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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Water Oxidation Catalysis by Co(II) Impurities in Co(III)4O4 Cubanes.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The observed water oxidation activity of the compound class Co4O4(OAc)4(Py-X)4 emanates from a Co(II) impurity. This impurity is oxidized to produce the well-known Co-OEC heterogeneous cobaltate catalyst, which is an active water oxidation catalyst. We present results from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance line broadening analysis, and electrochemical titrations to establish the existence of the Co(II) impurity as the source of water oxidation activity that has been reported for Co4O4 molecular cubanes. Differential electrochemical mass spectrometry is used to characterize the fate of glassy carbon at water oxidizing potentials, and demonstrate that such electrode materials should be used with caution for the study of water oxidation catalysis.
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FD&C Yellow No. 5 (Tartrazine) Degradation via Reactive Oxygen Species Triggered by TiO2 and Au/TiO2 Nanoparticles Exposed to Simulated Sunlight.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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When exposed to light, TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) become photoactivated and create electron/hole pairs as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS). We examined ThROS production and degradation of a widely used azo dye, FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine), triggered by photoactivated TiO2 NPs. Degradation was found to follow pseudo-first order reaction kinetics where the rate constant increased with TiO2 NPs concentration. Depositing Au on the surface of TiO2 largely enhanced electron transfer and ROS generation, which consequently accelerated dye degradation. Alkaline conditions promoted ROS generation and dye degradation. Results from electron spin resonance spin-trap spectroscopy suggested that at pH 7.4, both hydroxyl radical (•OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2) were responsible for dye discoloration, whereas at pH 5, the consumption of 1O2 became dominant. Implications for dye degradation in foods and other consumer products that contain both TiO2 and FD&C Yellow No. 5 as ingredients are discussed.
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Association between interferon gamma receptor 1-56C/T gene polymorphism and tuberculosis susceptibility: a meta-analysis.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Genetic variations in the interferon-gamma (IFN-?) receptor 1 gene (IFNGR1) may contribute to tuberculosis (TB) risk in different populations. Many studies have investigated the relationship between IFNGR1 56C/T polymorphism and the susceptibility to TB, but have yielded conflicting results. A comprehensive meta-analysis is needed to provide a more accurate estimation of the relationship between them.
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Correlation between conjunctival and corneal calcification and cardiovascular calcification in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.
Hemodial Int
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of conjunctival and corneal calcification (CCC) with cardiovascular calcification in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). A total of 122 patients undergoing MHD in our hospital were included in this study. Conjunctival and corneal calcification was examined by slit lamp and graded. Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), aortic valve calcification (AVC), and mitral valve calcification (MVC) were determined by X-ray or ultrasound. The correlation of CCC with AAC, AVC, and MVC was analyzed. Biochemical, hematological, and cardiovascular data were compared between patients with different severity of CCC or AAC. Mitral valve calcification was significantly associated with AAC in our patients. Conjunctival and corneal calcification positively correlated with AAC. We also found that patients with severe CCC exhibited significantly higher levels of serum calcium, phosphate, product of calcium and phosphate, serum copper, cystatin, intact parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D than patients with mild CCC. In addition to significantly increased levels of serum calcium, product of calcium and phosphate, serum copper, and cystatin, patients with severe AAC also had higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level and greater left ventricular posterior wall thickness and left ventricular end-diastolic interventricular septum thickness than patients with mild AAC. Our results suggest that patients undergoing MHD with severe CCC or AAC have high degree of mineral metabolism disorder, inflammation, and cardiovascular function disorder. The strong correlation between CCC and AAC indicates that CCC score might be used as an indirect indicator to predict cardiovascular risks in patients undergoing MHD.
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High spatial and temporal resolution charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the HL-2A tokamak.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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A 32/64-channel charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic system is developed on the HL-2A tokamak (R = 1.65 m, a = 0.4 m), monitoring plasma ion temperature and toroidal rotation velocity simultaneously. A high throughput spectrometer (F/2.8) and a pitch-controlled fiber bundle enable the temporal resolution of the system up to 400 Hz. The observation geometry and an optimized optic system enable the highest radial resolution up to ?1 cm at the plasma edge. The CXRS system monitors the carbon line emission (C VI, n = 8-7, 529.06 nm) whose Doppler broadening and Doppler shift provide ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity during the neutral beam injection. The composite CX spectral data are analyzed by the atomic data and analysis structure charge exchange spectroscopy fitting (ADAS CXSFIT) code. First experimental results are shown for the case of HL-2A plasmas with sawtooth oscillations, electron cyclotron resonance heating, and edge transport barrier during the high-confinement mode (H-mode).
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Specific recognition of guanines in non-duplex regions of nucleic acids with potassium tungstate and hydrogen peroxide.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Structural features of nucleic acids have become an integral part of current biomedical research. Highly selective and readily performed methods with little toxicity that target guanosines in non-duplex nucleic acids are needed, which led us to search for an effective agent for guanosine sequencing. Treatment of DNA or RNA with potassium tungstate and hydrogen peroxide produced damaged guanosines in DNA or RNA sequences. The damaged guanosines in non-duplex DNA could be cleaved by hot piperidine. Similarly, damaged guanosines in non-duplex RNA could be cleaved by aniline acetate. We could identify structural features of nucleic acid using this strategy instead of dimethyl sulphate and Ribonuclease T1.
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[Prevalence status for smokers of undergraduates in Huaihua and the influential factors].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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To investigate the prevalence status and the influential factors for smokers of undergraduates in Huaihua.
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[Influence of thoracoscopic surgery on inflammatory reaction of the body ? for early peripheral lung cancer patients].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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It has been proven that video assited thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) achieved the same survival rates compared with traditional open chest operation in the treatment of early stage of lung cancer. but it is unclear if there is any difference of body inflammatory reaction between the two operation. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes of inflammatory state of thoracoscopic radical lobectomy in early peripheral lung cancer patients.
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Use of an acidophilic yeast strain to enable the growth of leaching bacteria on solid media.
Arch. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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In this study, a Candida digboiensis strain was isolated from a heap leaching plant in Zambia and used in double-layer agar plate to efficiently isolate and purify leaching bacteria. Unlike Acidiphilium sp., the yeast strain was tetrathionate tolerant and could metabolize a great range of organic compounds including organic acids. These properties allowed the yeast strain to enable and fasten the growth of iron and sulfur oxidizers on double-layer agar plate. The isolates were identified as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans FOX1, Leptospirillun ferriphilum BN, and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ZMB. These three leaching bacteria were inhibited by organic acids such as acetic and propionic acids; however, their activities were enhanced by Candida digboiensis NB under dissolved organic matter stress.
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[Expressions of E-cadherin and N-cadherin in prostate cancer and their implications].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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To investigate the differences in the expressions of E-cadherin and N-cadherin between high-risk prostate cancer and low- and medium-risk prostate cancer, and analyze their correlation with the age, serum PSA level, and Gleason score of the patients.
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The mechanism of the Neurospora circadian clock, a frequency-centric view.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Circadian clocks are self-sustaining timekeepers found in almost all organisms on earth. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is a preeminent model for eukaryotic circadian clocks. Investigations of the Neurospora circadian clock system have led to elucidation of circadian clock regulatory mechanisms that are common to all eukaryotes. In this chapter, we will focus on the Neurospora circadian oscillator mechanism with an emphasis on the regulation of the core clock component FREQUENCY.
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[The change of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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To investigate the change of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg)in peripheral blood (PB)and synovial fluid (SF) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its role in RA immune tolerance imbalance.
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Universal electrode interface for electrocatalytic oxidation of liquid fuels.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Electrocatalytic oxidations of liquid fuels from alcohols, carboxylic acids, and aldehydes were realized on a universal electrode interface. Such an interface was fabricated using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the catalyst support and palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) as the electrocatalysts. The Pd NPs/CNTs nanocomposite was synthesized using the ethylene glycol reduction method. It was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, voltammetry, and impedance. On the Pd NPs/CNTs nanocomposite coated electrode, the oxidations of those liquid fuels occur similarly in two steps: the oxidations of freshly chemisorbed species in the forward (positive-potential) scan and then, in the reverse scan (negative-potential), the oxidations of the incompletely oxidized carbonaceous species formed during the forward scan. The oxidation charges were adopted to study their oxidation mechanisms and oxidation efficiencies. The oxidation efficiency follows the order of aldehyde (formaldehyde) > carboxylic acid (formic acid) > alcohols (ethanol > methanol > glycol > propanol). Such a Pd NPs/CNTs nanocomposite coated electrode is thus promising to be applied as the anode for the facilitation of direct fuel cells.
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New Form of an Old Natural Dye: Bay-Annulated Indigo (BAI) as an Excellent Electron Accepting Unit for High Performance Organic Semiconductors.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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A novel electron acceptor was synthesized from one-step functionalization of the readily available indigo dye. The resulting bay-annulated indigo (BAI) was utilized for the preparation of a series of novel donor-acceptor small molecules and polymers. As revealed experimentally and by theoretical calculations, substituted BAIs have stronger electron accepting characteristics when compared to several premier electron deficient building blocks. As a result, the donor-acceptor materials incorporating BAI acceptor possess low-lying LUMO energy levels and small HOMO-LUMO gaps. In situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering studies of the thin films of BAI donor-acceptor polymers indicated improved crystallinity upon thermal treatment. Field effect transistors based on these polymers show excellent ambipolar transporting behavior, with the hole and electron mobilities reaching 1.5 and 0.41 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively, affirming BAI as a potent electron accepting unit for high performance organic electronic materials.
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In Situ Synthesis of MOF Membranes on ZnAl-CO3 LDH Buffer Layer-Modified Substrates.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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We develop here a urea hydrolysis method to in situ prepare asymmetric ZnAl-CO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) buffer layers with various stable equilibrium morphology on porous Al2O3 substrates. In particular it is found that well-intergrown ZIF-8 membranes can be directly synthesized on the ZnAl-CO3 LDH buffer layer-modified substrates, owing to the specific metal-imidazole interaction between ZnAl-CO3 LDHs and ZIF-8. Other Zn-based MOF membranes, like ZIF-7 and ZIF-90, can also be synthesized with this method. Our finding demonstrates that LDH buffer layer represents a new concept for substrate modification.
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[Optimization of synthetic pathway and fermentation process of yeast cell factories for production of oleanoic acid].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To optimize the synthetic pathway and fermentation process of yeast cell factories for production of oleanoic acid.
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Evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of CT perfusion in patients with cerebral vasospasm after aneurysm rupture: a meta-analysis.
Turk Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) has recently been used to identify regions of potential ischemia due to cerebral vasospasm, and CTP parameters are able to quantitatively evaluate brain parenchymal perfusion. We performed a meta-analysis as an update of a previous paper published in 2010 and aimed at evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of CTP and CTP parameters for vasospasm after aneurysm rupture.
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Rapid and repeatable redox cycling of an insoluble dietary antioxidant: electrochemical analysis.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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There are many unresolved questions concerning the health benefits of dietary antioxidants due in part to the complexity of the materials and mechanisms of action. We applied a new electrochemical method and report new observations for one of the richest sources of dietary antioxidants. We observed that the insoluble fraction of clove is redox-active and can be rapidly and repeatedly switched between oxidized and reduced states. Also, the radical scavenging antioxidant properties of insoluble clove are largely independent of this reversible redox activity, which is similar to observations made with the natural phenolic melanin. In contrast to melanin, insoluble clove was observed to have little pro-oxidant activity (as measured by H2O2 generation) irrelevant to whether it was poised in an oxidized or reduced state. These results suggest that dietary antioxidants, even when insoluble and nonabsorbed, can undergo important redox interactions in the intestinal tract.
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Therapeutic effect and safety of ustekinumab for plaque psoriasis: a meta-analysis.
Chin. Med. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ustekinumab in the therapy of plaque psoriasis.
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Effects of hypoxic preconditioning on synaptic ultrastructure in mice.
Synapse
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) elicits resistance to more drastic subsequent insults, which potentially provide neuroprotective therapeutic strategy, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we examined the effects of HPC on synaptic ultrastructure in olfactory bulb of mice. Mice underwent up to five cycles of repeated HPC treatments, and hypoxic tolerance was assessed with a standard gasp reflex assay. As expected, HPC induced an increase in tolerance time. To assess synaptic responses, Western blots were used to quantify protein levels of representative markers for glia, neuron, and synapse, and transmission electron microscopy was used to examine synaptic ultrastructure and mitochondrial density. HPC did not significantly alter the protein levels of astroglial marker (GFAP), neuron-specific markers (GAP43, Tuj-1, and OMP), synaptic number markers (synaptophysin and SNAP25) or the percentage of excitatory synapses versus inhibitory synapses. However, HPC significantly affected synaptic curvature and the percentage of synapses with presynaptic mitochondria, which showed concomitant change pattern. These findings demonstrate that HPC is associated with changes in synaptic ultrastructure. Synapse 69:7-14, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells induced by a short isoform of NELL-1.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Neural epidermal growth factor-like (NEL)-like protein 1 (NELL-1) has been identified as an osteoinductive differentiation factor that promotes mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) osteogenic differentiation. In addition to full-length NELL-1, there are several NELL-1-related transcripts reported. We used rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) to recover potential cDNA of NELL-1 isoforms. A NELL-1 isoform with the N-terminal 240 amino acid (aa) residues truncated was identified. While full-length NELL-1 that contains 810 aa residues (NELL-1810 ) plays an important role in embryologic skeletal development, the N-terminal-truncated NELL-1 isoform (NELL-1570 ) was expressed post-natally. Similar to NELL-1810 , NELL-1570 induced MSC osteogenic differentiation. In addition, NELL-1570 significantly stimulated MSC proliferation in multiple MSC-like populations such as murine C3H10T1/2 MSC cell line, mouse primary MSCs, and perivascular stem cells (PSCs), which is a type of stem cells proposed as the perivascular origin of MSCs. In contrast, NELL-1810 demonstrated only limited stimulation of MSC proliferation. Similar to NELL-1810 , NELL-1570 was found to be secreted from host cells. Both NELL-1570 expression lentiviral vector and column-purified recombinant protein NELL-1570 demonstrated almost identical effects in MSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, suggesting that NELL-1570 may function as a pro-osteogenic growth factor. In vivo, NELL-1570 induced significant calvarial defect regeneration accompanied by increased cell proliferation. Thus, NELL-1570 has the potential to be used for cell-based or hormone-based therapy of bone regeneration. Stem Cells 2014.
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Concise synthesis of 2,4-disubstituted thiazoles from ?-azido disulfides and carboxylic acids or anhydrides: asymmetric synthesis of cystothiazole C.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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A novel and efficient method for the one-pot synthesis of 2,4-disubstituted thiazoles from carboxylic acids or anhydrides is presented. Based on this new method, the total synthesis of the bis-2,4-disubstituted bis(thiazoles) natural product cystothiazole C is also presented.
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[Data analysis for relationship between aging and cardiothoracic ratio based on C-V segmentation algorithm].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Cardiac enlargement is an important symptom of vascular and heart disease. The cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) is an important index used to measure the size of heart. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between aging and cardiothoracic ratio. This paper also presents an improved C-V level set method to segment lung tissue based on X-ray image, which used to automatically compute CTR. In the investigation carried out in our school, we got more than 3 120 chest radiographs from medical examination of the working population in Beijing, and we systematically studied the effects of age and gender on the CTR to obtain reference values for each group. The reference values established in this study can be useful for recording and quantifying the cardiac enlargement, so that it may be useful for calling attention to the cardiovascular diseases and the heart diseases.
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A highly sensitive ratiometric fluorescent probe for the detection of cytoplasmic and nuclear hydrogen peroxide.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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As a marker for oxidative stress and a second messenger in signal transduction, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays an important role in living systems. It is thus critical to monitor the changes in H2O2 in cells and tissues. Here, we developed a highly sensitive and versatile ratiometric H2O2 fluorescent probe (NP1) based on 1,8-naphthalimide and boric acid ester. In response to H2O2, the ratio of its fluorescent intensities at 555 and 403 nm changed 1020-fold within 200 min. The detecting limit of NP1 toward H2O2 is estimated as 0.17 ?M. It was capable of imaging endogenous H2O2 generated in live RAW 264.7 macrophages as a cellular inflammation response, and especially, it was able to detect H2O2 produced as a signaling molecule in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells through stimulation by epidermal growth factor. This probe contains an azide group and thus has the potential to be linked to various molecules via the click reaction. After binding to a Nuclear Localization Signal peptide, the peptide-based combination probe (pep-NP1) was successfully targeted to nuclei and was capable of ratiometrically detecting nuclear H2O2 in living cells. These results indicated that NP1 was a highly sensitive ratiometric H2O2 dye with promising biological applications.
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Surfactant-thermal syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of Mn-Ge-sulfides/selenides.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Although either surfactants or amines have been investigated to direct the crystal growth of metal chalcogenides, the synergic effect of organic amines and surfactants to control the crystal growth has not been explored. In this report, several organic bases (hydrazine monohydrate, ethylenediamine (en), 1,2-propanediamine (1,2-dap), and 1,3-propanediamine (1,3-dap)) have been employed as structure-directing agents (SDAs) to prepare four novel chalcogenides (Mn3Ge2S7(NH3)4 (1), [Mn(en)2(H2O)][Mn(en)2MnGe3Se9] (2), (1,2-dapH)2{[Mn(1,2-dap)2]Ge2Se7} (3), and (1,3-dapH)(puH)MnGeSe4(4) (pu = propyleneurea) under surfactant media (PEG-400). These as-prepared new crystalline materials provide diverse metal coordination geometries, including MnS3N tetrahedra, MnGe2Se7 trimer, and MnGe3Se10 T2 cluster. Compounds 1-3 have been fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), powder XRD, UV-vis spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Moreover, magnetic measurements for compound 1 showed an obvious antiferromagnetic transition at ~9 K. Our research not only enriches the structural chemistry of the transitional-metal/14/16 chalcogenides but also allows us to better understand the synergic effect of organic amines and surfactants on the crystallization of metal chalcogenides.
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HuR Mediated Post-transcriptional Regulation of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Related Genes in Diabetic Nephropathy.
J Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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HuR is a ubiquitously expressed RNA-binding protein that modulates gene expression at post-transcriptional level. While cytoplasmic HuR expression was identified as a marker in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process of several types of cancer, its role in diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains unclear.
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Classification criteria of early rheumatoid arthritis and validation of its performance in a multi-centre cohort.
Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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To develop classification criteria for early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) based on a large cohort of early inflammatory arthritis patients and to evaluate the performance of these criteria.
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Protective role of luteolin against cognitive dysfunction induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats.
Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, a mild ischemic condition, is associated with the cognitive deficits of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Luteolin, a polyphenolic compound found in foods of plant origin, belonging to the flavone subclass of flavonoids, has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic properties. In the present study, the effects of luteolin on chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-associated neurocognitive pathologies were investigated by using rats with permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. As expected, we found that luteolin could attenuate cognitive dysfunction in chronic cerebral hypoperfused rats, as assessed using Morris water maze tests. Daily oral administration of luteolin (50, 100 and 200mg/kg) significantly scavenged oxygen free radicals, enhanced antioxidant potential, decreased the lipid peroxide production and suppressed inflammatory reaction in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Meanwhile, the results indicated that cerebral hypoperfusion activated nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), increased the expression of ?-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (BACE1), as well as elevated amyloid beta (A?) levels in the cortex and hippocampus. However, long-term administration of luteolin significantly down-regulated the expression of NF-?B and BACE1, accompanied by diminishing the deposition of A?. Our results suggest a potential therapeutic use of luteolin for cerebral hypoperfusion associated cognitive dysfunction in AD.
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miR181c promotes apoptosis and suppresses proliferation of metanephric mesenchyme cells by targeting Six2 in vitro.
Cell Biochem. Funct.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Increasingly recognized importance has been assumed for microRNA (miRNA) in the regulation of the delicate balance of gene expression. In our study, we aimed to explore the regulation role of miR181c towards Six2 in metanephric mesenchyme (MM) cells. Bioinformatics analysis, luciferase assay and semi-quantitative real-time (RT) PCR, subsequently RT PCR, Western blotting, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine cell proliferation assay, Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, were employed to verify the modulation function of miR181c on Six2 in the mK3 MM cell line that is one kind of MM cells. miR181c was predicted to bind the 3' untranslated region of Six2 by bioinformatics analysis, which was subsequently validated by the in vitro luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, transfection of miR181c mimic can decrease the expression of Six2 both in mRNA and protein levels in mK3 cells. Still, ectopic expression of miR181c inhibits the proliferation, promotes the apoptosis and even makes the nephron progenitor phenotype lose mK3 cells. These results revealed the ability of a single miRNA-miR181c to downregulate the expression of Six2, restrain the proliferation and promote the apoptosis that even makes the nephron progenitor phenotype lose MM cells, suggesting a potential role of miR181c during the kidney development. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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[Role of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in the mouse model of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion and the hematogenic metastasis].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To investigate the effect of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) on tumor metastasis in a experimental mouse model of hematogenous metastasis after I/R and to quantify expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) during I/R.
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pH dependent catalytic activities of platinum nanoparticles with respect to the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and scavenging of superoxide and singlet oxygen.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Recently, platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (NPs) have received increasing attention in the field of catalysis and medicine due to their excellent catalytic activity. To rationally design Pt NPs for these applications, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms underlying their catalytic and biological activities. This article describes a systematic study on the Pt NP-catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and scavenging of superoxide (O2?(-)) and singlet oxygen ((1)O2) over a physiologically relevant pH range of 1.12-10.96. We demonstrated that the catalytic activities of Pt NPs can be modulated by the pH value of the environment. Our results suggest that Pt NPs possess peroxidase-like activity of decomposing H2O2 into ?OH under acidic conditions, but catalase-like activity of producing H2O and O2 under neutral and alkaline conditions. In addition, Pt NPs exhibit significant superoxide dismutase-like activity of scavenging O2?(-) under neutral conditions, but not under acidic conditions. The (1)O2 scavenging ability of Pt NPs increases with the increase in the pH of the environment. The study will provide useful guidance for designing Pt NPs with desired catalytic and biological properties.
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Effect of rhynchophylline on conditioned place preference on expression of NR2B in methamphetamine-dependent mice.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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To study the effect of rhynchophylline on N-methyl d-aspartate receptor subtype 2B subunit in hippocampus of Methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) mice.
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Cyclin D1b splice variant promotes ?v?3-mediated adhesion and invasive migration of breast cancer cells.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Cyclin D1b, a splice variant of the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1, holds oncogenic functions in human cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying cyclin D1b function remain poorly understood. Here we introduced wild-type cyclin D1a or cyclin D1b variant into non-metastatic MCF-7 cells. Our results show that ectopic expression of cyclin D1b promotes invasiveness of the cancer cells in a cyclin D1a independent manner. Specifically, cyclin D1b is found to modulate the expression of ?v?3, which characterizes the metastatic phenotype, and enhance tumor cell invasive potential in cooperating with HoxD3. Notably, cyclin D1b promotes ?v?3-mediated adhesion and invasive migration, which are associated with invasive potential of breast cancer cells. Further exploration indicates that cyclin D1b makes breast cancer cells more sensitive to toll-like receptor 4 ligand released from damaged tumor cells. These findings reveal a role of cyclin D1b as a possible mediator of ?v?3 transcription to promote tumor metastasis.
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[Protective effect of sesamin against myocardial injury induced by cadmium chloride in rats].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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To investigate the protective effect of sesamin against cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.
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Ginsenoside Rg1 regulates innate immune responses in macrophages through differentially modulating the NF-?B and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the major active components of ginseng, which has been shown to regulate the immune response of hosts. However, the mechanism underlying the immunomodulatory effect of Rg1 is incompletely understood. In this study, we aimed to explore whether and how Rg1 regulates the innate immune response in macrophages. The results showed that Rg1 treatment significantly increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? but decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6) protein expression in both lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages. However, Rg1 reduced the mRNA levels of both cytokines in LPS-activated macrophages, which might be a consequence of decreased activation of I?B and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). Importantly, Rg1 treatment further promoted LPS-induced activation of the Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which is critical for controlling protein translation. The elevated Akt/mTOR signaling was likely responsible for increased production of TNF-? protein at the translational level, as suppression of this pathway by LY294002, an inhibitor of the upstream phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), abrogated such an enhancement of TNF-? protein expression even though its mRNA levels were conversely increased. These findings highlight a novel mechanism for Rg1 to regulate the innate immune response in macrophages through differentially modulating the NF-?B and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways.
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Chinese mothers' perceptions of their child's weight and obesity status.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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This study recorded maternal perceptions of preschool children's weight in Chinese mothers living in Australia and China. A survey was undertaken of 1951 mothers living in Chengdu and Wuhan, China and 89 Chinese mothers living in Perth, Australia. All participants were mothers with children aged 2-4 years. The children's weight and height were measured and their weight status were classified using the International Obesity Task Force 2012 revised international child body mass index cut-offs. The prevalence of overweight or obese in children was 16.7% in China and 8% in Australia. The overall percentages of correct maternal perception of the child's weight were 35% in underweight children, 69.2% in normal weight children but only 10.8% in overweight/ obese children. Among the overweight/obese children, only 14% in Australia and 10.8% in China were classified as overweight/obese by their mothers. Within the group of underweight children, normal weight mothers (p=0.004) and mothers with older age children (p=0.015) were more likely to correctly classify children's weight status. A higher percentage of overweight/obese mothers (p=0.002) and mothers who over-estimated her own weight status (p<0.001) have correct perception of the weight status of their overweight/obese children, compared to their counterparts. There was a high prevalence of incorrect maternal perception of preschool children's weight status in Chinese mothers, especially those with overweight/obese children. To address the obesity epidemic in children, future health promotion programs should put improved efforts to educate parents about obesity and its health consequences in order to reduce misperceptions.
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The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor modulates DNA repair and radioresponsiveness.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Perturbations in the retinoblastoma pathway are over-represented in advanced prostate cancer; retinoblastoma loss promotes bypass of first-line hormone therapy. Conversely, preliminary studies suggested that retinoblastoma-deficient tumors may become sensitized to a subset of DNA-damaging agents. Here, the molecular and in vivo consequence of retinoblastoma status was analyzed in models of clinical relevance.
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ERK1/2 pathway-mediated differentiation of IGF-1-transfected spinal cord-derived neural stem cells into oligodendrocytes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event that causes substantial morbidity and mortality, for which no fully restorative treatments are available. Stem cells transplantation offers some promise in the restoration of neurological function but with limitations. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a well-appreciated neuroprotective factor that is involved with various aspects of neural cells. Herein, the IGF-1 gene was introduced into spinal cord-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) and expressed steadily. The IGF-1-transfected NSCs exhibited higher viability and were promoted to differentiate into oligodendrocytes. Moreover, the most possible underlying mechanism, through which IGF-1 exerted its neuroprotective effects, was investigated. The result revealed that the differentiation was mediated by the IGF-1 activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and its downstream pathway. These findings provide the evidence for revealing the therapeutic merits of IGF-1-modified NSCs for SCI.
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Systemic Infusion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves Cell-Based Bone Regeneration via Upregulation of Regulatory T Cells.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Mesenchymal stem cell-based regenerative medicine is a promising approach for functional tissue reconstruction. A recent study showed that host immune cells regulated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMMSC)-mediated tissue regeneration. However, it is unknown whether systemic infusion of BMMSCs, which induces immune tolerance, affects cell-based tissue regeneration. In this study, we showed that BMMSCs possessed an immunomodulatory function in vitro. Moreover, systemic infusion of BMMSCs reduced IFN-? and TNF-? levels in the implantation sites via upregulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs), resulting in marked enhancement of cell-based bone regeneration, but with only limited contribution by BMMSC homing. Furthermore, we showed that systemic BMMSC infusion significantly improved cell-based repair of critical-sized calvarial defects in a murine model. These results suggested a new approach to enhance cell-based bone regeneration.
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Diversity and clonal selection in the human T-cell repertoire.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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T-cell receptor (TCR) diversity, a prerequisite for immune system recognition of the universe of foreign antigens, is generated in the first two decades of life in the thymus and then persists to an unknown extent through life via homeostatic proliferation of naïve T cells. We have used next-generation sequencing and nonparametric statistical analysis to estimate a lower bound for the total number of different TCR beta (TCRB) sequences in human repertoires. We arrived at surprisingly high minimal estimates of 100 million unique TCRB sequences in naïve CD4 and CD8 T-cell repertoires of young adults. Naïve repertoire richness modestly declined two- to fivefold in healthy elderly. Repertoire richness contraction with age was even less pronounced for memory CD4 and CD8 T cells. In contrast, age had a major impact on the inequality of clonal sizes, as estimated by a modified Gini-Simpson index clonality score. In particular, large naïve T-cell clones that were distinct from memory clones were found in the repertoires of elderly individuals, indicating uneven homeostatic proliferation without development of a memory cell phenotype. Our results suggest that a highly diverse repertoire is maintained despite thymic involution; however, peripheral fitness selection of T cells leads to repertoire perturbations that can influence the immune response in the elderly.
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[Serum HER2 ECD level and its clinical significance in advanced breast cancer patients with different molecular subtypes].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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To evaluate the serum HER2 ECD level and its significance in advanced breast cancer patients with different molecular subtypes.
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A randomized phase II study of everolimus for advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in Chinese patients.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Everolimus, an oral inhibitor of mammalian target of mTOR, has been recently shown to have antitumor effect in a phase III, double-blind, randomized trial (RADIANT-3) of 410 patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the specific efficacy and safety of everolimus in the Chinese patient with PNETs. In this randomized phase II study, the analysis on Chinese patients was performed comparing efficacy and safety between everolimus 10 mg/day orally (n = 44) and matching placebo (n = 35). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Adverse events were also examined. The median PFS was 15.47 months with everolimus [95 % confidence interval (CI) 10.52-26.37], as compared to 4.29 months with placebo (95 % CI 2.22-10.75), representing a 72 % reduction in the risk of progression or death (hazard ratio 0.27; 95 % CI 0.13-0.59; P < 0.001). Drug-associated adverse events (AEs) were mostly grade 1 or 2, observed in all 44 (100 %) patients receiving everolimus and in 29 (83 %) patients receiving placebo. The most common AEs (grade 1-4) associated with everolimus were rash (n = 38; 86 %), stomatitis (n = 30; 68 %), infections (n = 33; 75 %), epistaxis (n = 32; 73 %), pneumonitis (n = 27; 61 %) and anemia (n = 22; 50 %). Everolimus when compared with placebo is effectively in improving PFS in Chinese patients with PNETs.
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Transcriptional interference by antisense RNA is required for circadian clock function.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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Eukaryotic circadian oscillators consist of negative feedback loops that generate endogenous rhythmicities. Natural antisense RNAs are found in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms. Nevertheless, the physiological importance and mode of action of most antisense RNAs are not clear. frequency (frq) encodes a component of the Neurospora core circadian negative feedback loop, which was thought to generate sustained rhythmicity. Transcription of qrf, the long non-coding frq antisense RNA, is induced by light, and its level oscillates in antiphase to frq sense RNA. Here we show that qrf transcription is regulated by both light-dependent and light-independent mechanisms. Light-dependent qrf transcription represses frq expression and regulates clock resetting. Light-independent qrf expression, on the other hand, is required for circadian rhythmicity. frq transcription also inhibits qrf expression and drives the antiphasic rhythm of qrf transcripts. The mutual inhibition of frq and qrf transcription thus forms a double negative feedback loop that is interlocked with the core feedback loop. Genetic and mathematical modelling analyses indicate that such an arrangement is required for robust and sustained circadian rhythmicity. Moreover, our results suggest that antisense transcription inhibits sense expression by mediating chromatin modifications and premature termination of transcription. Taken together, our results establish antisense transcription as an essential feature in a circadian system and shed light on the importance and mechanism of antisense action.
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Serum HER2 extracellular domain as a potential alternative for tissue HER2 status in metastatic gastric cancer patients.
Biomark Med
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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We investigated whether serum concentrations of the HER2 extracellular domain (ECD) can be used as an alternative to test tissue HER2 status in metastatic gastric cancer.
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Phenethyl isothiocyanate upregulates death receptors 4 and 5 and inhibits proliferation in human cancer stem-like cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The cytokine TRAIL (tumor necrotic factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells, but cancer stem cells (CSCs) that contribute to cancer-recurrence are frequently TRAIL-resistant. Here we examined hitherto unknown effects of the dietary anti-carcinogenic compound phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) on attenuation of proliferation and tumorigenicity and on up regulation of death receptors and apoptosis in human cervical CSC.
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Characteristics of midline suprasellar meningiomas based on their origin and growth pattern.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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The aim of the present study was to elucidate clinical and prognostic characteristics of the midline suprasellar meningiomas based on their origin and growth pattern.
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Asthma and asthma related symptoms in 23,326 Chinese children in relation to indoor and outdoor environmental factors: the Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) Study.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Both the levels and patterns of outdoor and indoor air pollutants have changed dramatically during the last decade in China. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of the present air pollution on the health of Chinese children. This study examines the association between outdoor and indoor air pollution and respiratory diseases among children living in Liaoning, a heavy industrial province of China.
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Association between a variant in microRNA-646 and the susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma in a large-scale population.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in microRNAs play important roles in oncogenesis and cancer development. Objective. We aim to explore whether miR-646 rs6513497 is associated with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Improved nucleosome-positioning algorithm iNPS for accurate nucleosome positioning from sequencing data.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Accurate determination of genome-wide nucleosome positioning can provide important insights into global gene regulation. Here, we describe the development of an improved nucleosome-positioning algorithm-iNPS-which achieves significantly better performance than the widely used NPS package. By determining nucleosome boundaries more precisely and merging or separating shoulder peaks based on local MNase-seq signals, iNPS can unambiguously detect 60% more nucleosomes. The detected nucleosomes display better nucleosome 'widths' and neighbouring centre-centre distance distributions, giving rise to sharper patterns and better phasing of average nucleosome profiles and higher consistency between independent data subsets. In addition to its unique advantage in classifying nucleosomes by shape to reveal their different biological properties, iNPS also achieves higher significance and lower false positive rates than previously published methods. The application of iNPS to T-cell activation data demonstrates a greater ability to facilitate detection of nucleosome repositioning, uncovering additional biological features underlying the activation process.
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Primary mediastinal adenocarcinoma originating from a calcified nodule.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Primary mediastinal adenocarcinoma is rare, but its originating from a calcified nodule is even more unusual. We present herein a 55-year-old female with a superior mediastinal mass, first discovered 2 years prior that changed dramatically from its original appearance as a calcified nodule. The mass was completely resected, and histopathological examination revealed a primary adenocarcinoma. The patient has been disease-free for over 13 months since surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mediastinal adenocarcinoma to demonstrate such a surprising course of development.
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Vague congruences and quotient lattice implication algebras.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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The aim of this paper is to further develop the congruence theory on lattice implication algebras. Firstly, we introduce the notions of vague similarity relations based on vague relations and vague congruence relations. Secondly, the equivalent characterizations of vague congruence relations are investigated. Thirdly, the relation between the set of vague filters and the set of vague congruences is studied. Finally, we construct a new lattice implication algebra induced by a vague congruence, and the homomorphism theorem is given.
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Infusion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Protects Lung Transplants from Cold Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Mice.
Lung
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Cold ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of graft failure in lung transplantation. Despite therapeutic benefits of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in attenuating acute lung injury, their protection of lung transplants from cold IRI remains elusive. The present study was to test the efficacy of MSCs in the prevention of cold IRI using a novel murine model of orthotopic lung transplantation.
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Liprosomes loading paclitaxel for brain-targeting delivery by intravenous administration: In vitro characterization and in vivo evaluation.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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In this study, a lipid-protein nanocomplex (liprosome) was evaluated for its potential use for brain-targeting drug delivery. Liprosome was fabricated with the desolvation-ultrasonication method and characterized in terms of particle size, size distribution, zeta potential, morphology, crystal state of the drug, and in vitro release. The in vivo distribution of paclitaxel loading lipid-protein nanocomplex (PTX-liprosome) and Taxol were compared after i.v. administration in mice. The prepared PTX-liprosome has a high entrapment efficiency (>90%), small particle size (approximately 110nm), and narrow distribution (P.I.<0.2). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that liprosome had a spherical multilayer structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the conjugate of PTX and BSA was in the interior of the PTX-liprosome. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) demonstrated that the drug existed in a molecular or amorphous state. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) suggested that the hydrophobic interactions, electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds among of the PTX, lipid and protein play an important role during the formation of the PTX-liprosome. The hemolysis test showed a good safety profile for the intravenous administration of liprosome. The result of the in vivo distribution suggested that liprosome increased the drug uptake by the brain tissue and decreased drug accumulation in non-target organs. Therefore, liprosome is a potential drug delivery system for transporting PTX to the brain.
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G protein-coupled receptors: extranuclear mediators for the non-genomic actions of steroids.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Steroids hormones possess two distinct actions, a delayed genomic effect and a rapid non-genomic effect. Rapid steroid-triggered signaling is mediated by specific receptors localized most often to the plasma membrane. The nature of these receptors is of great interest and accumulated data suggest that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are appealing candidates. Increasing evidence regarding the interaction between steroids and specific membrane proteins, as well as the involvement of G protein and corresponding downstream signaling, have led to identification of physiologically relevant GPCRs as steroid extranuclear receptors. Examples include G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) for estrogen, membrane progestin receptor for progesterone, G protein-coupled receptor family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A) and zinc transporter member 9 (ZIP9) for androgen, and trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) for thyroid hormone. These receptor-mediated biological effects have been extended to reproductive development, cardiovascular function, neuroendocrinology and cancer pathophysiology. However, although great progress have been achieved, there are still important questions that need to be answered, including the identities of GPCRs responsible for the remaining steroids (e.g., glucocorticoid), the structural basis of steroids and GPCRs' interaction and the integration of extranuclear and nuclear signaling to the final physiological function. Here, we reviewed the several significant developments in this field and highlighted a hypothesis that attempts to explain the general interaction between steroids and GPCRs.
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Gorham-Stout disease: radiological, histological, and clinical features of 12 cases and review of literature.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
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Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is an exceedingly rare disease characterized by progressive osteolysis and angiomatosis. We investigate the features of this disease and evaluate the effects of bisphosphonates (BPs) on it. The clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics of 12 patients diagnosed with GSD were summarized. Immunohistochemical staining with specific lymphatic endothelial markers (D2-40), vascular markers (CD 31, CD 34), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3) was performed in specimens of bone biopsy. Patients were treated with either BPs or conjunction therapy of radiation and BPs. The effects of BPs were evaluated by the change of radiological progression, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover biomarkers. To further evaluate the prognosis, a literature review was done. Idiopathic massive osteolysis was found in all patients, including 11 polyostotic and one mono-ostotic osteolysis. Soft tissue lymphangioma was presented in four patents. Four patients were complicated with chylothorax. Endothelial cells lining the proliferative vessels were positive for CD31 and CD34 and D2-40. Mild expression of VEGF and VEGFR-3 was also revealed. Stabilization in osteolysis and improvement in BMD were observed after single therapy with BPs or combined with radiotherapy. High mortality rate was found in patients with chylothorax. Spontaneous, progressive osteolysis is the most typical sign of GSD. BPs and radiotherapy can contribute to the clinical stabilization in bone lesion of GSD. The complicated chylothorax possibly indicates poor prognosis.
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Neuroprotective effects of bilobalide on cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury are associated with inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediator production and down-regulation of JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK activation.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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BackgroundMitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are implicated in inflammatory and apoptotic processes of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. Hence, MAPK pathways represent a promising therapeutic target. Exploring the full potential of inhibitors of MAPK pathways is a useful therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. Bilobalide, a predominant sesquiterpene trilactone constituent of Ginkgo biloba leaves, has been shown to exert powerful neuroprotective properties, which are closely related to both anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic pathways. We investigated the neuroprotective roles of bilobalide in the models of middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R) and oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) of cerebral I/R injury. Moreover, we attempted to confirm the hypothesis that its protection effect is via modulation of pro-inflammatory mediators and MAPK pathways.MethodsMale Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MCAO for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Bilobalide was administered intraperitoneally 60 min before induction of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). After reperfusion, neurological deficit scores, infarct volume, infarct weight, and brain edema were assessed. Ischemic penumbrae of the cerebral cortex were harvested to determine superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide, TNF-¿, interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), p-ERK1/2, p-JNK1/2, and p-p38 MAPK concentration. Similarly, the influence of bilobalide on the expression of nitric oxide, TNF-¿, IL-1ß, p-ERK1/2, p-JNK1/2, and p-p38 MAPK was also observed in an OGD/R in vitro model of I/R injury.ResultsPretreatment with bilobalide (5, 10 mg/kg) significantly decreased neurological deficit scores, infarct volume, infarct weight, brain edema, and concentrations of MDA, nitric oxide, TNF-¿, IL-1ß, and increased SOD activity. Furthermore, bilobalide (5, 10 mg/kg) pretreatment significantly down-regulated both p-JNK1/2 and p-p38 MAPK expression, whereas they had no effect on p-ERK1/2 expression in the ischemic penumbra. Supporting these observations in vivo, pretreatment with bilobalide (50, 100 ¿M) significantly down-regulated nitric oxide, TNF-¿, IL-1ß, p-JNK1/2, and p-p38 MAPK expression, but did not change p-ERK1/2 expression in rat cortical neurons after OGD/R injury.ConclusionsThese data indicate that the neuroprotective effects of bilobalide on cerebral I/R injury are associated with its inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediator production and down-regulation of JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK activation.
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Tanshinone IIA attenuates hypoxic pulmonary hypertension via modulating KV currents.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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The voltage-gated K(+) (KV) channels play an essential role in the etiology of chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (CH-PH).Tanshinone IIA (TIIA), a major active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (S. miltiorrhiza), has many biological protective effects. In the present study, we investigated whether KV channels were responsible for the protective effect of TIIA on CH-PH. In acute hypoxia experiments, the [Formula: see text] currents of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) isolated from healthy rats were determined in the absence or presence of TIIA (5?g/ml or 25?g/ml) or 4-AP (1mM). In chronic hypoxia experiments, rats were challenged by intermittent hypoxia or sustained hypoxia exposure for 4 weeks with or without TIIA (10mg/kg) treatment. Subsequently, the hemodynamic data and the pathomorphological changes of pulmonary arteries were gathered. The expressions of KV2.1 and KV1.5 in pulmonary arteries were tested by Western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. PASMCs were detached from intermittent hypoxia or sustained hypoxia exposure rats to evaluate the [Formula: see text] currents. Results showed that TIIA markedly recovered acute hypoxia-induced the down-regulation of [Formula: see text] currents in PASMCs. Moreover, TIIA significantly restrained chronic intermittent hypoxia or sustained hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery wall remodeling, accompanied with modulating the expressions of KV2.1 and KV1.5, and reversing the down-regulation of [Formula: see text] currents. TIIA is thus an attractive potential therapy for CH-PH.
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Combined Experimental and Computational Studies on the Physical and Chemical Properties of the Renewable Amide, 3-Acetamido-5-acetylfuran.
Chemphyschem
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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The pKa of 3-acetamido-5-acetylfuran (3A5AF) was predicted to be in the range 18.5-21.5 by using the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) method and several amides as references. The experimental pKa value, 20.7, was determined through UV/Vis titrations. Its solubility was measured in methanol-modified supercritical CO2 (mole fraction, 3.23×10(-4) , cloud points 40-80?°C) and it was shown to be less soluble than 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). Dimerization energies were calculated for 3A5AF and 5-HMF to compare hydrogen bonding, as such interactions will affect their solubility. Infrared and (1) H?nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of 3A5AF samples support the existence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The highest occupied molecular orbital, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, and electrostatic potential of 3A5AF were determined through molecular orbital calculations using B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p). The ?-?* transition energy (time-dependent density functional theory study) was compared with UV/Vis data. Calculated atomic charges were used in an attempt to predict the reactivity of 3A5AF. A reaction between 3A5AF and CH3 MgBr was conducted. As 3A5AF is a recently developed renewable compound that has previously not been studied extensively, these studies will be helpful in designing future reactions and processes involving this molecule.
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Comparison of constructed wetland and stabilization pond for the treatment of digested effluent of swine wastewater.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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A laboratory-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSFCW) and a stabilization pond (SP) were constructed to compare their performances on the treatment of digested effluent of swine wastewater. After 457 days of operation, the removal efficiencies of the HSFCW were as follows: chemical oxygen demand (COD), 17-54%; total phosphorus (TP), 32-45% and ammonia nitrogen [Formula: see text], 27-88%, while they were 25-55%, 31-56% and 56-98%, respectively, for the SP, with a hydraulic retention time of 54 days and hydraulic loading of 0.01 m(3) m(-2) d(-1). The average removed loads for the HSFCW were as follows: COD, 0.25-4.33; TP, 0.01-0.11 and [Formula: see text], 0.34-2.54 g m(-2) d(-1), while they were 0.25-4.45, 0.02-0.13 and 0.72-2.87 g m(-2) d(-1), respectively, for the SP. The SP performed better than the HSFCW because the SP showed a 20% of higher removal efficiency for [Formula: see text] than the HSFCW. Especially, the COD removal rate of SP was 10% higher than the HSFCW when the influent concentration was at the lowest and highest stages. Meanwhile, given the lower costs, the SP is more suitable for the treatment of digested effluent of swine wastewater than the HSFCW.
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Insulin improves osteogenesis of titanium implants under diabetic conditions by inhibiting reactive oxygen species overproduction via the PI3K-Akt pathway.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Clinical evidence indicates that insulin therapy improves implant survival rates in diabetic patients; however, the mechanisms responsible for this effect are unknown. Here, we test if insulin exerts anti-oxidative effects, thereby improving diabetes-associated impaired osteoblast behavior on titanium implants. To test this hypothesis, we cultured primary rabbit osteoblasts in the presence of titanium implants and studied the impact of treatment with normal serum (NS), diabetic serum (DS), DS + insulin, DS + tempol (a superoxide dismutase mimetic), DS + insulin + tempol, and DS + insulin + wortmannin. We analyzed cell function, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in osteoblasts following the various treatments. Treatment with DS induced osteoblast dysfunction, evidenced by impaired cell attachment and morphology, decreased cell proliferation and ALP activity, and decreased expression of osteogenesis-related genes. We also observed a significant increase in apoptosis. Importantly, treatment with DS resulted in increased production of ROS in osteoblasts. In contrast, treatment with insulin inhibited ROS production, alleviated cell dysfunction, and decreased apoptosis of osteoblasts on the implants. Scavenging ROS with tempol also attenuated cell dysfunction. Compared to insulin treatment alone, the combination of insulin and tempol failed to further improve osteoblast functional recovery. Moreover, the anti-oxidative and pro-osteogenic effects afforded by insulin were almost completely abolished by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that insulin treatment alleviates the impaired osteogenesis of titanium implants under diabetic conditions by inhibiting ROS overproduction via a PI3K/Akt-dependent mechanism. Both the anti-oxidative and metabolic properties of insulin should make it a viable therapeutic option to combat diabetic implant failure.
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SNX13 reduction mediates heart failure through degradative sorting of apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Heart failure (HF) is associated with complicated molecular remodelling within cardiomyocytes; however, the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Here we show that sorting nexin-13 (SNX13), a member of both the sorting nexin and the regulator of G protein signalling (RGS) protein families, is a potent mediator of HF. Decreased levels of SNX13 are observed in failing hearts of humans and of experimental animals. SNX13-deficient zebrafish recapitulate HF with striking cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Mechanistically, a reduction in SNX13 expression facilitates the degradative sorting of apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC), which is a multifunctional inhibitor of apoptosis. Consequently, the apoptotic pathway is activated, resulting in the loss of cardiac cells and the dampening of cardiac function. The N-terminal PXA structure of SNX13 is responsible for mediating the endosomal trafficking of ARC. Thus, this study reveals that SNX13 profoundly affects cardiac performance through the SNX13-PXA-ARC-caspase signalling pathway.
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Theoretical study on the structural and antioxidant properties of some recently synthesised 2,4,5-trimethoxy chalcones.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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The free radical scavenging activity of a series of 2,4,5-trimethoxy chalcones has been computationally explored using the density functional theory (DFT) method. Three potential working mechanisms, hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), stepwise electron transfer proton transfer (SET-PT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) have been investigated. The physiochemical parameters including O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionisation potential (IP), proton dissociation enthalpy (PDE), proton affinity (PA) and electron transfer enthalpy (ETE) have been calculated in gas phase and solvents. The order of antioxidant efficiencies predicted theoretically in this work is in good agreement with that reported by experimental results. The results obtained demonstrate that HAT would be the most favourable mechanism in the gas and benzene phases, whereas the SPLET mechanism is the thermodynamically preferred pathway in polar media. In addition, the importance of the A-ring on the radical scavenging capabilities of chalcones was also confirmed.
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Identification and characterization of telocytes in the uterus of the oviduct in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis: TEM evidence.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Telocytes (Tcs) are cells with telopodes (Tps), which are very long cellular extensions with alternating thin segments (podomers) and dilated bead-like thick regions known as podoms. Tcs are a distinct category of interstitial cells and have been identified in many mammalian organs including heart, lung and kidney. The present study investigates the existence, ultrastructure, distribution and contacts of Tcs with surrounding cells in the uterus (shell gland) of the oviduct of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis. Samples from the uterine segment of the oviduct were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Tcs were mainly located in the lamina propria beneath the simple columnar epithelium of the uterus and were situated close to nerve endings, capillaries, collagen fibres and secretory glands. The complete morphology of Tcs and Tps was clearly observed and our data confirmed the existence of Tcs in the uterus of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis. Our results suggest these cells contribute to the function of the secretory glands and contraction of the uterus.
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Membrane Permeability Transition and Dysfunction of Rice Mitochondria Effected by Er(III).
J. Membr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Herein, the biological effects of heavy rare earth ion Er(III) on rice mitochondria were comprehensively investigated mainly by spectroscopic methods. The experimental results demonstrated that Er(III) could lead to the swelling of rice mitochondria, collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, decrease of membrane fluidity, promotion of H(+) permeability and suppression of K(+) permeability. These further indicated that Er(III) could induce the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and the dysfunction of rice mitochondria. The ultra-structure change of mitochondria observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) also proved that Er(III) induced MPT. Moreover, the testing results of the protective effect of four different agents on mitochondrial swelling implied that the thiol chelation on the mitochondrial inner membrane was the main reason that caused the MPT.
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UbcH10 overexpression increases carcinogenesis and blocks ALLN susceptibility in colorectal cancer.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Cyclins are essential for cell proliferation, the cell cycle and tumorigenesis in all eukaryotes. UbcH10 regulates the degradation of cyclins in a ubiquitin-dependent manner. Here, we report that UbcH10 is likely involved in tumorigenesis. We found that cancer cells exposed to n-acetyl-leu-leu-norleucinal (ALLN) treatment and UbcH10 depletion exhibit a synergistic therapeutic effect. Abundant expression of UbcH10 drives resistance to ALLN-induced cell death, while cells deficient in UbcH10 were susceptible to ALLN-induced cell death. The depletion of UbcH10 hindered tumorigenesis both in vitro and in vivo, as assessed by colony formation, growth curve, soft agar and xenograft assays. These phenotypes were efficiently rescued through the introduction of recombinant UbcH10. In the UbcH10-deficient cells, alterations in the expression of cyclins led to cell cycle changes and subsequently decreases in tumorigenesis. The tumorigenesis of xenograft tumors from UbcH10-deficient cells treated with ALLN was decreased relative to wild-type cells treated with ALLN in nude mice. On the molecular level, we observed that UbcH10 deficiency enhances the activation of caspase 8 and caspase 3 but not caspase 9 to impair cell viability upon ALLN treatment. Collectively, our results suggest that, as an oncogene, UbcH10 is a potential drug target for the treatment of colorectal cancer.
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Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to explore nutrient mitigation potentials of five policy instruments, using pig production in Zhongjiang county, southwest China, as the empirical filling. The effects of different policy scenarios are simulated and compared using four indicators and differentiating between small, medium and large scale pig farms. Technology standards, biogas subsidies and information provisioning prove to be the most effective policies, while pollution fees and manure markets fail to environmentally improve manure management in pig livestock farming. Medium-scale farms are the more relevant scale category for a more environmentally sound development of Chinese livestock production. A number of policy recommendations are formulated as conclusion, as well as some limitations and prospects of the simulations are discussed.
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Effect of hENT1 polymorphism G-706C on clinical outcomes of gemcitabine-containing chemotherapy for Chinese non-small-cell lung cancer patients.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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To identify the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of hENT1 G-706C that is associated with response to gemcitabine-containing chemotherapy, and to determine the prognosis in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Dynamic MRI of rat brain following manganese administration through the internal carotid artery.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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In this study, we investigated the dynamic distribution processes of Mn(2+) in rat brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after an intra-arterial (IA) injection of MnCl2 and following the breaking of the blood-brain barrier (BBB).
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Enhancing the performance of solution-processed n-type organic field-effect transistors by blending with molecular "aligners".
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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A novel approach to enhancing the performance of solution-processed n-type organic field-effect transistors by using trace amounts of molecular "aligners" to manipulate the assembly of "matrix" molecules in thin films is demonstrated. The device performance is one order of magnitude higher in 1wt% blended thin films than that in neat films, which correlates to an induced change of preferred orientation of the in-plane ?-stacking molecules upon blending.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.