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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Risk of Autism Associated With General Anesthesia During Cesarean Delivery: A Population-Based Birth-Cohort Analysis.
J Autism Dev Disord
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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The rates of Cesarean delivery (C-section) have risen to >30 % in numerous countries. Increased risk of autism has been shown in neonates delivered by C-section. This study examined the incidence of autism in neonates delivered vaginally, by C-section with regional anesthesia (RA), and by C-section with general anesthesia (GA) to evaluate the risk of autism associated with C-section and obstetric anesthesia. During a mean follow-up of 4.3 years, the incidence of autism was higher in neonates delivered by C-section with GA than in neonates delivered vaginally, with an adjusted risk of 1.52 (95 % confidence interval 1.18-1.94). However, the adjusted risk of autism in neonates delivered by C-section with RA and in neonates delivered vaginally was nonsignificantly different.
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rs10865331 associated with susceptibility and disease severity of ankylosing spondylitis in a Taiwanese population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a highly familial rheumatic disorder and is considered as a chronic inflammatory disease. Genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of AS. To identify genes which render people susceptible to AS in a Taiwanese population, we selected six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) which were associated with AS in European descendants and Han Chinese. To assess whether the six SNPs contributed to AS susceptibility and severity in Taiwanese population, 475 AS patients fulfilling the modified New York Criteria and 527 healthy subjects were recruited. We found that rs10865331 was significantly associated with AS susceptibility and with Bath AS Function Index (BASFI). The AA and AG genotypes of rs10865331 were also significantly associated with a higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Our findings provided evidence that rs10865331 is associated AS susceptibility and with disease activity (BASFI) in a Taiwanese population.
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Determining delayed admission to intensive care unit for mechanically ventilated patients in the emergency department.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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The adverse effects of delayed admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) have been recognized in previous studies. However, the definitions of delayed admission varies across studies. This study proposed a model to define "delayed admission", and explored the effect of ICU-waiting time on patients' outcome.
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o-Amino Analogs of GFP Chromophore: Photoisomerization, Photodimerization, and Aggregation-Induced Emission.
Photochem. Photobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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The photochemical properties of three o-amino analogs of the GFP chromophore O0, O1, and O8 (o-ABDIs) have been investigated and compared with those of the m- and p-amino isomers (m-ABDIs and p-ABDIs) in solutions, aggregates, and the solid state. In aprotic solvents, the fluorescence competes with the Z ? E photoisomerization for all cases, and the o-ABDIs display a fluorescence quantum efficiency of 1-6%, lying between the m-ABDIs of 5-48% and the p-ABDIs of < 0.1%. The fluorescence of both the o- and m-ABDIs is nearly quenched in protic solvents, attributable to the solvent-solute hydrogen bonding (SSHB) interactions. The phenomenon of aggregation-induced emission observed for O8 in poor solvents resembles the behavior of M8 as a consequence of exclusion of the SSHB interactions and restriction of internal rotation for molecules located inside the aggregates. The occurrence of [2+2] photodimerization for O0 in the solid state is unique among the ABDIs, and the X-ray crystal structures of O0 and the photodimer OD reveal the head-to-tail syn-oriented stereochemistry. Analysis on the X-ray crystal structures of O0, O1, M0, M1, and P0 shows that not only the pairwise topochemical geometry but also the columnar packing mode is important in determining the photodimerization reactivity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Hemicarceplex formation allows ready identification of the isomers of the metallofullerene Sc3N@C80 using (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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A cyclotriveratrylene-based molecular cage forms hemicarceplexes that significantly increase the solubility of commercially available Sc3N@C80 in CDCl3. When incarcerated within the molecular cage, the two structural isomers of this metallofullerene, Sc3N@D5h-C80 and Sc3N@Ih-C80, displayed characteristic signals in both (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra, allowing direct identification of each isomer without the need to enrich the sample with (13)C atoms.
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(±)3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine inhibits the TEA-sensitive K(+) current in the hippocampal neuron and the Kv2.1 current expressed in H1355 cells.
Neuropharmacology
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The whole-cell patch clamp method was used to study the effects of (±)3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) in hippocampal CA1 neurons from neonatal rats and in lung epithelial H1355 cells expressing Kv2.1. Extracellular application of MDA (30 ?M) induced bursts of action potentials in hippocampal CA1 neurons exhibiting single spike action potentials without a bursting firing pattern, and promoted action potential bursts in hippocampal CA1 neurons exhibiting bursting firing of action potentials. Whereas MDA (30 and 100 ?M) markedly decreased the delayed outward current in hippocampal CA1 neurons, MDA (100 ?M) only slightly decreased the fast-inactivating K(+) current (IA) current. Furthermore, MDA (100 ?M) substantially decreased the delayed outward current in the presence of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 3 mM), but did not significantly decrease the delayed outward current in the presence of tetraethylammonium (TEA; 30 mM). MDA (100 ?M) also inhibited the current in H1355 cells expressing Kv2.1. Our results have shown that MDA inhibits the TEA-sensitive K(+) current in the hippocampus and the Kv2.1 current expressed in H1355 cells. These effects may contribute to the pharmacological and toxicological effects of MDA.
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CHRNA9 polymorphisms and smoking exposure synergize to increase the risk of breast cancer in Taiwan.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Previous studies indicated that smoking exposure is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and ?9-nicotine acetylcholine receptors (?9-nAChRs) are involved in breast tumorigenesis. However, no studies have explored the joint effect of ?9-nAChRs (CHRNA9) genes and cigarette smoking exposure on breast cancer risk. A case-control study was conducted on 737 breast cancer patients and 719 age-matched healthy controls. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CHRNA9 located in the promoter region were genotyped and compared between cases and controls to identify those SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility. A dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to analyze the promoter activities of these SNPs of the CHRNA9 gene. After a Bonferroni correction, the G allele of the CHRNA9 rs7329797 SNP was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer compared with A/A genotype carriers (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.6). A multiplicative interaction between passive smoking exposure and the CHRNA9 rs73229797 SNP on the risk of breast malignancy was observed. A functional assay further showed that rs73229797 was associated with increased promoter activity of the CHRNA9 gene. Our findings support a significant interaction effect existing between the CHRNA9 gene and smoking exposure on the risk of breast cancer development.
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Combined effects of GSTO1 and SULT1A1 polymorphisms and cigarette smoking on urothelial carcinoma risk in a Taiwanese population.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB). Glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) have been reported to be associated with the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic amines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of polymorphisms in GSTO1 and SULT1A1 genes and cigarette smoking on UCB risk in a Taiwanese population.
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Clinical research of mortality in emergency air medical transport.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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EAMT in Taiwan has experienced increasing demand in the past few years. The objective is to analyze the trend of EAMT in the past six years and mortality rate within three days of patients undergoing interfacility transport in Taiwan.
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An Evaluation of Electroacupuncture at the Weizhong Acupoint (BL-40) as a Means of Relieving Pain Induced by Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Background. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the preferred option for urolithiasis treatment. However, intensities of pain may be induced and the sedative anesthetic or analgesics were usually needed. The aim of this study was to develop an improved acupuncture-assisted anesthesia approach in pain relief. Methods. We conducted a single-blind, randomized controlled study in China Medical University Hospital. Patients treated by ESWL due to upper urolithiasis were randomly divided into control group, sham-EA group, and 100?Hz EA group. The high frequency electroacupuncture (EA) was applied at the Weizhong acupoint (100?Hz EA group) for 20 minutes prior to the ESWL. In the sham-EA group, the same procedures were performed as those of 100?Hz EA group but no electric current was given to stimulate the acupoints. In the control group, no action was taken before operation. The information including the numbers and dosage of analgesic requirements, pain score, vital signs, and the satisfaction of procedure was collected. Results. A total of 74 subjects were recruited and we found that the interval to the first request analgesic, the number/total dosage of additional analgesic, recovery time from anesthesia, and the satisfaction were all better in both the 100?Hz EA and the sham-EA group. The 100?Hz EA also showed better relief of painful sensations by delaying the onset of pain. Conclusions. The 100?Hz EA and the sham-EA can effectively relieve pain due to ESWL as well as reducing the dosage of opium analgesic used.
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Coordination Chemistry of Highly Hemilabile Bidentate Sulfoxide N-Heterocyclic Carbenes with Palladium(II).
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Imidazolium salts, [RS(O)?CH2 (C3 H3 N2 )Mes]Cl (R=Me (L1?a), Ph (L1?b)); Mes=mesityl), make convenient carbene precursors. Palladation of L1?a affords the monodentate dinuclear complex, [(PdCl2 {MeS(O)CH2 (C3 H2 N2 )Mes})2 ] (2?a), which is converted into trans-[PdCl2 (NHC)2 ] (trans-4?a; N-heterocyclic carbene) with two rotamers in anti and syn configurations. Complex trans-4?a can isomerize into cis-4?a(anti) at reflux in acetonitrile. Abstraction of chlorides from 4?a or 4?b leads to the formation of a new dication: trans-[Pd{RS(O)CH2 (C3 H2 N2 )Mes}2 ](PF6 )2 (R=Me (5?a), Ph (5?b)). The X-ray structure of 5?a provides evidence that the two bidentate SO?NHC ligands at palladium(II) are in square-planar geometry. Two sulfoxides are sulfur- and oxygen-bound, and constitute five- and six-membered chelate rings with the metal center, respectively. In acetonitrile, complexes 5?a or 5?b spontaneously transform into cis-[Pd(NHC)2 (NCMe)2 ](PF6 )2 . Similar studies of thioether-NHCs have also been examined for comparison. The results indicate that sulfoxides are more labile than thioethers.
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0138?The association of blood lead levels and bone density in different combinational SNP polymorphisms among Taiwan lead workers.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Past researches almost explored the relationship between a single gene with a single disease. Our study aims to investigate into the interaction of multi-gene with a single disease by using Genetic Algorithms.
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0077?Reconstruction of exposed cohort and cumulative dose of radio-contaminated building residents for epidemiological study - Updated information.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The purpose of this study is to reconstruct of RCB cohort and to survey occupancy factors for estimation of cumulative dose in study of health risk of Radio-contaminated building (RCB) occupants.
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0029?A Study of Blood Multi-element Concentrations in Lead-exposed and Non-exposed Workers.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Both lead recycling and lead-containing paint are the main source of lead exposure. During the lead industrial processes, the workers exposed to many elements including non-essential elements and essential elements. The aim of this study was to compare lead (Pb) with cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) in blood between lead-exposed and non-exposed workers.
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The efficacy and safety of cilostazol in ischemic stroke patients with peripheral arterial disease (SPAD): protocol of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial.
Int J Stroke
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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It is not uncommon for patients with ischemic stroke to have peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients with polyvascular diseases carry greater burden of atherosclerosis and higher risks of developing vascular events and death. More effective regimens, such as dual antiplatelet agents, may be more effective for controlling progression of atherosclerosis in secondary prevention.
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Antipruritic effect of cold stimulation at the Quchi acupoint (LI11) in mice.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Acupuncture and moxibustion are used to treat pruritus and atopic dermatitis. However, whether cold stimulation (defined as that the temperature conducted under skin temperature) of acupoints affects itching in experimental murine models remains unclear.
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Excimer Formation in a Confined Space: Photophysics of Ladderphanes with Tetraarylethylene Linkers.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Communication between chromophores is vital for both natural and non-natural photophysical processes. Spatial confinements offer unique conditions to scrutinize such interactions. Polynorbornene- and polycyclobutene-based ladderphanes are ideal model compounds in which all tetraarylethylene (TAE) linkers are aligned coherently. The spans for each of the monomeric units in these ladderphanes are 4.5-5.5?Å. Monomers do not exhibit emission, because bond rotation in TAE can quench the excited-state energy. However, polymers emit at 493?nm (?=0.015) with large Stokes shift under ambient conditions and exhibit dual emission at 450 and 493?nm at 150?K. When the temperature is lowered, the emission intensity at 450?nm increases, whereas that at 493?nm decreases. At 100?K, both monomers and polymers emit only at 450?nm. This shorter-wavelength emission arises from the intrinsic emission of TAE chromophore, and the emission at 493?nm could be attributed to the excimer emission in the confined space of ladderphanes. The fast kinetics suggest diffusion-controlled formation of the excimer.
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Scratching activates microglia in the mouse spinal cord.
J. Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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This study tested the hypothesis that repetitive scratching provoked by two known pruritogens, compound 48/80 and 5'-guanidinonaltrindole (GNTI), is accompanied by activation of microglial cells in the mouse spinal cord. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the complement receptor 3, also known as cluster determinant 11b (CD11b), a cell surface marker of microglial cells, was upregulated in the spinal cord 10-30 min after a subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of compound 48/80 (50 ?g/100 ?l) or GNTI (0.3 mg/kg) to the back of the mouse neck. Numerous intensely labeled CD11b-immunoreactive (CD11b-ir) cells, with the appearance of hypertrophic reactive microglia, were distributed throughout the gray and white matter. In contrast, weakly labeled CD11b-ir cells were distributed in the spinal cord from mice injected with saline. Western blots showed that CD11b expression levels were significantly increased in spinal cords of mice injected s.c. with either pruritogen, reached a peak response in about 30 min, and declined to about the basal level in the ensuing 60 min. In addition, phospho-p38 (p-p38) but not p38 levels were upregulated in spinal cords from mice injected with compound 48/80 or GNTI, with a time course parallel to that of CD11b expression. Pretreatment of the mice with nalfurafine (20 µg/kg; s.c.), a ?-opioid receptor agonist that has been shown to suppress scratching, reduced CD11b and p-p38 expression induced by either pruritogen. The results demonstrate, for the first time, that scratch behavior induced by the pruritogens GNTI and compound 48/80 is accompanied by a parallel activation of microglial cells in the spinal cord. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Clinical efficacy of acupuncture as an adjunct to methadone treatment services for heroin addicts: a randomized controlled trial.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Scant scientific evidence supports the efficacy of acupuncture in the treatment of opiate dependence. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of acupuncture for heroin addicts on methadone maintenance by measuring the daily consumption of methadone, variations in the 36-item Short Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores, and heroin craving. Sixty heroin addicts were randomly assigned to true acupuncture (electroacupuncture at the Hegu [LI4] and Zusanli [ST36] acupoints, as well as acupuncture at the Ear Shenmen) or sham acupuncture (minimal acupuncture at the Hegu and Zusanli acupoints without electrical stimulation and superficial acupuncture at the Ear Shenmen), twice weekly for 4 weeks. From week 2 onwards, the daily dose of methadone was reduced by a significantly greater amount with true acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture. True acupuncture was also associated with a greater improvement in sleep latency at follow-up. All adverse events were mild in severity. Acupuncture appears to be a useful adjunct to methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in heroin addiction.
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Changes in biophysical properties of the skin following radiotherapy for breast cancer.
J. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Acute radiation dermatitis is a common adverse effect in patients undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer. However, the effects of radiotherapy on biophysical properties of the skin have rarely been investigated. In this prospective cohort study, we seek to determine the effects of radiotherapy for breast cancer on skin biophysical parameters. We measured various skin biophysical parameters (skin hydration, pH, sebum level, pigmentation, and blood flow) in 144 breast cancer patients by non-invasive techniques before and after radiotherapy. The measurements were simultaneously performed on the irradiated breast and the corresponding contralateral unirradiated breast for comparison. Following radiotherapy, the irradiated breast showed a significant decrease in skin hydration, increase in skin pH, increase in pigmentation, and increase in cutaneous blood flow. The contralateral unirradiated breast showed a slight increase in pigmentation but no significant changes in any of the other biophysical parameters after radiotherapy. No significant associations were found between patient characteristics (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, type of surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy) and changes in skin biophysical parameters following radiotherapy. In conclusion, radiation therapy for breast cancer induces measurable and significant changes in biophysical properties of the skin including hydration, pH, pigmentation, and blood flow. These findings give us a greater understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation on skin physiology, and provide non-invasive and objective methods to assess radiation dermatitis.
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Cirrhosis as a risk factor for tuberculosis infection--a nationwide longitudinal study in Taiwan.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Tuberculosis (TB) and cirrhosis of the liver are both endemic in many regions of the world. However, the risk of TB in cirrhotic patients has rarely been investigated. A nationwide cohort study was conducted to elucidate and characterize the association between cirrhosis and TB in Taiwan. The study included 41,076 cirrhotic patients and 204,244 noncirrhotic controls from 1998 through 2007. Cirrhotic and noncirrhotic subjects were matched 1:5 on age and sex. A total of 957 of 41,076 (2.32%) cirrhotic patients developed TB, yielding a rate that was significantly higher than that of the 955 of 204,244 (0.46%) noncirrhotic patients (P < 0.001). In a Cox regression model adjusted for age, sex, and underlying medical disorders, a significantly higher active TB rate was maintained for cirrhotic patients compared with their noncirrhotic counterparts (adjusted hazard ratio = 3.55, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.08, 4.09; P < 0.001). Alcoholism and hepatitis C infection were associated with significantly higher TB risk with adjust hazard ratios of 2.18 (95% CI: 1.86, 4.09; P < 0.001) and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.30; P < 0.001), respectively. Cirrhotic patients have a greater risk of TB than noncirrhotic patients, particularly those with alcoholism and hepatitis C infection.
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ADSC therapy in neurodegenerative disorders.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Neurodegenerative disorders, chronic diseases that can severely affect the patient's daily life, include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. However, these diseases all have the common characteristic that they are due to degenerative irreversibility, and thus no efficient drugs or therapy methods can mitigate symptoms completely. Stem cell therapy, such as adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), is a promising treatment for incurable disorders. In this review, we summarized the previous studies using ADSCs to treat neurodegenerative disorders, as well as their therapeutic mechanisms. We also suggested possible expectations for future human clinical trials involving minimized intracerebroventricular combined with intravenous administration, using different cell lineages to finish complementary therapy as well as change the extracellular matrix to create a homing niche. Depending on successful experiments in relevant neurodegenerative disorders models, this could form the theoretical basis for future human clinical trials.
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Stroke: morbidity, risk factors, and care in taiwan.
J Stroke
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Stroke is the third leading cause of death and the most common cause of complex disability in Taiwan. The annual age-standardized mortality rate of stroke is steadily decreasing between 2001 and 2012. The average years of potential life lost before age 70 for stroke is 13.8 years, ranked the fifth in the cause of death. Its national impact is predicted to be greater accompany aging population. The most common type of stroke was ischemic stroke in Taiwan. Small vessel occlusion was the majority of ischemic strokes subtype. Age, gender, hypertension, diabetes hyperlipidemia, obesity, atrial fibrillation, and smoking were important contributory factors to stroke morbidity. The standard treatment for acute ischemic stroke in Taiwan is providing the intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) therapy for ischemic stroke patients within 3 hours of symptom onset. However, the rate of IV tPA therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke is still low in Taiwan. Therefore, improving the public awareness of stroke warning signs and act on stroke and improving in-hospital critical pathway for thrombolysis would be the most important and urgent issues in Taiwan. To improve acute stroke care quality, a program of Breakthrough Series-Stroke activity was conducted from 2010 to 2011 and stroke centers were established in the medical centers. For the prevention of stroke, it was successful to increased annual smoke cessation rate through the 2009 Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act and decreased obesity rate through a nationwide weight-loss program conducted by Health Promotion Administration from 2011 to 2013 in Taiwan.
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Emotion recognition from single-trial EEG based on kernel Fisher's emotion pattern and imbalanced quasiconformal kernel support vector machine.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Electroencephalogram-based emotion recognition (EEG-ER) has received increasing attention in the fields of health care, affective computing, and brain-computer interface (BCI). However, satisfactory ER performance within a bi-dimensional and non-discrete emotional space using single-trial EEG data remains a challenging task. To address this issue, we propose a three-layer scheme for single-trial EEG-ER. In the first layer, a set of spectral powers of different EEG frequency bands are extracted from multi-channel single-trial EEG signals. In the second layer, the kernel Fisher's discriminant analysis method is applied to further extract features with better discrimination ability from the EEG spectral powers. The feature vector produced by layer 2 is called a kernel Fisher's emotion pattern (KFEP), and is sent into layer 3 for further classification where the proposed imbalanced quasiconformal kernel support vector machine (IQK-SVM) serves as the emotion classifier. The outputs of the three layer EEG-ER system include labels of emotional valence and arousal. Furthermore, to collect effective training and testing datasets for the current EEG-ER system, we also use an emotion-induction paradigm in which a set of pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) are employed as emotion induction stimuli. The performance of the proposed three-layer solution is compared with that of other EEG spectral power-based features and emotion classifiers. Results on 10 healthy participants indicate that the proposed KFEP feature performs better than other spectral power features, and IQK-SVM outperforms traditional SVM in terms of the EEG-ER accuracy. Our findings also show that the proposed EEG-ER scheme achieves the highest classification accuracies of valence (82.68%) and arousal (84.79%) among all testing methods.
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Increased risk of stroke among patients with ulcerative colitis: a population-based matched cohort study.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and the development of atherosclerosis are increased in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one type of IBD; however, there is controversy in the literature regarding the association between UC and stroke. The present cohort study estimated the risk of subsequent stroke among UC patients compared with that among matched comparison subjects drawn from a population-based data set in Taiwan.
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Photocatalytic characteristic and photodegradation kinetics of toluene using N-doped TiO2 modified by radio frequency plasma.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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This study investigates the feasibility of applications of the plasma surface modification of photocatalysts and the removal of toluene from indoor environments. N-doped TiO2 is prepared by precipitation methods and calcined using a muffle furnace (MF) and modified by radio frequency plasma (RF) at different temperatures with light sources from a visible light lamp (VLL), a white light-emitting diode (WLED) and an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UVLED). The operation parameters and influential factors are addressed and prepared for characteristic analysis and photo-decomposition examination. Furthermore, related kinetic models are established and used to simulate the experimental data. The characteristic analysis results show that the RF plasma-calcination method enhanced the Brunauer Emmett Teller surface area of the modified photocatalysts effectively. For the elemental analysis, the mass percentages of N for the RF-modified photocatalyst are larger than those of MF by six times. The aerodynamic diameters of the RF-modifiedphotocatalyst are all smaller than those of MF. Photocatalytic decompositions of toluene are elucidated according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Decomposition efficiencies (eta) of toluene for RF-calcined methods are all higher than those of commercial TiO2 (P25). Reaction kinetics ofphoto-decomposition reactions using RF-calcined methods with WLED are proposed. A comparison of the simulation results with experimental data is also made and indicates good agreement. All the results provide useful information and design specifications. Thus, this study shows the feasibility and potential use of plasma modification via LED in photocatalysis.
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Redox chemistry of a hydroxyphenyl-substituted borane.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Chemical reduction of a hydroxyphenyl-substituted borane triggers a sequential electron- and intramolecular hydrogen-atom-transfer process to afford a hydridoborate phenoxide dianion. On the other hand, hydrogen-atom abstraction of the borane leads to the isolation of a neutral borylated phenoxyl radical, which can be transformed to the corresponding benzoquinone borataalkene derivative by reduction with cobaltocene.
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The possible role of stem cells in acupuncture treatment for neurodegenerative diseases: a literature review of basic studies.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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This review reports on recent findings concerning the effects of acupuncture and electroacupuncture (EA) on stem cell mobilization and differentiation, in particular with regard to neurogenesis. Traditional Chinese acupuncture has a history of over 2,500 years and is becoming more popular worldwide. Evidence has demonstrated that acupuncture may be of benefit in stroke rehabilitation, parkinsonism, dementia, and depression. This article reviews recent studies concerning the effects of acupuncture/EA on stem cell mobilization and on progenitor cell proliferation in the CNS. The reviewed evidence indicates that acupuncture/EA has beneficial effects in several neurodegenerative diseases, and it may prove to be a nondrug method for mobilizing stem cells in the CNS.
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A germline missense mutation in COQ6 is associated with susceptibility to familial schwannomatosis.
Genet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Schwannomatosis, a subtype of neurofibromatosis, is characterized by multiple benign, nonvestibular, nonintradermal schwannomas. Although the tumor suppressor SMARCB1 gene has been frequently identified as the underlying genetic cause of half of familial and ~10% of sporadic schwannomatosis, for most other cases, further causative genes remain to be discovered. Herein, we characterize the genome of a schwannomatosis family without constitutional inactivation of the SMARCB1 gene to explore novel genomic alterations predisposing individuals to the familial disease.
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Liver function tests may be useful tools for advanced cancer patient care: a preliminary single-center result.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Accurate prognostication in advanced cancer may facilitate better palliative care. An objective marker may be more applicable and appropriate than a subjective evaluation by physicians. The aim of this study was to evaluate liver function tests as useful prognostic factors for survival in patients with advanced cancer. We recruited advanced cancer patients from January 2007 to December 2009. Data on age, sex, cancer diagnosis, site of metastases, clinical symptoms, and performance status were collected at the time of admission to the palliative care unit. Analyzed laboratory data were obtained on the Day 1 of admission to the palliative care unit. A total of 522 patients were enrolled; 322 (61.7%) of them were males. The mean age was 60.6 ± 13.2 years. Multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for age and sex demonstrated aspartate transaminase (AST) > 80 IU/L [odds ratio (OR) = 2.01, p = 0.010] and alanine transaminase > 80 IU/L (OR = 1.89, p = 0.047) were independently significant prognostic factors of death within 14 days. AST > 80 IU/L (OR = 3.67, p = 0.017) and albumin < 3.0 g/dL (OR = 1.98, p = 0.048) were independently significant prognostic factors of death within 6 months. Liver function tests may be useful prognostic factors for patients in the palliative care unit, in addition to being useful for patients with hepatobiliary cancer or liver metastasis. These biochemical tests of liver function with cutoff values can easily be used in palliative care.
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The impact of HAART initiation timing on HIV-TB co-infected patients, a retrospective cohort study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Optimal timing for initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-TB coinfected patients is challenging for clinicians. We aim to evaluate the impact of different timing of HAART initiation on TB outcome of HIV-infected adults in Taiwan.
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Association between plasma levels of hyaluronic acid and functional outcome in acute stroke patients.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Activation of hyaluronic acid (HA) and associated enzyme synthesis has been demonstrated in experimental stroke animal models. Our study aimed to investigate the plasma levels of HA in acute stroke patients and the associations between HA levels and functional outcome.
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Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic colorectal polyps in taiwan.
Gastroenterol Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Purpose. To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of hyperplastic and adenomatous colorectal polyps in a Taiwanese general population. Methods. From January 2009 to December 2011, consecutive asymptomatic subjects undergoing a routine health check-up were evaluated by colonoscopy. The colorectal polyps were assessed, and medical history and demographic data were obtained from each patient. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to search the independent risk factors for asymptomatic hyperplastic and adenomatous colorectal polyps. Results. Of the 1899 asymptomatic subjects, the prevalences of hyperplastic polyps and adenomatous polyps were 11.1% and 16.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that high body mass index (BMI > 25: OR, 1.32, 95% CI, 1.05-1.71) and current smoking (OR, 1.87, 95% CI, 1.42-2.71) were independent predictors for hyperplastic colorectal polyps. Age over 60 years old (OR, 3.49, 95% CI, 1.86-6.51), high body mass index (BMI > 25: OR, 1.75, 95% CI, 1.21-2.71), heavy alcohol consumption (OR, 2.01, 95% CI, 1.02-3.99), and current smoking (OR, 1.31, 95% CI, 1.04-1.58) were independent predictors for adenomatous colorectal polyps. Conclusion. High BMI and smoking are common risk factors for both adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. Old age and alcohol consumption are additional risk factors for the development of adenomatous polyps.
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Interleukin 10 and clustering of metabolic syndrome components in pediatrics.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Interleukin 10 (IL-10) has multifaceted anti-inflammatory properties that are known to regulate insulin sensitivity and atherosclerotic development. However, studies in children are limited and have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether changes in this circulating anti-inflammatory cytokine is a marker for metabolic syndrome.
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Maternal diabetes or hypertension and lifestyle factors may be associated with metabolic syndrome: a population-based study in Taiwan.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Early detection and interventions for metabolic syndrome (MetS) are the most cost-effective methods for preventing many chronic diseases. There have been discordant findings in various countries due to different genetics and lifestyles. The goal of this study was to investigate the association of MetS with parental diseases, a Chinese-style diet, and rural-urban regional differences with a large-scale epidemiological survey in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Taiwanese Survey on Hypertension, Hyperglycemia, and Hyperlipidemia (TwSHHH), a cross-sectional population-based study with multistage stratified random sampling conducted by the Taiwan Bureau of Health Promotion in 2002. Public health nurses visited homes to conduct the survey, including blood drawing and an interview. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used for exploring the factors associated with MetS. A total of 6591 people completed data for analysis. Our results revealed that older age, male sex, and maternal diabetes or hypertension, were significantly associated with MetS. Eating poultry with skin and fat and eating a bean-free diet may be associated with a higher risk of MetS. People who exercised regularly and the residents of the Taipei metropolitan area had a lower prevalence of MetS. As a result, people with maternal diabetes or hypertension should pay attention to their cardiovascular health and prevention of MetS. We suggest that eating skinless and low-fat poultry, eating more beans, and exercising regularly, may decrease the risk of MetS. We should make an effort to advocate for health promotion, including lifestyle modification, especially among the high-risk population and among residents in rural areas with limited medical resources.
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Interleukin-10 as a potential regulator of hepcidin homeostasis in overweight and obese children: a cross-sectional study in Taiwan.
Nutrition
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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A sharp increase in the prevalence of obesity and a decline in iron deficiency in children was observed between the two consecutive Nutrition and Health Surveys in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of hepcidin in relation to nutritional status in children.
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Female gender and acne disease are jointly and independently associated with the risk of major depression and suicide: a national population-based study.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Acne is a common disease in adolescence with female preponderance. It could cause poor self-esteem and social phobia. Previous studies based on questionnaires from several thousands of adolescents showed that acne is associated with major depression and suicide. However, the gender- and age-specific risk of depression and suicide in patients with acne remain largely unknown. Using a database from the National Health Insurance, which included 98% of the population of Taiwan in 2006, we identified patients of acne, major depression, and suicide based on ICD-9-CM codes. Totally 47111 patients with acne were identified (16568 males and 30543 females) from 1 million subjects. The youths of 7-12 years had the highest prevalence of acne (14.39%). Major depression was more common in those with acne (0.77%) than controls (0.56% , P < 0.0001) regardless of gender. Multiple logistic regression showed an increased risk of major depression in women without acne (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.75-1.96). The risk is additive in women with acne (OR = 2.78, 95% CI 2.43-3.17). Similar additive risk of suicide was noticed in women with acne. In conclusion, acne and gender, independently and jointly, are associated with major depression and suicide. Special medical support should be warranted in females with acne for the risk of major depression and suicide.
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Systematic Approach to Determination of Maximum Achievable Capture Capacity via Leaching and Carbonation Processes for Alkaline Steelmaking Wastes in a Rotating Packed Bed.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Accelerated carbonation of basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) coupled with cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was performed in a rotating packed bed (RPB) as a promising process for both CO2 fixation and wastewater treatment. The maximum achievable capture capacity (MACC) via leaching and carbonation processes for BOFS in an RPB was systematically determined throughout this study. The leaching behavior of various metal ions from the BOFS into the CRW was investigated by a kinetic model. In addition, quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) using the Rietveld method was carried out to determine the process chemistry of carbonation of BOFS with CRW in an RPB. According to the QXRD results, the major mineral phases reacting with CO2 in BOFS were Ca(OH)2, Ca2(HSiO4)(OH), CaSiO3, and Ca2Fe1.04Al0.986O5. Meanwhile, the carbonation product was identified as calcite according to the observations of SEM, XEDS, and mappings. Furthermore, the MACC of the lab-scale RPB process was determined by balancing the carbonation conversion and energy consumption. In that case, the overall energy consumption, including grinding, pumping, stirring, and rotating processes, was estimated to be 707 kWh/t-CO2. It was thus concluded that CO2 capture by accelerated carbonation of BOFS could be effectively and efficiently performed by coutilizing with CRW in an RPB.
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Relationship between peripheral artery disease and combined albuminuria and low estimated glomerular filtration rate among elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Diab Vasc Dis Res
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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This study aimed at investigating the combined effects of albuminuria and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on peripheral artery disease (PAD) among elderly patients with diabetes. A total of 236 subjects were cross-classified into four groups according to the presence or absence of albuminuria (urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) ? 30 mg/g) and low eGFR (<60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Cardiovascular risk factors and the ankle-brachial index (ABI) were also assessed. After multivariate adjustment using logistic regression analysis, the odds ratios (OR) for prevalent PAD related to albuminuria with preserved eGFR, normoalbuminuria with low eGFR and albuminuria with low eGFR compared to normoalbuminuria with preserved eGFR were 1.10 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.43-2.79], 3.14 (95% CI = 1.20-8.22) and 3.87 (95% CI = 1.72-8.72), respectively. In conclusion, in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes, both normoalbuminuria with low eGFR and albuminuria with low eGFR are associated independently with PAD.
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Vocational rehabilitation for enhancing return-to-work in workers with traumatic upper limb injuries.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Traumatic upper limb injury is a leading cause of work-related disability. After return-to-work (RTW), many survivors of injuries are able to regain a quality of life (QoL) comparable with the normal population. Since RTW plays an important role in economic productivity and regaining health-related QoL, enhancing RTW in workers with traumatic limb injuries is the primary goal of rehabilitation. Vocational rehabilitation has been adapted in the field of occupational safety and health to enhance the number of injured people returning to the labour market, prevent illness, increase well-being, and reduce disability.
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Single-trial EEG-based emotion recognition using kernel Eigen-emotion pattern and adaptive support vector machine.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Single-trial electroencephalography (EEG)-based emotion recognition enables us to perform fast and direct assessments of human emotional states. However, previous works suggest that a great improvement on the classification accuracy of valence and arousal levels is still needed. To address this, we propose a novel emotional EEG feature extraction method: kernel Eigen-emotion pattern (KEEP). An adaptive SVM is also proposed to deal with the problem of learning from imbalanced emotional EEG data sets. In this study, a set of pictures from IAPS are used for emotion induction. Results based on seven participants show that KEEP gives much better classification results than the widely-used EEG frequency band power features. Also, the adaptive SVM greatly improves classification performance of commonly-adopted SVM classifier. Combined use of KEEP and adaptive SVM can achieve high average valence and arousal classification rates of 73.42% and 73.57%. The highest classification rates for valence and arousal are 80% and 79%, respectively. The results are very promising.
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A Di-Substituted Boron Dication and Its Hydride-Induced Transformation to an NHC-Stabilized Borabenzene.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Give me a B: A stepwise chloride abstraction of [Cp*BCl2 (IMes)] resulted in the linear di-substituted boron dication [Cp*B(IMes)](2+) . The hypercoordinated boron dication, stabilized in the pentagonal pyramidal [C5 B](2+) cluster, reacts with superhydride to yield the N-heterocyclic carbene-stabilized borabenzene, [C5 Me5 B(IMes)].
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Chemical bond characterization of a mixed-valence tri-cobalt complex, Co3(?-admtrz)4(?-OH)2(CN)6·2H2O.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Charge density study of a mixed-valence tri-cobalt compound, Co3(?-admtrz)4(?-OH)2(CN)6·2H2O (1) (admtrz = 3,5-dimethyl-4-amino-1,2,4-triazole), is investigated based on high resolution X-ray diffraction data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The molecular structure of this compound contains three cobalt atoms in a linear fashion, where two terminal ones are Co(III) at a low-spin (LS) state and a central one is Co(II) at a high-spin (HS) state with a total spin quantum number, S(total), of 3/2. It is centrosymmetric with the center of inversion located at the central Co atom (Co2). The Co2 ion is linked with each terminal cobalt (Co1) ion through two ?-admtrz ligands and a ?-OH ligand in a CoN4O2 coordination, where the Co1 is bonded additionally to three CN ligands with CoN2OC3 coordination. The combined experimental and theoretical charge density study identifies the different characters of two types of cobalt ions; more pronounced charge concentration and depletion features in the valence shell charge concentration (VSCC) are found in the Co(III) ion than in the Co(II) ion, and d-orbital populations also show the difference. According to topological properties associated with the bond critical point (BCP), the Co1-C(N) bond is the strongest among all the Co-ligand bonds in this compound; the Co-O is stronger than Co-N bond. Again Co1-O is stronger than Co2-O, so as the Co1-N being stronger than Co2-N bond. The electronic configuration of each type of Co atom is further characterized through magnetic measurement, Co-specific X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), and X-ray emission spectra (XES).
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Reactions of Aromatic S- and O-Enynes with Two Methyl Substituents on the Olefinic Unit Assisted by a Ruthenium Complex: Tandem Cyclization and Product Selectivity.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Ruthenium-assisted cyclizations of two enynes, HC?CCH(OH)(C6 H4 )X?CH2 CH?CMe2 (X=S (1?a), O (1?b)), each of which contains two terminal methyl substituents on the olefinic parts, are explored. The reaction of 1?a in CH2 Cl2 gives the vinylidene complex 2?a from the first cyclization and two side products, 3?a and the carbene complex 4?a with a benzothiophene ligand. The same reaction in the presence of HBF4 affords 4?a exclusively. Air oxidation of 4?a in the presence of Et3 N readily gives an aldehyde product. In MeOH, tandem cyclizations of 1?a generate a mixture of the benzothiochromene compound 10?a and the carbene complex 7?a also with a benzothiochromene ligand. First, cyclization of 1?b likewise proceeds in CH2 Cl2 to give 2?b. Tandem cyclization of 1?b in MeOH yields comparable products 10?b and 7?b with benzochromene moieties, yet with no other side product. The reaction of [Ru]Cl with HC?CCH(OH)(C6 H4 )S?CH2 CH?CH2 (1?c), which contains no methyl substituent in the olefinic part, in MeOH gives the carbene complex 15?c with an unsubstituted thiochromene by means of a C?S bond formation. Structures of 3?a and 15?c are confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The presence of methyl groups of enynes 1?a and 1?b promotes sequential cyclization reactions that involve C?C bond formation through carbocationic species.
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Synthesis of a [2]catenane from the sodium ion templated orthogonal arrangement of two diethylene glycol chains.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Take five: Two dialdehydes, two diamines, one Na(+) ion have been used to generate a [2]catenane. This simple and efficient synthesis makes use of a Na(+) ion as a template to align in an orthogonal manner two diethylene glycol chains between the two amine groups (see scheme, TFPB(-) =tetrakis(3,5-trifluoromethylphenyl)borate).
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Increased risk of stroke among patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a population-based matched-cohort study.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease. Although two prior studies detected increased prevalence ratios of cerebrovascular disease among AS patients, the results of the two studies investigating AS and stroke are in conflict. Therefore, the present cohort study set out to estimate the risk of subsequent stroke in AS patients compared with matched controls using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. This investigation analyzed administrative claims data sourced from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database. Our study consisted of a study cohort comprising 1,479 AS patients and a comparison cohort of 5,916 subjects without AS. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to estimate the risk of subsequent stroke during the follow-up period. We also conducted additional analyses investigating the risk of subsequent stroke by gender and pharmaceutical prescription. After adjusting for chronic lower respiratory diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, renal disease, coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, income, and urbanization, compared with comparison patients, the hazard ratio for subsequent stroke among patients with AS was 2.3 (95 % CI 1.9-2.8). We also stratified our results by both gender and pharmaceutical prescription, but did not find a statistically significant difference for the risk of subsequent stroke either between men and women, or between AS patients taking various pharmaceutical regimens and the overall AS population. This is the first study to report an increased hazard ratio for subsequent stroke among AS patients when compared with matched comparison patients without AS.
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Associations Between Genetic Polymorphisms of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Survival of Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Patients Treated with 5-Fluorouracil-Based Chemotherapy.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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This retrospective cohort study investigated the association between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) polymorphisms and clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy.
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Oligohydramnios increases the risk of respiratory hospitalization in childhood: a population-based study.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Background:Pulmonary hypoplasia is associated with reduced lung function in infancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that children exposed to oligohydramnios display an increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory illness by using a population-based matched cohort design.Methods:We used 3 nationwide population-based data sets to identify 5228 women who gave birth during 2004 to 2007, and were diagnosed with oligohydramnios during the third trimester of pregnancy. A cohort of 20912 unaffected pregnant women was matched with these cases, according to neonatal sex and gestational age, maternal age and education, and level of prenatal care. Respiratory hospitalization and respiratory failure were defined using discharge diagnostic codes.Results:Oligohydramnios-exposed children had an 8% higher incidence rate of respiratory hospitalization, and an 80% higher incidence rate of respiratory failure, compared with children without oligohydramnios exposure. This risk remained after adjusting for all potential risk factors. Cox regression analyses indicated that the adjusted hazard ratios of respiratory hospitalization and respiratory failure were 1.07 (95% CI, 1.01-1.15, P = 0.030) and 2.20 (95% CI, 1.26-3.84, P = 0.005), respectively.Conclusion:Children exposed to oligohydramnios during the third trimester of pregnancy display an increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory illness.Pediatric Research (2013); doi:10.1038/pr.2013.247.
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The association of prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography and chronic lead exposure.
J. Occup. Environ. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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The aim of this study was to examine the association of lead exposure with cardiac conduction disturbance among lead-exposed and nonexposed workers in Taiwan.
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Pb(2+) induced IL-8 gene expression by extracellular signal-regulated kinases and the transcription factor, activator protein 1, in human gastric carcinoma cells.
Environ. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Divalent lead (Pb(2+) ) is a common industrial pollutant epidemiologically associated with gastric cancers. Pb(2+) was found to promote tumorigenesis, which may include interleukin (IL)-8, a pro-inflammatory chemokine that promotes angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. Given that the gastrointestinal tract is a major route of Pb(2+) exposure, we investigated the ability of Pb(2+) to induce IL-8 expression in gastric carcinoma cells and its underlying mechanism. At a concentration of 0.1 ?M, Pb(2+) induced IL-8 gene activation in gastric carcinoma AGS cells. Using a IL-8 promoter-deletion analysis, transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) was identified as a necessary component of Pb(2+) -induced IL-8 gene activation. Upregulation of the IL-8 gene was abrogated by the MEK inhibitor, PD98059, and partially suppressed by the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, AG1478 and PD153035. Furthermore, c-Jun protein expression was induced in cells treated with Pb(2+) , and overexpression of c-Jun enhanced Pb(2+) -induced IL-8 activation. Collectively, our findings highlight the pivotal roles of AP-1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in signal transduction of Pb(2+) -induced IL-8 gene activation. These molecules may be potential therapeutic targets for Pb(2+) -related inflammation leading to stomach carcinogenesis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013.
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Suppression of voltage-gated Na(+) channels and neuronal excitability by imperatorin.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2013
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Imperatorin is a naturally occurring furocoumarin compound isolated from plants such as Angelica archangelica and Cnidium monnieri. It has multiple pharmacological effects including anticonvulsant effects. Here we determined the effects of imperatorin on voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSC) using whole-cell patch clamp techniques in differentiated neuronal NG108-15 cells. We showed that imperatorin inhibited VGSC; such inhibition did not show state-dependence. Imperatorin caused a left shift in the steady-state inactivation curve without affecting activation gating. The inhibition of VGSC by imperatorin displayed a mild frequency-dependence. Imperatorin was also shown to inhibit VGSC and action potential amplitude without affecting voltage-gated K(+) channels in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. In conclusion, our results suggest that imperatorin dampens neuronal excitability by inhibiting VGSC.
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Adjuvant trastuzumab for 6 months is effective in patients with HER2-positive stage II or III breast cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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The optimal duration of adjuvant trastuzumab treatment in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 6 months of adjuvant trastuzumab treatment in patients with stage II or III HER2-positive breast cancer.
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Identification of TLR downstream pathways in stroke patients.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important molecules for detecting both pathogen invasion and tissue damage. The expression of TLR4 is upregulated in ischemic stroke, at least in the subacute stage. However, the TLR downstream pathways in the context of stroke have not been well studied in previous research. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the TLR4 downstream pathways following ischemic stroke.
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A comprehensive approach in hospice shared care in Taiwan: nonelderly patients have more physical, psychosocial and spiritual suffering.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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While symptomatic differences exist between younger and older advanced cancer patients, few studies have examined the differences in their care with respect to age. Our goals were to examine the influences of age differences on physical, psychosocial and spiritual distress among advanced cancer patients. Advanced cancer patients who resided in Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital during 2007-2008 were recruited. Data were collected through professional consultants. The influences of age variations on physical, psychosocial and spiritual distress in nonelderly (<60 years old) and elderly (?60 years old) patients were analyzed. A total of 1013 advanced cancer patients were included in the analyses with 467 nonelderly patients and 546 elderly patients. Nonelderly patients were identified to have a higher baseline pain level (4.0 vs. 2.8, p<0.001), breakthrough pain (19.3% vs. 9.9%, p<0.01), insomnia (6.4% vs. 2.7%, p=0.006), emotional distress (69.0% vs. 60.6%, p=0.013), and unwillingness to pass away because of concern for loved ones (18.8% vs. 11.9%, p=0.003) with significant difference. Elderly ones were concerned about unfulfilled wishes (29.7% vs. 18.4%, p<0.001) in spiritual concerns. After adjustments in regression models, nonelderly age (<60 years old) still revealed significant positive or negative impact on all categories of distress. Patients aged under 60 years have more physical, psychosocial and spiritual suffering. This study suggested that professional practitioners should provide intensive care for vulnerable terminally ill cancer patients.
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Pb(2+) induces gastrin gene expression by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and transcription factor activator protein 1 in human gastric carcinoma cells.
Environ. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Divalent lead ions (Pb(2+) ) are toxic environmental pollutants known to cause serious health problems in humans and animals. Absorption of Pb(2+) from air, water, and food takes place in the respiratory and digestive tracts. The ways in which absorbed Pb(2+) affects cell physiology are just beginning to be understood at the molecular level. Here, we used reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting to analyze cultures of human gastric carcinoma cells exposed to 10 ?M lead nitrate. We found that Pb(2+) induces gastrin hormone gene transcription and translation in a time-dependent manner. Promoter deletion analysis revealed that activator protein 1 (AP1) was necessary for gastrin gene transcription in cells exposed to Pb(2+) . MitogIen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059 suppressed the Pb(2+) -induced increase in messenger RNA. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors AG1478 and PD153035 reduced both transcription and phosphorylation by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Cells exposed to Pb(2+) also increased production of c-Jun protein, a component of AP1, and over-expression of c-Jun enhanced activation of the gastrin promoter. In sum, the findings suggest the EGFR-ERK1/2-AP1 pathway mediates the effects of Pb(2+) on gastrin gene activity in cell culture. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013.
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Ex Situ CO2 capture by carbonation of steelmaking slag coupled with metalworking wastewater in a rotating packed bed.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Both basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag and cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) exhibiting highly alkaline characteristics require stabilization and neutralization prior to utilization and/or final disposal. Using CO2 from flue gases as the stabilizing and neutralizing agents could also diminish CO2 emissions. In this investigation, ex situ hot stove gas containing 30 vol% CO2 in the steelmaking process was captured by accelerated carbonation of BOF slag coupled with CRW in a rotating packed bed (RPB). The developed RPB process exhibits superior results, with significant CO2 removal efficiency (?) of 96-99% in flue gas achieved within a short reaction time of 1 min at 25 °C and 1 atm. Calcite (CaCO3) was identified as the main product according to XRD and SEM-XEDS observations. In addition, the elimination of lime and Ca(OH)2 in the BOF slag during carbonation is beneficial to its further use as construction material. Consequently, the developed RPB process could capture the CO2 from the flue gas, neutralize the CRW, and demonstrate the utilization potential for BOF slag. It was also concluded that carbonation of BOF slag coupled with CRW in an RPB is a viable method for CO2 capture due to its higher mass transfer rate and CO2 removal efficiency in a short reaction time.
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Electroacupuncture Attenuates 5-Guanidinonaltrindole-Evoked Scratching and Spinal c-Fos Expression in the Mouse.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of electroacupuncture (EA) on compulsive scratching in mice and c-Fos expression elicited by subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of a known puritogen, 5-guanidinonaltrindole (GNTI) to the neck. Application of EA to Hegu (LI4) and Quchi (LI11) acupoints at 2?Hz, but not 100?Hz, attenuated GNTI-evoked scratching. In mice pretreated with the µ opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, EA 2?Hz did not attenuate GNTI-evoked scratching, whereas EA at 2?Hz did attenuate GNTI-evoked scratching in mice pretreated with the ? opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. Moreover, intradermal (i.d.) administration of the selective µ opioid receptor agonist [d-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin acetate (DAMGO) attenuated GNTI-evoked scratching behavior, while s.c. administration of DAMGO was ineffective. GNTI provoked c-Fos expression on the lateral side of the superficial layer of the dorsal horn of the cervical spinal cord. Application of 2?Hz EA to LI4 and LI11 decreased the number of c-Fos positive nuclei induced by GNTI. It may be concluded that application of 2?Hz EA to LI4 and LI11 attenuates scratching behavior induced by GNTI in mice and that the peripheral µ opioid system is involved, at least in part, in the anti-pruritic effects of EA.
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A comparison of strategies for multiple-gene co-transformation via hairy root induction.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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Hairy root is a transformed root tissue in which transfer DNA (T-DNA) is inserted in the genome by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. To establish a system for multiple-gene co-transformation in hairy roots, we evaluated four different strategies using A. rhizogenes. The genes gusA and mgfp5 were located in separate plasmids, which were transformed into two different batches of A. rhizogenes (strategy 2AR) or a single batch (strategy 2BV). The two reporter genes were also inserted in one T-DNA (strategy 1TD) or two different T-DNAs (strategy 2TD) in a binary vector. Over 90 % of infected Nicotiana tabacum leaf discs formed hairy roots in all four groups, which was not significantly different from the infection efficiency of wild-type A. rhizogenes. Proportions of co-transformed hairy roots with strategies 2AR, 2BV, 1TD, and 2TD were 65.4, 40.0, 78.6, and 82.1 %, respectively, which indicated that all of the strategies were suitable for co-transformation of multiple genes. High variation in growth rate and heterologous protein expression indicated that further screening is required to identify the clone with the highest productivity. Our results indicated that strategies 1TD and 2TD achieved the highest co-transformation efficiency. Combination with strategy 2AR or 2BV provides additional options for co-transformation of multiple transgenes.
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Metallothionein 1A polymorphisms may influence urine uric acid and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) excretion in chronic lead-exposed workers.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Lead is a renal toxin, and susceptibility to lead varies between individuals. Metallothionein (MT) is known for its metal scavenging role. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of blood lead levels, urinary uric acid (UA) and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) in chronic occupational lead-exposed workers, and to study whether the association was influenced by MT1A gene polymorphisms. In this cross-sectional study, 412 lead-exposed workers participated. Their annual health examination data and renal function markers were collected after the Institutional Review Broad of Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital approved the study and consent letters were obtained. From the blood samples, DNA was extracted and used for real-time PCR typing of 2 MT1A single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): rs11640851 and rs8052394 on exons 2 and 3. Descriptive analysis, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regressions were performed. There was a significant inverted relationship of creatinine-adjusted urine UA concentrations and the time-weighted index of cumulative blood lead levels (TWICL) that may be significantly influenced by the AC genotypes of rs11640851 in exon 2 and rs8052394 in exon 3. After controlling for potential confounding factors, the creatinine-adjusted urine NAG concentrations were shown to be influenced by the GG genotype of rs8052394 in exon 3, and were weakly increased with TWICL. Therefore, we concluded that the variations of MT1A SNPs may influence urine UA and NAG excretion in chronic lead-exposed workers, and urine creatinine-adjusted urine UA as a biomarker of lead toxicity should be considered.
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Coumarsabin hastens C-type inactivation gating of voltage-gated K? channels.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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During prolonged depolarization, voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels display C-type inactivation, a process which is due to selectivity filter destabilization and serves to limit K(+) flux. Here we reported that coumarsabin, a coumarin derivative isolated from Juniperus Sabina, could hasten C-type inactivation and thus cause block of Kv channels in neuronal NG108-15 cells and Kv1.2 channels heterologously expressed in lung epithelial H1355 cells. In NG108-15 cells, extracellular, but not intracellular, coumarsabin (30 ?M) strongly speeded up Kv current decay and caused a left-shift in the steady-state inactivation curve. Coumarsabin inhibited end-of-pulse Kv currents with an IC50 of 13.4 ?M. The kinetics and voltage-dependence of activation were not affected by coumarsabin. The degree of block by coumarsabin was not enhanced by a reduction in intracellular K(+) concentration. Data reveal that coumarsabin was a closed channel blocker and it displayed a frequency-independent mode of inhibition. Coumarsabin did not accelerate current decay in a Kv1.2 mutant (V370G) defective in C-type inactivation. Taken together, our data suggest that Kv channel inhibition by coumarsabin did not appear to result from a direct obstruction of the outer pore but relied on C-type inactivation.
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Integrating health-related quality of life with sickness leave days for return-to-work assessment in traumatic limb injuries.
Qual Life Res
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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A novel indicator called health-adjusted leave days (HALDs) is proposed. It integrates the opposite level of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with the sick leave days (LDs) before return-to-work (RTW) to better measure the impact of injuries on occupational health.
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Kinetic modeling on CO? capture using basic oxygen furnace slag coupled with cold-rolling wastewater in a rotating packed bed.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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In this study, direct and indirect carbonation of basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) coupled with cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was carried out via a rotating packed bed (RPB). The solid products were qualitatively characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and quantitatively analyzed with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The leachate was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The results indicate that the maximum achievable carbonation conversion (MACC) of BOFS was 90.7%, corresponding to a capture capacity of 0.277 g CO?/g of BOFS, by direct carbonation with CRW under a rotation speed of 750 rpm at 30 °C for 20 min. In addition, CO? mass balance among the gas, liquid, and solid phases within an RPB was well-developed, with an error less than 10%, to confirm the actual CO? capture capacity of BOFS with precision and accuracy. Furthermore, a reaction kinetic model based on mass balance was established to determine the reaction rate constant for various liquid agents (CRW and pure water). It was concluded that co-utilization of alkaline wastes including BOFS and CRW via the RPB is a novel approach for both enhancing CO? capture capacity and reducing the environmental impacts of alkaline wastes.
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Electroacupuncture reduces cocaine-induced seizures and mortality in mice.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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The aims of this study were to characterize the protective profile of electroacupuncture (EA) on cocaine-induced seizures and mortality in mice. Mice were treated with EA (2?Hz, 50?Hz, and 100?Hz), or they underwent needle insertion without anesthesia at the Dazhui (GV14) and Baihui (GV20) acupoints before cocaine administration. EA at 50 Hz applied to GV14 and GV20 significantly reduced the seizure severity induced by a single dose of cocaine (75?mg/kg; i.p.). Furthermore, needle insertion into GV14 and GV20 and EA at 2 Hz and 50 Hz at both acupoints significantly reduced the mortality rate induced by a single lethal dose of cocaine (125?mg/kg; i.p.). In the sham control group, EA at 50?Hz applied to bilateral Tianzong (SI11) acupoints had no protective effects against cocaine. In addition, EA at 50?Hz applied to GV14 and GV20 failed to reduce the incidence of seizures and mortality induced by the local anesthetic procaine. In an immunohistochemistry study, EA (50 Hz) pretreatment at GV14 and GV20 decreased cocaine (75?mg/kg; i.p.)-induced c-Fos expression in the paraventricular thalamus. While the dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, SB-277011-A (30?mg/kg; s.c), did not by itself affect cocaine-induced seizure severity, it prevented the effects of EA on cocaine-induced seizures. These results suggest that EA alleviates cocaine-induced seizures and mortality and that the dopamine D3 receptor is involved, at least in part, in the anticonvulsant effects of EA in mice.
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Alzheimer disease and risk of stroke: a population-based cohort study.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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To investigate the risk of stroke in patients clinically diagnosed with Alzheimer disease (AD) compared with non-AD patients with similar vascular risk factors.
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Risk Factors Correlated With Risk of Insulin Resistance Using Homeostasis Model Assessment in Adolescents in Taiwan.
Asia Pac J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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The study aims to discover risk factors significantly correlated with insulin resistance among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 339 study subjects were recruited in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire and physical examinations including anthropometrics and biochemistry profiles were collected. Insulin resistance was assessed using homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Study subjects had a significantly increased risk of IR for those with abnormal level of body mass index (odds ratio [OR] = 3.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.81-6.91), body fat (OR = 2.71; 95% CI = 1.25-5.88), and waist circumference (OR = 25.04; 95% CI = 2.93-214.14) when compared with those who have normal values. Furthermore, a significantly joint effect of 10.86-fold risk for HOMA-IR abnormality among body fat, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure was observed. The identification of risk factors significantly correlated with IR will be important to prevent metabolic syndrome-related diseases and complications for adolescents in their future life.
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Use of arsenic-induced palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and skin cancers to predict risk of subsequent internal malignancy.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Hyperpigmentation, hyperkeratoses, and Bowens disease are hallmarks of chronic arsenic exposure. The association between arsenic-induced skin lesions and subsequent internal cancers is examined by using a community-based prospective study. The cohort was enrolled from an arseniasis-endemic area in southwestern Taiwan, where 2,447 residents participated in skin examinations during the late 1980s. The number of participants diagnosed with hyperpigmentation was 673; with hyperkeratosis, 243; and with skin cancer (Bowens disease or non-melanoma skin cancer), 378. Newly diagnosed internal cancers were ascertained through linkage with National Cancer Registry profiles. Cox regression was performed to estimate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for potential risk predictors. Compared with participants without skin lesions, patients affected with skin cancers had a significantly increased risk of lung cancer (hazard ratio = 4.64, 95% confidence interval: 2.92, 7.38) and urothelial carcinoma (hazard ratio = 2.02, 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.30) after adjustment for potential confounders and cumulative arsenic exposure. Hyperkeratosis is significantly associated with an increased lung cancer risk (hazard ratio = 2.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.35, 5.67). A significant interactive effect on lung cancer risk between hyperkeratosis and cigarette smoking was identified, which suggests that patients with hyperkeratosis who have been exposed to arsenic should cease smoking.
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Factors related to nephrotic-range proteinuria in late-stage chronic kidney disease patients with diabetes mellitus.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Diabetic nephropathy and proteinuria are important risk factors for both end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular events. The present study aimed to identify the factors associated with nephrotic-range proteinuria in patients with advanced diabetic nephropathy.
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Functional role of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products in stroke.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Little is known about the involvement of the soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) in acute ischemic stroke (IS). Here, we aim to identify the role of plasma sRAGE and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in imaging-confirmed IS patients, as well as mice subjected to focal ischemic stroke.
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Significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease among patients with gallstone disease: a population-based cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To investigate whether gallstone disease (GD) increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large population-based cohort.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.