levels of systolic blood pressure on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To investigate the impact of different levels of systolic blood pressure on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV).
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Deleting multiple lytic genes enhances biomass yield and production of recombinant proteins by.
Microb. Cell Fact.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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Background Bacillus subtilis is widely used in agriculture and industrial biotechnology; however, cell autolysis significantly decreases its yield in liquid cultures. Numerous factors mediate the lysis of B. subtilis, such as cannibalism factors, prophages, and peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases. The aim of this work was to use molecular genetic techniques to develop a new strategy to prevent cell lysis and enhance biomass as well as the production of recombinant proteins.ResultsFive genes or genetic elements representing three different functional categories were studied as follows: lytC encoding PG hydrolases, the prophage genes xpf and yqxG-yqxH-cwlA (yGlA), and skfA and sdpC that encode cannibalism factors. Cell lysis was reduced and biomass was enhanced by deleting individually skfA, sdpC, xpf, and lytC. We constructed the multiple deletion mutant LM2531 (skfA sdpC lytC xpf) and found that after 4 h of culture, its biomass yield was significantly increased compared with that of prototypical B. subtilis 168 (wild-type) strain and that 15% and 92% of the cells were lysed in cultures of LM2531 and wild-type, respectively. Moreover, two expression vectors were constructed for producing recombinant proteins (ß-galactosidase and nattokinase) under the control of the P43 promoter. Cultures of LM2531 and wild-type transformants produced 13741 U/ml and 7991 U/ml of intracellular ß-galactosidase, respectively (1.72-fold increase). Further, the level of secreted nattokinase produced by strain LM2531 increased by 2.6-fold compared with wild-type (5226 IU/ml vs. 2028 IU/ml, respectively).ConclusionsOur novel, systematic multigene deletion approach designed to inhibit cell lysis significantly increased the biomass yield and the production of recombinant proteins by B. subtilis. These findings show promise for guiding efforts to manipulate the genomes of other B. subtilis strains that are used for industrial purposes.
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Characteristics of nitrogen loading and its influencing factors in several typical agricultural watersheds of subtropical China.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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Increasingly, the characteristics of nitrogen (N) loading have been recognized to be critical for the maintenance and restoration of water quality in agricultural watersheds, in response to the spread of water eutrophication. This paper estimates N loading and investigates its influencing factors in ten small watersheds variously dominated by forest and agricultural land use types in the subtropics of China, over an observation period of 23-29 months. The results indicate that the average concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), NH4 (+)-N, and NO3 (-)-N were 0.83, 0.07, and 0.46 mg N L(-1) in the forest watersheds and 1.49-5.16, 0.21-3.23, and 0.99-1.30 mg N L(-1) in the agricultural watersheds, respectively. Such concentrations exceed the national criteria for nutrient pollution in surface waters considerably, suggesting severe stream pollution in the studied agricultural watersheds. The average annual TN loadings (ANL) were estimated to be 1,640.8 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the agricultural watersheds, 63.3-86.1 % of which was composed of dissolved inorganic N (DIN; comprising NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N). The watershed with intensive livestock production (i.e., the maximum livestock density of 2.66 animal units (AU)?ha(-1)) exhibited the highest ANL (2,928.7 kg N km(-2) year(-1)) related to N loss with effluent discharge. The results of correlation and principle component analysis suggest that livestock production was the dominant influencing factor for the TN and NH4 (+)-N loadings and that the percentages of cropland in watersheds can significantly increase the NO3 (-)-N loading in agricultural watersheds. Therefore, to restore and maintain water quality, animal production regulations and more careful planning of land use are necessary in the agricultural watersheds of subtropical China.
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Multiple sclerosis lesion geometry in quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and phase imaging.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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To demonstrate the phase and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) patterns created by solid and shell spatial distributions of magnetic susceptibility in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions.
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Y chromosomes of 40% Chinese descend from three Neolithic super-grandfathers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Demographic change of human populations is one of the central questions for delving into the past of human beings. To identify major population expansions related to male lineages, we sequenced 78 East Asian Y chromosomes at 3.9 Mbp of the non-recombining region, discovered >4,000 new SNPs, and identified many new clades. The relative divergence dates can be estimated much more precisely using a molecular clock. We found that all the Paleolithic divergences were binary; however, three strong star-like Neolithic expansions at ?6 kya (thousand years ago) (assuming a constant substitution rate of 1×10(-9)/bp/year) indicates that ?40% of modern Chinese are patrilineal descendants of only three super-grandfathers at that time. This observation suggests that the main patrilineal expansion in China occurred in the Neolithic Era and might be related to the development of agriculture.
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Hydrogen photochromism in Nb2O5 powders.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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In this paper, we report on the hydrogen photochromism in Nb2O5 powders with different structures. Four different powder phases were prepared by calcining Nb2O5·nH2O powders at various temperatures, and their morphology, structure, and electronic band structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, structural analyses, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and optical spectroscopy. Nb2O5 powders with different structures and very different properties were formed after different high-temperature treatments of the polymorphous oxide. A pronounced photochromic effect was observed in the M and H phases of Nb2O5, whereas the other phases exhibited poor photochromic responses. Because photochromism arises due to the detachment of hydrogen atoms under the action of light from hydrogen donor molecules previously adsorbed on the oxide surface, the electronic band structure and the morphology have strong influences on the photochromic properties of Nb2O5 powders. For these reasons, a pronounced photochromic effect was achieved in the H phase.
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Rapid and sensitive detection of Listeria monocytogenes by cross-priming amplification of lmo0733 gene.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that causes severe opportunistic infection in humans and animals. This study reports the development of single cross-priming amplification (S-CPA) and double CPA (D-CPA) assays targeting species-specific gene lmo0733 for identifying L. monocytogenes strains. The CPA assays were performed at a constant temperature 64 °C using seven specific primers and evaluated for specificity and sensitivity. The color change of positive amplification was directly observed by Loopamp(®) Fluorescent Detection Reagent (FD), and the DNA products were visualized as a ladder-like banding pattern on 2.5% gel electrophoresis. Moreover, the positive reactions were also detected by real-time measurement of turbidity. 50 L. monocytogenes and 46 non-L. monocytogenes strains were used for the method verification, and the specificity was 100%. The limit of detection (LoD) of the S-CPA and D-CPA assays was 2.5 pg DNA per reaction and 10-fold more sensitive than PCR. A total of 60 pork samples were tested for L. monocytogenes using the S-CPA assay developed in the study, and the accuracy of the S-CPA and the culture-biotechnical method was 100% identical. The results suggested that the S-CPA assay was a rapid, sensitive, and valuable tool for detection of L. monocytogenes in food products.
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Genome-wide Association Study of Survival in Early-stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Lung cancer, especially non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths all over the world. Studies have indicated that molecular biomarkers, including genetic variants, may provide additional values for the targeted treatments and clinical outcomes of NSCLC patients. To better understand the effects of molecular biomarkers on the treatment of NSCLC, we conducted a genome-wide analysis to investigate the prognostic implications of genetic variants in early-stage NSCLC patients with surgery.
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Assessment of tibial rotation and meniscal movement using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging.
J Orthop Surg Res
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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This work aimed to assess tibial rotations, meniscal movements, and morphological changes during knee flexion and extension using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
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A functional polymorphism affecting the APOA5 gene expression is causally associated with plasma triglyceride levels conferring coronary atherosclerosis risk in Han Chinese Population.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene plays a key role in plasma triglyceride (TG) metabolism, and shows the involvement in coronary artery disease (CAD). A set of single nucleotide polymorphisms around the APOA5 gene was identified to be associated with plasma TG levels. It is of biological and clinical importance to discern the genuine genetic determinants. A polymorphism in 3' untranslated region of the APOA5 gene, rs2266788, is deserving of investigation for suggestive clues from the association in multiple independent studies. In this study, rs2266788 was genotyped in 3222 unrelated subjects consisting of 2062 CAD cases and 1160 controls. The statistical analyses indicated that the minor C allele of rs2266788 was significantly associated with elevated plasma TG levels and higher CAD risk. In normal human liver tissues, comparison of global APOA5 mRNA levels among genotypes and allelic expression imbalance analysis showed the decreased gene expression for the C allele. Luciferase assays confirmed a concordant result that transcriptional activity was lowered for the C allele compared with the T allele in four cell lines. Multiple lines of evidence in our study supported that rs2266788 was causally associated with plasma TG levels conferring CAD risk in Han Chinese population owing to a cis-acting effect to the APOA5 gene expression.
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Synthesis, DNA interaction and anticancer activity of copper(II) complexes with 4'-phenyl-2,2':6',2?-terpyridine derivatives.
J. Inorg. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Three novel copper(II) complexes CuL(1)Cl2 (1) (L(1)=4'-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2,2':6'- 2?-terpyridine), CuL(2)Cl2 (2) (L(2)=4'-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2,2':6'-2?-terpyridine) and CuL(3)Cl2 (3) (L(3)=4'-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,2':6'-2?-terpyridine) have been synthesized and characterized. Absorption spectral titration experiments, ethidium bromide displacement assays, and cyclic voltammetric experiments were carried out and the results suggested that these complexes bound to DNA through an intercalative mode. Moreover, these complexes were found to cleave pBR322 DNA efficiently in the presence of glutathione (GSH), and exhibited good anticancer activity against HeLa, Hep-G2 and BEL-7402 cell lines. Nuclear chromatin cleavage was also observed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining assays and comet assays. These results demonstrated that these three Cu(II) complexes caused DNA damage and induced the apoptosis of HeLa cells. Mechanistic investigations revealed the participation of reactive oxygen species which can be trapped by reactive oxygen species (ROS) radical scavengers and ROS sensors.
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Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) of white matter multiple sclerosis lesions: Interpreting positive susceptibility and the presence of iron.
Magn Reson Med
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Within multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions iron is present in chronically activated microglia. Thus, iron detection with MRI might provide a biomarker for chronic inflammation within lesions. Here, we examine contributions of iron and myelin to magnetic susceptibility of lesions on quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM).
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Functional characteristics of reversibly immortalized hepatic progenitor cells derived from mouse embryonic liver.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Liver is a vital organ and retains its regeneration capability throughout adulthood, which requires contributions from different cell populations, including liver precursors and intrahepatic stem cells. To overcome the mortality of hepatic progenitors (iHPs) in vitro, we aim to establish reversibly immortalized hepatic progenitor cells from mouse embryonic liver.
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Thermal expansion anomaly regulated by entropy.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Thermal expansion, defined as the temperature dependence of volume under constant pressure, is a common phenomenon in nature and originates from anharmonic lattice dynamics. However, it has been poorly understood how thermal expansion can show anomalies such as colossal positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion (CPTE, ZTE, or NTE), especially in quantitative terms. Here we show that changes in configurational entropy due to metastable micro(scopic)states can lead to quantitative prediction of these anomalies. We integrate the Maxwell relation, statistic mechanics, and first-principles calculations to demonstrate that when the entropy is increased by pressure, NTE occurs such as in Invar alloy (Fe3Pt, for example), silicon, ice, and water, and when the entropy is decreased dramatically by pressure, CPTE is expected such as in anti-Invar cerium, ice and water. Our findings provide a theoretic framework to understand and predict a broad range of anomalies in nature in addition to thermal expansion, which may include gigantic electrocaloric and electromechanical responses, anomalously reduced thermal conductivity, and spin distributions.
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Exenatide can inhibit calcification of human VSMCs through the NF-kappaB/RANKL signaling pathway.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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BackgroundArterial calcification is an important pathological change of diabetic vascular complication. Osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important cytopathologic role in arterial calcification. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), a novel type of antidiabetic drugs, exert cardioprotective effects through the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). However, the question of whether or not GLP-1RA regulates osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of VSMCs has not been answered, and the associated molecular mechanisms have not been examined.MethodsCalcifying VSMCs (CVSMCs) were isolated from cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells through limiting dilution and cloning. The extent of matrix mineralization was measured by Alizarin Red S staining. Protein expression and phosphorylation were detected by Western blot. Gene expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-¿B ligand (RANKL) was silenced by small interference RAN (siRNA).ResultsExenatide, an agonist of GLP-1 receptor, attenuated ß-glycerol phosphate (ß-GP) induced osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of human CVSMCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. RANKL siRNA also inhibited osteoblastic differentiation and calcification. Exenatide decreased the expression of RANKL in a dose-dependent manner. 1,25 vitD3 (an activator of RANKL) upregulated, whereas BAY11-7082 (an inhibitor of NF-¿B) downregulated RANKL, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), and core binding factor ¿1 (Runx2) protein levels and reduced mineralization in human CVSMCs. Exenatide decreased p-NF-¿B and increased p-AMPK¿ levels in human CVSMCs 48 h after treatment. Significant decrease in p-NF-¿B (p-Ser276, p-Ser536) level was observed in cells treated with exenatide or exenatide¿+¿BAY11-7082.ConclusionGLP-1RA exenatide can inhibit human VSMCs calcification through NF-¿B/ RANKL signaling.
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miR-338 suppresses the growth and metastasis of OSCC cells by targeting NRP1.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have been suggested to play an essential role in tumorigenesis. Reduced expression of miR-338 has been reported in several types of cancers; however, the role of miR-338 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-338 was dramatically downregulated in OSCC tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-338 significantly inhibited proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion of OSCC cells. In addition, neuropilin1 (NRP1) was identified as a target of miR-338 in OSCC cells and inversely correlated with miR-338 in OSCC tissues. Furthermore, restoration of NRP1 attenuated the tumor-suppressive effects of miR-338. Taken together, miR-338 might inhibit growth and metastasis of OSCC cells by targeting NRP1.
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Phase-corrected bipolar gradients in multi-echo gradient-echo sequences for quantitative susceptibility mapping.
MAGMA
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Large echo spacing of unipolar readout gradients in current multi-echo gradient-echo (GRE) sequences for mapping fields in quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) can be reduced using bipolar readout gradients thereby improving acquisition efficiency.
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Ropivacaine loaded microemulsion and microemulsion-based gel for transdermal delivery: Preparation, optimization, and evaluation.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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The objective of the present study was to prepare and evaluate a ropivacaine-loaded microemulsion (ME) formulation and microemulsion-based Carbopol gel (ME-gel) for transdermal delivery. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and a simplex lattice experiment design were utilized to screen and optimize the ME formulation. In the process, drug solubility and particle size were inspected as dependent variables whilst Capryol(®) 90 (X1), Smix (X2, Labrasol(®): absolute ethanol=1:2 w/w), water (X3) as independent variables. Following the optimization, the optimal ME formulation was comprised of 15% Capryol(®) 90, 53% Smix, and 32% water, respectively. Ropivacaine loaded ME appeared to be spherical under transmission electron microscope, and the average particle size was 58.79nm. The results of ex vivo permeation study showed that ropivacaine had a significant higher cumulative amount from ME than that from ME-gel. Histopathology study elucidated that the microstructure of skin surface was significantly changed by the treatment of ME formulation. Skin irritation study indicated that neither ME nor ME-gel caused any irritation responses. Both ME and ME-gel presented a remarkable analgesic activity on acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. In conclusion, ME could be a promising formulation for ropivacaine transdermally administration.
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Induction of glutathione synthesis in human hepatocytes by acute and chronic arsenic exposure: Differential roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Glutathione (GSH) is a vital component of antioxidant defense which protects cells from toxic insults. Previously we found intracellular GSH was involved in cell resistance against arsenic-induced cytotoxicity. However, molecular mechanisms of GSH homeostasis during arsenic exposure are largely undefined. Here, we investigated roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in GSH synthesis pathway with two arsenic exposure strategies by using Chang human hepatocytes. In one strategy, acute arsenic exposure (20?M, 24h) was applied, as MAPK signaling is generally considered to be transient. In the other one, chronic arsenic exposure (500nM, 20 weeks) was applied, which mimicked the general human exposure to arsenic. We found that acute arsenic exposure activated extracellular signal-regulated 1/2 kinases (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in parallel with increased transcription and nuclear translocation of factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and enhanced expression of ?-glutamyl cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), resulting in elevated intracellular GSH levels. Specific ERK inhibitor abolished arsenic-induced NRF2 nuclear translocation and GSH synthesis. During chronic arsenic exposure which induced a malignant cellular phenotype, continuous p38 activation and NRF2 nuclear translocation were observed with enhanced GSH synthesis. Specific p38 inhibitor attenuated arsenic-enhanced GSH synthesis without changing NRF2 nuclear translocation. Taken together, our results indicate MAPK pathways play an important role in cellular GSH homeostasis in response to arsenic. However, the specific activation of certain MAPK is different between acute and chronic arsenic exposure. Furthermore, it appears that during chronic arsenic exposure, GSH synthesis is regulated by p38 at least in part independent of NRF2.
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The 4th Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference, 5-9 April 2014, Florence, Italy: A summary of topics and trends.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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The 4th Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference was held in Florence, Italy, April 5-9, 2014 and this year had as its emphasis, "Fostering Collaboration in Schizophrenia Research". Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs for each oral session, summarized the important contributions of each session and then each report was integrated into a final summary of data discussed at the entire conference by topic. It is hoped that by combining data from different presentations, patterns of interest will emerge and thus lead to new progress for the future. In addition, the following report provides an overview of the conference for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research.
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Contribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to diffuse pollution in a typical hilly red soil catchment in southern China.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is currently high and meanwhile diffuse N pollution is also serious in China. The correlation between N deposition and riverine N export and the contribution of N deposition to riverine N export were investigated in a typical hilly red soil catchment in southern China over a two-year period. N deposition was as high as 26.1 to 55.8kgN/(ha·yr) across different land uses in the studied catchment, while the riverine N exports ranged from 7.2 to 9.6kgN/(ha·yr) in the forest sub-catchment and 27.4 to 30.3kgN/(ha·yr) in the agricultural sub-catchment. The correlations between both wet N deposition and riverine N export and precipitation were highly positive, and so were the correlations between NH4(+)-N or NO3(-)-N wet deposition and riverine NH4(+)-N or NO3(-)-N exports except for NH4(+)-N in the agricultural sub-catchment, indicating that N deposition contributed to riverine N export. The monthly export coefficients of atmospheric deposited N from land to river in the forest sub-catchment (with a mean of 14%) presented a significant positive correlation with precipitation, while the monthly contributions of atmospheric deposition to riverine N export (with a mean of 18.7% in the agricultural sub-catchment and a mean of 21.0% in the whole catchment) were significantly and negatively correlated with precipitation. The relatively high contribution of N deposition to diffuse N pollution in the catchment suggests that efforts should be done to control anthropogenic reactive N emissions to the atmosphere in hilly red soil regions in southern China.
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Multiferroic Operation of Dynamic Memory Based on Heterostructured Cantilevers.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Multiferroic heterostructures consisting of Pb(Zr0·52 Ti0·48 )O3 and Fe0.7 Ga0.3 thin films are integrated on microfabricated Si cantilevers, and they are operated in a non-linear regime. Enhanced mechanical coupling at the multiferroic interface and tunability of the resonant frequency are used to devise bistable dynamic states that can be reversibly switched by both DC magnetic and electric fields.
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Internal structures of the globus pallidus in patients with Parkinson's disease: evaluation with quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM).
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
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The aim of this study was to assess the susceptibility change in medial and lateral globus pallidus (GPm and GPl) related to age separately, using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and to determine whether QSM can depict GPm in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients.
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Luminescent golden silk and fabric through in situ chemically coating pristine-silk with gold nanoclusters.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Silk is an excellent natural material and has been used for a variety of applications. Modification of the pristine silk is usually needed depending on the intended purpose. The technical treatments involved in the modification not only should be easy, rapid, environmentally friendly, and cheap but should also retain the features of the pristine silk. Herein, we demonstrate that luminescent silk and fabric can be produced through nanotechnology. The surface of the natural silk fiber is chemically coated with luminescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) composed of tens to hundreds of Au atoms through a redox reaction between the protein-based silk and an Au salt precursor. The luminescent silk coated with AuNCs (called golden silk) possesses good optical properties, including a relatively long wavelength emission, high quantum yields, a long fluorescent lifetime, and photostability. Moreover, golden silk prepared this way has better mechanical properties than pristine silk, is better able to inhibit UV, and has lower toxicity in vitro. This work not only provides an effective strategy for in situ preparation of luminescent metal nanoclusters on a solid substrate but also paves the way for large-scale and industrialized production of novel silk-based materials or fabrics through nanotechnology.
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Quantitative mapping of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2 ) using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM).
Magn Reson Med
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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To quantitatively map cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ( CMRO2) and oxygen extraction fraction ( OEF) in human brains using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and arterial spin labeling-measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after caffeine vasoconstriction.
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MicroRNA-126 attenuates palmitate-induced apoptosis by targeting TRAF7 in HUVECs.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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The aim of the present study was to explore the role of miR-126 in palmitate-induced HUVECs apoptosis and the possible mechanisms. Palmitate inhibited miR-126 expression in HUVECs, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and induced apoptosis as determined by up-regulation of caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation. Overexpression of miR-126 decreased ROS production, TNF-? expression, and apoptosis in palmitate-stimulated HUVECs. In contrast, miR-126 antagomir enhanced palmitate-induced ROS production, TNF-? expression, and apoptosis. The induction of miR-126 correlated with a reduction in TRAF7. We further showed that miR-126 targeted and inhibited TRAF7 expression through target sites located in the 3' untranslated region of TRAF7 mRNA. In concordance, miR-126 mimic reduced TRAF7 protein in HUVECs, whereas the inhibition of miR-126 increased it. This study demonstrates an anti-apoptotic role of miR-126 in HUVECs and identifies TRAF7 as a direct target of miR-126 in HUVECs.
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Self-ligating brackets and their impact on oral health-related quality of life in Chinese adolescence patients: a longitudinal prospective study.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Although the associations between orthodontic and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) have been explored, little research has been done to address the influence of brackets type on perceived OHRQOL. The aim of this study was to assess whether the levels of OHRQOL in Chinese adolescence patients were influenced by the type of brackets.
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Nutrient release, recovery and removal from waste sludge of a biological nutrient removal system.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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The uncontrolled release of nutrients from waste sludge results in nitrogen and phosphorus overloading in wastewater treatment plants when supernatant is returned to the inlet. A controlled release, recovery and removal of nutrient from the waste sludge of a Biological Nutrient Removal system (BNR) are investigated. Results showed that the supernatant was of high mineral salt, high electrical conductivity and poor biodegradability, in addition to high nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations after the waste sludge was hydrolysed through sodium dodecyl sulphate addition. Subsequently, over 91.8% of phosphorus and 10.5% of nitrogen in the supernatants were extracted by the crystallization method under the conditions of 9.5 pH and 400 rpm. The precipitate was mainly struvite according to X-ray diffraction and morphological examination. A multistage anoxic-oxic Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) was then adopted to remove the residual carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the supernatant. The MBBR exhibited good performance in simultaneously removing carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus under a short aeration time, which accounted for 31.25% of a cycle. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that nitrifiers presented mainly in floc, although higher extracellular polymeric substance content, especially DNA, appeared in the biofilm. Thus, a combination of hydrolysis and precipitation, followed by the MBBR, can complete the nutrient release from the waste sludge of a BNR system, recovers nutrients from the hydrolysed liquor and removes nutrients from leftovers effectively.
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Detection of trace microcystin-LR on a 20 MHz QCM sensor coated with in situ self-assembled MIPs.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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A 20 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor coated with in situ self-assembled molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was presented for the detection of trace microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in drinking water. The sensor performance obtained using the in situ self-assembled MIPs was compared with traditionally synthesized MIPs on 20 MHz and normal 10 MHz QCM chip. The results show that the response increases by more than 60% when using the in situ self-assembly method compared using the traditionally method while the 20 MHz QCM chip provides four-fold higher response than the 10 MHz one. Therefore, the in situ self-assembled MIPs coated on a high frequency QCM chip was used in the sensor performance test to detect MC-LR in tap water. It showed a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.04 nM which is lower than the safety guideline level (1 nM MC-LR) of drinking water in China. The low sensor response to other analogs indicated the high specificity of the sensor to MC-LR. The sensor showed high stability and low signal variation less than 2.58% after regeneration. The lake water sample analysis shows the sensor is possible for practical use. The combination of the higher frequency QCM with the in situ self-assembled MIPs provides a good candidate for the detection of other small molecules.
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BIRC6 promotes hepatocellular carcinogenesis: Interaction of BIRC6 with p53 facilitating p53 degradation.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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The genes that encode inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are frequently overexpressed in human cancers. However, the expression pattern and clinical significance of BIRC6, a member of IAPs, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Here we investigated the role of BIRC6 in hepatocellular carcinogenesis. We used immunoblot and immunochemical analyses to determine the levels of BIRC6 in 7 hepatoma cell lines and 160 HCC specimens. We evaluated the proognostic value of BIRC6 expression and its association with clinical parameters. A lentivirus-mediated silencing method was used to knockdown BIRC6, and the biological consequences of BIRC6 silencing in three hepatoma cell lines were investigated in vitro and in vivo. We found that BIRC6 overexpression was significantly correlated with serum ALT level and HCC vascular invasion. Patients with positive BIRC6 expression in tumor tissue had a poor survival and a high rate of recurrence. BIRC6 knockdown remarkably suppressed cell proliferation, caused G1/S arrest and sensitized hepatoma cells to sorafenib-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells, which was partly reversed by RNA interference targeting p53. The mechanistic study revealed that BIRC6 interacted with p53 and facilitated its degradation. The in vivo study showed that BIRC6 knockdown inhibited xenograft tumor growth and increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to sorafenib in nude mice. Taken together, these findings demonstate that BIRC6 overexpression in HCC specimens is indicative of poor prognosis and that its interaction with p53 facilitates the degradation of p53, leading to carcinogenesis and an anti-apoptotic status.
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A metabonomic study of cardioprotection of ginsenosides, schizandrin, and ophiopogonin D against acute myocardial infarction in rats.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Metabonomics is a useful tool for studying mechanisms of drug treatment using systematic metabolite profiles. Ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1, ophiopogonin D, and schizandrin are the main bioactive components of a traditional Chinese formula (Sheng-Mai San) widely used for the treatment of coronary heart disease. It remains unknown the effect of individual bioactive component and how the multi-components in combination affect the treating acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
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Stability of treatment with self-ligating brackets and conventional brackets in adolescents: a long-term follow-up retrospective study.
Head Face Med
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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The aim of this study was to assess the long-term stability of treatment with self-ligating brackets compared with conventional brackets.
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Chromosome instability in diffuse large B cell lymphomas is suppressed by activation of the noncanonical NF-?B pathway.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common form of lymphoma in the United States. DLBCL comprises biologically distinct subtypes including germinal center-like (GCB) and activated-B-cell-like DLBCL (ABC). The most aggressive type, ABC-DLBCL, displays dysregulation of both canonical and noncanonical NF-?B pathway as well as genomic instability. Although, much is known about the tumorigenic roles of the canonical NF-kB pathway, the precise role of the noncanonical NF-kB pathway remains unknown. Here we show that activation of the noncanonical NF-?B pathway regulates chromosome stability, DNA damage response and centrosome duplication in DLBCL. Analysis of 92 DLBCL samples revealed that activation of the noncanonical NF-?B pathway is associated with low levels of DNA damage and centrosome amplification. Inhibiting the noncanonical pathway in lymphoma cells uncovered baseline DNA damage and prevented doxorubicin-induced DNA damage repair. In addition, it triggered centrosome amplification and chromosome instability, indicated by anaphase bridges, multipolar spindles and chromosome missegregation. We determined that the noncanonical NF-?B pathway execute these functions through the regulation of GADD45? and REDD1 in a p53-independent manner, while it collaborates with p53 to regulate cyclin G2 expression. Furthermore, this pathway regulates GADD45?, REDD1 and cyclin G2 through direct binding of NF-?B sites to their promoter region. Overall, these results indicate that the noncanonical NF-?B pathway plays a central role in maintaining genome integrity in DLBCL. Our data suggests that inhibition of the noncanonical NF-kB pathway should be considered as an important component in DLBCL therapeutic approach.
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Identification of 'erasers' for lysine crotonylated histone marks using a chemical proteomics approach.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) play a crucial role in a wide range of biological processes. Lysine crotonylation (Kcr) is a newly discovered histone PTM that is enriched at active gene promoters and potential enhancers in mammalian cell genomes. However, the cellular enzymes that regulate the addition and removal of Kcr are unknown, which has hindered further investigation of its cellular functions. Here we used a chemical proteomics approach to comprehensively profile 'eraser' enzymes that recognize a lysine-4 crotonylated histone H3 (H3K4Cr) mark. We found that Sirt1, Sirt2, and Sirt3 can catalyze the hydrolysis of lysine crotonylated histone peptides and proteins. More importantly, Sirt3 functions as a decrotonylase to regulate histone Kcr dynamics and gene transcription in living cells. This discovery not only opens opportunities for examining the physiological significance of histone Kcr, but also helps to unravel the unknown cellular mechanisms controlled by Sirt3, that have previously been considered solely as a deacetylase.
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Non-mitogenic form of acidic fibroblast growth factor protects against graft-versus-host disease without accelerating leukemia.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Acid fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) has been shown to prevent epithelial damage under various conditions, suggesting its potential to inhibit GVHD. However, because aFGF receptors are expressed on tumor cells, it may possibly offset the graft-vs.-tumor (GVT) effects of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). Here, we addressed these questions in a B6?B6D2F1 allo-BMT model. Although aFGF administration attenuated GVHD in non-leukemic recipients, aFGF treatment markedly accelerated death in mice that received recipient-type tumor (P815) cells along with allo- or syngeneic-BMT. Similar protection against GVHD was achieved by administration of a non-mitogenic form of aFGF (naFGF). Importantly, GVT effects were fully preserved in naFGF-treated recipients. Furthermore, aFGF, but not naFGF, significantly enhanced P815 cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Our data indicate that the tumor-promoting, but not GVHD-protecting, effect of aFGF largely depends on its mitogenic activity, and suggest that naFGF may provide a safer approach to inhibiting GVHD in patients with malignancies.
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Distinct structural neural patterns of trait physical and social anhedonia: Evidence from cortical thickness, subcortical volumes and inter-regional correlations.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Anhedonia is an enduring trait accounting for the reduced capacity to experience pleasure. Few studies have investigated the brain structural features associated with trait anhedonia. In this study, the relationships between cortical thickness, volume of subcortical structures and scores on the Chapman physical and social anhedonia scales were examined in a non-clinical sample (n=72, 35 males). FreeSurfer was used to examine the cortical thickness and the volume of six identified subcortical structures related to trait anhedonia. We found that the cortical thickness of the superior frontal gyrus and the volume of the pallidum in the left hemisphere were correlated with anhedonia scores in both physical and social aspects. Specifically, positive correlations were found between levels of social anhedonia and the thickness of the postcentral and the inferior parietal gyri. Cortico-subcortical inter-correlations between these clusters were also observed. Our findings revealed distinct correlation patterns of neural substrates with trait physical and social anhedonia in a non-clinical sample. These findings contribute to the understanding of the pathologies underlying the anhedonia phenotype in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders.
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Hemodynamic Study with Duplex Ultrasonography on Combined (Direct/Indirect) Revascularization in Adult Moyamoya Disease.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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To evaluate the hemodynamic changes by duplex ultrasonography in adult moyamoya disease (MMD) patients who underwent combined direct and indirect revascularization surgery.
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The mammalian target of rapamycin signalling pathway is involved in osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells.
Can J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Vascular calcification is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a key step in vascular calcification, but the molecular mechanisms driving the differentiation remain elusive. In this study, the involvement of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling in osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs is investigated.
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Effects of tissue plasminogen activator timing on blood-brain barrier permeability and hemorrhagic transformation in rats with transient ischemic stroke.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The goal of our study was to determine if the timing of the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration influenced its effect on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and the subsequent risk of hemorrhagic transformation. Thirty spontaneously hypertensive male rats were subjected to a 90-minute unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion. Six rats did not receive tPA treatment (vehicle control: Group 0), intravenous tPA was administered immediately after reperfusion (Group 1) or 4h after reperfusion (Group 2). Dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) and gradient-echo (GRE) MR sequences were used to assess the dynamic evolution of BBB permeability and hemorrhagic transformation changes at the following time points: during occlusion, and 3h, 6h, and 24h post reperfusion. In all groups, BBB permeability values in the ischemic tissue were low during occlusion. In Group 0, BBB permeability values increased at 3h after reperfusion (p=0.007, compared with the values during occlusion), and further at 6h after reperfusion (p=0.004, compared with those at 3h post reperfusion). At 24h post reperfusion, the values decreased to a level relative to but still higher than those during occlusion (p=0.025, compared with the values during occlusion). At 3h after reperfusion, BBB permeability values in the ischemic tissue increased, but to a greater extent in Group 1 than in Group 0 (p=0.034) and Group 2 (p=0.010). At 6h after reperfusion, BBB permeability values in the ischemic tissue increased further in Group 2 than in Group 0 (p=0.006) and Group 1 (p=0.001), while Group 1 exhibited BBB permeability that were still abnormal but less than those observed at 3h (p=0.001). Group 2 tended to have a higher hemorrhage incidence (36.4%, 4/11) than Group 1 (10.0%, 1/10, p=0.311) and Group 0 (0%), and hemorrhages occurred around 6h after reperfusion when BBB permeability values were the highest. Mortality was higher in Group 2 (63.6%, 7/11) than in Group 0 (0%) and Group 1 (10.0%, 1/10, p=0.024). The findings suggest that the timing of tPA administration is of importance for its impact on BBB permeability and subsequent risk of hemorrhagic transformation.
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Therapeutic action of bone marrow-derived stem cells against acute kidney injury.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent clinical disease with a high morbidity rate and mortality rate, while the treatment options for this intractable disease are limited currently. In recent years, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been demonstrated to hold an effect therapeutic action against AKI by scientists gradually, and the cells are capable to localize to renal compartments and contribute to kidney regeneration though differentiation or paracrine action. Especially, the advantages of BMSCs, such as low toxicity and side effect as well as autologous transplantation, endue the cell with a promising potential in clinical therapy against AKI. In this review, we mainly provide a concise overview of the application of BMSCs in the treatment of AKI, and summarize a series of published data regarding the mechanisms and optimizations of the BMSC-based therapy in renal repair after AKI. Even though some critical points about the BMSC-based therapy model still need clarification, we hope to develop more reliable pharmacological or biotechnical strategies utilizing the stem cell for the eventual treatment of humans with AKI, based on these studies and the understanding of mechanism of renal protection by BMSCs.
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Quantitative susceptibility mapping of multiple sclerosis lesions at various ages.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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To assess multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions at various ages by using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.