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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The real-time method of assessing the contribution of individual sources on visibility degradation in Taichung.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Visibility degradation caused by air pollution has become a serious environmental problem in megacities in Northeast Asia. In general, aerosol chemical compositions are measured by a conventional method of time integrated filter sampling for off-line analysis, which cannot represent temporal and spatial variations in the real atmosphere. The in situ air composition measuring equipment, OCEC carbon aerosol analyzer and a long-path visibility transmissometer-3 were used to collect hourly measurements of the soluble ions, organic/elemental carbon, and ambient visibility, respectively. During the observation, two types of weather conditions were identified: transport and stagnant. Because PM2.5 was identified as the predominant species of light extinction, the sources of PM2.5 were determined and investigated using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis. The PMF outputs characterized the six main emission sources (marine/crustal aerosols, secondary nitrate, secondary sulfate, direct vehicle exhaust, coal/incinerator combustion, and local sewage emission) and reconstructed the PM2.5 mass concentrations of each pollutant source in two weather conditions. In addition, the light extinction (bext) was reconstructed using a multivariate linear regression analysis with hourly-reconstructed PM2.5 mass concentrations to determine the contributions of each source to bext. The primary results showed that the extinction coefficient was proportional to the PM2.5 with high value in stagnant weather conditions. The secondary sulfate was the most abundant source of bext contribution during the sampling period. In addition, the bext contributions of direct vehicle exhaust and coal/incinerator combustion significantly increased in the stagnant weather condition. According to the results of hourly measurements, this work further emphasized that the sources of direct vehicle exhaust and coal/incinerator combustion in PM2.5 were the important sources of visibility degradation in the stagnant weather conditions, which suggests that the pollutants derived from direct vehicle exhaust and coal/incinerator combustion should be controlled first to improve visibility in Taichung.
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Standardized report for early complications of radical prostatectomy.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Radical prostatectomy (RP) is one of the curative treatment options for patients with prostate cancer to achieve long-term survival, but it is accompanied by potential complications. The Martin criteria used as a format for reporting complications has become standard in recent years. However, it has not been applied in RP in Asian countries. In the present study, we investigated the early complications of RP developing within 90 days in our institute according to the Martin criteria.
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Targeting oxidative stress in the hypothalamus: the effect of transcription factor STAT3 knockdown on endogenous antioxidants-mediated appetite control.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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It has been reported that the redox sensing system in the hypothalamus participates in fuel metabolism and that endogenous antioxidants contribute to the regulation of phenylpropanolamine (PPA), an anorectic drug-induced appetite suppression. We explored whether the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is involved in PPA's action. Rats were given PPA once a day for 4 days. Changes in endogenous antioxidants, Janus kinase-2 (JAK2), STAT3, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), levels during PPA treatment were assessed and compared. Feeding, body weight, and NPY decreased with the biggest reduction on Day 2 during PPA treatment. Antioxidants, JAK2, pSTAT3, POMC expression, and STAT3/DNA-binding activity increased and were expressed in a pattern opposite to NPY expression. Moreover, cerebral STAT3 knockdown modified PPA-induced anorexia and antioxidants, POMC, and NPY expression. superoxide dismutase immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus increased and the inhibition of hypothalamic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production reversed antioxidants, STAT3, POMC, and NPY expression. It is suggested that hypothalamic JAK2-STAT3 participates in regulating antioxidants-mediated appetite control. This result may further the understanding of ROS-involved appetite control.
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Inhibition of the invasion and migration of renal carcinoma 786?o?si3 cells in vitro and in vivo by Koelreuteria formosana extract.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Koelreuteria formosana ethanolic extract (KFEE) is obtained from natural plants that are endemic to Taiwan. In a previous study, it was demonstrated that KFEE inhibited low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and prevented oxidized LDL?induced apoptosis in endothelial cells. In the present study, KFEE was shown to inhibit the invasion and migration of 786?O?SI3 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells while not exhibiting any cytotoxic effects. 786?O?SI3 cells were treated with KFEE at numerous concentrations of ?100 µg/ml for 24 h. In order to examine the effects of KFEE, cells were then subjected to a series of assays for cell viability (MTT), wound healing migration, cell invasion and migration, gelatin zymography, casein zymography and immunofluorescence, as well as western blot analysis. KFEE was shown to decrease levels of matrix metalloproteinase?2, phosphorylated (p?)focal adhesion kinase Try925, p?paxillin Ser178, p?mitogen?activated protein kinase kinase 1/2, p?myosin light chain and p?extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in 786-0-SI3 cells. Reduction of lung metastases was observed in KFEE-treated mice compared with vehicle?treated control mice. KFEE inhibited the invasion of RCC cells and may have the potential for use as a chemopreventive agent against RCC metastasis.
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Involvement of hypothalamic PI3K-STAT3 signalling in regulating appetite suppression mediated by amphetamine.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Appetite suppression induced by amphetamine has been attributed to its inhibition of neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons and activation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus. This study examined whether STAT3 was involved in these actions of amphetamine.
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Concentration and composition variations of metals in the outdoor PM10 of elementary schools during river dust episodes.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Aeolian river dust can seriously affect the air quality in central Taiwan. The main purpose of this study was to assess the concentration variations of PM10 and metals at different elementary schools during river dust episodes. River dust samples were taken from eight sites in the main bare soil areas of the Choshui River. PM10 aerosols from four elementary schools in Yulin County were collected by means of high-volume samplers. Fifteen elements (Fe, Al, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Ti, Ni, V, Cr, As, Pb, Cu, Co, and Cd) in the river dust and PM10 were analyzed in this study. The coefficients of divergence (CDs) were obtained by comparing the metal compositions in PM10 aerosols at the four schools on the sampling days with the mean metal contents in the river soil samples as reference. The CD values showed that metal compositions in the aerosols at high-exposure sites during river dust episodes were similar to those compositions in the river dust. The concentrations of PM10 at the high-exposure schools during river dust episodes were much higher than those during non-river-dust episodes. This study also indicated that at the high-exposure sites, both the PM10 and metal concentrations were higher than at the low-exposure and control sites, not only during the river dust episodes, but also after the river dust episodes. The concentrations of toxic metals (Ni, Cr, As, and Cd) at the high-exposure sites were about 11.3 times higher during the river dust episodes (189 ng/m(3)) than during non-river-dust episodes (16.7 ng/m(3)) and about 8.9 times higher during the same periods at the control site (21.3 ng/m(3)).
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Mechanism of amitriptyline adsorption on Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2).
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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The uptake of amitriptyline (AMI) from aqueous environment by Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2) was studied in a batch system under different physicochemical conditions. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses. The AMI adsorption on SAz-2 obeyed the Langmuir isotherm with a capacity of 330mg/g (1.05mmol/g) at pH 6-7. The adsorption kinetics was fast, almost reaching equilibrium in 2h, and followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Desorption of exchangeable cations correlated with the AMI adsorption well, indicating that cation exchange was the major mechanism. X-ray diffraction patterns showing significant expansions of the d001 spacing and characteristic FTIR band shifts toward higher frequencies after AMI adsorption onto SAz-2 indicated that the adsorbed AMI molecules were intercalated into the interlayers of the mineral. Thermodynamic parameters based on partitioning coefficients suggested that the AMI adsorption was an endothermic physisorption at high adsorption levels. At low and higher AMI adsorption levels, the intercalated AMI molecules take a horizontal monolayer and bilayer conformation, respectively. The higher adsorption capacity suggested that SAz-2 could be a good candidate to remove AMI from wastewater and would be an important environmental sink for the fate and transport of AMI in soils and groundwater.
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The neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor knockdown modulates activator protein 1-involved feeding behavior in amphetamine-treated rats.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and two immediate early genes, c-fos and c-jun, have been found to be involved in regulating the appetite-suppressing effect of amphetamine (AMPH). The present study investigated whether cerebral catecholamine (CA) might regulate NPY and POMC expression and whether NPY Y1 receptor (Y1R) participated in activator protein-1 (AP-1)-mediated feeding.
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An in vivo and in vitro investigation of the use of ICDAS, DIAGNOdent pen and CarieScan PRO for the detection and assessment of occlusal caries in primary molar teeth.
Clin Oral Investig
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo and in vitro validity of International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), DIAGNOdent pen and CarieScan PRO in the detection and assessment of occlusal caries in primary teeth.
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Aerosol characteristics of different types of episode.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Daily and hourly average data from nine air-quality monitoring stations distributed across central Taiwan, which include ten items (i.e., PM??, PM?.?, wind direction, wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, SO?, NO?, NO, and CO), were collected from 2005 to 2009. Four episode types: long-range transport with dust storms (DS), long-range transport with frontal pollution (FP), river dust (RD), and stagnant weather (SW), and one mixed type of episode were identified. Of these four episode types, the SW was the dominant type, averaging about 70%. The mean ratio of PM?.?/PM?? was the lowest during the RD episodes (0.42), while the mean ratio of PM?.?/PM?? was the highest during the SW episodes (0.64). Fine aerosol (PM?.?) and coarse aerosol (PM??-?.?) samples were collected by high-volume samplers for chemical composition analysis, from only three stations (Douliou, Lunbei, and Siansi) during the days of SW, RD, DS, and FP. The concentrations of PM?.? and three ionic species (NH??, NO??, and SO?²?) all showed significant differences among the four episode types. The highest levels of NO?? (12.1 ?g/m(3)) and SO?²? (20.5 ?g/m(3)) were found during the SW and FP episodes, respectively. A comparison on the spatial similarity of aerosol compositions among the episodes and/or non-episodes (control) was characterized by the coefficient of divergence (CD). The results showed higher CD values in PM??-?.? than in PM?.?, and the CD values between RD episodes and the other three episodes were higher than those between two types of episode for the other three episodes. The ratios of SOR (sulfur oxidation ratio), SO?²?/EC (elemental carbon), NOR (nitrogen oxidation ratio), and NO??/EC showed that sulfate formation was most rapid during the FP, while nitrate formation was most rapid during the SW.
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Analysis of the major factors affecting the visibility degradation in two stations.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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There are four types of PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 microm) episodes that occur frequently in central Taiwan: long-range transport with dust storms (DS), long-range transport with frontal pollution (FP), river dust (RD), and stagnant weather (SW). During the periods of the four episodes, poor visibility usually results. Multiple linear regression was applied to visibility using eight potential influential variables (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, PM2.5, PM2.5-10, SO2, NO2, and NO) as independent variables. Of the eight variables, PM2.5 showed the greatest explainable percentage of about 48.6% and 58.1% for Taichung and Wuchi stations, respectively. This suggested that PM2.5 was the most important contributor to reduced visibility. Compared with other type of episodes, the aerosols tended to be offine size during the SWepisodes. This is the main reason that the poorest visibility occurred during the SWepisodes. Good correlation between visibility and secondary inorganic salts (NH4+, NO3, and SO4(2-)) were found at Taichung station (r = 0.71) and Wuchi station (r = 0.81), suggesting that secondary inorganic salts did contribute significantly to the degradation ofvisibility. The visibility degradation due to the effects ofNO3- was much higher than that due to SO4(2-) and NH4+ in the urban area, whereas the visibility degradation due to the effects of NO3 , SO42-, and NH4+ did not show significant diference in the rural area.
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Inhibiting neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor modulates melanocortin receptor- and NF-?B-mediated feeding behavior in phenylpropanolamine-treated rats.
Horm Behav
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) are involved in regulating anorexia elicited by phenylpropanolamine (PPA), a sympathomimetic drug. This study explored whether NPY Y1 receptor (Y1R) is involved in this process, and a potential role for the proopiomelanocortin system was identified. Rats were given PPA once a day for 4days. Changes in the hypothalamic expression of the NPY, Y1R, NF-?B, and melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) levels were assessed and compared. The results indicated that food intake and NPY expression decreased, with the largest reductions observed on Day 2 (approximately 50% and 45%, respectively), whereas NF-?B, MC4R, and Y1R increased, achieving maximums on Day 2 (160%, 200%, and 280%, respectively). To determine the role of Y1R, rats were pretreated with Y1R antisense or a Y1R antagonist via intracerebroventricular injection 1h before the daily PPA dose. Y1R knockdown and inhibition reduced PPA anorexia and partially restored the normal expression of NPY, MC4R, and NF-?B. The data suggest that hypothalamic Y1R participates in the appetite-suppression from PPA by regulating MC4R and NF-?B. The results of this study increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms in PPA-induced anorexia.
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In acute kidney injury, indoxyl sulfate impairs human endothelial progenitor cells: modulation by statin.
Angiogenesis
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Renal ischemia rapidly mobilizes endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which provides renoprotection in acute kidney injury (AKI). Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a protein-binding uremic toxin with a potential role in endothelial injury. In this study, we examined the effects and mechanisms of action of IS on EPCs in AKI. Forty-one consecutive patients (26 male; age, 70.1 ± 14.1 years) diagnosed with AKI according to the AKIN criteria were enrolled. The AKI patients had higher serum IS levels than patients with normal kidney function (1.35 ± 0.94 × 10(-4)M vs. 0.02 ± 0.02 × 10(-4)M, P < 0.01). IS levels were negatively correlated to the number of double-labeled (CD34(+)KDR(+)) circulating EPCs (P < 0.001). After IS stimulation, the cells displayed decreased expression of phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, increased reactive oxygen species, decreased proliferative capacity, increased senescence and autophagy, as well as decreased migration and angiogenesis. These effects of IS on EPCs were reversed by atorvastatin. Further, exogenous administration of IS significantly reduced EPC number in Tie2-GFP transgenic mice and attenuated NO signaling in aortic and kidney arteriolar endothelium after kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice, and these effects were restored by atorvastatin. Our results are the first to demonstrate that circulating IS is elevated in AKI and has direct effects on EPCs via NO-dependent mechanisms both in vitro and in vivo. Targeting the IS-mediated pathways by NO-releasing statins such as atorvastatin may preempt disordered vascular wall pathology, and represent a novel EPC-rescued approach to impaired neovascularization after AKI.
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Elevated risk of hypertension induced by arsenic exposure in Taiwanese rural residents: possible effects of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) genes.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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Heavy metals, including arsenic and lead, may lead to cellular oxidative damage that is linked to hypertension. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) is the major glycosylase that repairs DNA lesions. Interestingly, whether there is an elevated risk of hypertension with arsenic or lead exposure in individuals with genetic variations in MnSOD or OGG1 has not yet been investigated. Questionnaires were administered to 240 Taiwanese rural residents. Blood pressure and biochemical indicators were assessed in each subject. Urinary levels of arsenic and lead were measured with atomic absorption spectrometry; and MnSOD and OGG1 genotypes were identified via polymerase chain reaction. There was a dose-response relationship between urinary arsenic levels and risk of hypertension (P = 0.021, test for trend). However, there was no association between urinary lead levels and hypertension risk. Individuals with high urinary arsenic levels and the MnSOD Val-Ala/Ala-Ala genotypes had a greater risk of hypertension than those with low urinary arsenic levels and the MnSOD Val-Val genotype (odds ratio [OR] = 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7-10.3). Subjects with a high urinary arsenic level and the OGG1 Cys-Cys genotype also had a greater risk of hypertension than those with a low urinary arsenic level and the OGG1 Ser-Ser/Ser-Cys genotypes (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.1-10.7). Thus, both MnSOD and OGG1 genotypes may be prone to an increased risk of hypertension associated with arsenic exposure.
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Endothelial progenitor cells in primary aldosteronism: a biomarker of severity for aldosterone vasculopathy and prognosis.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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Primary aldosteronism (PA) is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events, probably through mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-dependent endothelial cell dysfunction, in comparison with essential hypertension (EH).
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Knocking down the transcript of NF-kappaB modulates the reciprocal regulation of endogenous antioxidants and feeding behavior in phenylpropanolamine-treated rats.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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It has been reported that oxidative stress, antioxidants, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are involved in regulating the feeding behavior of phenylpropanolamine (PPA), a sympathomimetic drug. This study explored whether transcription factor NF-?B is involved in this effect. Rats were treated daily with PPA for 4 days. Changes in hypothalamic NF-?B, NPY, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels during PPA treatment were assessed and compared. Results showed that NF-?B, SOD, and GPx increased, with a maximal response on Day 2, while the food intake and NPY decreased with the biggest reduction on Day 2 during PPA treatment. To further determine whether NF-?B was involved, intracerebroventricular infusion of antisense oligonucleotide was performed at 1 h before daily PPA in free-moving rats. Cerebral NF-?B knockdown could modify PPA anorexia and the expressions of NPY, SOD, and GPx. It is suggested that hypothalamic NF-?B participates in the reciprocal regulation of NPY and antioxidants, which mediated the appetite-suppressing effect of PPA. Results may further the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of PPA.
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NF-?B knockdown can modulate amphetamine-mediated feeding response.
Neuropharmacology
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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This study determined if transcription factor NF-?B is involved in the effect of amphetamine (AMPH)-mediated feeding response. Moreover, possible roles of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) were also investigated. AMPH was administered daily to rats for four days. Changes in NF-?B, NPY and POMC expression were assessed and compared. The NPY gene was down-regulated with maximal response on Day 2 during AMPH treatment, which was consistent with the response to feeding behavior. In contrast, NF-?B and POMC genes were up-regulated, and their expression was increased by about 200% and 450%, respectively, with maximal response on Day 2. Moreover, NF-?B DNA binding ability and expression were increased similar to that of POMC. To examine further if NF-?B was involved, intracerebroventricular infusion of NF-?B antisense oligonucleotide was performed 1 h before the daily AMPH dosing in freely moving rats. Results showed that NF-?B knockdown could modify AMPH anorexia as well as NPY and POMC expression. The present findings prove that cerebral NF-?B participates in AMPH-mediated appetite suppression, possibly by modulating NPY and POMC expression. These results may aid in therapeutic research on AMPH and AMPH-like anti-obesity drugs.
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Role of reactive oxygen species-related enzymes in neuropeptide y and proopiomelanocortin-mediated appetite control: a study using atypical protein kinase C knockdown.
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Studies have reported that redox signaling in the hypothalamus participates in nutrient sensing. The current study aimed to determine if the activation of reactive oxygen species-related enzymes (ROS-RE) in the hypothalamus participates in regulating neuropeptide Y (NPY)-mediated eating. Moreover, possible roles of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) were also investigated. Rats were treated daily with phenylpropanolamine (PPA) for 4 days. Changes in the expression levels of ROS-RE, POMC, NPY, and aPKC were assessed and compared.
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in household dust near diesel transport routes.
Environ Geochem Health
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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A river-dredging project has been undertaken in Nantou, Taiwan. A large number of diesel vehicles carrying gravel and sand shuttle back and forth on the main roads. Ten stations along major thoroughfares were selected as the exposure sites for testing, while a small village located about 9 km from a main traffic route was selected as the control site. Levels of household dust loading at the exposure sites (60.3 mg/m(2)) were significantly higher than those at the control site (38.2 mg/m(2)). The loading (?g/m(2)) of t-PAHs (total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the household dust at the exposure sites was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than was the case at the control site. The diagnostic ratios of PAHs showed that diesel emissions were the dominant source of PAHs at the exposure sites. The lack of a significant correlation between the concentrations of Fe and t-PAHs suggested that the t-PAHs in household dust might come from diverse sources. However, a significant correlation (P = 0.003) between the concentrations of Mo and t-PAHs implied that the most of the t-PAHs in the household dust might have resulted from diesel emissions. The lifetime cancer risks of BaP(eq) from household dust exposure were markedly higher than those resulting from inhalation exposure.
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Knocking down the transcript of protein kinase C-lambda modulates hypothalamic glutathione peroxidase, melanocortin receptor and neuropeptide Y gene expression in amphetamine-treated rats.
J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
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It has been reported that neuropeptide Y (NPY) contributes to the behavioral response of amphetamine (AMPH), a psychostimulant. The present study examined whether protein kinase C (PKC)-? signaling was involved in this action. Moreover, possible roles of glutathione peroxidase (GP) and melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) were also examined. Rats were given AMPH daily for 4 days. Hypothalamic NPY, PKC?, GP and MC4R were determined and compared. Pretreatment with ?-methyl-para-tyrosine could block AMPH-induced anorexia, revealing that endogenous catecholamine was involved in regulating AMPH anorexia. PKC?, GP and MC4R were increased with maximal response on Day 2 during AMPH treatment, which were concomitant with the decreases in NPY. cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) DNA binding activity was increased during AMPH treatment, revealing the involvement of CREB-dependent gene transcription. An interruption of cerebral PKC? transcript could partly block AMPH-induced anorexia and partly reverse NPY, MC4R and GP mRNA levels to normal. These results suggest that PKC? participates in regulating AMPH-induced anorexia via a modulation of hypothalamic NPY gene expression and that increases of GP and MC4R may contribute to this modulation. Our results provided molecular evidence for the regulation of AMPH-induced behavioral response.
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The effect of protein kinase C-delta knockdown on anti-free radical enzyme and neuropeptide Y gene expression in phenylpropanolamine-treated rats.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been reported to involve in regulating behavioral response of phenylpropanolamine (PPA), a sympathomimetic agent. This study explored if protein kinase C (PKC)-delta signaling participated in this regulation. Moreover, possible roles of anti-free radical enzyme catalase (CAT) and nitrogen oxide synthase (NOS) were also examined. Rats were treated daily with PPA for 4 days. Changes in food intake and hypothalamic NPY, PKCdelta, CAT, and NOS contents were assessed and compared. Results showed that PKCdelta and CAT increased during PPA treatment, which were concomitant with decreases in NPY content and food intake, while the change of NOS was expressed differently. Moreover, PKCdelta knockdown could modify PPA anorexia as well as NPY and CAT expression, while NOS expression remained unchanged. Furthermore, pre-treatment with NOS inhibitor could modify both PPA anorexia and NPY content. It is suggested that PKCdelta participates in the anorectic response of PPA via the modulation of NPY and CAT, while NOS contribute to this modulation via a different mechanism during PPA treatment. Results provide molecular mechanism of NPY-mediated PPA anorexia and may aid the therapeutic research of PPA and other anti-obesity drugs.
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Peonidin 3-glucoside inhibits lung cancer metastasis by downregulation of proteinases activities and MAPK pathway.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2010
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Anthocyanins, present in various vegetables and fruits as a nature colorant, have broad activities including anticarcinogenesis and antimutagenesis, which are generally attributed to their antioxidant activities. However, limited studies have been available concerning the inhibitory effect of peonidin 3-glucoside (P3G) for cancer metastasis. Here, we demonstrated that P3G could significantly inhibit the invasion (P < 0.001), motility (P < 0.05), secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) of lung cancer cells. Meanwhile, P3G attenuated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family involved in the upregulation of MMPs and u-PA, and also inhibited the activation of activating protein-1 (AP-1) as shown by Western blot and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Thus, the inhibitory effects of P3G may be at least partly through inactivation of ERK 1/2 and AP-1 signaling pathways as confirmed by abolishment of P3G-inhibited H1299 cell invasion by overexpression of MAPK kinase 1 (MEK1). Finally, P3G was evidenced by its inhibition on the metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma cells in vivo (P < 0.001). Taken together, these findings suggested that P3G could reduce the metastasis of lung cancer cells, thereby constituting an adjuvant treatment for metastasis control.
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Metal exposure for residents near diesel transport routes.
J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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For the past few years, a large number of diesel vehicles carrying gravel and sand have shuttled back and forth every day on the main route (Tai-16 and Tai-21 highways) from Shuili to Shinyi in Nantou County, Taiwan, in support of a river-dredging project. Five stations along Tai-16 and three stations along Tai-21 were selected as the exposure sites. Two very small villages located about 9 and 12 kilometers, respectively, away from the diesel transport routes were selected as the control sites. In this study, five exposure pathways, i.e., ingestion from drinking water, household dust, rice, non-rice dishes, and inhalation from airborne particles, were considered. The daily intake doses of metals varied significantly among the five exposure pathways. There was a significant difference between the exposure and control sites regarding the doses of metals obtained from the exposure pathways of household dust and aerosols. However, regarding the exposure pathways of rice, non-rice dishes, and drinking water, no significant difference between the exposure and the control sites was observed for most metals. Residents who lived within 30 meters of diesel transport roads at the exposure sites were selected as the exposure groups for urine sampling, while residents of the control sites were selected as the control groups. The metal concentrations in the urine of the exposure groups were all higher than those of the control groups. With regards to the urinary metals Fe, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Mo, the levels of urinary metals in residents and the daily intakes of metals from the five exposure pathways showed that the exposure pathways from environmental media (i.e., drinking water, aerosols, and household dust) were a greater factor than food pathways (i.e., rice and non-rice dishes) in the resulting comparative differences between urinary concentration levels of Fe, Pb, Cu, and Mo in exposure groups and control groups. However, the food exposure pathways, rather than the environmental pathways, led to greater comparative differences between the urinary concentration levels of Mn within the two groups.
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The unusual presentation of gastric adenocarcinoma as a testicular mass: a favorable response to docetaxel and Cisplatin plus oral tegafur/uracil and leucovorin.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world. The routes of metastasis include direct extension, lymphatics, and peritoneal or hematogenous spread. Testicular metastasis is rare. We present here a 23-year-old gastric cancer patient who first presented with right-side testis swelling and pain. Diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma was made after right-side orchiectomy. Gastric adenocarcinoma with ascites and peritoneal seeding was found after esophagogastroscopy and abdominal computed tomography. The patient received chemotherapy consisting of docetaxel 36 mg/m(2) and cisplatin 30 mg/m(2) on day 1 and day 8, plus oral tegafur/uracil 300 mg/m(2)/day and leucovorin 90 mg/day on day 1 to day 14 in a 21-day cycle, and he had a partial response to the chemotherapy. Metastatic tumors, especially gastric adenocarcinoma, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with testicular mass and they may respond well to chemotherapy.
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Spatial variations of the aerosols in river-dust episodes in central Taiwan.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2010
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Daily and hourly average data of PM(10) from 17 air-quality monitoring stations distributed throughout four counties and along four rivers (the Ta-an River, the Tachia River, the Wu River and the Choshui River) in central Taiwan were collected from November 15 to 21, 2008. During this period, the wind speed and daily PM(10) concentrations increased drastically from the 17th to the 19th, and reached a maximum level on the 19th. Six air-quality monitoring stations (Dajia, Wurih, Siansi, Dungnan, Lunbei and Taisi) in the central Taiwan were selected for sampling fine (PM(2.5)) and coarse (PM(10-2.5)) aerosols samples during and after the river-dust episode. Most of the ratios of [crustal elements (Fe or Al)/reference elements (Cd or Mo)] for the samples obtained during episode are higher than those obtained after episode. The values of Fe(10-2.5)/Cd(10-2.5) and Fe(10-2.5)/Mo(10-2.5) were very high in Lubei, Taisi, and Dungnan stations where heavy aeolian river dust occurred. These data suggest that the ratios of Fe(10-2.5)/Cd(10-2.5) and Fe(10-2.5)/Mo(10-2.5) can be successfully used as indexes to evaluate the comparative degree of effect of aeolian river dust on the atmosphere of multiple stations.
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Effects of diesel vehicle emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the surrounding environment and residents.
J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2009
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Ten stations alongside major thoroughfares were selected as exposure sites, while a small village located about 3 kilometers away from a main traffic route was selected as the control site. The concentrations of particulate matters with aerodynamic less than 2.5 microm (PM(2.5)) and elemental carbon (EC) at exposure sites were both higher than those at the control site. Daytime mean concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (t-PAHs), carcinogenic PAHs (car-PAHs), and Benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent dose (BaP(eq)) at exposure sites were all about twice as high as those at the control site. A significant relationship between t-PAHs and EC was found, suggesting that most of the t-PAHs at exposure sites were contributed by diesel exhaust. Furthermore, the diagnostic ratios also show that diesel emissions were the dominant sources of PAHs at exposure sites. A multiple linear regression was applied to urinary 1-hydroxyprene (1-OHP) using four variables (exposure status, sex, smoker status, and incense burning) as independent variables. The results showed that the concentrations of 1-OHP in exposure groups were significantly (p < 0.001) higher than those in the control group. The explainable percentage for exposure status was 91.1%, indicating that the exposure factor, in comparison with other factors, has a dominant contribution to the concentration of 1-OHP. After subtracting the background levels of 1-OHP, the levels of urinary 1-OHP for residents exposed to the exhaust of 100 vehicles were about 0.062 microg/g creatinine.
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Tannic acid-induced apoptosis and -enhanced sensitivity to arsenic trioxide in human leukemia HL-60 cells.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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Tannic acid (TA), a glucoside of gallic acid polymer, has been shown to possess anti-bacterial, anti-enzymatic, anti-tumor and astringent properties. However, the anti-cancer activity of TA in leukemia is still obscure. In this study, we showed TA-induced apoptotic death in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) HL-60 cells via dose- and time-dependent manner as well as increase of sub-G1 fraction, chromosome condensation, and DNA fragmentation. Further analysis demonstrated the involvement of activation of caspase cascade, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, and release of Cytochrome C, in TA-induced apoptosis. These effects were probably associated with the increase of intracellular superoxide in mitochondrial signaling pathway which attributed to the down-regulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Notably, a low dose of TA is sufficient to aggravate arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3))-induced cytotoxicity in HL-60 cells. Altogether, this study suggested the effects of TA to induce apoptosis in HL-60 and therapeutic potential in AML by being an adjunct to As(2)O(3).
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Amphetamine-evoked changes of oxidative stress and neuropeptide Y gene expression in hypothalamus: regulation by the protein kinase C-delta signaling.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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Amphetamine (AMPH), a psychostimulant, is an appetite suppressant and may be regarded as a neurotoxin. It was reported that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) participated in AMPH-mediated behavior response. However, molecular mechanisms underlying this action are not well known. Using feeding behavior as an indicator, this study investigated if protein kinase C (PKC)-delta signaling was involved. Rats were given daily with AMPH for 4 days. Changes in hypothalamic NPY, PKCdelta and SOD mRNA contents were measured and compared. Results showed that the up-regulations of PKCdelta and SOD mRNA levels following AMPH treatment were concomitant with the down-regulation of NPY mRNA level and the decrease of feeding. To further determine if PKCdelta was involved, intracerebroventricular infusions of PKCdelta antisense oligonucleotide were performed at 1h before daily AMPH treatment in freely moving rats, and results showed that PKCdelta knock-down could block the anorectic response and restore partially both NPY and SOD mRNA levels in AMPH-treated rats. It is suggested that central PKCdelta signaling may play a functional role in the regulation of AMPH-mediated appetite suppression via a modification of hypothalamic NPY gene expression. Moreover, the increase of SOD during AMPH treatment may favor this modification.
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Roles of protein kinase Calpha isozyme in the regulation of oxidative stress and neuropeptide Y gene expression in phenylpropanolamine-mediated appetite suppression.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
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Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an appetite stimulant in the brain. Although regulation of NPY expression has been reported to contribute to the appetite-suppressing effect of phenylpropanolamine (PPA), it is still unknown if protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in this effect. Rats were daily treated with PPA for 4 days. Changes in food intake, hypothalamic NPY, PKC, and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels were assessed and compared. Results showed that the NPY gene was down-regulated following PPA treatment, which was parallel with the decrease of feeding. Moreover, several isotypes of PKC mRNA level (alpha, betaI, betaII, gamma, delta, eta, lambda, epsilon, and zeta) were changed. Among these, alpha, delta, and lambda PKC were up-regulated along with POMC gene expression which coincided with down-regulation of the NPY gene. To further determine if PKCalpha was involved, infusions of antisense oligonucleotide into the cerebroventricle were performed at 1 h before daily PPA treatment in free-moving rats. Results showed that PKCalpha knock-down could modify both anorexia induced by PPA and the NPY mRNA levels. Moreover, PKCalpha knock-down could also modify superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene expression. It is suggested that PKCalpha participates in the regulation of PPA-mediated appetite suppression via the modulation of NPY and SOD gene expression.
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The identification of neuropeptide Y receptor subtype involved in phenylpropanolamine-induced increase in oxidative stress and appetite suppression.
Neuromolecular Med.
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Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) have been reported to participate in the regulation of appetite-suppressing effect of phenylpropanolamine (PPA), a sympathomimetic agent. This study explored whether Y1 receptor (Y1R) and/or Y5 receptor (Y5R) was involved in this regulation. Wistar rats were treated with PPA for 24 h. Changes in food intake and hypothalamic NPY, Y1R, Y5R, and SOD contents were assessed and compared. Results showed that food intake and NPY contents were decreased following PPA treatment, while Y1R and SOD contents were increased and Y5R contents remained unchanged. Moreover, although Y1R or Y5R knockdown by themselves could modify the food intake, Y1R but not Y5R knockdown could modify PPA-induced anorexia as well as NPY and SOD contents. In addition, selective inhibition of Y1R but not Y5R could modulate PPA-induced anorexia. It is suggested that Y1R but not Y5R participates in the anorectic response of PPA via the modulation of NPY and SOD. Results provide molecular mechanism of NPY-mediated PPA anorexia and may aid the understanding of the toxicology of PPA.
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Comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions on gasoline- and diesel-dominated routes.
Environ Monit Assess
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Three diesel-dominated routes (DDRs) and three gasoline-dominated routes (GDRs) were chosen as the study sites. The total number of vehicles on GDRs (47,200) was much higher than that on DDRs (14,500). The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), elemental carbon, organic carbon, and metals from GDR roadsides was higher than that for DDRs. The diagnostic ratios (ANTHR/PHE + ANTHR, FLT/FLT + PYR, BaA/BaA + CHR, and IND/IND + BghiP + ANTHN) all indicated that the major PAH source on DDR and GDR was emissions from vehicle engine combustion. The marked diesel ratios of low molecular weight PAH2.5/T-PAH2.5, methyl-PAH2.5/T-PAH2.5, methyl-PHE/PHE, and Mo/PM2.5 on DDRs were higher than those on GDRs. Significant correlations were found between the number of vehicles and the concentration of T-PAH2.5, Car-PAHs2.5, and BaPeq2.5 on DDRs and GDRs. The increase in the levels of T-PAH2.5, Car-PAHs2.5, and BaPeq2.5 per 100 vehicles on DDRs was about 3.3, 3.5, and 4.2 times higher than that on GDRs, respectively. The higher percentage of high-exhaust volume from the larger amount of diesel vehicles on DDRs than that on GDRs was the main factor leading to these results. The diagnostic ratios BaA2.5/CHR2.5 and (BbF + BkF)2.5/BghiP2.5 showed significant differences between the fine PAH sources emitted on DDRs and GDRs, whereas the diagnostic ratios Me-PAH2.5/T-PAH2.5 and (BbF + BkF)2.5/BghiP2.5 showed good correlations with the percentages of diesel exhaust volume in the total exhaust volume (E(diesel)/E(total)) on DDRs.
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Neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor knockdown can modify glutathione peroxidase and c-AMP response element-binding protein in phenylpropanolamine-treated rats.
Arch. Toxicol.
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It has been reported that antioxidative enzymes, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and c-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) are involved in regulating phenylpropanolamine (PPA)-mediated appetite suppression. Here, we investigated whether Y1 receptor (Y1R) might be involved in this regulation. Rats were daily treated with PPA for 4 days. Changes in the contents of NPY, Y1R, glutathione peroxidase (GP), and CREB were assessed and compared. Results showed that Y1R, GP, and CREB increased, with a maximal increase about 100, 200, and 150 %, respectively, on Day 2. By contrast, NPY decreased with a biggest reduction about 48 % on Day 2 and the pattern of expression during PPA treatment was opposite to those of Y1R, GP, and CREB. Central knockdown (using antisense) or inhibition (using antagonist) of Y1R expression modulated the anorectic response of PPA and the reciprocal regulation between NPY and GP (or CREB), revealing an essential role of Y1R in regulating NPY, GP, and CREB. These results suggest that Y1R participates in the reciprocal regulation of NPY, GP, and CREB in the hypothalamus during PPA treatment in conscious rats. The present results may aid the therapeutic research of PPA and related antiobesity drugs.
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Evaluation of the vehicle contributions of metals to indoor environments.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol
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A large number of diesel vehicles carrying gravel and sand shuttle back and forth every day on the major thoroughfares (Tai-16 and Tai-21) from Shinyi to Jiji in Nantou, Taiwan. A total of 10 stations along the major thoroughfares were selected as the exposure sites, whereas a small village located ?9?km from a main traffic route was selected as the control site. Outdoor and indoor aerosol samples were collected using high-volume samplers and Harvard samplers, respectively. The metal concentrations of outdoor and indoor PM(10) at the exposure sites were, respectively, higher than those at the control site. The plots between metal contents in the aerosols and road dust showed that diesel vehicles contributed significant amounts of metals to the outdoor and indoor aerosols at the exposure sites. Household dust samples along the roadside within 30?m of the main road in the small towns were collected using the wipe method. Based on the results of principal component analysis (PCA), three major components for household dust were identified: resuspended from road dust, brake wear and diesel emissions. Enrichment factors were applied to assess the contribution of pollution sources to household dust. These factors were calculated with respect to unpolluted river dust samples (EF(river)) and road dust (EF(road)). The differences between EF(river) and EF(road) could be mainly attributed to the effects of resuspension by passing vehicles. Approximately 72%, 68%, 68%, 73% and 86% of the vehicle-related metals Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Mo content, respectively, in household dust were the result of the resuspension of road dust by passing vehicles. The data of daily intakes of five metals (i.e., Fe, Pb, Cu, Ni and Mo) from inhalation and ingestion pathways showed that the doses from the ingestion pathway were much higher than those from the inhalation pathway.
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Investigation of InGaN green light-emitting diodes with chirped multiple quantum well structures.
Opt Lett
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The effect of using chirped multiple quantum-well (MQW) structures in InGaN green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is numerically investigated. An active structure, which is with both thick QWs with low indium composition on the p-side and thin QWs with high indium composition next to the n-region, is presented in this study. The thickness and indium composition in each single QW is specifically tuned to emit the same green emission spectrum. Comparing with conventional active structure design of green LEDs, which is using uniform MQWs, the output power is increased by 27% at 20 mA, and by 15% at 100 mA current injections. This improvement is mainly attributed to the enhanced efficiency of carrier injection into QWs and the improved capability of carrier transport.
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Involvement of neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor in the regulation of amphetamine-mediated appetite suppression.
Neuropharmacology
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Recently, we reported that an initial decrease followed by recovery of food intake was observed during four days of amphetamine (AMPH) treatment and suggested that these changes in response were mediated by changes in neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC). Here we investigated if Y1 receptor (Y1R) and/or Y5 receptor (Y5R) might be involved in this regulation. Rats were treated daily with AMPH for four days. Changes in the expression levels of Y1R, Y5R, melanocortin receptor 3 (MC3R), and NPY were assessed and compared. Results showed that Y1R and MC3R increased, with a maximal increase of about 210% on Day 2 but with a restoration to the normal level on Day 4. In contrast, NPY decreased with a biggest reduction of about 45% on Day 2 and the pattern of expression during AMPH treatment was opposite to those of Y1R and MC3R, while the expression of Y5R was not changed. Central inhibitions of NPY formation or Y1R activity modulated the anorectic response of AMPH and the reciprocal regulation of NPY and MC3R, revealing a crucial role of Y1R in this action. It is suggested that Y1R participates in the reciprocal regulation of NPY- and MC3R-containing neurons in the hypothalamus during the anorectic effect of AMPH. These results may further the understanding of Y1R in the control of eating.
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Does extended prostate needle biopsy improve the concordance of Gleason scores between biopsy and prostatectomy in the Taiwanese population?
J Chin Med Assoc
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Discordance between the Gleason scores of prostate needle biopsies and radical prostatectomy specimens has been reported by several investigators. We conducted this study to determine if increasing the number of prostate needle biopsies in patients with prostate cancer improves the accuracy of Gleason scores in the Taiwanese population.
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