JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Clinical features and genome-wide copy number variation analysis in 60 children with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies of unknown cause.]
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the clinical features of early-onset epileptic encephalopathies (EEEs) of unknown cause, and to identify pathogenic microdeletion/microduplication of EEEs by genome-wide analysis of copy number variations (CNVs).
Related JoVE Video
Thermally tunable electric mie resonance of dielectric cut-wire type metamaterial.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this manuscript, we present on a thermally tunable electric Mie resonance of dielectric cut-wire type metamaterial. Dielectric cut-wire exhibits Lorentz-type frequency dependent negative effective permittivity followed by zero value around its fundamental Mie resonance, resulting from dipole-oscillation of displacement currents. Furthermore, the operation frequency of electric resonance frequency can be varied by wire length and temperature variation. As environmental temperature changes by 40 °C, electric Mie resonance can be reversibly tuned by 1000 MHz, due to the thermal dependent permittivity character of ceramic.
Related JoVE Video
One Pot, Two Phases: Individual Orthorhombic and Face-Centered Cubic ZnSnO3 Obtained Synchronously in One Solution.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many modern technologies rely on the functional materials that are subject to their phase purity. The topic of obtaining pure crystals from the concomitant allotropes is ever before the eyes of numerous researchers. Here we adopt a template-inducing route and obtain the isolated allotropes located in the appointed regions in the same reaction system. As a typical example, well-defined individual face-centered cubic and orthorhombic ZnSnO3 crystals were successfully synthesized assisted by a ZnO inducing template or without it in an identical solution, respectively. And the different growing mechanisms of the ZnSnO3 allotropes were also proposed, which takes a pivotal step toward the realization of allotropes dividing. Moreover, the two individual pure-phased ZnSnO3 allotropes obtained in one reaction system exhibit porous microspherical morphologies constructed by the tiny nanograins, resulting in their high sensitivities to ethanol with fast response and recovery and good selectivity and stability.
Related JoVE Video
11ß-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 shRNA Ameliorates Glucocorticoid -Induced Insulin Resistance and Lipolysis in Mouse Abdominal Adipose Tissue.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Long-term glucocorticoid exposure increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Pre-receptor activation of glucocorticoid availability in target tissue by 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ß-HSD1) coupled with hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) are important mediators of the metabolic syndrome. We explored whether the tissue-specific modulation of 11ß-HSD1 and H6PDH in adipose tissue mediates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance and lipolysis and analyzed the effects of 11?-HSD1 inhibition on the key lipid metabolism genes and insulin signaling cascade. We observed that corticosterone (CORT) treatment increased expression of 11?-HSD1 and H6PDH and induced lipase HSL and ATGL with suppression of pThr(172)AMPK in adipose tissue of C57BL/6J mice. In contrast, CORT induced adipose insulin resistance, as reflected by a marked decrease in IR and IRS-1 gene expression with reduction in pThr(308) Akt/PKB. Furthermore, 11?-HSD1 shRNA attenuated CORT-induced 11?-HSD1 and lipase expression and improved insulin sensitivity with a concomitant stimulation of pThr(308) Akt/PKB and pThr(172)AMPK within adipose tissue. Addition of CORT to 3T3-L1 adipocytes enhanced 11ß-HSD1 and H6PDH and impaired pThr(308)Akt/PKB leading to lipolysis. Knockdown of 11ß-HSD1 by shRNA attenuated CORT-induced lipolysis and reversed CORT-mediated inhibition of pThr(172)AMPK accompanied by a parallel improvement of insulin signaling response in these cells. These findings suggest that elevated adipose 11?-HSD1 expression may contribute to glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance and adipolysis.
Related JoVE Video
The Roles of Egr-2 in Autoimmune Diseases.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Being a member of the early growth response (Egr) family of transcription factors, Egr-2 is expressed in a variety of cell types of the immune system. Recent findings imply that Egr-2 is important in the development and function of T helper (Th) 17 cell, regulatory T (Treg) cell, as well as dendritic cell (DC). Although these cells perform significantly in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and systemic sclerosis, the roles of Egr-2 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases can not be neglected. In this article, we will discuss recent findings about the important roles of Egr-2 in immune cells and the possible pathological roles of Egr-2 in autoimmune diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of a novel spore wall protein NbSWP16 with proline-rich tandem repeats from Nosema bombycis (microsporidia).
Parasitology
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
SUMMARY Nosema bombycis, a pathogen of silkworm pebrine, is an obligate unicellular eukaryotic parasite. It is reported that the spore wall proteins have essential functions in the adherence and infection process of microsporidia. To date, the information related to spore wall proteins from microsporidia is still limited. Here, a 44 kDa spore wall protein NbSWP16 was characterized in N. bombycis. In NbSWP16, a 25 amino acids signal peptide and 3 heparin binding motifs were predicted. Interestingly, a region that contains 3 proline-rich tandem repeats lacking homology to any known protein was also present in this protein. The immunofluorescence analysis (IFA) demonstrated that distinct fluorescent signals were detected both on the surface of mature spores and the germinated spore coats. Immunolocation by electron microscopy revealed that NbSWP16 localized on the exospore regions. Finally, spore adherence analysis indicated that spore adherence to host cell was decreased more than 20% by anti-NbSWP16 blocking compared with the negative control in vitro. In contrast with anti-NbSWP16, no remarkable decrement inhibition was detected when antibodies of NbSWP16 and NbSWP5 were used simultaneously. Collectively, these results suggest that NbSWP16 is a new exospore protein and probably be involved in spore adherence of N. bombycis.
Related JoVE Video
Cytoskeletal regulation of CD44 membrane organization and interactions with E-selectin.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Interactions of CD44 on neutrophils with E-selectin on activated endothelial cells mediate rolling under flow, a prerequisite for neutrophil arrest and migration into perivascular tissues. How CD44 functions as a rolling ligand despite its weak affinity for E-selectin is unknown. We examined the nanometer-scale organization of CD44 on intact cells. CD44 on leukocytes and transfected K562 cells was crosslinked within a 1.14-nm spacer. Depolymerizing actin with latrunculin B reduced crosslinking. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) revealed tight co-clustering between CD44 fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and CD44 fused to cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) on K562 cells. Latrunculin B reduced FRET-reported co-clustering. Number and brightness (N&B) analysis confirmed actin-dependent CD44-YFP clusters on living cells. CD44 lacking binding sites for ankyrin and for ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins on its cytoplasmic domain (?ANK?ERM) did not cluster. Unexpectedly, CD44 lacking only the ankyrin-binding site (?ANK) formed larger but looser clusters. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) demonstrated increased CD44 mobility by latrunculin B treatment or by deleting the cytoplasmic domain. ?ANK?ERM mobility increased only modestly, suggesting that the cytoplasmic domain engages the cytoskeleton by an additional mechanism. Ex vivo-differentiated CD44-deficient neutrophils expressing exogenous CD44 rolled on E-selectin and activated Src kinases after binding anti-CD44 antibody. In contrast, differentiated neutrophils expressing ?ANK had impaired rolling and kinase activation. These data demonstrate that spectrin and actin networks regulate CD44 clustering and suggest that ankyrin enhances CD44-mediated neutrophil rolling and signaling.
Related JoVE Video
An organ boundary-enriched gene regulatory network uncovers regulatory hierarchies underlying axillary meristem initiation.
Mol. Syst. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) control development via cell type-specific gene expression and interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and regulatory promoter regions. Plant organ boundaries separate lateral organs from the apical meristem and harbor axillary meristems (AMs). AMs, as stem cell niches, make the shoot a ramifying system. Although AMs have important functions in plant development, our knowledge of organ boundary and AM formation remains rudimentary. Here, we generated a cellular-resolution genomewide gene expression map for low-abundance Arabidopsis thaliana organ boundary cells and constructed a genomewide protein-DNA interaction map focusing on genes affecting boundary and AM formation. The resulting GRN uncovers transcriptional signatures, predicts cellular functions, and identifies promoter hub regions that are bound by many TFs. Importantly, further experimental studies determined the regulatory effects of many TFs on their targets, identifying regulators and regulatory relationships in AM initiation. This systems biology approach thus enhances our understanding of a key developmental process.
Related JoVE Video
[Soil-transmitted nematode infections and cognitive behavior in rural residents of Dezhou City in 2011].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To understand the status of soil-transmitted nematode infections, as well as the awareness and healthy behavior on soil-transmitted nematodiasis in rural residents of Dezhou City.
Related JoVE Video
?-catenin stabilization in gonadotropes impairs follicle-stimulating hormone synthesis in male mice in vivo.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Though classically considered a WNT signaling intermediary, CTNNB1 (?-catenin) can also mediate GnRH induction of gonadotropin ? subunit (Fshb and Lhb) transcription in the murine gonadotrope-like cell line L?T2. Here, we assessed CTNNB1's role in gonadotropin synthesis in vivo. We used a Cre/lox approach to introduce both gain- and loss-of-function mutations in the murine Ctnnb1 gene in gonadotrope cells. Gonadotropin production and fertility were normal in Ctnnb1 knockout mice. Similarly, females harboring a deletion of exon 3 of Ctnnb1, which stabilizes the resulting CTNNB1 protein, showed normal fertility and gonadotropin synthesis. Interestingly, males with the activating CTNNB1-?exon 3 mutation exhibited 50% reductions in FSH synthesis and secretion, without a corresponding change in LH. This selective regulation of FSH suggested an alteration in the activin/inhibin/follistatin system. Indeed, CTNNB1-?exon 3 males showed a 60% increase in serum inhibin B levels and, in culture, their pituitaries exhibited a greater sensitivity to exogenous inhibin than controls. At the same time, pituitary, but not testicular, follistatin (Fst) expression was increased significantly in these mice. Castration normalized FSH levels in CTNNB1-?exon 3 males to those seen in castrated controls. Paradoxically, pituitaries from CTNNB1-?exon 3 males exhibited greater basal and activin-stimulated FSH synthesis in vitro. Similarly, CTNNB1-?exon 3 overexpression potentiated activin A-induced murine Fshb promoter activity in L?T2 cells. Together, these results indicate that CTNNB1 is dispensable for gonadotropin synthesis in vivo. However, sustained CTNNB1 signaling potentiates activin-induced Fshb expression in gonadotropes, but this effect is overcome in vivo by enhanced inhibin feedback sensitivity and Fst expression.
Related JoVE Video
[Long term follow-up and prognostic analysis of 85 cases with primary gastrointestinal diffuse large B cell lymphoma].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To analyze the clinical characteristics, prognostic factors in patients with primary gastrointestinal diffuse large B cell lymphoma (PGI-DLBCL).
Related JoVE Video
[Optimal treatment of adult Ph negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To analyze the difference of safety and efficacy between the traditional and the pediatric inspired acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) chemotherapy regimen, and to further observe whether patients in different age group will benefit from the two regimens.
Related JoVE Video
[BMMSC from Blastic Phase CML Down-regulate Leukemia Cell Apoptosis].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC) from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in blastic phase (Bp) on K562 cells and the primary CML-Bp cells, and to explore its potential mechanisms. K562 cells and primary CML-Bp cells were co-cultured with BMMSC of different groups; the cell proliferation was detected by MTT method, the cell apoptosis rate and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured by flow cytometry, the expression levels of Caspase-8, Caspase-9, and activated Caspase-3 in cells were measured by Western blot. The results showed that the CML-Bp BMMSC could enhance the survival rate of K562 cells treated with adviamycin (ADM) and display protective effect on K562 cells and primary CML-Bp mononuctear cells, inhibited ADM-induced leukimia cell apoptosis (P < 0.05); as compared with CML-chronic phase (CML-Cp) BMMSC and normal BMMSC, the CML-Bp BMMSC showed the highest protective effect on leukemic cells, the mitochondrial membrane potential of co-cultured cells slightly droped (P < 0.05). In the CML-Bp BMMSC cultured with K562 cells, the expression level of caspase-3 was more down-regulated than that in K562 alone plus ADM group, while the expression of caspase-9 significantly increased (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the CML-Bp BMMSC down-regulates ADM-induced leukemia cell appoptosis, its mechanism may relate with the inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential drop, the stabilization of unactive expression of caspase-9 and down-regulation of caspase-3 expression.
Related JoVE Video
[Evaluation and indication of human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 status in breast carcinoma with amplified chromosome].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the evaluation of human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status in breast carcinoma with amplified chromosome 17 centromere locus (CEP17) and clinical significance of CEP17 amplification.
Related JoVE Video
[Genetic diagnosis of fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase deficiency: a case report].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report the first case of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) deficiency diagnosed by genetic sequencing in China, and to improve the cognition of this rare disease.
Related JoVE Video
[Expression, purification and functional identification of human PSMP recombinant protein in Chinese hamster ovary cells].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To construct a new human chemotactic cytokine PSMP eukaryotic expression vector to express PSMP in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and to obtain the purified recombinant PSMP protein for its functional mechanism study.
Related JoVE Video
Spectral Unmixing via Data-guided Sparsity.
IEEE Trans Image Process
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hyperspectral unmixing, the process of estimating a common set of spectral bases and their corresponding composite percentages at each pixel, is an important task for hyperspectral analysis, visualization and understanding. From an unsupervised learning perspective, this problem is very challenging-both the spectral bases and their composite percentages are unknown, making the solution space too large. To reduce the solution space, many approaches have been proposed by exploiting various priors. In practice, these priors would easily lead to some unsuitable solution. This is because they are achieved by applying an identical strength of constraints to all the factors, which does not hold in practice. To overcome this limitation, we propose a novel sparsity based method by learning a data-guided map to describe the individual mixed level of each pixel. Through this data-guided map, the `p (0 < p < 1) constraint is applied in an adaptive manner. Such implementation not only meets the practical situation, but also guides the spectral bases toward the pixels under highly sparse constraint. What's more, an elegant optimization scheme as well as its convergence proof have been provided in this paper. Extensive experiments on several datasets also demonstrate that the data-guided map is feasible, and high quality unmixing results could be obtained by our method.
Related JoVE Video
Nox2-dependent glutathionylation of endothelial NOS leads to uncoupled su-peroxide production and endothelial barrier dysfunction in acute lung injury.
Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microvascular barrier integrity is dependent upon bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) produced locally by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Under conditions of limited substrate or cofactor availability or by enzymatic modification eNOS may become uncoupled producing superoxide in lieu of NO. This study was designed to investigate how eNOS-dependent superoxide production contributes to endothelial barrier dysfunction in inflammatory lung injury and its regulation. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with intratracheal LPS. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for protein accumulation, and lung tissue homogenate assayed for endothelial NOS content and function. Human lung microvascular endothelial cell (HLMVEC) monolayers were exposed to LPS in vitro and barrier integrity and superoxide production were measured. Biopterin species were quantified and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays were performed to identify protein interactions with eNOS that putatively drive uncoupling. Mice exposed to LPS demonstrated eNOS-dependent increased alveolar permeability without evidence for altered canonical NO signaling. LPS-induced superoxide production and permeability in HLMVEC were inhibited by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, eNOS-targeted siRNA , the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin, and superoxide dismutase. Co-IP indicated that LPS stimulated the association of eNOS with NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2), which correlated with augmented eNOS S-glutathionylation both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, Nox2 specific inhibition prevented LPS-induced eNOS modification and increases in both superoxide production and permeability. These data indicate that eNOS uncoupling contributes to superoxide production and barrier dysfunction in the lung microvasculature after exposure to LPS. Furthermore, the results implicate Nox2-mediated eNOS-S-glutathionylation as a mechanism underlying LPS-induced eNOS uncoupling in the lung microvasculature.
Related JoVE Video
Tri-window common-path interferometer for quantifying phase objects.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new method is presented using a tri-window common-path interferometer (TriWCPI) for quantitative phase measurement. The prior method obtains the phase shift introduced by the Ronchi grating and the intensity value of the incident light with interferograms acquired offline without any objects. As a consequence, an improved recovery algorithm is established using the phase shift, the intensity value of the incident light, and the interferograms for a phase object acquired by camera in a single shot. The phase of an object then can be reconstructed from the improved algorithm. Because the calculation of phase shift and intensity value can be performed offline only once after the TriWCPI is built, the real-time ability and stability of the TriWCPI remains in this method. But the method avoids the normalization process and thus improves phase-retrieval precision. Experiments are demonstrated to prove the precision, real-time ability, and stability of the proposed method.
Related JoVE Video
Complete mitochondrial genome of the Eurasian siskin, Spinus spinus (Passeriformes: Fringillidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract The Eurasian siskin (Spinus spinus), also called the European siskin, common siskin or just siskin, is found throughout Europe and Asia. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of S. spinus was determined to be 16,828?bp. The size of protein-coding genes (PCGs) in the S. spinus mitochondrial genome was 11,400?bp. The longest PCG of S. spinus mtDNA was nad5 (1818?bp), whereas the shortest is atp8 (168?bp). The nad6 gene of S. spinus mitogenome had strong skews of T versus A (-0.54), and G versus C (0.64). According to the distribution of the conserved motifs in other avian CRs, the CR of S. spinus can be divided into three domains: ETAS domain I, central conserved domain II, and CSB domain III.
Related JoVE Video
The efficacy of a thrombin-based hemostatic agent in primary total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.
J Orthop Surg Res
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
PurposeTotal knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a popular procedure in severe osteoarthritis. But perioperative bleeding remains a problem. Floseal® is a mixture of thrombin and bovine gelatin which can benefit a lot on reducing intraoperative and postoperative bleeding. However, there is no enough evidence judging its safety and efficiency. So a meta-analysis is conducted by us to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a thrombin-based hemostatic agent compared with conventional methods in TKA.MethodTwo independent reviewers selected literatures published before August 2014 from MEDLINE, Embase, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Other internet databases were also performed to identify trials according to the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. High-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective control trials (PCTs), and case controlled trials (CCTs) were selected. The meta-analysis was undertaken using RevMan 5.1 for Windows.ResultsThree RCTs, one PCT, and one CCT met the inclusion criteria. There were significant differences in hemoglobin decline and calculated total blood loss between the Floseal® group and control group. There were no significant differences in postoperative drainage volume, rate of transfusion requirement, incidence of wound infection, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE) between treatment and control groups.ConclusionsThe present meta-analysis indicates that a thrombin-based hemostatic agent can reduce hemoglobin decline and calculated total blood loss after TKA and is not related to adverse reactions or complications such as wound infection, DVT, and PE.
Related JoVE Video
Hyaluronic Acid Oligosaccharide Modified Redox-Responsive Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A redox-responsive delivery system based on colloidal mesoporous silica (CMS) has been developed, in which 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) was conjugated to vehicles by cleavable disulfide bonds. The oligosaccharide of hyaluronic acid (oHA) was modified on the surface of CMS by disulfide bonds as a targeting ligand and was able to increase the stability and biocompatibility of CMS under physiological conditions. In vitro release studies indicated that the cumulative release of 6-MP was less than 3% in the absence of glutathione (GSH), and reached nearly 80% within 2 h in the presence of 3 mM GSH. Confocal microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) methods were used to evaluate the cellular uptake performance of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled CMS, with and without oHA modification. The CMS-SS-oHA exhibited a higher cellular uptake performance via CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis in HCT-116 (CD44 receptor-positive) cells than in NIH-3T3 (CD44 receptor-negative) cells. 6-MP loaded CMS-SS-oHA exhibited greater cytotoxicity against HCT-116 cells than NIH-3T3 cells due to the enhanced cell uptake behavior of CMS-SS-oHA. This study provides a novel strategy to covalently link bioactive drug and targeting ligand to the interiors and exteriors of mesoporous silica to construct a stimulus-responsive targeted drug delivery system.
Related JoVE Video
Schisandrol B Protects Against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity by Inhibition of CYP-Mediated Bioactivation and Regulation of Liver Regeneration.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most frequent cause of drug-induced acute liver failure. Schisandra sphenanthera is a traditional hepato-protective Chinese medicine and Schisandrol B (SolB) is one of its major active constituents. In this study, the protective effect of SolB against APAP-induced acute hepatotoxicity in mice and the involved mechanisms were investigated. Morphological and biochemical assessments clearly demonstrated a protective effect of SolB against APAP-induced liver injury. SolB pretreatment significantly attenuated the increases in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, and prevented elevated hepatic malondialdehyde formation and the depletion of mitochondrial glutathione (GSH) in a dose-dependent manner. SolB also dramatically altered APAP metabolic activation by inhibiting the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP3A11, which was evidenced by significant inhibition of the formation of the oxidized APAP metabolite NAPQI-GSH. A molecular docking model also predicted that SolB had potential to interact with the CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 active sites. In addition, SolB abrogated APAP-induced activation of p53 and p21, and increased expression of liver regeneration and antiapoptotic-related proteins such as cyclin D1 (CCND1), PCNA, and BCL-2. This study demonstrated that SolB exhibited a significant protective effect toward APAP-induced liver injury, potentially through inhibition of CYP-mediated APAP bioactivation and regulation of the p53, p21, CCND1, PCNA, and BCL-2 to promote liver regeneration.
Related JoVE Video
Factors associated with menopausal symptoms among middle-aged registered nurses in Beijing.
Gynecol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Objective: To determine factors related to menopause symptoms among middle-aged registered nurses in Beijing. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires that included closed-ended questions on many factors possibly related to menopausal symptoms were distributed to 2100 registered nurses aged 40-55 at 20 hospitals in Beijing, China. Results: Menopausal status was most associated with menopausal symptoms (p?
Related JoVE Video
Hoarding in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.
J Obsessive Compuls Relat Disord
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Compared to studies in adults, there have been few studies of hoarding in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the current study, we evaluated OCD clinical features, Axis I disorders, and social reciprocity scores in 641 children and adolescents with OCD, of whom 163 (25%) had hoarding compulsions and 478 did not. We found that, as a group, youth with hoarding had an earlier age at onset and more severe lifetime OCD symptoms, poorer insight, more difficulty making decisions and completing tasks, and more overall impairment. The hoarding group also had a greater lifetime prevalence of panic disorder, specific phobia, Tourette disorder, and tics. As measured with the Social Reciprocity Scale, the hoarding group had more severe deficits in parent-rated domains of social communication, social motivation, and restricted interests and repetitive behavior. In a multivariable model, the overall social reciprocity score, age at onset of OCD symptoms, symmetry obsessions, and indecision were independently related to hoarding in these children and adolescents with OCD. These features should be considered as candidate risk factors for the development of hoarding behavior in pediatric OCD.
Related JoVE Video
The Experimental Therapy on Brain Ischemia by Improvement of Local Angiogenesis with Tissue Engineering in The Mouse.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neural restoration has proven to be difficult after brain stroke, especially in its chronic stage. This is mainly due to the generation of an unpropitious niche in the injured area, including loss of vascular support but production of numerous inhibitors against neuronal regeneration. Reconstruction of a proper niche for promoting local angiogenesis, therefore, should be a key approach for neural restoration after stroke. In the present study, a new biomaterial composite that could be implanted in injured area of the brain was created for experimental therapy of brain ischemia in the mouse. This composite was made using a hyaluronic acid (HA) based biodegradable hydrogel scaffold, mixed with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres containing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), two factors that stimulate angiogenesis. In addition, the antibody of Nogo receptor (NgR-Ab), which can bind to multiple inhibitory myelin proteins and promote neural regeneration, was covalently attached to the hydrogel, making the hydrogel more bioactive and suitable for neural survival. This composite (HA-PLGA) was implanted into the mouse model with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), to explore a new approach for restoration of brain function after ischemia. A good survival and proliferation of human umbilical artery endothelial cells (HUAECs) and neural stem cells (NSCs) were seen on the HA hydrogel with PLGA microspheres in vitro. This new material was shown to have good compatibility with the brain tissue and inhibition to gliosis and inflammation after its implantation in the normal or ischemic brain of mice. Particularly, good angiogenesis was found around the implanted HA-PLGA hydrogel and the mouse models clearly showed a behavioral improvement. The results in this present study indicate, therefore, that the HA-PLGA hydrogel is a promising material which is able to induce angiogenesis in the ischemic region by releasing VEGF and Ang1, thus create a suitable niche for neural restoration in later stages of stroke. This manuscript is published as part of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) special issue of Cell Transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
[Phase I clinical trial on the safety of injectable cefetamet sodium with a single dose in healthy volunteers].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the safety and maximum tolerable dosage of injectable cefetamet sodium Sixty healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. with a single infusion in Chinese healthy volunteers.
Related JoVE Video
[The change of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the change of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg)in peripheral blood (PB)and synovial fluid (SF) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its role in RA immune tolerance imbalance.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of Buzhong Yiqi decoction on PI3K and AKT in spleen, stomach and lung of nude mice with lung adenocarcinoma transplantation tumor].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the effect of Buzhong Yiqi decoction on PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in spleen, stomach and lung of nude mice with lung adenocarcinoma transplantation tumor.
Related JoVE Video
Optical Coherence Tomography and Histopathology of Macular Uveitis.
Optom Vis Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is a noninvasive technique that can provide high-resolution images of macular morphology. The purpose of this study was to examine the pathological mechanism of uveitis and compare the changes in the macula of uveitis patients and the histopathological features of experimentally induced uveitis in mice.
Related JoVE Video
High expression of astrocyte elevated gene-1 is associated with clinical staging, metastasis, and unfavorable prognosis in gastric carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
More and more evidence has demonstrated that astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is tightly associated with progression, metastasis, and unfavorable prognosis in many malignancies. However, the potential biological role of AEG-1 in gastric carcinoma (GC) has not been thoroughly delineated. In the current study, we found that AEG-1 mRNA and protein levels in GC tissues were significantly higher than those in normal gastric mucosa (P?
Related JoVE Video
Use of combination therapy to successfully treat breakthrough Trichosporon asahii infection in an acute leukemia patient receiving voriconazole.
Med Mycol Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trichosporon species is an important life-threatening opportunistic systemic pathogen, especially in leukemia patients. Voriconazole is proved to be a promising agent in past decade. However, recently we observed a case of breakthrough Trichosporon asahii infection while receiving voriconazole, which calls for an alternative treatment strategy. A combination therapy of liposomal amphotericin B (AmB) plus caspofungin - in which liposomal AmB dose was reduced due to renal toxicity - was administered to successfully treat this patient.
Related JoVE Video
Anion-Induced Supramolecular Isomerism in Two Preyssler P5W30 Polyoxometalate-Based Hybrid Materials.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two extended Preyssler P5W30 polyoxometalate-based inorganic-organic hybrid materials exhibiting anion-induced supramolecular isomerism were reported. Because of the cis-trans isomerism in the octahedral CoN2O4 coordination geometry, the Preyssler P5W30 polyoxometalates are extended by double O-Co-O bridges in 1? and a single O-Co-O bridge in 1? to form the isomeric 2D 4-connected 4(4)-sql and 3D 8-connected bcu networks, respectively. Both compounds show electrocatalytic abilities on the reduction of H2O2.
Related JoVE Video
[Clinical analysis of cervical screening in 2329 pregnant women].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the cytopathologic characteristics of cervical diseases in pregnant women and the outcomes of the postpartum women to provide evidence for prevention and treatment of cervical cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Bayesian Inference of Shared Recombination Hotspots Between Humans and Chimpanzees.
Genetics
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recombination generates variation and facilitates evolution. Recombination (or lack thereof) also contributes to human genetic disease. Methods for mapping genes influencing complex genetic diseases via association rely on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in human populations which is influenced by rates of recombination across the genome. Comparative population genomic analyses of recombination using related primate species can identify factors influencing rates of recombination in humans. Such studies can indicate how variable hotspots for recombination may be both among individuals (or populations) and over evolutionary time-scales. Previous studies have suggested that locations of recombination hotspots are not conserved between humans and chimpanzees. We made use of the datasets from recent resequencing projects and applied a Bayesian method for identifying hotspots and estimating recombination rates. We also reanalyzed SNP datasets for regions with known hotspots in humans using samples from the human and chimpanzee. The Bayes factors (BF) of shared recombination hotspots between human and chimpanzee across regions were obtained. Based on the analysis of the aligned regions of human chromosome 21, locations were identified where the two species show evidence of shared recombination hotspots (with high BFs). Interestingly, previous comparative studies of human and chimpanzee that focused on the known human recombination hotspots within the ?-globin and HLA regions did not find overlapping of hotspots. Our results show high BFs of shared hotspots at locations within both regions, and the estimated locations of shared hotspots overlap with the locations of human recombination hotspots obtained from sperm-typing studies.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of halogen (cl, br) on the symmetry of flexible perovskite-related framework.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The perovskite structure is a good candidate for the design of functional materials. On the basis of the combination of B6O13 groups and XM6 (X = Cl, Br; M = alkali metals) octahedra, three new perovskite-related crystals Na3B6O10Cl, RbNa2B6O10Cl, and RbNa2B6O10Br have been synthesized by a high-temperature solution method for the first time. Na3B6O10Cl and RbNa2B6O10Cl are isostructural and crystallize in the noncentrosymmetric (NCS) space group P212121 (No. 19), while RbNa2B6O10Br belongs to the centrosymmetric (CS) space group Pnma (No. 62). The phenomenon that Cl-containing borates are not isostructural with corresponding Br-containing borates is extremely rare among borates. Detailed structure analysis suggests that the difference is owing to the effect of the halogen (Cl, Br) on the symmetry of the flexible perovskite-related framework. In addition, thermal analyses, IR spectroscopy, the UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectrum, and first-principles theoretical studies have also been performed on the three compounds.
Related JoVE Video
Using Monte Carlo simulation to determine optimal dosing regimen for cefetamet sodium for injection.
J Chemother
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of the study was to use Monte Carlo simulation to determine the optimal treatment dosing regimen of the cefetamet sodium for injection by analysing the pharmacokinetics (PK) parameters in healthy Chinese volunteers, and antibacterial activity in vitro was also examined. A three-cross Latin square single-dose PK study was designed. Twelve healthy volunteers were randomized to receive 500, 1000, and 2000 mg of cefetamet sodium for IV infusion over 30 minutes in three periods sequentially; and the washout time in between periods was 3 days. The drug concentrations in plasma were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the PK parameters were calculated using DAS2·0 PK software. The peak concentrations (Cmax) at 0·5 hours were 37·78±7·29, 76·18±12·81, and 149·32±29·94 mg/l, the areas under concentration-time curve (AUC0-t) were 69·75±14·44, 139·06±22·62, and 278·54±53·12 mg h/l, and the elimination half-life (t1/2) were 1·69±0·19, 1·69±0·27, and 1·81±0·23 hours for 500, 1000, and 2000 mg of cefetamet sodium for injection, respectively. The disposition of cefetamet was appear to fit a two-compartment model with linear kinetics. Antibacterial activity in vitro showed that most Gram-negative bacteria, including non-extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Enterobacter, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, were sensitive to cefetamet. The result of Monte Carlo simulation showed that the probability of target attainment for bactericidal response (%fT>MIC?50%) for susceptible bacteria was reached at all three dosing regimens of 500 mg, q6h, 1000 and 2000 mg, q8h and q6h. Considering the efficacy, safety, and pharmacoeconomy comprehensively, we recommended the dosing regimen of 500 mg, q6h for further clinical treatment based on the principle of minimum daily dosage.
Related JoVE Video
Computed tomography-guided 125I seed interstitial implantation in the treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of percutaneous interstitial implantation with (125)I seed under computed tomographic (CT) guidance for recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC).
Related JoVE Video
Triterpenoid saponins from the rhizomes of Anemone flaccida and their inhibitory activities on LPS-induced NO production in macrophage RAW264.7 cells.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new ursane-type triterpenoid saponin, flaccidoside IV (1), and three new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, flaccidosides V-VII (2-4), along with 17 known saponins (5-21), were isolated from the rhizomes of Anemone flaccida. The structures of the new triterpenoid saponins were determined based on spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. All the isolated saponins were tested for their inhibitory activities on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages, and several bisdesmosidic oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins (2, 7, and 10) showed significant inhibitory activities, which indicated they had potential anti-inflammatory activities under their noncytotoxic concentrations in vitro.
Related JoVE Video
Advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2014), held in Beijing from the 25th to the 28th of September 2014, is an annual conference that intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners around the world to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, amongst others. The papers published in this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis of unnatural amino acids functionalized with sterically shielded pyrroline nitroxides.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of unnatural amino acids functionalized with sterically shielded pyrroline nitroxides were synthesized. Their reduction by ascorbate/glutathione indicates that l-cysteine functionalized with gem-diethylpyrroline nitroxide is reduced at the slowest rate and is comparable to that measured for the most resistant to reduction pyrroline and pyrrolidine nitroxides.
Related JoVE Video
Metabolite profiling of anhuienoside C by rat intestinal bacteria using the LC-MS metabolomic approach.
Xenobiotica
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract 1.?Anhuienoside C (A-C) is the main active component of the saponin exact of "Di Wu", an oral drug for rheumatism treatment in China. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the metabolic pathways of A-C by intestinal bacteria using the metabolomic approach. 2.?Four deglycosylated metabolites (M1, M2, M3 and M4) were identified after A-C (50?µM) was incubated with rat fecal lysate. Chemical structures of these metabolites were determined by high-resolution masses and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). 3.?A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model was used to describe the formation of bacterial metabolites at a dose of 10?µM A-C. The results revealed that formation of M1 and M2 was rapid, whereas formation of M3 was rather slow. Further, it was found that the metabolites were generated by successive cleavage of the glycosyl residues. 4.?This is the first report that A-C is subjected to efficient bacterial metabolism in the gut with M1 and M2 as main metabolites. Our study should be helpful for a better understanding of in vivo disposition of oral A-C.
Related JoVE Video
Highly efficient and robust molecular water oxidation catalysts based on ruthenium complexes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two monomeric ruthenium molecular catalysts for water oxidation have been prepared, and both of them show high activities in pH 1.0 aqueous solutions, with an initial rate of over 1000 turnover s(-1) by complex 1, and a turnover number of more than 100,000 by complex 2.
Related JoVE Video
IFN-stimulated gene LY6E in monocytes regulates the CD14/TLR4 pathway but inadequately restrains the hyperactivation of monocytes during chronic HIV-1 infection.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Owing to ongoing recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, immune activation and upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) are sustained in the chronically infected host. Albeit most ISGs are important effectors for containing viral replication, some might exert compensatory immune suppression to limit pathological dysfunctions, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we report that the ISG lymphocyte Ag 6 complex, locus E (LY6E) is a negative immune regulator of monocytes. LY6E in monocytes negatively modulated CD14 expression and subsequently dampened the responsiveness to LPS stimulation in vitro. In the setting of chronic HIV infection, the upregulation of LY6E was correlated with reduced CD14 level on monocytes; however, the immunosuppressive effect of LY6E was not adequate to remedy the hyperresponsiveness of activated monocytes. Taken together, the regulatory LY6E pathway in monocytes represents one of negative feedback mechanisms that counterbalance monocyte activation, which might be caused by LPS translocation through the compromised gastrointestinal tract during persistent HIV-1 infection and may serve as a potential target for immune intervention.
Related JoVE Video
Wuzhi Tablet (Schisandra Sphenanthera Extract) Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity by Inhibition of CYP-Mediated Bioactivation and Regulation of NRF2-ARE and p53/p21 Pathways.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Schisandra sphenanthera is widely used as a tonic and restorative in many countries to enhance the function of liver and other organs. Wuzhi tablet (WZ) is a preparation of an ethanol extract of Schisandra sphenanthera. Our previous study demonstrated that WZ exerted a protective effect toward acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms of this protection remain unclear. This study aimed to determine what molecular pathways contributed to the hepatoprotective effects of WZ against APAP toxicity. Administration of WZ 3 days before APAP treatment significantly attenuated APAP hepatotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner and reduced APAP-induced JNK activation. Treatment with WZ resulted in potent inhibition of CYP2E1, CYP3A11, and CYP1A2 activities and then caused significant inhibition of the formation of the oxidized APAP metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine-reduced glutathione. The expression of NRF2 was increased after APAP and/or WZ treatment, whereas KEAP1 levels were decreased. The protein expression of NRF2 target genes including Gclc, Gclm, Ho-1, and Nqo1 was significantly increased by WZ treatment. Furthermore, APAP increased the levels of p53 and its downstream gene p21 to trigger cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, whereas WZ pretreatment could inhibit p53/p21 signaling to induce cell proliferation-associated proteins including cyclin D1, CDK4, PCNA, and ALR to promote hepatocyte proliferation. This study demonstrated that WZ prevented APAP-induced liver injury by inhibition of cytochrome P450-mediated APAP bioactivation, activation of the NRF2-antioxidant response element pathway to induce detoxification and antioxidation, and regulation of the p53, p21, cyclin D1, CDK4, PCNA, and ALR to facilitate liver regeneration after APAP-induced liver injury.
Related JoVE Video
Pharmacokinetic comparisons of benzoylmesaconine in rats using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after administration of pure benzoylmesaconine and wutou decoction.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Wutou decoction is widely used in China because of its therapeutic effect on rheumatoid arthritis. Benzoylmesaconine (BMA), the most abundant component of Wutou decoction, was used as the marker compound for the pharmacokinetic study of Wutou decoction. The aim of the present study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of BMA in rats after oral administration of pure BMA and Wutou decoction. Pure BMA (5 mg/kg) and Wutou decoction (0.54 g/kg, equivalent to 5 mg/kg BMA) were orally administered to rats with blood samples collected over 10 h. Quanti?cation of BMA in rat plasma was achieved using sensitive and validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Specifically, the half-life (T1/2) and mean residence time values of pure BMA were 228.3 ± 117.0 min and 155.0 ± 33.2 min, respectively, whereas those of BMA in Wutou decoction were decreased to 61.8 ± 35.1 min and 55.8 ± 16.4 min, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of BMA after administration of Wutou decoction was significantly decreased (five-fold) compared with that of pure BMA. The results indicate that the elimination of BMA in rats after the administration of Wutou decoction was significantly faster compared with that of pure BMA.
Related JoVE Video
Community socioeconomic disadvantage and the survival of infants with congenital heart defects.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objectives. We examined the association between survival of infants with severe congenital heart defects (CHDs) and community-level indicators of socioeconomic status. Methods. We identified infants born to residents of Arizona, New Jersey, New York, and Texas between 1999 and 2007 with selected CHDs from 4 population-based, statewide birth defect surveillance programs. We linked data to the 2000 US Census to obtain 11 census tract-level socioeconomic indicators. We estimated survival probabilities and hazard ratios adjusted for individual characteristics. Results. We observed differences in infant survival for 8 community socioeconomic indicators (P?
Related JoVE Video
[Census of pesticide residues and suggestions for control in traditional Chinese medicine].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In our study, 198 types of pesticides in 120 types 333 lots of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which were reasonably classified according to its matrix property, were determined by using the pretreatment platform and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. As a result, 158 were contaminated with pesticides. However, the content of pesticides in most TCM was very low. In addition, types of pesticides were different in different part of materia medica. In conclusion, the current status of pesticide residues pollutants in TCM was summarized, and the result can provide proof for the formulation of maximum residue limit. The new species of herbs and the new detecting index should be electively monitored in Chinese Pharmacopeia.
Related JoVE Video
Chemical constituents and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from Amomum tsaoko against two stored-product insects.
J Oleo Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this research was to determine the chemical constituents and toxicities of the essential oil derived from Amomum tsaoko Crevost et Lemarie fruits against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius). Essential oil of A. tsaoko was obtained from hydrodistillation and was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 43 components, of which eucalyptol (23.87%), limonene (22.77%), 2-isopropyltoluene (6.66%) and undecane (5.74%) were the major components. With a further isolation, two active constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as eucalyptol and limonene. The essential oil and the two isolated compounds exhibited potential insecticidal activities against two storedproduct insects. Limonene showed pronounced contact toxicity against both insect species (LD50 = 14.97 ?g/adult for T. castaneum; 13.66 ?g/adult for L. serricorne) and was more toxic than eucalyptol (LD50 = 18.83 ?g/adult for T. castaneum; 15.58 ?g/adult for L. serricorne). The essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LD50 values of 16.52 and 6.14 ?g/adult, respectively. Eucalyptol also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against both insect species (LC50 = 5.47 mg/L air for T. castaneum; 5.18 mg/L air for L. serricorne) and was more toxic than limonene (LC50 = 6.21 mg/L air for T. castaneum; 14.07 mg/L air for L. serricorne), while the crude essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LC50 values of 5.85 and 8.70 mg/L air, respectively. These results suggested that the essential oil of A. tsaoko and the two compounds may be used in grain storage to combat insect pests.
Related JoVE Video
Discovery of 5-chloro-4-((1-(5-chloropyrimidin-2-yl)piperidin-4-yl)oxy)-1-(2-fluoro-4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)pyridin-2(1H)-one (BMS-903452), an antidiabetic clinical candidate targeting GPR119.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
G-protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is expressed predominantly in pancreatic ?-cells and in enteroendocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract. GPR119 agonists have been shown to stimulate glucose-dependent insulin release by direct action in the pancreas and to promote secretion of the incretin GLP-1 by action in the gastrointestinal tract. This dual mechanism of action has generated significant interest in the discovery of small molecule GPR119 agonists as a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes. Herein, we describe the discovery and optimization of a new class of pyridone containing GPR119 agonists. The potent and selective BMS-903452 (42) was efficacious in both acute and chronic in vivo rodent models of diabetes. Dosing of 42 in a single ascending dose study in normal healthy humans showed a dose dependent increase in exposure and a trend toward increased total GLP-1 plasma levels.
Related JoVE Video
Consumption of tea and risk for pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis of published epidemiological studies.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidemiologic studies on the relationship between tea consumption and pancreatic cancer are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a systematic search of databases and performed a meta-analysis to analyze the association between tea consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer. We searched Medline, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, and the Cochrane library for studies of tea consumption and pancreatic cancer published up to December 2012. Subgroup analysis was conducted by study type, study region, sex, type of tea, without or with adjustment for smoking, and body mass index. We performed a meta-analysis of 8 case-control studies and 6 cohort studies. For pancreatic cancer, the summary odds ratio (OR) for highest vs. lowest was 0.95 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84-1.08). The summary OR for moderate vs. lowest was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.86-1.35). The summary OR for ever vs. lowest was 1.00 (95% CI, 0.86-1.16). The results of this meta-analysis suggested tea consumption is not related to pancreatic cancer risk, even at high doses. Because of the small number of studies, further prospective studies are needed.
Related JoVE Video
[Simultaneous determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons additives in vegetable oil by ultra performance liquid chromatography].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To establish a rapid method for simultaneous determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vegetable oil by ultra performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.
Related JoVE Video
The time process of post-earthquake recovery: the Yao'an earthquake in China.
Disasters
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Post-disaster recovery is a constantly changing and developing process. The authors conducted three real-name follow-up surveys at 1, 12 and 18 months after the Yao'an earthquake, which had a surface wave magnitude of 6.0. They also calculated recovery ratios at different times and drew post-earthquake domestic life recovery curves. Based on the recovery curves, the time trajectory of domestic life recovery takes on an approximate S-type development and change process. The recovery time process of domestic life can be divided into four periods: emergency period (weeks 0-2(5)), early recovery period (weeks 2(5)-24), rapid recovery period (weeks 24-34) and late recovery period (weeks 34-60(80)).
Related JoVE Video
[A multicenter prospective clinical study on continuous blood purification in treating childhood severe sepsis].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate efficacy of continuous blood purification (CBP) in childhood severe sepsis through the analysis of organ function, inflammatory mediators and prognosis.
Related JoVE Video
Quantitative trait loci analysis of individual and total isoflavone contents in soybean seeds.
J. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Soybean isoflavones play diverse roles in human health, including cancers, osteoporosis, heart disease, menopausal symptoms and pabulums. The objective of this study was to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the isoflavones daidzein (DC), genistein (GeC), glycitein (GlC) and total isoflavone contents (TIC) in soybean seeds. A population of 184 F2:10 recombinant inbred lines derived from a 'Xiaoheidou' x 'GR8836' cross was planted in pot and field conditions to evaluate soybean isoflavones. Twenty-one QTL were detected by composite interval mapping. Several QTL were associated with the traits for DC, GeC, GlC and TIC only. QDGeGlTIC4_1 and QDGlTIC12_1 are reported first in this study and were associated with the DC, GeC, GlC and TIC traits simultaneously. The QTL identified have potential value for marker-assisted selection to develop soybean varieties with desirable isoflavone content.
Related JoVE Video
[Combination of phage display and SEREX for screening early lung cancer associated antigens].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To screen out effective lung cancer associated antigens for early diagnosis in order to improve the level of early diagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of the Loess Plateau on the atmospheric boundary layer structure and air quality in the North China Plain: a case study.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The North China Plain (NCP), to the east of the Loess Plateau, experiences severe regional air pollution. During the daytime in the summer, the Loess Plateau acts as an elevated heat source. The impacts of such a thermal effect on meteorological phenomena (e.g., waves, precipitation) in this region have been discussed. However, its impacts on the atmospheric boundary layer structure and air quality have not been reported. It is hypothesized that the thermal effect of the Plateau likely modulates the boundary layer structure and ambient concentrations of pollutants over the NCP under certain meteorological conditions. Thus, this study investigates such effect and its impacts using measurements and three-dimensional model simulations. It is found that in the presence of daytime westerly wind in the lower troposphere (~1 km above the NCP), warmer air above the Loess Plateau was transported over the NCP and imposed a thermal inversion above the mixed boundary layer, which acted as a lid and suppressed the mixed layer growth. As a result, pollutants accumulated in the shallow mixed layer and ozone was efficiently produced. The downward branch of the thermally-induced Mountain-Plains Solenoid circulation over the NCP contributed to enhancing the capping inversion and exacerbating air pollution. Previous studies have reported that low mixed layer, a factor for elevated pollution in the NCP, may be caused by aerosol scattering and absorption of solar radiation, frontal inversion, and large scale subsidence. The present study revealed a different mechanism (i.e., westerly warm advection) for the suppression of the mixed layer in summer NCP, which caused severe O3 pollution. This study has important implications for understanding the essential meteorological factors for pollution episodes in this region and forecasting these severe events.
Related JoVE Video
Induction of human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cell apoptosis by virosecurinine and its molecular mechanism.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Virosecurinine is a major alkaloid of the plant Securinega suffruticosa and has been found to be a potent agent in inducing the differentiation of cancer cells. The present study aimed to investigate the antitumor effects of virosecurinine by inducing the apoptosis of leukemic K562 cells and to examine the underlying mechanisms. K562 cells were treated with different concentrations of virosecurinine (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µmol/l) for 24, 48 and 72 h. The cell counting kit (CCK)?8 method was used to detect the antitumor effect of K562 cells in vitro. Flow cytometry was used to observe the apoptotic ratio and analyze the cell cycle following treatment with virosecurinine in K562 cells. Light and electron microscopy was used to identify morphological alterations in the virosecurinine?treated K562 cells. The mRNA levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), SH2 domain?containing inositol?5'?phosphatase 2 (SHIP2), phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and breakpoint cluster region (BCR)/Abelson (ABL) were detected pre and post?virosecurinine treatment using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT?qPCR). The generation depression effects of K562 cells cultured in vitro were detected using CCK?8 technology, which revealed a dose and time?dependent association. The IC50 was 32.984 µmol/l at 48 h. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that treatment with virosecurinine at concentrations of 6.25, 25 and 50 µmol/l increased the apoptotic rate of the K562 cells and caused G1/S phase arrest. RT?qPCR indicated that virosecurinine upregulated the gene expression of PTEN and downregulated the expression of mTOR, SHIP?2 and BCR/ABL in K562 cells. Virosecurinine inhibited the growth and proliferation of the K562 cell lines and induced apoptosis in K562 cells by affecting the expression of mTOR, SHIP2, BCR/ABL and PTEN.
Related JoVE Video
Reductive benzylation of C?? imidazoline with a bulky addend.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reductive benzylation of C70 imidazolines bearing a bulky addend has been carried out under conditions similar to that reported for C60 analogues. However, different from the reaction of C60 analogues, the reaction of C70 imidazolines not only results in adducts with 1,2,3,16-configuration due to the steric effect, but also a considerable amount of dibenzylated and monobenzylated products with 1,2,3,4-configuration, demonstrating a reactivity difference between C60 and C70. Interestingly, the anions of the 1,2,3,16-C70 adduct are rather stable as shown by the electrochemical study, which is in contrast to the anions of 1,2,3,16-C60 counterparts, and can be rationalized by the electronic structure difference between C70 and C60 derivatives.
Related JoVE Video
WISP1 Polymorphisms Contribute to Platinum-Based Chemotherapy Toxicity in Lung Cancer Patients.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Platinum-based chemotherapy toxicity is always one of the serious problems from which lung cancer patients suffer. The genetic polymorphism of WISP1 was revealed to be associated with susceptibility and platinum-based chemotherapy response in our previous studies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship of WISP1 genetic polymorphisms with platinum-based chemotherapy toxicity in lung cancer patients. A total of 412 lung cancer patients were enrolled in this study, and 28 polymorphisms of the WISP1 gene were genotyped by SequenomMassARRAY. We found that WISP1 polymorphisms (rs2929965, rs2929969, rs2929970, rs2929973 and rs754958) were related to the overall chemotherapy toxicity of lung cancer in subgroup analyses. Rs16904853, rs2929970, rs2977549 and rs2977551 (p = 0.021, 0.028, 0.024, 0.048, respectively) polymorphisms were significantly associated with hematologic toxicity. Rs2929946, rs2929970, rs2977519, rs2977536, rs3739262 and rs754958 (p = 0.031, 0.046, 0.029, 0.016, 0.042, 0.035, respectively) polymorphisms were significantly associated with the gastrointestinal toxicity of lung cancer. Genotypes of WISP1 may be novel and useful biomarkers for predicting platinum-based chemotherapy toxicity in lung cancer patients.
Related JoVE Video
E2F1 in neurons is cleaved by calpain in an NMDA receptor-dependent manner in a model of HIV-induced neurotoxicity.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The transcription factor E2F1 activates gene targets required for G1 -S phase progression and for apoptosis, and exhibits increased expression levels in neurons in several CNS diseases including HIV encephalitis, Alzheimer disease, and Parkinson's Disease. While E2F1 is known to regulate cell viability through activation of caspases, here we present evidence supporting the involvement of E2F1 in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent, HIV-induced neuronal death mediated by calpains. Using an in vitro model of HIV-induced neurotoxicity that is dependent on NMDA receptor and calpain activation, we have shown that cortical neurons lacking functional E2F1 are less susceptible to neuronal death. In addition, we report that neuronal E2F1 is cleaved by calpain to a stable 55-kiloDalton fragment following NR2B-dependent NMDA receptor stimulation. This cleavage of E2F1 is protein conformation-dependent and involves at least two cleavage events, one at each terminus of the protein. Intriguingly, the stabilized E2F1 cleavage product is produced in post-mitotic neurons of all ages, but fails to be stabilized in cycling cells. Finally, we show that a matching E2F1 cleavage product is produced in human fetal neurons, suggesting that calpain cleavage of E2F1 may be produced in human cortical tissue. These results suggest neuronal E2F1 is processed in a novel manner in response to NMDA receptor-mediated toxicity, a mechanism implicated in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders pathogenesis as well as several other diseases of the CNS. After crossing the blood-brain barrier, HIV-infected monocytes differentiate into macrophages and release excitotoxins and inflammatory factors including glutamate into the brain parenchyma (1). These factors stimulate neuronal N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (2), causing calcium influx (3) and subsequent activation of the cysteine protease calpain (4). Activated calpain cleaves multiple substrates including E2F1, producing a stabilized protein fragment with truncations at the N- and C-terminus (5). Calpain-cleaved E2F1 may contribute to calpain-mediated neuronal damage observed in NMDA receptor-mediated neurotoxicity (6).
Related JoVE Video
?-1,4-Galactosyltransferase-I activates proliferation and participates in intercellular contacts of lymphocytes.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase I (?-1,4-GalT-I) mediates several biological mechanisms as a key enzyme in glycobiology, but the role of ?-1,4-GalT-I in immune system remains unclear. We conducted experiments to investigate whether ?-1,4-GalT-I is participating in the activation of Jurkat T cell and intercellular contacts formed by co-incubation of Jurkat and Raji cells in the presence of the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). Jurkat cells were also activated by CD3/CD28 co-stimulation in order to examine the expression pattern and cellular distribution of ?-1,4-GalT-I upon stimulation. Here we found that ?-1,4-GalT-I expression was enhanced and rearranged on the cell surface of activated Jurkat cells. Further, immunofluorescence staining assays revealed that ?-1,4-GalT-I co-aggregated with CD3 and CD28 molecules in the junction sides of Jurkat and SEB pulsed Raji cells. Our study also showed that silencing of ?-1,4-GalT-I inhibited Jurkat activated Raji cell conjugations and reduced the proliferation rate of activated Jurkat cells. Our data provide evidence that ?-1,4-GalT-I plays a role in activation of Jurkat T lymphocytes and participates in intercellular contact formation.
Related JoVE Video
Bioactive metabolites from the endophytic fungus Alternariaalternata.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two altenuene derivatives (1-2) and one isocoumarin (3), together with six known compounds (4-9) were isolated from solid cultures of an endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata, obtained from the fresh branches of Camellia sinensis. Chiral analysis revealed the racemic nature of 1 and 2, which were subsequently resolved into two pairs of enantiomers [(+)-1 and (-)-1, (+)-2 and (-)-2]. Structures of all the isolates were identified through spectroscopic data. Absolute configurations of the two pairs of enantiomers were determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation and the chiral center of C-10 in 3 was deduced via [Rh2(OCOCF3)4]-induced CD experiment. All the isolates were evaluated for their antimicrobial abilities against the pathogenic bacteria and fungi as well as cytotoxic activities against two human tumor cell lines. Compound 5 was the most active against Bacillus subtilis with MIC80 of 8.6?g/ml, and compounds 1-3, 6-7 and 9 exhibited moderate to weak inhibition towards the test pathogenic microorganism. Compound 4 showed mild cytotoxic activity against human osteosarcoma cells U2OS with IC50 of 28.3?M.
Related JoVE Video
Combination of SNX-2112 with 5-FU exhibits antagonistic effect in esophageal cancer cells.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The low efficacy of single-drug chemotherapy forms the basis for combination therapy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. SNX-2112, a selective heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, was recently reported as being effective in combination with cisplatin and paclitaxel. In this study, we investigated the effect of SNX-2112 in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), another first-line anticancer drug, in esophageal cancer. Unexpectedly, tetrazolium assay revealed that the combination of SNX-2112 with 5-FU exhibited antagonistic effect. Flow cytometry revealed that the SNX-2112 and 5-FU combination greatly decreased the number of G2/M cells compared to SNX-2112-only treatment in Eca?109 cells. This effect might be related to the altered mRNA level of cyclin-related genes including cyclin D1, Chk2 and Cdk4. Further, 5-FU attenuated SNX-2112-induced apoptosis by decreasing poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and inactivating caspase-3, -8 and -9. Additionally, 5-FU suppressed the SNX-2112-induced decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, 5-FU partly recovered Hsp90 client proteins, including Akt, p-Akt, inhibitor of ?B kinase (IKK)?, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3?, which SNX-2112 had downregulated. Taken together, this is the first report that the combination of SNX-2112 with 5-FU exhibited antagonistic effect in esophageal cancer cells by affecting growth inhibition, cell cycle, apoptosis, and Hsp90 client proteins, suggesting that care is required in the clinical application of combined SNX-2112 and 5-FU.
Related JoVE Video
CD45 ligation expands Tregs by promoting interactions with DCs.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Regulatory T cells (Tregs), which express CD4 and FOXP3, are critical for modulating the immune response and promoting immune tolerance. Consequently, methods to expand Tregs for therapeutic use are of great interest. While transfer of Tregs after massive ex vivo expansion can be achieved, in vivo expansion of Tregs would be more practical. Here, we demonstrate that targeting the CD45 tyrosine phosphatase with a tolerogenic anti-CD45RB mAb acutely increases Treg numbers in WT mice, even in absence of exogenous antigen. Treg expansion occurred through substantial augmentation of homeostatic proliferation in the preexisting Treg population. Moreover, anti-CD45RB specifically increased Treg proliferation in response to cognate antigen. Compared with conventional T cells, Tregs differentially regulate their conjugation with DCs. Therefore, we determined whether CD45 ligation could alter interactions between Tregs and DCs. Live imaging showed that CD45 ligation specifically reduced Treg motility in an integrin-dependent manner, resulting in enhanced interactions between Tregs and DCs in vivo. Increased conjugate formation, in turn, augmented nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and Treg proliferation. Together, these results demonstrate that Treg peripheral homeostasis can be specifically modulated in vivo to promote Treg expansion and tolerance by increasing conjugation between Tregs and DCs.
Related JoVE Video
Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla of the peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer, 1776.
J. Morphol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The antennal sensilla of alate Myzus persicae were mapped using transmission electron microscopy and the ultrastructure of sensilla trichoidea, coeloconica, and placoidea are described. Trichoid sensilla, located on the tip of the antennae, are innervated by 2-4 neurons, with some outer dendrites reaching the distal end of the hair. Coeloconic sensilla in primary rhinaria are of two morphological types, both equipped with two dendrites. Dendrites of Type II coeloconic sensilla are enveloped in the dendrite sheath, containing the sensillum lymph. In sensilla coeloconica of Type I, instead, dendrites are enclosed by an electron opaque solid cuticle, with no space left for the sensillum lymph. The ultrastructure of big placoid sensillum reveals the presence of three groups of neurons, with 2-3 dendrites in each neuron group, while both small placoid sensilla are equipped with a single group of neurons, consisting of three dendrites. Both large and small placoid sensilla bear multiple pores on the outer cuticle. The function of these sensilla is also discussed. J. Morphol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Related JoVE Video
High percentage of ?1-globulin in serum protein is associated with unfavorable prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The association of the percentage composition of serum protein in patients undergoing lung resections for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with overall survival and recurrence-free survival has never been investigated. Patients were selected consecutively from the database of the Bio-Bank of Shandong Provincial Hospital. We retrospectively examined the impact of preoperative percentage composition of serum protein detected by serum protein electrophoresis on survival. Furthermore, we investigated the relationships between the potential prognostic biomarkers and clinicopathological factors. A total of 390 patients were evaluated. The higher percentage of ?1-globulin in serum protein was significantly associated with histology type (p<0.001), worse tumor status (p<0.001) and higher pathological stage (p=0.004). The ?1-globulin percentage composition was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (hazard ratio 1.52, 95% CI 1.04-2.23, p=0.03). High percentage of ?1-globulin in serum protein was also related to short recurrence survival (hazard ratio 1.56, 95% CI 1.14-2.13, p=0.005). Our results showed that the percentage of ?1-globulin in serum protein may be an independent prognostic factor in NSCLC.
Related JoVE Video
Oridonin exerts therapeutic effect by suppressing Th1/Th17 simultaneously in a mouse model of Crohn's disease.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Oridonin is an effective component isolated from Rabdosia rubescens. It can inhibit the activation of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B and suppress the over expression of cytokines. We postulated that oridonin may be a potential therapeutic candidate for Crohn's disease.
Related JoVE Video
Improved implant osseointegration of a nanostructured titanium surface via mediation of macrophage polarization.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The use of endosseous implanted materials is often limited by undesirable effects that may be due to macrophage-related inflammation. The purpose of this study was to fabricate a nanostructured surface on a titanium implant to regulate the macrophage inflammatory response and improve the performance of the implant. Anodization at 5 and 20 V as well as UV irradiation were used to generate hydrophilic, nanostructured TiO2 surfaces (denoted as NT5 and NT20, respectively). Their surface characteristics and in vivo osseointegration as well as the inflammatory response they elicit were analyzed. In addition, the behavior of macrophages in vitro was evaluated. Although the in vitro osteogenic activity on the two surfaces was similar, the NT5 surface was associated with more bone formation, less inflammation, and a reduced CD68(+) macrophage distribution in vivo compared to the NT20 and polished Ti surfaces. Consistently, further experiments revealed that the NT5 surface induced healing-associated M2 polarization in vitro and in vivo. By contrast, the NT20 surface promoted the pro-inflammatory M1 polarization, which could further impair bone regeneration. The results demonstrate the dominant role of macrophage-related inflammation in bone healing around implants and that surface nanotopography can be designed to have an immune-regulating effect in support of the success of implants.
Related JoVE Video
simple hit counter

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.