To know the research progress of cupping therapy all over the world,the authors analyze the research of cupping therapy in recent 5 years,it indicates cupping therapy can be applied on extensive curable disease,but has poor clinical evidence. Some improvements on the mechanism research of cupping therapy have been made,but it needs further research. The adverse events of cupping therapy attract attention. The standardization of cupping therapy has emerged.
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) improves the long-term success rate of smoking cessation, but induces oxidative stress and inflammatory responses that may delay the restoration of vascular endothelial function (VEF). No studies have examined co-therapy of NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with ?-tocopherol (?-T), a vitamin E form with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, on improvements in VEF. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, healthy smokers (25?±?1 y old; mean?±?SEM) received NRT and abstained from smoking for 24?h with placebo (n?=?12) or oral administration of ?-T-rich mixture of tocopherols (?-TmT; n?=?11) that provided 500?mg ?-T. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and biomarkers of nitric oxide metabolism, antioxidant status, inflammation, and lipid peroxidation [8-iso-prostaglandin F2? stereoisomers (8-iso-15(R)-PGF2? and 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2?)] were measured prior to and after 24?h of smoking abstinence. Smoking abstinence with NRT regardless of ?-TmT similarly decreased urinary naphthol (P?0.05) without affecting plasma cotinine. ?-TmT increased plasma ?-T by 4-times and the urinary metabolite of ?-T, ?-carboxyethyl-chromanol, by three times. Smoking abstinence with ?-TmT, but not smoking abstinence alone, increased FMD without affecting plasma nitrate/nitrite or the ratio of asymmetric dimethylarginine/arginine. Urinary 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2? decreased only in those receiving ?-TmT and was inversely correlated to FMD (R?=?-0.43, P?0.05). Circulating markers of inflammation were unaffected by smoking abstinence or ?-TmT. Short-term NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with ?-TmT, but not NRT-assisted smoking abstinence alone, improved VEF by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2?, a vasoconstrictor that was otherwise unaffected by NRT-assisted smoking abstinence.
Recent advances in the targeted modification of complex eukaryotic genomes have unlocked a new era of genome engineering. From the pioneering work using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), to the advent of the versatile and specific TALEN systems, and most recently the highly accessible CRISPR/Cas9 systems, we now possess an unprecedented ability to analyze developmental processes using sophisticated designer genetic tools. In this Review, we summarize the common approaches and applications of these still-evolving tools as they are being used in the most popular model developmental systems. Excitingly, these robust and simple genomic engineering tools also promise to revolutionize developmental studies using less well established experimental organisms.
Although tablet computers offer advantages in data collection over traditional paper-and-pencil methods, little research has examined whether the 2 formats yield similar responses, especially with underserved populations. We compared the 2 survey formats and tested whether participants' responses to common health questionnaires or perceptions of usability differed by survey format. We also tested whether we could replicate established paper-and-pencil findings via tablet computer.
Organic/inorganic nanohybrids, which integrate advantages of the biocompatibility of organic polymers and diversified functionalities of inorganic nanoparticles, have been extensively investigated in recent years. Herein, we report the construction of arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-cysteine (RGDC) tetrapeptide functionalized and 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT)-encapsulated magnetic nanohybrids (RFHEMNs) for integrin ?V?3-targeted drug delivery. The obtained RFHEMNs were near-spherical in shape with a homogeneous size about 50 nm, and exhibited a superparamagnetic behavior. In vitro drug release study showed a sustained and pH-dependent release profile. Cell viability tests revealed that RFHEMNs displayed a significant enhancement of cytotoxicity against ?V?3-overexpressing A549 cells, as compared to free HCPT and nontargeting micelles. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that this cytotoxic effect was associated with dose-dependent S phase arrest. Finally, RFHEMNs exerted encouraging anti-cell-migration activity as determined by an in vitro wound-healing assay and a transwell assay. Overall, we envision that this tumor-targeting nanoscale drug delivery system may be of great application potential in chemotherapy of primary tumor and their metastases.
Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental pollutant that causes multiple adverse health effects in humans and animals. In this study, we investigated Cd-mediated toxic effects in rats during pregnancy and endocrine intervention in the placenta.
The painless needle insertion technique, summarized by Professor WU Lian-zhong during his decades of acupuncture clinical practice is introduced in this article, which is characterized as soft, flexible, fast, plucking and activating antipathogenic qi. The Sancai (three layers) lifting and thrusting manipulation technique is adopted by Professor WU for getting the qi sensation. And features of 10 kinds of needling sensation such as soreness, numbness, heaviness, distension, pain, cold, hot, radiation, jumping and contracture are summarized. Finger force, amplitude, speed and time length are also taken as the basis of reinforcing and reducing manipulations. Moreover, examples are also given to explain the needling technique on some specific points which further embodies Professor WU's unique experiences and understandings on acupuncture.
A complex computing problem can be solved efficiently on a system with multiple computing nodes by dividing its implementation code into several parallel processing modules or tasks that can be formulated as directed acyclic graph (DAG) problems. The DAG jobs may be mapped to and scheduled on the computing nodes to minimize the total execution time. Searching an optimal DAG scheduling solution is considered to be NP-complete. This paper proposed a tuple molecular structure-based chemical reaction optimization (TMSCRO) method for DAG scheduling on heterogeneous computing systems, based on a very recently proposed metaheuristic method, chemical reaction optimization (CRO). Comparing with other CRO-based algorithms for DAG scheduling, the design of tuple reaction molecular structure and four elementary reaction operators of TMSCRO is more reasonable. TMSCRO also applies the concept of constrained critical paths (CCPs), constrained-critical-path directed acyclic graph (CCPDAG) and super molecule for accelerating convergence. In this paper, we have also conducted simulation experiments to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of TMSCRO upon a large set of randomly generated graphs and the graphs for real world problems.
The discovery and application of noble metal nanoclusters have received considerable attention. In this paper, we reported that apoferritin paired gold clusters (Au-Ft) could efficiently catalyze oxidation of 3.3',5.5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by H2O2 to produce a blue color reaction. Compared with natural enzyme, Au-Ft exhibited higher activity near acidic pH and could be used over a wide range of temperatures. Apoferritin nanocage enhanced the reaction activity of substrate TMB by H2O2. The reaction catalyzed by Au-Ft was found to follow a typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The kinetic parameters exhibited a lower Km value (0.097mM) and a higher Kcat value (5.8×10(4)s(-1)) for TMB than that of horse radish peroxidase (HRP). Base on these findings, Au-Ft, acting as a peroxidase mimetic, performed enzymatic spectrophotometric analysis of glucose. This system exhibited acceptable reproducibility and high selectivity in biosening, suggesting that it could have promising applications in the future.
Emerging evidence from epidemiologic studies and basic science suggests an inverse association between metformin use and cancer risk in diabetic patients. However, the association with lung cancer is not consistent. We summarized the evidence currently available (2009-2013) and explored sources of heterogeneity. Metformin therapy was associated with significantly lower risks of cancers of the lung (4 studies; pooled relative risk = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55, 0.95; P = 0.02) and respiratory system (6 studies; pooled relative risk = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.96; P = 0.01). There was evidence of moderate heterogeneity (I(2) > 50%). The major sources of heterogeneity were smoking adjustment status and cancer site. The relative risk from studies that adjusted for smoking was 1.16-fold (95% CI: 1.00, 1.35) closer to the null than that from studies not adjusting for smoking. The relative risk of respiratory cancer was 1.23-fold (95% CI: 1.02, 1.49) closer to the null than that for lung cancer. In conclusion, metformin use appears to be associated with lower risks of lung and respiratory cancer in diabetic patients. However, caution regarding overestimation is needed, since adjustment for smoking attenuates the association.
It has been shown that antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may have a detrimental effect on bone health and translate into an increased risk of bone fracture. We aimed to comprehensively evaluate the association between use of AEDs and fracture risk.
Causal relations are of fundamental importance for human perception and reasoning. According to the nature of causality, causality has explicit and implicit forms. In the case of explicit form, causal-effect relations exist at either clausal or discourse levels. The implicit causal-effect relations heavily rely on empirical analysis and evidence accumulation. This paper proposes a comprehensive causality extraction system (CL-CIS) integrated with the means of category-learning. CL-CIS considers cause-effect relations in both explicit and implicit forms and especially practices the relation between category and causality in computation. In elaborately designed experiments, CL-CIS is evaluated together with general causality analysis system (GCAS) and general causality analysis system with learning (GCAS-L), and it testified to its own capability and performance in construction of cause-effect relations. This paper confirms the expectation that the precision and coverage of causality induction can be remarkably improved by means of causal and category learning.
Identification of intracardiac masses in echocardiograms is one important task in cardiac disease diagnosis. To improve diagnosis accuracy, a novel fully automatic classification method based on the sparse representation is proposed to distinguish intracardiac tumor and thrombi in echocardiography. Firstly, a region-of-interest is cropped to define the mass area. Then, a unique globally denoising method is employed to remove the speckle and preserve the anatomical structure. Subsequently, the contour of the mass and its connected atrial wall are described by the K-singular value decomposition and a modified active contour model. Finally, the motion, the boundary as well as the texture features are processed by a sparse representation classifier to distinguish two masses. 97 clinical echocardiogram sequences are collected to assess the effectiveness. Compared with other state-of-the-art classifiers, our proposed method demonstrates the best performance by achieving an accuracy of 96.91%, a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 93.02%. It explicates that our method is capable of classifying intracardiac tumor and thrombi in echocardiography, potentially to assist the cardiologists in the clinical practice.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) has been frequently implicated in many cancers as well as viral pathogenesis. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is linked to several human malignancies. It can stabilize HIF-1? during latent infection and undergoes lytic replication in response to hypoxic stress. However, the mechanism by which KSHV controls its latent and lytic life cycle through the deregulation of HIF-1? is not fully understood. Our previous studies showed that the hypoxia-sensitive chromatin remodeler KAP1 was targeted by the KSHV-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) to repress expression of the major lytic replication and transcriptional activator (RTA). Here we further report that an RNA interference-based knockdown of KAP1 in KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells disrupted viral episome stability and abrogated sub-G1/G1 arrest of the cell cycle while increasing the efficiency of KSHV lytic reactivation by hypoxia or using the chemical 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or sodium butyrate (NaB). Moreover, KSHV genome-wide screening revealed that four hypoxia-responsive clusters have a high concurrence of both RBP-J? and HIF-1? binding sites (RBS+HRE) within the same gene promoter and are tightly associated with KAP1. Inhibition of KAP1 greatly enhanced the association of RBP-J? with the HIF-1? complex for driving RTA expression not only in normoxia but also in hypoxia. These results suggest that both KAP1 and the concurrence of RBS+HRE within the RTA promoter are essential for KSHV latency and hypoxia-induced lytic reactivation.
Our objective was to determine whether continuous transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring could safely enhance the efficacy of batroxobin, a thrombin-like enzyme extracted from Bothrops atrox moojeni venom, in the treatment for acute cerebral stroke beyond the thrombolytic time window. Ninety patients suffering an acute cerebral stroke were recruited into the study within 12 hours after the onset of symptoms. Patients were randomized to receive batroxobin with (target group) or without 1 hour of continuous TCD monitoring (control group). Clinical evaluation of stroke was based on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, Barthel index (BI), Thrombolysis in Brain Ischemia score (TIBI), the incidence of advancing stroke, and the recurrence of cerebral infarction. The patients receiving continuous TCD monitoring showed significant improvement in NIHSS score at 57 days post treatment compared with the control. Similarly, patients receiving continuous TCD monitoring also showed significant improvement in BI at 3 months compared with the controls. Consistently, both the incidence of advancing stroke after 1 week and the incidence of stroke recurrence after 3 months were significantly lower in TCD monitored group than control group. Moreover, the safety of the employment of TCD monitoring in the treatment of these patients was confirmed as there was no significant difference of the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage at 1 week after the treatment between the target and control groups. Taken together, our study showed that batroxobin, in combination with continuous TCD monitoring at the middle cerebral artery, reduced the incidence of advancing stroke and stroke recurrence after treatment without adverse effects in terms of poststroke intracranial hemorrhage.
Randomized controlled trials (RCT) is the source of the raw data of evidence-based medicine. Blind method is adopted in most of the high-quality RCT. Sham acupuncture is the main form of blinded in acupuncture clinical trial. In order to improve the quality of acupuncture clinical trail, based on the necessity of sham acupuncture in clinical research, the current situation as well as the existing problems of sham acupuncture, suggestions were put forward from the aspects of new way and new designation method which can be adopted as reference, and factors which have to be considered during the process of implementing. Various subjective and objective factors involving in the process of trial should be considered, and used of the current international standards, try to be quantification, and carry out strict quality monitoring.
A novel approach is presented to automatically segment the left ventricle in fetal echocardiograms. The proposed approach strategically integrates sparse representation, global constraint, and local refinement algorithms into an active appearance model (AAM) framework. In the training stage, we construct an enhanced AAM texture model to deal with the speckle and texture ambiguities. In the segmentation stage, the initial pose is located by a sparse representation method. Globally constrained points and local features with high clinical relevance are effectively incorporated into the AAM framework to make the model converge toward a desired position. Our proposed approach has been compared with the traditional ASM, the traditional AAM, and the globally constrained AAM on the synthetic and clinical data. The results show that compared with experts drawn contours, the overall segmentation accuracy of overlapped area in the synthetic and clinical images are 84.12% and 84.39%, respectively, superior to those of the other three methods. The experiments demonstrate that sparse representative methods greatly facilitate the initializations and our approach is capable of detecting the fetal left ventricle effectively, offering a better segmentation results.
The ester linkages contained within dental resin monomers (such as Bisphenol A-glycidylmethacrylate (BisGMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA)) are susceptible to hydrolytic degradation by salivary esterases, however very little is known about the specific esterase activities implicated in this process. The objective of this work was to isolate and identify the dominant proteins from saliva that are associated with the esterase activities shown to be involved in the degradation of BisGMA.
In our earlier work, we present a novel formal method for the semiautomatic verification of specifications and for describing web service composition components by using abstract concepts. After verification, the instantiations of components were selected to satisfy the complex service performance constraints. However, selecting an optimal instantiation, which comprises different candidate services for each generic service, from a large number of instantiations is difficult. Therefore, we present a new evolutionary approach on the basis of the discrete group search service (D-GSS) model. With regard to obtaining the optimal multiconstraint instantiation of the complex component, the D-GSS model has competitive performance compared with other service selection models in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and ability to solve high-dimensional service composition component problems. We propose the cost function and the discrete group search optimizer (D-GSO) algorithm and study the convergence of the D-GSS model through verification and test cases.
Video-electroencephalographic monitoring (VEEG) is useful in the diagnosis of seizure disorders; however, its diagnostic yield in developing countries is not well known. The current study retrospectively reviewed the charts of 484 consecutive patients who were admitted to our center between July 2012 and September 2013. Of these patients, 298 (61.6%) were admitted for diagnostic clarification and underwent VEEG for a mean duration of 1.3days (range=1-9days). The patients were divided into two groups: those whose diagnosis was changed and those whose diagnosis was not changed as a result of VEEG. A patient with a preadmission diagnosis of epilepsy who was discharged with a diagnosis of nonepileptic events (NEEs) or who was further classified as focal/generalized epilepsy on discharge was included in the "change in diagnosis" group. A patient admitted with an uncertain diagnosis and discharged with a diagnosis of NEEs or epilepsy (including focal epilepsy and generalized epilepsy) was also included in the "change in diagnosis" group. Video-electroencephalographic monitoring recorded typical ictal events (epileptic events or nonepileptic events) in 147 (49.3%) of the patients admitted for diagnostic clarification. In total, 181 (60.7%) patients had a change in diagnosis after VEEG. Among them, 103 (56.9%) patients had a preadmission diagnosis of epilepsy, which was further classified as focal epilepsy (88 patients) or generalized epilepsy (15 patients); the diagnosis of NEEs and epilepsy was clarified in 78 (43.1%) patients. The number of patients diagnosed with NEEs increased from 31 (10.4%) on admission to 88 (29.5%) on discharge. Among all the patients admitted for diagnostic clarification, therapeutic plans were changed for 104 (57.5%) patients. In 117 (39.3%) patients with no diagnostic change, VEEG evaluation provided confirmative diagnostic information in 47 (15.8%) patients and no additional diagnostic information in 70 (23.5%) patients. The study indicates that VEEG is useful in terms of clarifying seizure diagnoses and evaluating seizure frequency. In our cohort study, VEEG of a relatively short mean duration produced a comparable diagnostic yield as that reported in other studies.
Cervical cancer is still one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in women worldwide, especially in the developing countries. It is a major metabolic character of cancer cells to consume large quantities of glucose and derive more energy by glycolysis even in the presence of adequate oxygen, which is called Warburg effect that can be exaggerated by hypoxia. The high risk subtype HPV16 early oncoprotein E6 contributes host cell immortalization and transformation through interacting with a number of cellular factors. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?), a ubiquitously expressed transcriptional regulator involved in induction of numerous genes associated with angiogenesis and tumor growth, is highly increased by HPV E6. HIF-1? is a best-known target of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL) as an E3 ligase for degradation. In the present work, we found that HPV16 E6 promotes hypoxia induced Warburg effect through hindering the association of HIF-1? and VHL. This disassociation attenuates VHL-mediated HIF-1? ubiquitination and causes HIF-1? accumulation. These results suggest that oncoprotein E6 plays a major role in the regulation of Warburg effect and can be a valuable therapeutic target for HPV-related cancer.
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) has been reported to promote tumor genesis. Since it is unclear whether CDKN3 participates in the development of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), this study assessed the association between CDKN3 expression and cell biological functions, and demonstrated the clinical significance and prognosis of CDKN3 in EOC. CDKN3 expression was evaluated in 97 cases of tumor tissue by immunohistochemistry and in 60 tissues by western blotting. The clinical correlation was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox hazards model. The molecular functional roles of CDKN3 in ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR3 were examined by small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of the protein followed by analyses of cell proliferation and invasion. Twenty-three out of 30 (76.7%) human EOC tissues exhibited stronger levels of CDKN3 protein compared with 10 out of 30 (33.3%) human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) tissues. The mean level of CDKN3 expression in the EOC tissues was 3.35-fold that in the HOSE tissues. CDKN3 protein was found to be overexpressed in 68.0% of the EOC samples and was correlated with poor patient survival (P<0.05). Furthermore, expression of CDKN3 was significantly associated with FIGO stage, recurrence and residual tumor size (P<0.05), and the CDKN3 status was a significant prognostic factor for EOC patients (P=0.005). In addition, depletion of CDKN3 expression inhibited the growth and clonogenic potential of the OVCAR3 cell line. Our present research found that CDKN3 may play an important role in the development and proliferation of EOC. CDKN3 may be used as a novel tumor marker to predict the prognosis of EOC.
The aim of the present study was to conduct an updated meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in order to estimate the effect of folic acid supplementation on endothelial function and the concentration of plasma homocysteine in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). An extensive search of PubMed was conducted to identify RCTs that compared folic acid with placebo therapy. The mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as a measure of the correlation between folic acid supplementation and endothelial function/plasma homocysteine concentration. Of the 377 patients included in this analysis, 191 patients underwent folic acid supplementation and 186 individuals underwent placebo treatment. Compared with the use of a placebo, folic acid supplementation alone exhibited significant efficacy on increasing flow-mediated dilation (FMD; MD, 57.72 ?m; 95% CI, 50.14-65.31; P<0.05) and lowering the concentration of plasma homocysteine (MD, -3.66 ?mol/l; 95% CI, -5.44--1.87; P<0.05; I(2), 87%). There was no significant change in the response to end diastolic diameter, glyceryl-trinitrate diameter, heart rate, baseline and peak hyperemic flow and systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the folic acid and placebo groups (P>0.05). Therefore, the meta-analysis indicated that 5 mg folic acid daily supplementation for >4 weeks significantly improved FMD and lowered the concentration of plasma homocysteine in patients with CAD. However, more RCTs are required in order to confirm these observations.
Quercetin bioavailability exhibits high interindividual variation for reasons that remain unclear. We conducted a 24-h pharmacokinetic study to investigate whether individual differences in circulating antioxidants, oxidative stress and inflammation, and intestinal permeability affect quercetin bioavailability.
Several epidemiological studies have previously investigated the association between the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) susceptibility; however, current results are inconsistent. We therefore performed this meta-analysis to thoroughly investigate any association among Asian patients.
Antimicrobial exposure remains an important risk factor for developing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Efficient method to identify antibiotics associated with CDI is important for formulating strategies to curtail their use. As a prelude to a more extensive Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality-funded project (Evaluation & Research on Antimicrobial Stewardship's Effect on Clostridium difficile), we undertook an exploratory evaluation to determine a resource-efficient method for identifying antibiotic targets for antimicrobial stewardship interventions.
Chronic stress causes a variety of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression, but its mechanism is not well understood. Tripartite motif-containing protein 32 (TRIM32) was strongly associated with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder based on a study of copy number variation, and deletion of TRIM32 increased neural proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Here, we propose that TRIM32 is involved in chronic stress-induced affective behaviors. Using a chronic unpredictable mild stress mouse depression model, we studied expression of TRIM32 in brain tissue samples and observed behavioral changes in Trim32 knockout mice. The results showed that TRIM32 protein but not its mRNA was significantly reduced in hippocampus in a time-dependent manner within 8 weeks of chronic stress. These stress-induced affective behaviors and reduction of TRIM32 protein expression were significantly reversed by antidepressant fluoxetine treatment. In addition, Trim32 knockout mice showed reduced anxiety and depressive behaviors and hyperactivities compared with Trim32 wild-type mice under normal and mild stress conditions. We conclude that TRIM32 plays important roles in regulation of hyperactivities and positively regulates the development of anxiety and depression disorders induced by chronic stress.
In search of a solution to the long standing problems encountered in traditional brain computer interfaces (BCI), the lateral descending tracts of the spinal cord present an alternative site for taping into the volitional motor signals. Due to the convergence of the cortical outputs into a final common pathway in the descending tracts of the spinal cord, neural interfaces with the spinal cord can potentially acquire signals richer with volitional information in a smaller anatomical region. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of extracting motor control signals from the corticospinal tract (CST) of the rat spinal cord. Flexible substrate, multi-electrode arrays (MEA) were implanted in the CST of rats trained for a lever pressing task. This novel use of flexible substrate MEAs allowed recording of CST activity in behaving animals for up to three weeks with the current implantation technique. Time-frequency and principal component analyses (PCA) were applied to the neural signals to reconstruct isometric forelimb forces. Computed regression coefficients were then used to predict isometric forces in additional trials. The correlation between measured and predicted forces in the vertical direction averaged across six animals was 0.67 and R (2) value was 0.44. Force regression in the horizontal directions was less successful, possibly due to the small amplitude of forces. Neural signals above and near the high gamma band made the largest contributions to prediction of forces. The results of this study support the feasibility of a spinal cord computer interface (SCCI) for generation of command signals in paralyzed individuals.
Through arrangement and analysis of domestic and overseas literature about effect of acupoint, it is found that acupoint is an amplifier of acupuncture effect, which could present feature of weak-stimulation and strong-response for acupuncture stimulation. It is also thought that factors of the amplification effect are complicated, it is closely related to the local specificity of acupoint (including more nerves, more blood vessels, more mast cells, more Ca2+ and more energy metabolism) and circulation route of meridians, indicating the amplification effect works through local feeling (local specificity of acupoint) into the distal end (circulation and distribution route of meridian system.
The eigenspace-based minimum variance (ESBMV) beamformer can provide good imaging resolution and contrast; however, the performance is achieved at the cost of high computational complexity. In adaptive array processing, the beamspace method is an efficient way to lower the computational complexity. In this paper, we combine the beamspace method with the ESBMV beamformer and propose a beamdomain ESBMV beamformer. We demonstrate the feasibility of introducing the beamspace into the ESBMV beamformer and propose an effective method of forming the transform matrix based on the spatial spectrum of the array signals. We also illustrate the performance of the proposed beamformer when resolving point scatterers and a cyst phantom with both simulated and experimental data. The results show that the proposed method can achieve performance comparable to the ESBMV beamformer within much shorter time.
Interleukin-13 (IL-13) has been implicated to be responsible for recruitment of inflammatory cells from the blood to the lung, regulation of matrix metalloproteinase and induction of mucin production and secretion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We determined plasma IL-13 levels in patients with COPD and investigated its association with common polymorphisms of IL-13 gene in a case-control study.
The regulative effect of acu-moxibustion on functional activities of the body involves a complex network. Acupoints, the sensors and amplifiers of acupuncture and moxibustion stimulation signals, play an important role in triggering the cooperative performance of the complex network system. The authors of the present paper make a comprehensive discussion about the interrelationship of the nervous structure, mast cells, calcium ion, relevant chemical substances (SP, histamine, 5-HT, ATP, endogenous opioid peptides, etc.), different key nodal joints of the regulative networks for acu-moxibustion intervention, trying to interpret the underlying mechanism of acu-moxibustion as a whole.
Previous research has suggested that different manual acupuncture (MA) manipulations may have different physiological effects. Recent studies have demonstrated that neural electrical signals are generated or changed when acupuncture is administered. In order to explore the effects of different MA manipulations on the neural system, an experiment was designed to record the discharges of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in the spinal dorsal horn evoked by MA at different frequencies (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 Hz) at ST36.
The type II CRISPR/Cas9 system (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) has recently emerged as an efficient and simple tool for site-specific engineering of eukaryotic genomes. To improve its applications in Drosophila genome engineering, we simplified the standard two-component CRISPR/Cas9 system by generating a stable transgenic fly line expressing the Cas9 endonuclease in the germline (Vasa-Cas9 line). By injecting vectors expressing engineered target-specific guide RNAs into Vasa-Cas9 fly embryos, mutations were generated from site-specific DNA cleavages and efficiently transmitted into progenies. Because Cas9 endonuclease is the universal component of the type II CRISPR/Cas9 system, site-specific genomic engineering based on this improved platform can be achieved with lower complexity and toxicity, greater consistency, and excellent versatility.
We set out to investigate if volitional components in the descending tracts of the spinal cord white matter can be accessed with multi-electrode array (MEA) recording technique. Rats were trained to press a lever connected to a haptic device with force feedback to receive sugar pellets. A flexible-substrate multi-electrode array was chronically implanted into the dorsal column of the cervical spinal cord. Field potentials and multi-unit activities were recorded from the descending axons of the corticospinal tract while the rat performed a lever pressing task. Forelimb forces, recorded with the sensor attached to the lever, were reconstructed using the hand position data and the neural signals through multiple trials over three weeks. The regression coefficients found from the trial set were cross-validated on the other trials recorded on same day. Approximately 30 trials of at least 2 seconds were required for accurate model estimation. The maximum correlation coefficient between the actual and predicted force was 0.7 in the test set. Positional information and its interaction with neural signals improved the correlation coefficient by 0.1 to 0.15. These results suggest that the volitional information contained in the corticospinal tract can be extracted with multi-channel neural recordings made with parenchymal electrodes.
The lipid droplet (LD) is a unique cellular organelle containing a neutral-lipid core enclosed by a phospholipid monolayer and associated proteins. Despite the important function of LDs at the hub of cellular energy homeostasis regulation, major questions in the field of LD biology are still unanswered. Drosophila melanogaster has been used as a model organism to make fundamental discoveries in biology for over a century. In recent years, genome-wide unbiased reverse genetic screens using Drosophila cells or transgenic lines have been proven to provide valuable knowledge to the field of LD biology. Here we summarize the methods we use for functional genomic screens in Drosophila S2 cells to identify genes involved in LD biology, and the methods used for studying LD function in vivo using Drosophila as a model to combat metabolic diseases.
We report honeycomb-patterned phthalocyanine (Pc) films fabricated by self-assembly of dodecyloxy-azo-Zinc phthalocyanine (daZnPc) using the breath figure (BF) technique. These ultrathin Pc films exhibit a robust photo-dependent antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli (E. coli).
Objective. To observe the dermal microcirculation blood perfusion characterization of meridians channels (acupoints). Methods. 20 healthy human subjects were monitored using Pericam Perfusion Speckle Imager (PSI) for the changes in dermal microcirculation blood perfusion on governor meridian and other respective dermal regions as a control. Result. The microcirculation blood perfusion on Governor Meridian is higher than its control area. Conclusion. The dermal microcirculation blood perfusion on certain parts of Governor Meridian of healthy human subjects showed specifics.
Foods incorporating plant sterols (PS) consistently decrease serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), although results vary depending on the PS form and food matrix. The objective was to study the effect of a novel triglyceride-recrystallized phystosterol (TRP) incorporated into fat-free milk on markers of cardiovascular risk compared to unmodified free sterols alone in the same fat-free milk.
Greater intakes of low-fat dairy foods are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to examine whether acute low-fat milk ingestion would limit postprandial impairments in vascular endothelial function by limiting oxidative stress responses that decrease nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study was conducted in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS) who ingested low-fat milk (475 mL) or an isocaloric volume of rice milk after an overnight fast. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), plasma glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA), arginine (ARG), and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were assessed at 30-min intervals during the 3-h postprandial period. Participants (n = 19) postprandial FMD responses were unaffected by low-fat milk but transiently decreased (P < 0.01) from 6.2 ± 0.8% (mean ± SEM) at baseline to 3.3 ± 0.7% at 30 min and 3.9 ± 0.6% at 60 min following rice milk consumption. Glucose and MDA increased to a greater extent in the rice milk trial (P < 0.001). The MDA area under the 3 h postprandial curve (AUC0-3 h) was correlated with glucose AUC0-3 h (r = 0.75; P < 0.01) and inversely related to FMD AUC0-3 h (r = -0.59; P < 0.01). ARG decreased following rice milk and increased with low-fat milk, whereas only rice milk increased ADMA:ARG. The ADMA:ARG AUC0-3 h was correlated with MDA AUC0-3 h (r = 0.55) and was inversely related to FMD AUC0-3 h (r = -0.52) (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that low-fat milk maintains vascular endothelial function in individuals with MetS by limiting postprandial hyperglycemia that otherwise increases lipid peroxidation and reduces NO bioavailability. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01411293.
Objective:To inspect the feasibility and content validity of the comprehensive International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) core set for stroke by describing relevant aspects of functioning, disability and environmental factors affected in Chinese patients post stroke.Design:Multicentre, cross-sectional study.Setting:Department of rehabilitation medicine.Subjects:The content validity was evaluated using frequency and percentage of 208 patients with a mean age of 60 years post stroke in China.Outcome measures:Aspects of body function and structure, activity and participation, and environmental factors in the comprehensive ICF core set for stroke.Results:Six ICF categories of body function were identified as a problem in over 90% (n = 187) of the patients (functions of the cardiovascular system and neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions). Impairments of brain, upper and lower extremity were identified as a problem in over 50% (n = 104) of the patients. Four ICF categories of activities and participation were documented as a problem in 100% (n = 208) of the patients (domestic and civic life). In environmental factors, nine ICF categories were documented as barriers by more than 10% (n = 20) and fewer than 50% (n = 104) of the patients (products and technology, physical geography, societal attitudes, services, systems and polices). Six ICF categories were identified as facilitators in over 90% (n = 187) of the patients (support and relationships and attitudes).Conclusion:The findings suggest that it is feasible to apply the comprehensive ICF core set for stroke in the Chinese clinical setting, after the appropriate reduction of some categories according to Chinese patients characteristics and culture.
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), a highly sensitive method of measuring gene expression, is widely used in biomedical research. To produce reliable results, it is essential to use stably expressed reference genes (RGs) for data normalization so that sample-to-sample variation can be controlled. In this study, we examine the effect of different RGs on statistical efficiency by analyzing a qPCR data set that contains 12 target genes and 3 RGs. Our results show that choosing the most stably expressed RG for data normalization does not guarantee reduced variance or improved statistical efficiency. We also provide a formula for determining when data normalization will improve statistical efficiency and hence increase the power of statistical tests in data analysis.
Fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) shifts the metabolism of glucose from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway and has anticonvulsant activity in several acute seizure animal models. In the present study, we investigated the anti-epileptogenic effects of FDP in an amygdaloid-kindling seizure model, which is an animal model of the most common form of human temporal lobe epilepsy. We found that 1.0 g/kg FDP slowed seizure progression and shortened the corresponding after-discharge duration (ADD). FDP increased the number of stimulations needed to reach seizure stages 2-5 and prolonged the cumulative ADD prior to reaching stages 3-5. It also shortened staying days and cumulative ADD in stages 4-5. However, it demonstrated no significant protective effect when administered after the animals were fully kindled. In hippocampal neurons, cation-chloride co-transporters (CCCs) are suggested to play interesting roles in epilepsy by modulating ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic activity through controlling GABAA receptor-mediated reversal potential. We examined the potential link between FDP and the hippocampal expression of two main members of the CCCs: the neuron-specific K(+)-Cl(-)co-transporter 2 (KCC2) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)co-transporter 1 (NKCC1). FDP inhibited the kindling-induced downregulation of KCC2 expression and decreased NKCC1 expression during the kindling session. Taken together, our data reveal that FDP may have protective activity against epileptogenesis, from partial to generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the FDP-induced imbalance between KCC2 and NKCC1 expression may be involved in the neuroprotective effect.
Oxidative stress and inflammation persist years after smoking cessation thereby limiting the restoration of vascular endothelial function (VEF). Although short-term smoking cessation improves VEF, no studies have examined co-therapy of antioxidants in combination with smoking cessation to improve VEF. We hypothesized that improvements in ?-tocopherol (?-T) status during smoking cessation would improve VEF beyond that from smoking cessation alone by decreasing oxidative stress and proinflammatory responses. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in otherwise healthy smokers (22±1 years; mean±SEM) who quit smoking for 7 days with placebo (n=14) or ?-T-rich supplementation (n=16; 500mg ?-T/day). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), cotinine, and biomarkers of antioxidant status, oxidative stress, and inflammation were measured before and after 7 days of smoking cessation. Smoking cessation regardless of supplementation similarly decreased plasma cotinine, whereas ?-T-rich supplementation increased plasma ?-T by seven times and its urinary metabolite ?-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman by nine times (P<0.05). Smoking cessation with ?-T-rich supplementation increased FMD responses by 1.3% (P<0.05) beyond smoking cessation alone (4.1±0.6% vs 2.8±0.3%; mean±SEM). Although plasma malondialdehyde decreased similarly in both groups (P<0.05), plasma oxidized LDL and urinary F2-isoprostanes were unaffected by smoking cessation or ?-T-rich supplementation. Plasma TNF-? and myeloperoxidase decreased (P<0.05) only in those receiving ?-T-rich supplements and these were inversely related to FMD (P<0.05; R=-0.46 and -0.37, respectively). These findings demonstrate that short-term ?-T-rich supplementation in combination with smoking cessation improved VEF beyond that from smoking cessation alone in young smokers, probably by decreasing the proinflammatory mediators TNF-? and myeloperoxidase.
There is growing evidence that genetic abnormalities play an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). At least 18 genetic loci and 13 disease-related genes for parkinsonism have been identified. The S100 calcium-binding beta (S100B), which is expressed and secreted by astrocytes, has been found to be associated with PD. To evaluate whether the S100B variants are related to PD in Chinese Han population, we conducted genetic examination of the S100B gene in 502 PD patients from Mainland China. We did identify two known variants c.279+4T>C (rs187503470) and c.99C>G (p.Leu33Leu, rs1051169) in our patients. Neither of these two variants is predicted to change amino acid or splice site, indicating that they are not pathogenic mutations. Our results suggest that mutations in the coding region or intron/exon boundaries of the S100B gene play little or no role in the development of PD in Chinese population.
Ankyrin repeat (AR) proteins possess a distinctive modular and repetitive architecture, and their global folds are maintained by short-range interactions in terms of the primary sequence. In this work, we extended our previous study on the highly conserved TPLH tetrapeptide and investigated the impact of a solvent-exposed histidine residue on the pH-dependent stability of gankyrin, providing further insight into the contribution of the TPLH motif to the tertiary fold of AR proteins. Consisting of seven ARs, gankyrin has five histidine residues in TPLH motifs or its variants, all of which adopt a H(?2)-tautermeric form and are shielded from solvent. By truncating the C-terminal ankyrin repeat (AR7), we exposed H177 in the (174)TPLH(177) of AR6 (the second C-terminal AR) to an aqueous environment. We showed that this truncated gankyrin mutant, namely, Gank(1-201), was well-folded at a neutral pH with a slightly lower stability with respect to gankyrin wild type (WT). However, unlike gankyrin WT, the stability of Gank(1-201) was markedly decreased together with a loss of conformation at a pH slightly below 6.0. It was rationalized that the protonation of the H177 imidazole ring triggered the disruption of the TPLH-mediated hydrogen-bonding network, which in turn led to the loss of conformation and stability. These results together with the work on Q210H mutant nicely explain that the C-terminal AR7 has a (207)TPLQ(210) variant and are in support of the notion that a string of TPLH/variant, which may arguably act like a zip lock to the elongated AR proteins via intra-/inter-repeat hydrogen-bonding, is important in maintaining the tertiary fold. Additionally, we made rational mutagenesis to introduce extra surface charge on AR7 of gankyrin and demonstrated that G214E and I219D mutations increased the stability of gankyrin while the function remained intact. Taken together, our results indicate that the TPLH-mediated hydrogen-bonding network is important for the conformation and stability of human gankyrin, and the C-terminal AR contributes to the conformational stability of gankyrin (AR proteins in general) through shielding this TPLH network from solvent as well as making the surface area more accessible to solvent.
The development status of standardization of Chinese medicine and acupuncture in Australia and New Zealand is respectively introduced from 3 levels-national standard, regional standard and association standard. A national registration standard for Chinese medicine has been implemented since July 1, 2012 in Australia. The Oceania Federation of Chinese Medicine and Acupuncture Societies was also founded in capital of New Zealand. Four characteristics are revealed from researches and analyses: peoples needs and the relevant system are the foundations of national standards of Chinese medicine; legislation on Chinese medicine is the guarantee for setting and implementing national standards, where necessity, scientificity, vitality, diversity and breakthroughs are embodied; registration standards are the key in international standardization of Chinese medicine; and international organizations are major force in promoting standardization of Chinese medicine and acupunc ture.
With retrieval of articles on extraordinary acupoint that were published in domesticin recent five years, one hundred and eight articles of clinical application are screened out and one hundred and twenty-three extraordinary acupoints that are extensively recognized are collected. Of those acupoints, 23 acupoints are included in the latest national standard. Of the rest 100 extraordinary acupoints, 48 acupoints are located on the running courses of fourteen meridians, 4 acupoints are shared with the meridian points and the other 52 acupoints have not been clarified to be located on the running courses of meridians based on the literature data. It is found in the collection of these acupoints that there are many extraordinary acupoints that are extensively used in clinical practice. But the nomenclatures and locations of acupoints have not been unified. Hence, a further standardization on these aspects is anticipated.
The interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) hydrogels based on chitosan and gelatin using genipin as the cross-linker were prepared and characterized. The IPN formation of the genipin-cross-linked chitosan/gelatin hydrogel was confirmed by means of the instrinsic viscosity measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the ninhydrin assays. The instrinsic viscosity measurement, FT-IR and SEM suggested that chitosan and gelatin were miscible in the molecular level. The miscibility leads to the formation of IPN after cross-linking. FT-IR also examined the cross-linking mechanism of genipin with primary amino groups. The degree of cross-linking increased with increase genipin concentration. Swelling results revealed that the IPN hydrogels are pH-sensitive, exhibiting reversibility and rather rapidly response in swelling to pH changes. It is expected this IPN hydrogel has potential as controlled drug delivery system or as alternative sorbents for biomedical and environmental use as pH altered.
Platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B), a vital growth factor which can induce angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is important in the metastasis of many tumors. However, the roles of PDGF-B in gastric carcinoma are largely unknown. We investigated the correlation between PDGF-B, PDGFR-? and E-cadherin expression with the clinical features of gastric carcinoma patients to evaluate the relationship between PDGF-B signaling, E-cadherin and metastasis of gastric carcinoma, the correlation between PDGF-B and E-cadherin expression to assess the roles of PDGF-B signaling in metastasis of gastric carcinoma..
Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters contribute to multidrug resistance by coupling the efflux of drugs to the influx of Na(+) or H(+). Known structures of Na(+)-coupled, extracellular-facing MATE transporters from the NorM subfamily revealed 12 membrane-spanning segments related by a quasi-two-fold rotational symmetry and a multidrug-binding cavity situated near the membrane surface. Here we report the crystal structure of an H(+)-coupled MATE transporter from Bacillus halodurans and the DinF subfamily at 3.2-Å resolution, unveiling a surprisingly asymmetric arrangement of 12 transmembrane helices. We also identified a membrane-embedded substrate-binding chamber by combining crystallographic and biochemical analyses. Our studies further suggested a direct competition between H(+) and substrate during DinF-mediated transport and implied how a MATE transporter alternates between its extracellular- and intracellular-facing conformations to propel multidrug extrusion. Collectively, our results demonstrated heretofore-unrecognized mechanistic diversity among MATE transporters.
Many researchers favor repeated measures designs because they allow the detection of within-person change over time and typically have higher statistical power than cross-sectional designs. However, the plethora of inputs needed for repeated measures designs can make sample size selection, a critical step in designing a successful study, difficult. Using a dental pain study as a driving example, we provide guidance for selecting an appropriate sample size for testing a time by treatment interaction for studies with repeated measures. We describe how to (1) gather the required inputs for the sample size calculation, (2) choose appropriate software to perform the calculation, and (3) address practical considerations such as missing data, multiple aims, and continuous covariates.
Periprosthetic bone loss, which is common after joint arthroplasty, may cause bone loosening and lead to failed prosthetic fixation. Two previous meta-analyses have confirmed the mid-term effect of bisphosphonates (BPs) in preventing bone loss after arthroplasty. To determine long-term efficacy and gender bias of BPs after joint arthroplasty, we conducted a meta-analysis based on 17 RCTs involving 781 patients to evaluate the effect of BPs.
Lipid droplets (LDs) are the major fat storage organelles in eukaryotic cells, but how their size is regulated is unknown. Using genetic screens in C. elegans for LD morphology defects in intestinal cells, we found that mutations in atlastin, a GTPase required for homotypic fusion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, cause not only ER morphology defects, but also a reduction in LD size. Similar results were obtained after depletion of atlastin or expression of a dominant-negative mutant, whereas overexpression of atlastin had the opposite effect. Atlastin depletion in Drosophila fat bodies also reduced LD size and decreased triglycerides in whole animals, sensitizing them to starvation. In mammalian cells, co-overexpression of atlastin-1 and REEP1, a paralog of the ER tubule-shaping protein DP1/REEP5, generates large LDs. The effect of atlastin-1 on LD size correlates with its activity to promote membrane fusion in vitro. Our results indicate that atlastin-mediated fusion of ER membranes is important for LD size regulation.
Rabies virus (RABV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus that causes a fatal neurological disease in humans and animals. Our previous studies have shown that lab-adapted, but not wild-type (wt), RABV enhances innate immune responses including type I interferon (IFN) and chemokines. To determine if treatment with type I IFN can inhibit RABV infection, mouse neuroblastoma and baby hamster kidney cells were treated with IFN-? before being infected with lab-adapted or wt RABV. It was found that lab-adapted, but not the wt, RABV was able to replicate in IFN-?-pretreated cells. To determine the genes in wt RABV that confer sensitivity to IFN-? treatment, the P and the glycoprotein (G) genes from the wt RABV were used to replace the respective genes in the lab-adapted RABV. The results revealed that it is the P, not the G, gene that is associated with IFN sensitivity. Further studies have identified the regions containing the self-association domain (residues 59-139) and the C-terminal (residue 175-297) region on the P that might be associated with IFN sensitivity. The expression of ISGs, such as ISG15, ISG56, PKR, OAS-1G, was also investigated and found to be greatly increased in wt, but not in lab-adapted RABV-infected cells. It is possible that the P protein from the lab-adapted RABV can interfere with the downstream events in the interferon-signaling cascade.
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone malignancy with a high propensity for local invasion and distant metastasis. Limited by the severe toxicity of conventional agents, the therapeutic bottleneck of osteosarcoma still remains unconquered. Flavokawain B (FKB), a kava extract, has been reported to have significant anti-tumor effects on several carcinoma cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Its efficacy and low toxicity profile make FKB a promising agent for use as a novel chemotherapeutic agent.
Low-frequency stimulation (LFS) is emerging as a new option for the treatment of epilepsy. The present study was designed to determine whether there is a crucial period for the treatment of epileptogenesis with LFS. LFS was delivered at different time-points to evaluate its anti-epileptogenic effect on amygdala-kindling rats. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose small-animal positron-emission tomography (microPET) and multi-channel EEG recording (MER) were used to investigate the dynamics of brain networks during epileptogenesis and LFS treatment. Interestingly, LFS delivered in the first 7 days significantly retarded the progression of behavioral seizure stages and shortened the afterdischarge duration (ADD), LFS delivered throughout the whole process resulted in similar effects. However, if LFS was delivered at the beginning of seizure stage 2 or 3 (5 ± 0.3 days during kindling acquisition), it had no anti-epileptogenic effect and even prolonged the ADD and enhanced synchronization of the EEGs. MicroPET study revealed a notable hypometabolism in the amygdala, piriform cortex, entorhinal cortex and other regions in the limbic system during the period from seizure stage 0 to stage 2 or 3. The glucose metabolism in those regions was specifically increased by LFS. MER further verified that an early network of afterdischarge spread was formed in those brain regions during kindling acquisition. Thus, we provided direct evidence that modulation of the early network in the limbic system is crucial for the anti-epileptogenic effect of LFS in amygdaloid-kindling rats.
The absence of safe and reliable methods to harvest vascular tissue in situ limits the discovery of the underlying genetic and pathophysiological mechanisms of many vascular disorders such as aneurysms. We investigated the feasibility and comparable efficacy of endothelial cell collection using a spectrum of endovascular coils. Nine detachable coils ranging in k coefficient (0.15-0.24), diameter (4.0 mm-16.0 mm), and length (8.0 cm-47.0 cm) were tested in pigs. All coils were deployed and retrieved within the iliac artery of pigs (three coils/pig). Collected coils were evaluated under light microscopy. The total and endothelial cells collected by each coil were quantified. The nucleated cells were identified by Wright-Giemsa and DAPI stains. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells were identified by CD31 and ?-smooth muscle actin antibody staining. Coils were deployed and retrieved without technical difficulty. Light microscopy demonstrated sheets of cellular material concentrated within the coil winds. All coils collected cellular material while five of nine (55.6%) coils retrieved endothelial cells. Coils collected mean endothelial cell counts of 89.0±101.6. Regression analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between increasing coil diameter and endothelial cell counts (R(2)=0.52, p = 0.029). Conventional detachable coils can be used to harvest endothelial cells. The number of endothelial cells collected by a coil positively correlated with its diameter. Given the widespread use of coils and their well-described safety profile their potential as an endovascular biopsy device would expand the availability of tissue for cellular and molecular analysis.
The challenges entailed in dental Medicaid programs are well documented. To increase our understanding of Medicaid participation, we surveyed Florida dentists to determine the demographic and practice characteristics of Medicaid-participating dentists.
The aim of this study was to design and synthesize a polymeric nanocarrier system loaded with both superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and the anticancer drug evodiamine through a solvent evaporation technique. The hydrodynamic diameter of the prepared SPION-evodiamine-loaded nanocarrier was approximately 261nm, and the drug-loading content and encapsulation efficiency were 8.61±0.73% and 40.36±3.42%, respectively. The nanocarrier exhibited good superparamagnetism and an iron content of approximately 9.34%. In vitro drug release experiments showed a sustained release profile over 70h. Staining with Prussian blue confirmed that the nanocarrier could be effectively internalized into HeLa cells. MTT assays indicated that the SPION-evodiamine-loaded nanocarrier showed cytotoxicity comparable to that of free evodiamine. If an external magnetic field was applied, the SPION-loaded nanocarrier accumulated at the targeted sites and demonstrated a magnetic force-mediated targeting property with the aid of a magnetic field. Furthermore, the SPION-evodiamine-loaded nanocarrier exhibited a much higher in vivo antitumor efficacy than free evodiamine. Together, these results indicate that the SPION-evodiamine-loaded nanocarrier could effectively inhibit tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo with reduced toxicity, and therefore is a promising candidate to achieve enhanced therapeutic efficacy for clinical development.
The degree of health disparities present in rural communities is of growing concern and is considered "urgent" since rural residents lag behind their urban counterparts in health status. Understanding the prevalence and type of chronic diseases in rural communities is often difficult since Americans living in rural areas are reportedly less likely to have access to quality health care, although there are some exceptions. Data suggest that rural residents are more likely to engage in higher levels of behavioral and health risk-taking than urban residents, and newer evidence suggests that there are differences in health risk behavior within rural subgroups. The objective of this report is to characterize the prevalence of four major and costly chronic diseases (diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and arthritis) and putative risk factors including depressive symptoms within an understudied rural region of the United States. These four chronic conditions remain among the most common and preventable of health problems across the United States.
The activation of telomerase in unstable plaques is an important factor in atherosclerosis, and may be predictive of the risk of cerebrovascular diseases. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is a subunit of telomerase that is essential for telomerase activation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether aspirin inhibits the activation of telomerase and hTERT in unstable carotid plaques. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) derived from carotid plaques were isolated from the washing medium of angioplasty balloons, while circulating PMNs, isolated from arterial blood, served as the controls. A polymerase chain reaction-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the telomerase activity in the cells following treatment with aspirin. The mRNA and protein expression of hTERT were detected by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. The results revealed that the atherosclerotic plaques were positive for telomerase activity, and that aspirin inhibited the telomerase activity of the PMNs derived from the plaques. In addition, aspirin was demonstrated to inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of hTERT through the suppression of hTERT transcriptional activity; however, it had no inhibitory effect on the telomerase activity of the circulating PMNs. Thus, the activation of telomerase in resident PMNs is critical in the instability of carotid plaques. The upregulation of telomerase and hTERT during the progression of atherosclerosis may indicate a role for telomerase in the vascular remodeling that occurs during atherogenesis. Aspirin was demonstrated to inhibit the activation of telomerase via an hTERT-dependent manner in the PMN cells of unstable carotid plaques, and thus hTERT may be considered as a target in the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases.
Epidemiological studies have shown that tooth loss is associated with risk of head and neck cancer (HNC); however, the results were inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to ascertain the relationship between tooth loss and HNC.
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