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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Quantitative tests of the Perceived Relative Argument Model: Comment on Loomes (2010).
Psychol Rev
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Loomes (2010, Psychological Review) proposed the Perceived Relative Argument Model (PRAM) as a novel descriptive theory for risky choice. PRAM differs from models like prospect theory in that decision makers do not compare 2 prospects by first assigning each prospect an overall utility and then choosing the prospect with the higher overall utility. Instead, the decision maker determines the relative argument for one or the other prospect separately for outcomes and probabilities, before reaching an overall pairwise preference. Loomes (2010) did not model variability in choice behavior. We consider 2 types of "stochastic specification" of PRAM. In one, a decision maker has a fixed preference, and choice variability is caused by occasional errors/trembles. In the other, the parameters of the perception functions for outcomes and for probabilities are random, with no constraints on their joint distribution. State-of-the-art frequentist and Bayesian "order-constrained" inference suggest that PRAM accounts poorly for individual subject laboratory data from 67 participants. This conclusion is robust across 7 different utility functions for money and remains largely unaltered also when considering a prior unpublished version of PRAM (Loomes, 2006) that featured an additional free parameter in the perception function for probabilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Primary Cutaneous Interdigitating Dendritic Cell Sarcoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.
Am J Dermatopathol
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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: Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (IDCS) is defined as a neoplastic proliferation of spindle to ovoid cells with phenotypic features similar to those of interdigitating dendritic cells, which are present in the T cell-rich areas of lymphoid organs and participate as antigen-presenting cells responsible for initiating primary T lymphocyte immune response. IDCS usually presents with lymphadenopathy. Solitary lymph node involvement is often seen. Extra nodal presentation has been described as well. Cutaneous lesions are extremely rare, and less than 10 cases have been previously documented in medical literature. Here, the authors describe another primary cutaneous IDCS in a 42-year-old patient and review the literature.
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[Drug susceptibility of wild-type and mutant H7N9 neuraminidase to zanamivir and oseltamivir].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the drug susceptibility of wild-type and mutant avian influenza A (H7N9) virus neuraminidase (NA) to oseltamivir and zanamivir. Codon optimized DNA of H7N9 (A/ Hangzhou/1/2013) NA was synthesized and constructed into the pcDNA3.1/His vector (NA(H7N9-WT)). Mutant NA(H7N9-H274Y) and NA(H7N9-R292K) plasmids were constructed by directed mutagenesis PCR using NA(H7N9-WT) plasmid as the template followed by sequencing. NA plasmids were transfected into 293T cells and cell lysates containing NAs were collected 48 h post-transfection. Wild-type and mutant NAs were analyzed by Western blotting and their activities were tested by the 4-MUNANA-based assay. All three NAs were expressed and enzymatic activities were confirmed. The effects of oseltamivir and zanamivir on all three NAs were then tested. It showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of oseltamivir carboxylate on NA(H7N9-WT), NA(H7N9-H274Y) and NA(H7N9-R292K) were 1.6 nM, 15.1 nM, and > 1 000 nM with fold changes of 9 and > 625, respectively. The IC50 values of zanamivir on NA(H7N9-WT), NA(H7N9-H274Y), and NA(H7N9-R292K) were 1.1 nM, 1.4 nM, and 38.0 nM with fold changes of 1.3 and 34, respectively. These results indicated that oseltamivir and zanamivir could significantly inhibit NA(H7N9-WT). NA(H7N9-R292K) showed high-level resistance to both drugs (34-fold and 625-fold) and NA(H7N9-H274Y) was sensitive to both (1.3-fold and 9-fold). These results indicated that both oseltamivir and zanamivir could be used for patients infected with the H7N9 virus. However, when patients carried the H7N9 virus with a NA R292K mutation, other medications would be preferred over oseltamivir or zanamivir.
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Efficient Conversion of Spermatogonial Stem Cells to Phenotypic and Functional Dopaminergic Neurons via the PI3K/Akt and P21/Smurf2/Nolz1 Pathway.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by loss of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Generation of functional dopaminergic (DA) neurons is of unusual significance for treating Parkinson's disease (PD). However, direct conversion of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) to functional DA neurons without being reprogrammed to a pluripotent status has not been achieved. Here, we report an efficient approach to obtain morphological, phenotypic, and functional DA neurons from SSCs using a specific combination of olfactory ensheathing cell-conditioned medium (OECCM) and several defined growth factors (DGF). By following the current protocol, direct conversion of SSCs (both SSC line and primary SSCs) to neural cells and DA neurons was demonstrated by expression of numerous phenotypic genes and proteins for neural cells, as well as cell morphological features. More significantly, SSCs-derived DA neurons acquired neuronal functional properties such as synapse formation, electrophysiology activity, and dopamine secretion. Furthermore, PI3K/Akt pathway and p21/Nolz1 cascades were activated whereas Smurf2 was inactivated, leading to cell cycle exit during the conversion of SSCs into DA neurons. Collectively, this study could provide sufficient neural cells from SSCs for applications in the treatment of PD and offers novel insights into mechanisms underlying neural system development from the line of germ cells.
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Analysis of bioactive Amaryllidaceae alkaloid profiles in Lycoris species by GC-MS.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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The genus Lycoris, a group of Amaryllidaceae plants distributed in temperate regions of Eastern Asia, is already known for containing representative alkaloids typical of this botanical family with a wide range of biological activities (for example, lycorine and galanthamine). In the present work, the alkaloid profiles of nine species, L. albiflora, L. aurea, L. chinensis, L. haywardii, L. incarnata, L. longituba, L. radiata, L. sprengeri, and L. squamigera, and one variety (L. radiata var. pumila) have been evaluated by GC-MS. Structures belonging to the lycorine-, homolycorine-, haemanthamine-, narciclasine-, tazettine-, montanine- and galanthamine-series were identified and quantified, with galanthamine- and lycorine-type alkaloids predominating and usually showing a high relative abundance in comparison with other alkaloids of the extracts. Interestingly, L. longituba revealed itself to be a potential commercial source of bioactive alkaloids. In general terms, our results are consistent with the alkaloid profiles reported in the literature for previously studied species.
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Histamine H1 receptor cell membrane chromatography online high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry method reveals houttuyfonate as an activator of the histamine H1 receptor.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Allergy is an abnormal reaction of the body to an allergen. Histamine is responsible for many of the acute symptoms of allergic diseases. Many of the allergic and inflammatory actions of histamine are mediated by the histamine H1 receptor. In the present study, we established a two-dimensional histamine H1 receptor/cell membrane chromatography with online high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry method for screening potential histamine-activating components in a traditional Chinese medicine injection. The specification of the method was validated by screening, separating, and identifying a mixed standard solution of diphenhydramine hydrochloride, gefitinib, tamsulosin, and nitrendipine. The Yujin injection, an example of traditional Chinese medicine injection, was screened and potential allergic components acting on the histamine H1 receptor were identified. A Ca(2+) flux assay showed that houttuyfonate and Yujin injection induced calcium release in a dose-dependent manner. This suggests that houttuyfonate is an activator of the histamine H1 receptor. The mechanism of houttuyfonate activation involves phosphorylation of the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor. In conclusion, this two-dimensional method can rapidly detect and enrich target components isolated from the Yujin injection. This indicates that individuals with an overexpression of the histamine H1 receptor should be aware of possible allergic reactions when receiving the Yujin injection.
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Overexpression of secretagogin inhibits cell apoptosis and induces chemoresistance in small cell lung cancer under the regulation of miR-494.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Secretagogin (SCGN) has recently been identified to play a crucial role in cell apoptosis, receptor signaling and differentiation. However, its clinical significance and functional roles in SCLC chemoresistance remain unknown. Here we examined the expression of SCGN in clinical samples from SCLC patients and evaluated its relation with clinical prognosis. Then up and down-regulation of SCGN were carried out in SCLC cell lines to assess its influence on chemoresistance. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assay was used to evaluate whether SCGN is a novel direct target of miR-494. Our results revealed that elevated expression of SCGN was correlated with the poorer prognosis of SCLC patients and the more significant correlation with chemosensitivity. We also found that knockdown of SCGN expression in H69AR and H446AR cells increased chemosensitivity via increasing cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of G0/G1 phase, while over-expression of SCGN reduced chemosensitivity in sensitive H69 and H446 cells. SCGN as a novel target of miR-494 by luciferase reporter assay, up-regulation of miR-494 can sensitize H69AR cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. These results suggest SCGN is involved in the chemoresistance of SCLC under the regulation of miR-494 and may be a potential biomarker for predicting therapeutic response in treatment SCLC.
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Reduced expression of p21-activated protein kinase 1 correlates with poor histological differentiation in pancreatic cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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P21-activated protein kinase 1 (PAK1), a main downstream effector of small Rho GTPases, is overexpressed in many malignancies. PAK1 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in some tumor types, including breast cancer, gastric cancer, and colorectal cancer. However, the expression and clinical relevance of PAK1 expression in human pancreatic cancer remains unknown.
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An ultra-rigid close-stacked piezo motor for harsh condition scanning probe microscopy.
Scanning
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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We designed and produced a nearly closest packed stack motor with only one tiny gap of 0.15?mm in the middle of the stack. A low-voltage method of controlling the motor is introduced for the first time. Besides, the test results of the motor and the corresponding scanning tunneling microscope are also presented. To our surprise, it turns out to be so rigid that even running two oil pumps and one ultrasonic cleaner within 1?m range from a STM directly driven by this new motor cannot cause the STM to produce any visible difference in its the atomic resolution quality. This is a leap in building a true harsh condition atomic resolution SPM. SCANNING 36:554-559, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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[Determination of 24 metal elements and their compounds in air of workplace by ICP-AES].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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To establish a method for determination of the levels of 24 metal elements and their compounds in the air of workplace by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP- AES).
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[Effects of pri ming different low-dose rocurium on pharmacodynamics of mivacurium].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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To explore the effects of pri ming rocuronium on neuromuscular blockade produced by mivacurium.
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[Diagnostic role of contrast-enhanced whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography in the evaluation of coronary artery disease].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic effectiveness of contrast-enhanced whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography (CE-CMRA) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) with conventional coronary angiography as the reference standard.
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Phthalate diesters in airborne PM(2.5) and PM(10) in a suburban area of Shanghai: seasonal distribution and risk assessment.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Concentrations of nine phthalate diesters in 24-h airborne PM2.5 and PM10 were determined from October 2011 to August 2012 in a suburban area in Shanghai, China. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in airborne particulate matter at sum concentrations of these six compounds ranging from 13.3 to 186 ng/m(3), with an average value of 59.8 ng/m(3) in PM2.5, and from 10.1 to 445 ng/m(3), with an average value of 132 ng/m(3) in PM10. DEHP, DBP, and DIBP were the major phthalate diesters found in PM samples. DEHP was found predominantly in coarse (size fraction of between PM2.5 and PM10) particles, whereas DMP, DEP, DBP, DIBP, and BzBP were found predominantly in fine (PM2.5) particles. The concentrations of phthalates in PM during warm months (207 ng/m(3) for PM10 and 71.9 ng/m(3) for PM2.5, on average) were significantly higher than those during cold months (76.9 ng/m(3) for PM10 and 50.4 ng/m(3) for PM2.5). Significant positive correlations were found between concentrations of total phthalates, DEHP, and BzBP, with the total mass and organic carbon content of PM. Based on the concentrations of DEHP, incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) from inhalation exposure were estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation. Although the 95% probabilities for the ILCR values for the general population were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) threshold of 10(-6), our result is an underestimate of the actual health risk because we only considered the outdoor inhalation exposure to DEHP in this study.
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Non-obligatory role of prostaglandin D2 receptor subtype 1 in rosacea: Laropiprant in Comparison to a placebo did not alleviate the symptoms of erythematoelangiectaic rosacea.
J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea shares facial flushing features with those seen after niacin. This study was performed to test the hypothesis whether prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) receptor subtype 1 antagonist (laropiprant) will improve the symptoms of rosacea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of laropiprant 100?mg administered once daily for 4 weeks on the signs and symptoms of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. Subjects received laropiprant 100?mg once-daily (n?=?30) or placebo (n?=?30) for 4 weeks. The primary pharmacodynamics endpoint was change in Clinician's Erythema Assessment (CEA) score from baseline to week 4. The patient self-assessment (PSA) was a secondary endpoint. Laropiprant was generally well tolerated in this study for the primary endpoint of change in CEA score from Baseline to Week 4, the least-squares mean of change from baseline to visit 4/week 4 was -3.7 and -3.4 for placebo and laropiprant (100?mg), respectively. The least-squares mean difference (placebo minus laropiprant) with 90% confidence interval of change in CEA score from baseline to visit 4/week 4 was estimated as -0.3 (-1.6, 1.0). For the secondary endpoint, the least-squares mean difference (placebo minus laropiprant) with 90% confidence interval of change from baseline to visit 4/week 4 was estimated as -0.7 (-7.7, 6.4) for PSA total score, -4.5 (-14.2, 5.3) for PSA emotion score, -1.3 (-7.8, 5.3) for PSA symptoms score, and 3.6 (-4.3, 11.4) for PSA functioning score. Laropiprant administered once daily for 4 weeks was generally well tolerated in this population of subjects with rosacea. However, there were no clinically meaningful changes in the primary endpoint of CEA given that the response to laropiprant could not be differentiated from that to placebo. There was also no clinically meaningful change in the secondary endpoint, PSA. A DP1 antagonist is not likely to be effective in rosacea.
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Glioma-derived ADAM10 induces regulatory B cells to suppress CD8+ T cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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CD8+ T cells play an important role in the anti-tumor activities of the body. The dysfunction of CD8+ T cells in glioma is unclear. This study aims to elucidate the glioma cell-derived ADAM10 (A Disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10) in the suppression of CD8+ effector T cells by the induction of regulatory B cells. In this study, glioma cells were isolated from surgically removed glioma tissue and stimulated by Phorbol myristate acetage (PMA) in the culture. The levels of ADAM10 in the culture were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immune cells were assessed by flow cytometry. The results showed that the isolated glioma cells express ADAM10, which was markedly up regulated after stimulated with PMA. The glioma-derived ADAM10 induced activated B cells to differentiate into regulatory B cells, the later suppressed CD8+ T cell proliferation as well as the induced regulatory T cells, which also showed the immune suppressor effect on CD8+ effector T cell proliferation. In conclusion, glioma cells produce ADAM10 to induce Bregs; the latter suppresses CD8+ T cells and induces Tregs.
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Urinary concentrations of phthalates in couples planning pregnancy and its association with 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, a biomarker of oxidative stress: longitudinal investigation of fertility and the environment study.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Oxidative stress has been recognized as one of the most important contributors to infertility in both males and females. Exposure to many environmental chemicals, such as phthalates, has been shown to induce oxidative stress. In a longitudinal study designed to assess exposure to environmental chemicals and fecundity in couples who were planning pregnancy, 894 urine samples were collected from 469 couples from Michigan and Texas during 2005-2009. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites and a marker of oxidative stress, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), were determined in these samples. Concentrations, profiles, and estimated daily intakes (DIs) of phthalates were positively associated with 8-OHdG. The median concentrations of monomethyl phthalate (mMP), monoethyl phthalate (mEP), mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (mCPP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (mBP), mono(2-isobutyl) phthalate (miBP), monobenzyl phthalate (mBzP), ?5mEHP (sum of five metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) and ?14phthalates (sum of 14 urinary phthalate metabolites) were 0.48, 85.2, 4.50, 7.66, 4.36, 3.80, 54.8, and 249 ?g/g creatinine, respectively. The estimated DI values for DEHP in 39 individuals were above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) reference dose (RfD) of 20 ?g/kg-bw/day. The mean and median concentrations of 8-OHdG were 6.02 and 3.13 ?g/g creatinine, respectively, which were significantly higher in females than in males. Statistically significant associations were found between 8-OHdG and urinary concentrations of mEP, and ?5mEHP for females. Similarly, a significant association was found between 8-OHdG and DIs estimated for select phthalates. Our results suggested that phthalate exposure increases oxidative stress, which can be a mechanism for the diminished fertility observed in couples who were highly exposed to select phthalates.
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Hotspot mutations in common oncogenes are infrequent in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Oncogene mutations contribute to carcinogenesis and can provide potential therapeutic targets for clinical anticancer management. However, oncogene mutation patterns in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have yet to be fully elucidated. To gain insight into mutation patterns in NPC, a high-throughput OncoCarta panel assay was used to determine 238 hotspot mutations across 19 common oncogenes in 8 NPC cell lines and 160 NPC patient samples from southern China. Statistical analyses were further conducted to identify associations between oncogene mutations and selected clinicopathological characteristics. In total, we identified 24 mutations across 11 oncogenes in 17 (10.6%) NPC patients. Four patients exhibited mutations in at least one oncogene. We also identified a PIK3CA H1047R mutant in 7 NPC cell lines. In addition, oncogene mutations showed no correlation with either risk habits (smoking and drinking) or other clinical characteristics except for TNM stage. KIT mutations were associated with poorer overall and relapse-free survival. Furthermore, KIT mutations together with age and N stage were independent prognostic factors in NPC. Taken together, the present study is the first report on mutations in multiple oncogenes in NPC. We found that hotspot oncogene mutations are infrequent in NPC patients from southern China. The lack of hotspot mutations requires a comprehensive characterization of gene mutations in NPC for developing new therapeutic targets in the future.
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Basal-Cell Carcinoma Occurring in Cutaneous Infundibular Cysts: Report of 2 Cases and Review of the Literature.
Am J Dermatopathol
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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: Cysts lined by stratified squamous epithelium indistinguishable from the epidermis, referred to as epidermoid cysts, epidermal inclusion cysts, and infundibular cysts, are the most common type of cyst occurring in the skin. They are invariably benign, and malignant neoplasms arising within the wall of such cysts are distinctly uncommon. Even basal-cell carcinoma, which is the most common cutaneous malignant neoplasm of the skin, has rarely been reported to occur in association with epidermoid cysts. The authors report their experience studying 2 patients with basal-cell carcinoma arising in association with an epidermoid cyst. These cases highlight the need to examine, histopathologically, tissue from this common and usually benign lesion. The authors also review the medical literature.
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Use of high-resolution volumetric MR spectroscopic imaging in assessing treatment response of glioblastoma to an HDAC inhibitor.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Improved predictive imaging would enable personalization and adjustment of treatment, which are critical for patients with glioblastomain whom therapy is likely to fail. This article describes the use of MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to predict early clinical and behavioral response to a therapy and an effort to develop high-resolution, volumetric MRSI to improve its clinical application.
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Fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 regulates cell growth and multidrug resistance of small-cell lung cancer through the nuclear factor-?B pathway.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) has been reported to play an oncogene role in many types of cancer. However, its biological functions in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the roles of Fn14 in the cell growth and chemoresistance of SCLC and its possible molecular mechanism. Expression of Fn14 was examined in 51 cases of SCLC tissues by immunohistochemistry. Overexpression or knockdown of Fn14 was carried out in SCLC multidrug-resistant cell lines (H69AR and H446AR) and the parental cell lines (H69 and H446) to assess its influence on cell growth and chemoresistance. The results showed that Fn14 was expressed in 50.98% (26/51) of SCLC. Overexpression of Fn14 was associated with the poor pathologic stage of SCLC (P < 0.05 by the Fisher's exact test) and the shorter survival time (by the Kaplan-Meier method). Enforced expression of Fn14 in H69 and H446 cells promoted cell growth and enhanced multidrug resistance by decreasing cell apoptosis and increasing G2-phase cell accumulation. Inhibition of Fn14 expression using Fn14 shRNA in H69AR and H446AR cells inhibited cell growth and sensitized cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs by increasing drug-induced cell apoptosis accompanied by G1, S phase arrest. Furthermore, elevated expression of Fn14 in H69 and H446 cells can lead to increased expression of Bcl-xl and activity of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). Similar results were observed by Fn14 knockdown H69AR and H446AR cells. Bcl-xl expression regulated by Fn14 was dependent on NF-?B activation. Our results suggest that Fn14 modulates cell growth and drug resistance by upregulating Bcl-xl expression through the NF-?B pathway. All findings provide insight into the Fn14 signaling mechanism and Fn14 may be a potentially novel target for interfering with cancer growth and chemoresistance in SCLC.
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Inpp5e increases the Rab5 association and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate accumulation at the phagosome through an interaction with Rab20.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases have been implicated in the regulation of phagocytosis. However, their precise roles in the phagocytic process are poorly understood. We prepared RAW264.7 macrophages deficient in Inpp5e (shInpp5e) to clarify the role of this lipid phosphatase. In shInpp5e cells, the uptake of solid particles was increased, and the rate of phagosome acidification was accelerated. As expected, levels of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(3,4)P2 were increased and decreased, respectively, on the forming phagocytic cups of these cells. Unexpectedly, the most prominent consequence of the Inpp5e deficiency was the decreased accumulation of PtdIns(3)P and Rab5 on the phagosome. The expression of a constitutively active form of Rab5b in shInpp5e cells rescued the PtdIns(3)P accumulation. Rab20 has been reported to regulate the activity of Rabex5, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab5. The association of Rab20 with the phagosome was remarkably abrogated in shInpp5e cells. Overexpression of Rab20 increased phagosomal PtdIns(3)P accumulation and delayed its elimination. These results suggest that Inpp5e, through functional interactions with Rab20 on the phagosome, activates Rab5, which, in turn, increases PtdIns(3)P and delays phagosome acidification.
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Pulsed magnetic field accelerate proliferation and migration of cardiac microvascular endothelial cells.
Bioelectromagnetics
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Heart failure is a disease with multifactorial causes. Recently it was established that reduction in vascular density promoted the progression from adaptive cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure, therefore, therapeutic angiogenesis may be a promising method for treating heart failure. Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) play a major role in cardiac angiogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the direct and indirect effect of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) on the proliferation and migration of CMECs. CMECs were isolated from adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat hearts. We found PMF with a frequency of 15?Hz and an intensity of 1.8?mT accelerated the proliferation and migration of CMECs and cardiac myocytes (CMs). Moreover, CMECs treated with PMF released 1.5-fold higher vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and 2-fold higher fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) when compared with PMF-free cells. In addition, CMs treated with PMF released twofold higher FGF-2 compared with PMF-free cells, but there was no change in VEGF levels. Those results suggested PMF has both a direct autocrine mitogenic and an indirect paracrine effect on CMECs proliferation and migration, and the effect of PMF on intercellular communication between CMECs and CMs was partially dependent on FGF-2, but independent on VEGF. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Prognostic significance of thymidylate synthase in postoperative non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinicopathologic/prognostic significance of thymidylate synthase (TS), orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT), and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) proteins in postoperative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Microarray slides from a set of 178 NSCLC patients were used for the detection of TS, OPRT, and TP expression by immunohistochemistry. The correlation between clinicopathologic factors and protein expression of three proteins was analyzed. Ninety seven carcinomas (57.4%) were TS-positive, 90 carcinomas (53.9%) were OPRT-positive, and 102 carcinomas (69.4%) were TP-positive. Compared with the TS-positive patients, the overall survival (OS) was significantly lower in the TS-negative patients (hazard ratio [HR] =1.766, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.212-2.573, P=0.003). Significant differences between TS-positive and TS-negative patients was also observed in the following stratified analyses: 1) adenocarcinoma subgroup (HR =2.079, 95% CI =1.235-3.500, P=0.006); 2) less than 60-year-old subgroup (HR =1.890, 95% CI =1.061-3.366, P=0.031); 3) stage II/III subgroup (HR =1.594, 95% CI =1.036-2.453, P=0.034); and 4) surgery plus adjuvant therapy subgroup (HR =1.976, 95% CI =1.226-3.185, P=0.005). However, the OS was not significantly correlated with OPRT or TP protein expression. This study demonstrates that the TS level in tumor tissues may be a useful marker to predict the postoperative OS in NSCLC patients.
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QTest: Quantitative Testing of Theories of Binary Choice.
Decisions
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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The goal of this paper is to make modeling and quantitative testing accessible to behavioral decision researchers interested in substantive questions. We provide a novel, rigorous, yet very general, quantitative diagnostic framework for testing theories of binary choice. This permits the nontechnical scholar to proceed far beyond traditionally rather superficial methods of analysis, and it permits the quantitatively savvy scholar to triage theoretical proposals before investing effort into complex and specialized quantitative analyses. Our theoretical framework links static algebraic decision theory with observed variability in behavioral binary choice data. The paper is supplemented with a custom-designed public-domain statistical analysis package, the QTest software. We illustrate our approach with a quantitative analysis using published laboratory data, including tests of novel versions of "Random Cumulative Prospect Theory." A major asset of the approach is the potential to distinguish decision makers who have a fixed preference and commit errors in observed choices from decision makers who waver in their preferences.
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Unusual kinetics of thermal decay of dim-light photoreceptors in vertebrate vision.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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We present measurements of rate constants for thermal-induced reactions of the 11-cis retinyl chromophore in vertebrate visual pigment rhodopsin, a process that produces noise and limits the sensitivity of vision in dim light. At temperatures of 52.0-64.6 °C, the rate constants fit well to an Arrhenius straight line with, however, an unexpectedly large activation energy of 114 ± 8 kcal/mol, which is much larger than the 60-kcal/mol photoactivation energy at 500 nm. Moreover, we obtain an unprecedentedly large prefactor of 10(72±5) s(-1), which is roughly 60 orders of magnitude larger than typical frequencies of molecular motions! At lower temperatures, the measured Arrhenius parameters become more normal: Ea = 22 ± 2 kcal/mol and Apref = 10(9±1) s(-1) in the range of 37.0-44.5 °C. We present a theoretical framework and supporting calculations that attribute this unusual temperature-dependent kinetics of rhodopsin to a lowering of the reaction barrier at higher temperatures due to entropy-driven partial breakup of the rigid hydrogen-bonding network that hinders the reaction at lower temperatures.
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A spin-canted Ni(II)4-based metal-organic framework with gas sorption properties and high adsorptive selectivity for light hydrocarbons.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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The reaction of nickel(II) nitrate with isonicotinic acid and 2,6-dimethyl-pyridine-3,5-dicarboxylic acid affords a novel, tetranuclear nickel(II)-based metal-organic framework that exhibits spin-canted antiferromagnetism with a canted angle of 1.65° and high adsorptive selectivity for light hydrocarbons.
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[Stent implantation for relief of pulmonary artery branch stenosis].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Branch pulmonary artery stenosis is one of the common congenital heart disease. Stent implantation to relieve branch pulmonary artery stenosis (BPAS) is an alternative to failed surgical or balloon angioplasty. The aim of this study was to explore the indication, methods and complications of using balloon expandable stent placement to treat branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and evaluate the results of stent implantation in the treatment of branch pulmonary artery stenosis.
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Exome sequencing identifies a novel MYH7 p.G407C mutation responsible for familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), characterized by myocardial hypertrophy, is the most common cause of sudden cardiac arrest in young individuals. More than 270 mutations have been found to be responsible for familial HCM to date; mutations in MYH7, which encodes the ?-myosin heavy chain (?-MHC) and MYBPC3, which encodes the myosin binding protein C, are seen most often. This study aimed to screen a pathogenic mutation causing HCM in a large family and assess its possible impact on the function of the specific protein. Exome sequencing was applied in the proband for searching a novel mutation; segments bearing the specific mutation were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. A novel p.G407C mutation in the ?-MHC gene (MYH7) was identified to be responsible for familial HCM in this family. The mutation may cause damage to the second structure of the protein despite the fact that patients bearing the mutation may have a relatively benign prognosis in this family. The clinical details of the p.G407C mutation are described for the first time in this study. Our report shows a good genotype-phenotype consistency and makes it possible for genetic counseling in this family.
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Dietary self-efficacy predicts AHEI diet quality in women with previous gestational diabetes.
Diabetes Educ
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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The purpose of this study was to examine the association of intrapersonal influences of diet quality as defined by the Health Belief Model constructs in women with recent histories of gestational diabetes.
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Comparative studies on the interaction of cefixime with bovine serum albumin by fluorescence quenching spectroscopy and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.
Luminescence
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Under simulated physiological conditions, the reaction mechanism between cefixime and bovine serum albumin at different temperatures (293, 303 and 310?K) was investigated using a fluorescence quenching method and synchronous fluorescence method, respectively. The results indicated that the fluorescence intensity and synchronous fluorescence intensity of bovine serum albumin decreased regularly on the addition of cefixime. In addition, the quenching mechanism, binding constants, number of binding sites, type of interaction force and energy-transfer parameters of cefixime with bovine serum albumin obtained from two methods using the same equation were consistent. The results indicated that the synchronous fluorescence spectrometry could be used to study the binding mechanism between drug and protein, and was a useful supplement to the conventional method. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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[Potential role of CRELD1 gene in the pathogenesis of atrioventricular septal defect].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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To screen potential mutation of the CRELD1 gene in congenital atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) and explore its functional implications.
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Citric Acid-based Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds Enhance Calvarial Regeneration.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Citric acid-based polymer/hydroxyapatite composites (CABP-HAs) are a novel class of biomimetic composites that have recently attracted significant attention in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of using two different CABP-HAs, poly (1,8-octanediol citrate)-click-HA (POC-Click-HA) and crosslinked urethane-doped polyester-HA (CUPE-HA) as an alternative to autologous tissue grafts in the repair of skeletal defects. CABP-HA disc-shaped scaffolds (65 wt.-% HA with 70% porosity) were used as bare implants without the addition of growth factors or cells to renovate 4?mm diameter rat calvarial defects (n = 72, n = 18 per group). Defects were either left empty (negative control group), or treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds, POC-Click-HA scaffolds, or autologous bone grafts (AB group). Radiological and histological data showed a significant enhancement of osteogenesis in defects treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds when compared to POC-Click-HA scaffolds. Both, POC-Click-HA and CUPE-HA scaffolds, resulted in enhanced bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, and angiogenesis when compared to the control groups at 1, 3, and 6 months post-trauma. These results show the potential of CABP-HA bare implants as biocompatible, osteogenic, and off-shelf-available options in the repair of orthopedic defects.
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Controllable assembly of a three-dimensional metal-organic supramolecular framework displaying hydrogen-bonding and ?-? stacking interactions.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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The complex poly[[aqua(?2-phthalato-?(2)O(1):O(2)){?3-2-[3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]acetato-?(4)N(2),N(3):O:O'}{?2-2-[3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]acetato-?(3)N(2),N(3):O}dizinc(II)] dihydrate], {[Zn2(C10H8N3O2)2(C8H4O4)(H2O)]·2H2O}n, has been prepared by solvothermal reaction of 2-[3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]acetonitrile (PPAN) with zinc(II). Under hydrothermal conditions, PPAN is hydrolyzed to 2-[3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]acetate (PPAA(-)). The structure determination reveals that the complex is a one-dimensional double chain containing cationic [Zn4(PPAA)4](4+) structural units, which are further extended by bridging phthalate ligands. The one-dimensional chains are extended into a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture via hydrogen-bonding and ?-? stacking interactions.
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Note: A rigid piezo motor with large output force and an effective method to reduce sliding friction force.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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We present a completely practical TunaDrive piezo motor. It consists of a central piezo stack sandwiched by two arm piezo stacks and two leg piezo stacks, respectively, which is then sandwiched and spring-clamped by a pair of parallel polished sapphire rods. It works by alternatively fast expanding and contracting the arm/leg stacks while slowly expanding/contracting the central stack simultaneously. The key point is that sufficiently fast expanding and contracting a limb stack can make its two sliding friction forces well cancel, resulting in the total sliding friction force is <10% of the total static friction force, which can help increase output force greatly. The piezo motor's high compactness, precision, and output force make it perfect in building a high-quality harsh-condition (vibration resistant) atomic resolution scanning probe microscope.
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Array-comparative genomic hybridization profiling of immunohistochemical subgroups of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma shows distinct genomic alterations.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) displays striking heterogeneity at the clinical, genetic and molecular levels. Subtypes include germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCL and activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCL, according to microarray analysis, and germinal center type or non-germinal center type by immunohistochemistry. Although some reports have described genomic aberrations based upon microarray classification system, genomic aberrations based upon immunohistochemical classifications have rarely been reported. The present study aimed to ascertain the relationship between genomic aberrations and subtypes identified by immunohistochemistry, and to study the pathogenetic character of Chinese DLBCL. We conducted immunohistochemistry using antibodies against CD10, BCL6 and MUM1 in 59 samples of DLBCL from Chinese patients, and then performed microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization for each case. Characteristic genomic differences were found between GCB and non-GCB DLBCL from the array data. The GCB type was characterized by more gains at 7q (7q22.1, P < 0.05) and losses at 16q (P ? 0.05), while the non-GCB type was characterized by gains at 11q24.3 and 3q13.2 (P < 0.05). We found completely different mutations in BCL6+ and BCL6- non-GCB type DLBCL, whereby the BCL6- group had a higher number of gains at 1q and a loss at 14q32.13 (P ? 0.005), while the BCL6+ group showed a higher number of gains at 14q23.1 (P = 0.15) and losses at 6q (P = 0.07). The BCL6- group had a higher frequency of genomic imbalances compared to the BCL6+ group. In conclusion, the BCL6+ and BCL6- non-GCB type of DLBCL appear to have different mechanisms of pathogenesis.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 2-arylalkylthio-5-iodine-6-substituted-benzyl-pyrimidine-4(3H)-ones as potent HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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A novel series of 2-arylalkylthio-5-iodine-6-substitutedbenzyl-pyrimidine-4(3H)-ones (S-DABOs) 8a-x had been synthesized via an efficient method. Their biological activity against HIV virus and RT assay were evaluated. Some compounds, especially 8h, 8l and 8n, displayed promising activity against HIV-1 RT with IC50 values in a range of 0.41 ?M to 0.71 ?M, which were much better than that of nevirapine. Molecular modeling studies revealed that the binding mode would be affected via forming an additional hydrogen bond by incorporating an oxygen atom on the C-2 side chain. The biological activity was in accordance with the docking results.
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2,4,5-Trisubstituted thiazole derivatives: a novel and potent class of non-nucleoside inhibitors of wild type and mutant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Novel 2,4,5-trisubstituted thiazole derivatives (TSTs) were designed and synthesized as HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Among the thirty-eight synthesized target compounds, thirty TSTs showed potent inhibition against HIV-1 replication in wild type HIV-1 at submicromolar concentrations (from 0.046 to 9.59 ?M). Compounds 21, 23 and 24 were also tested on seven NNRTI-resistant HIV-1 strains, and all exhibited inhibitory effects with fold changes in IC50 ranging from 2.6 to 111, which were better than those of nevirapine (15.6-fold-371-fold). Docking simulations of compound 24 revealed a reasonable mechanism for the binding mode, and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3-DQSAR) studies on this novel series of TST further elucidated the structure-activity relationship (SAR). The results suggested the great potential of TSTs as a novel class of NNRTIs with antiviral efficacy and a good resistance profile.
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Identification of two novel GATA6 mutations in patients with nonsyndromic conotruncal heart defects.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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GATA binding protein 6 (GATA6) encodes a zinc??nger transcription factor that is essential for normal heart development. Mutations in this gene lead to conotruncal heart defects associated with cyanotic congenital heart disease; however, it remains unclear whether the mutations in GATA6 are also responsible for the development of the nonsyndromic conotruncal heart defects. The coding region exons and ?anking intron sequences of GATA6 were screened in 157 patients with nonsyndromic conotruncal heart defects and 300 control subjects. Three heterozygous missense mutations, c.151G>A (E51K), c.551G>A (S184N) and c.733G>C (G245R), were identified in patients with tetralogy of Fallot or persistent truncus arteriosus. The two novel mutations (E51K and G245R) identified in the current study are located in evolutionarily conserved residues of the GATA6 protein. It was demonstrated that these two mutations lead to a significant reduction in the transactivation capacity of downstream genes. The current study presents two novel GATA6 mutations in patients with nonsyndromic conotruncal heart defects and provides novel insights into the pathogenesis of this disease.
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Activated janus kinase 3 expression not by activating mutations identified in natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.
Pathol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Janus Kinase 3 (JAK3) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells, that plays an essential role in hematopoiesis during T cell development. JAK3 somatic-activating mutations were identified in extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphomas (ENKTL) in recent cases in Singapore. We hypothesized these mutations might play an important role in the pathogenesis of T and NK cell neoplasms in other areas of the world. We performed JAK3 exon13 sequencing for different types of T and NK cell neoplasms including ENKTL (59 cases total). We identified four mutations in three (5.0%) cases. All of the mutations were from ENKTL cases (15.8%). Among the four newly found mutations, three are silent mutations and one introduces a stop codon, which was not an activating mutation as in the cases in Singapore. We detected four (30.8%) cases positive for phosphorylated JAK3 expression among 13 NKTCL cases when we performed JAK3 (phospho Y785) immunostaining on sections of ENKTL samples. It seems that phosphorylated JAK3 expression does not necessarily harbor exon 13 mutations. The mechanism responsible for activating expression of the gene will be a topic for further research.
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Electroacupuncture for thalidomide/bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy in multiple myeloma: a feasibility study.
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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This single-arm study evaluated feasibility, safety, and initial efficacy of electroacupuncture for thalidomide/bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (PN) in cancer patients with multiple myeloma.
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A multi-component integrated approach for the elimination of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China: design and baseline results of a 4-year cluster-randomised intervention trial.
Int. J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Despite major successes in its control over the past 50years, schistosomiasis japonica continues to be a public health problem in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China). Historically, the major endemic foci occur in the lakes and marshlands along the Yangtze River, areas where transmission interruption has proven difficult. The current endemic situation may alter due to the closure of the Three Gorges Dam. Considerable environmental and ecological changes are anticipated that may result in new habitats for the oncomelanid intermediate snail host of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj), thereby increasing the risk of transmission. The current national control program for P.R. China involves a multi-component integrated strategy but, despite targeting multiple transmission pathways, certain challenges remain. As the Chinese government pushes towards elimination, there is a requirement for additional tools, such as vaccination, for long-term prevention. Whereas the zoonotic nature of schistosomiasis japonica adds to the complexity of control, it provides a unique opportunity to develop a transmission blocking vaccine targeting bovines to assist in the prevention of human infection and disease. Mathematical modelling has shown that control options targeting the various transmission pathways of schistosomiasis japonica and incorporating bovine vaccination, mass human chemotherapy and mollusciciding could lead to its elimination from P.R. China. Here we present the study design and baseline results of a four-year cluster randomised intervention trial we are undertaking around the schistosomiasis-endemic Dongting Lake in Hunan Province aimed at determining the impact on schistosome transmission of the multi-component integrated control strategy, including bovine vaccination using a heterologous "prime-boost" delivery platform based on the previously tested SjCTPI vaccine.
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Inpatient Rehabilitation Performance of Patients With Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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To evaluate the functional improvement of rehabilitation inpatients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration.
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Developing tools for identifying employer and employee satisfaction of nursing new graduates in China.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Researchers developed evaluation tools measuring employment relevant satisfaction for nursing new graduates. The evaluation tools were designed to be relevant to nursing managers who make employment decisions and nursing new graduates who were just employed.
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Analysis of allergens in tubeimu saponin extracts by using rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 cell-based affinity chromatography coupled to liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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An affinity two-dimensional chromatography method was developed for the recognition, separation, and identification of allergic components from tubeimu saponin extracts, a preparation often injected to treat various conditions as indicated by traditional Chinese medicine. Rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cell membranes were used as the stationary phase of a membrane affinity chromatography column to capture components with affinity for mast cells that could be involved in a degranulation reaction. The retained components were enriched and analyzed by membrane affinity chromatography with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry via a port switch valve. Suitability and reliability of the method was investigated using appropriate standards, and then, the method was applied to identify components retained from tubeimu saponin extracts. Tubeimoside A was identified in this way as a potential allergen, and degranulation assays confirmed that tubeimoside A induces RBL-2H3 cell degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. An increase in Ca(2+) influx indicated that degranulation induced by tubeimoside A is likely Ca(2+) dependent. Coupled with the degranulation assay, RBL-2H3 cell-based affinity chromatography coupled with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry is an effective method for screening and identifying allergic components from tubeimu saponin extracts.
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Lactobacillus plantarum NDC 75017 alleviates the learning and memory ability in aging rats by reducing mitochondrial dysfunction.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of Lactobacillus plantarum NDC 75017 on D-galactose (D-gal)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in the rat cerebral cortex. Fifty rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 in each group). The rats in the aging model group were subcutaneously injected with 100 mg/kg D-gal and those in the protective groups were additionally orally administered L. plantarum NDC 75017 at doses of 1×10(8), 1×10(9) or 1×10(10) CFU/100 mg body weight/day, respectively. The control rats were administrated an equal volume of the vehicle. Following continuous treatment for seven weeks, the learning and memory abilities and mitochondrial ultrastructure, function and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were examined. The results showed that the learning and memory abilities and mitochondrial levels of ATP were significantly decreased in the D-gal-induced aging model group compared with those in the control group (P<0.01). In addition, marked changes in the mitochondrial functions and ultrastructure were observed between the groups. Seven weeks of L. plantarum NDC 75017 and D-gal coadministration significantly improved the learning and memory abilities of the rats compared with the D-gal-induced aging model group. Furthermore, the combination regime significantly improved the mitochondrial ultrastructure and functions, including the mitochondrial respiratory chain, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial permeability transition. The results revealed that the L. plantarum NDC 75017 was able to alleviate learning and memory injuries in aging rats by reducing the mitochondrial dysfunction induced by D-gal.
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Effect of total dose and fraction size on survival of patients with locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy: A phase 2, single-center, randomized controlled trial.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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The optimal model of total dose and fraction size for patients with locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) remains unclear. The authors designed a randomized phase 2 clinical trial to investigate the efficacy of 2 different models, with the objective of determining an optimal model.
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Upregulation of ICAM-1 in diabetic rats after transient forebrain ischemia and reperfusion injury.
J Inflamm (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hyperglycemia exacerbates brain damage caused by cerebral ischemia. Neuroinflammation may play a role in mediating such enhanced damage. The objectives of this study were to examine the mRNA and protein levels and cell type distribution of ICAM-1 after cerebral ischemia in normo-and diabetic hyperglycemic rats.
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Effective Antibiotics against 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in HLB-Affected Citrus Plants Identified via the Graft-Based Evaluation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), caused by three species of fastidious, phloem-limited 'Candidatus Liberibacter', is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. To date, there is no established cure for this century-old and yet, newly emerging disease. As a potential control strategy for citrus HLB, 31 antibiotics were screened for effectiveness and phytotoxicity using the optimized graft-based screening system with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las)-infected citrus scions. Actidione and Oxytetracycline were the most phytotoxic to citrus with less than 10% of scions surviving and growing; therefore, this data was not used in additional analyses. Results of principal component (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA) demonstrated that 29 antibiotics were clustered into 3 groups: highly effective, partly effective, and not effective. In spite of different modes of actions, a number of antibiotics such as, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin, Cefalexin, Rifampicin and Sulfadimethoxine were all highly effective in eliminating or suppressing Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus indicated by both the lowest Las infection rate and titers of the treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The non-effective group, including 11 antibiotics alone with three controls, such as Amikacin, Cinoxacin, Gentamicin, Kasugamycin, Lincomycin, Neomycin, Polymixin B and Tobramycin, did not eliminate or suppress Las in the tested concentrations, resulting in plants with increased titers of Las. The other 12 antibiotics partly eliminated or suppressed Las in the treated and graft-inoculated plants. The effective and non-phytotoxic antibiotics could be potential candidates for control of citrus HLB, either for the rescue of infected citrus germplasm or for restricted field application.
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Involvement of Class II Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase ?-Isoform in Antigen-Induced Degranulation in RBL-2H3 Cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this study, we present findings that suggest that PI3K-C2?, a member of the class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) subfamily, regulates the process of Fc?RI-triggered degranulation. RBL-2H3 cells were transfected with shRNA targeting PI3K-C2?. The knockdown impaired the Fc?RI-induced release of a lysosome enzyme, ?-hexosaminidase, without affecting the intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. The release of mRFP-tagged neuropeptide-Y, a reporter for the regulated exocytosis, was also decreased in the PI3K-C2?-deficient cells. The release was increased significantly by the expression of the siRNA-resistant version of PI3K-C2?. In wild-type cells, Fc?RI stimulation induced the formation of large vesicles, which were associated with CD63, a marker protein of secretory granules. On the vesicles, the existence of PI3K-C2? and PtdIns(3,4)P2 was observed. These results indicated that PI3K-C2? and its product PtdIns(3,4)P2 may play roles in the secretory process.
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Phenylspirodrimanes with Anti-HIV Activity from the Sponge-Derived Fungus Stachybotrys chartarum MXH-X73.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Seven new phenylspirodrimanes, named stachybotrins D-F (1, 3, 4), stachybocins E and F (5, 6), and stachybosides A and B (7, 8), and four known compounds (2, 9-11), were isolated from the sponge-derived fungus Stachybotrys chartarum MXH-X73. Their structures were determined by detailed analysis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of 1-8 were determined by chemical hydrolysis and modified Moshers and Marfeys methods. All compounds were tested in an anti-HIV activity assay, and compound 1 showed an inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication by targeting reverse transcriptase. Further study exhibited that 1 could block NNRTIs-resistant strains (HIV-1RT-K103N, HIV-1RT-L100I,K103N, HIV-1RT-K103N,V108I, HIV-1RT-K103N,G190A, and HIV-1RT-K103N,P225H) as well as wild-type HIV-1 (HIV-1wt) with EC50 values of 7.0, 23.8, 13.3, 14.2, 6.2, and 8.4 ?M, respectively.
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[Retrospective analysis of effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy or not for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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To analyze the effectiveness and toxicity of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) combined with chemotherapy or not for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
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A survey of phthalates and parabens in personal care products from the United States and its implications for human exposure.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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Despite the widespread usage of phthalates and parabens in personal care products (PCPs), little is known about concentrations and profiles as well as human exposure to these compounds through the use of PCPs. In this study, nine phthalates and six parabens were determined in 170 PCPs (41 rinse-off and 109 leave-on), including 20 baby care products collected from Albany, New York. Phthalates were less frequently found in rinse-off PCPs but were more frequently found in perfumes (detection frequency of 100% for diethyl phthalate [DEP], 67% for dibutyl phthalate [DBP]), skin toners (90% for DEP), and nail polishes (90% for DBP). Parabens were found in ?40% of rinse-off products and ?60% of leave-on products. The highest concentrations of DEP, DBP, methyl- (MeP), ethyl- (EtP), propyl- (PrP), and butyl parabens (BuP) were on the order of 1000 ?g per gram of the product. On the basis of amount and frequency of use of PCPs and the measured median concentrations of target analytes, the total dermal intake doses (sum of all phthalates or parabens) were calculated to be 0.37 and 31.0 ?g/kg-bw/day for phthalates and parabens, respectively, for adult females. The calculated dermal intake of phthalates from PCPs was lower for infants and toddlers than for adult females. In contrast, dermal intake of parabens from PCPs by infants and toddlers was higher than that for adult females. The calculated maximum daily exposure dose of MeP, EtP, and PrP from PCPs ranged between 58.6 and 766 ?g/kg-bw/day for infants and toddlers, which was 3 times higher than that calculated for adult females. PCPs are an important source of human exposure to parabens; the contribution of PCPs to phthalate exposure is low, except for DEP.
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Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy Reveals the Molecular Mechanical Anisotropy of the FeS4 Metal Center in Rubredoxin.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Mechanical anisotropy is an important feature of materials. Depending on the direction it is pulled, a material can exhibit very different mechanical properties. Mechanical anisotropy on the microscopic scale has also been observed for individual elastomeric proteins. Depending upon the direction along which it is stretched, a protein can unfold via different mechanical unfolding pathways and exhibit vastly different mechanical stability. However, it remains to be demonstrated if the concept of mechanical anisotropy can be extended to the molecular scale for small molecular objects containing only a few chemical bonds. Here, we choose the iron-sulfur center FeS4 in the simplest iron-sulfur protein rubredoxin as a model system to demonstrate the molecular level mechanical anisotropy. We used single molecule atomic force spectroscopy to investigate the mechanical rupture of the FeS4 center along different pulling directions. The FeS4 cluster is a simple molecular object with defined three-dimensional structure, where a ferric ion and four coordinating cysteinyl ligands are arranged into a distorted tetrahedral geometry. Mutating two specific residues in rubredoxin to cysteines provides anchoring points that enable us to stretch and rupture the FeS4 center along five distinct and precisely controlled directions. Our results showed that the mechanical stability as well as the rupture mechanism and kinetics of the FeS4 center are strongly dependent upon the direction along which it is stretched, suggesting that the very small and simple FeS4 center exhibits considerable mechanical anisotropy. It is likely that structural asymmetry in the FeS4 cluster and the modulation of the local environment due to partial unfolding of rubredoxin are responsible for the observed mechanical anisotropy. Our results suggest that mechanical anisotropy is a universal feature for any asymmetrical three-dimensional structure, even down to a molecular scale, and such mechanical anisotropy can be potentially utilized to control the mechanochemical reactivity of molecular objects.
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Hemilaminectomy approach combined with in situ restoration of vertebral laminae for thoracic intraspinal tumors.
Turk Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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This study aims to evaluate the hemilaminectomy approach and in situ restoration of vertebral laminae in microsurgery for thoracic intraspinal tumors. MATERIAL and
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Bis[?-1-(3,5-di-chloro-pyridin-2-yl)-2-(pyridin-3-yl-methyl-idene)hydrazine]bis-[(nitrato-?O)silver(I)] aceto-nitrile disolvate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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In the centrosymmetric binuclear title complex, [Ag2(NO3)2(C11H8Cl2N4)2]·2CH3CN, the Ag(I) atom is four-coordinated and exhibits a highly distorted tetrahedral coordination sphere defined by three N atoms from two 1-(3,5-di-chloro-pyridin-2-yl)-2-(pyridin-3-yl-methyl-idene)hy-drazine ligands and one O atom from a nitrate anion. Inter-molecular N-H?O hydrogen bonds link the complex mol-ecules, resulting in a two-dimensional supra-molecular structure parallel to (001).
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Extensive tRNA Gene Changes in Synthetic Brassica napus.
J. Mol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Allopolyploidization, where two species come together to form a new species, plays a major role in speciation and genome evolution. Transfer RNAs (abbreviated tRNA) are typically 73-94 nucleotides in length, and are indispensable in protein synthesis, transferring amino acids to the cell protein synthesis machinery (ribosome). To date, the regularity and function of tRNA gene sequence variation during the process of allopolyploidization have not been well understood. In this study, the inter-tRNA gene corresponding to tRNA amplification polymorphism method was used to detect changes in tRNA gene sequences in the progeny of interspecific hybrids between Brassica rapa and B. oleracea, mimicking the original B. napus (canola) species formation event. Cluster analysis showed that tRNA gene variation during allopolyploidization did not appear to have a genotypic basis. Significant variation occurred in the early generations of synthetic B. napus (F1 and F2 generations), but fewer alterations were observed in the later generation (F3). The variation-prone tRNA genes tended to be located in AT-rich regions. BlastN analysis of novel tRNA gene variants against a Brassica genome sequence database showed that the variation of these tRNA-gene-associated sequences in allopolyploidization might result in variation of gene structure and function, e.g., metabolic process and transport.
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[Clinical characteristics and prognosis of infantile-onset glycogen storage disease type II in 16 Chinese patients].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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To explore the clinical characteristics and prognosis of infantile-onset glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) in Chinese patients.
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Association between TGF-?1 polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma risk: a meta-analysis.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Associations between transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk remained controversial. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to investigate these associations.
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Siblings, language, and false belief in low-income children.
J Genet Psychol
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better FBU. Language, specifically vocabulary, was examined as a possible mediator between number of siblings and FBU as several researchers have found that language is causally related to FBU. Contrary to research with middle-income preschoolers, the authors found that number of siblings was negatively related to low-income childrens FBU. This relationship was mediated by childrens vocabulary skill. Suggestions for why the sibling-FB relationship may differ in low- and middle-income samples are offered.
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A high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) gene from Chlamys farreri and the DNA-binding ability and pro-inflammatory activity of its recombinant protein.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, a highly conserved DNA binding protein, plays an important role in maintaining nucleosome structures, transcription, and inflammation. In the present research, a cDNA of 1268 bp for the Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri HMGB1 (designed as CfHMGB1) was cloned via rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique and expression sequence tag (EST) analysis. The complete cDNA sequence of CfHMGB1 contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 648 bp, which encoded a protein of 215 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of CfHMGB1 shared 53-57% similarity with other identified HMGB1s. There were two HMG domains, two low complexity regions and a conserved acidic tail in the amino acid sequence of CfHMGB1. The mRNA transcripts of CfHMGB1 were constitutively expressed in all the tested tissues, including haemocytes, muscle, mantle, gill, hepatopancreas, kidney and gonad, with the highest expression level in hepatopancreas. The mRNA expression profiles of CfHMGB1 in haemocytes after the stimulation with different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) and glucan (Glu), were similar with an up-regulation in the early stage and then recovered to the original level. The recombinant CfHMGB1 protein could bind double-stranded DNA and induce the release of TNF-? activity in mixed primary culture of scallop haemocytes. These results collectively indicated that CfHMGB1, with DNA-binding ability and pro-inflammatory activity, could play an important role in the immune response of scallops.
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[Characterization of the primary structure of TNK-tissue plasminogen activator using LC-MS].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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The primary structure of TNK-tissue plasminogen activator (TNK-tPA) was characterized using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Firstly, the molecular mass of deglycosylated protein was measured. Then peptide mass mapping and MS/MS of the reduced, alkylated and trypsin-digested sample were tested and analyzed so as to verify its amino acid sequence and identify post-translational modifications. Results show that the amino acid sequence was consistent with designed structure; about 5% of M207 was oxidized; T61 was fucosylated with -80% occupancy; N103, N448 and N184 (-15% occupancy) were glycosylated with complex-type oligosaccharides. LC-MS coupled with proper sample pretreatment is approved to be a rapid and powerful approach to characterize the primary structure of TNK-tPA.
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[Mechanism and action characteristics studies of a quinoxalinone compound against HIV-1 replication].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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This study is to investigate the mechanism and action characteristics of 6-chloro-3-methyl-4-(2-methyoxycarbonylthiophene-3-sulfonyl)-3, 4-dihydroquinoxa-lin-2-(1 H)-one (XU07011) against HIV-1 replication. XU07011 anti-HIV activity was tested by using VSVG/HIV pseudotype viral system and confirmed by HIV-1 live viruses infectious assay. Time of addition was used to test HIV-1 reverse transcription process. RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity and RNase H activity were tested by using enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay and fluorescence method. Wild type and nine NNRTIs-resistant reverse transcriptase enzymatic models and cell-based pharmacological models were used to evaluate XU07011 bio-characteristics. The results showed that XU07011 inhibited HIV-1 replication with IC50 of (0.057 +/- 0.01) micromol x L(-1) which was comparable to nevirapine [IC50: (0.046 +/- 0.01) micromol x L(-1)]. Mechanism study data indicated that XU07011 blocked HIV-1 reverse transcription process through acting on reverse transcriptase RNA-dependent DNA polymerase with IC 50 of (1.1 +/- 0.3) micromol x L(-1). The compound showed no effect on RNase H activity. XU07011 exhibited better activities comparing with nevirapine on K103N mutated NNRTIs-resistant HIV-1 strains. This study could provide a theoretical basis for novel anti-HIV reagents development.
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Development of an educational cartoon to prevent worm infections in Chinese schoolchildren.
Infect Dis Poverty
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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With more than two billion people infected worldwide, soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are the most widespread infections. To date, STH control efforts rely predominantly on recurrent mass drug administration (MDA), which does not prevent reinfection. Additional public health measures including novel health educational tools are required for more sustained integrated control of STH. We describe the development of an educational cartoon video (The Magic Glasses) targeting STH infections in Chinese schoolchildren and its pilot testing in China.We applied an extensive community-based mixed methods approach involving input from the target group of 9-10 year old schoolchildren and key informants, such as teachers, doctors and parents, in order to identify potential STH infection risks in the study area and to formulate key messages for the cartoon. The development of the educational cartoon included three major steps: formative research, production, and pilot testing and revision.
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MicroRNA-182 promotes tumor cell growth by targeting transcription elongation factor A-like 7 in endometrial carcinoma.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common gynecological malignancy among women worldwide. Despite its prevalence, the molecular mechanisms underlying endometrial carcinogenesis are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of microRNA-182 and its target gene transcription elongation factor A-like 7 (TCEAL7) in EC.
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Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with saxagliptin, sitagliptin, or vildagliptin.
Diabetes Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Saxagliptin, sitagliptin, and vildagliptin are dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors widely approved for use in patients with type 2 diabetes. Using a crossover design, the present study compared trough levels of DPP-4 inhibition provided by these agents in a single cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Frequency and Reasons for Return to the Primary Acute Care Service among Lymphoma Patients Undergoing Inpatient Rehabilitation.
PM R
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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To assess the frequency and risk factors for return to the primary acute care service among lymphoma patients undergoing inpatient rehabilitation.
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A one-dimensional coordination polymer created via in situ ligand synthesis involving C-N bond formation.
Acta Crystallogr C
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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The novel cadmium complex catena-poly[cadmium(II)-?3-{2-[3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]butanedioato}], [Cd(C12H9N3O4)]n, has been prepared by the conjugate addition reaction of 2-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine to fumaric acid in the presence of Cd(OAc)2·3H2O (OAc is acetate) at 413?K. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the complex consists of one-dimensional ladders constructed from [Cd2(COO)2] dimeric subunits. A combination of hydrogen bonding and ?-? stacking interactions extend the one-dimensional ladders into a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture.
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Influence of genes and the environment in familial congenital heart defects.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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The present study aimed to investigate genetic and environmental factors involved in the pathogenesis of congenital heart disease (CHD). A total of 61 familial pedigrees with CHD were analyzed, and 134 patients out of 761 family members had a diagnosis of CHD confirmed. The present study revealed that the prevalence of CHD in first?degree relatives (55/249, 22.0%) was significantly higher than that in second?degree relatives (18/526, 3.4%). Additionally, the recurrence rate of CHD in families in which the patients mother (12/61) or sister (15/61) had CHD were significantly higher than in cases with the father (6/61) or brother (4/61) having CHD. The subtypes of CHD with increased risk of recurrence were ventricle septal defect (VSD) and atrial septal defect (ASD), followed by patent ductus arteriosus and tetralogy of fallot (TOF). In the 21 sets of twins among the 61 familial pedigrees analyzed, the concordance of both twins affected by CHD in identical and dizygotic twins was 94.4% (17/18) and 33.3% (1/3), respectively. Identical subtypes of CHD were identified in 10 out of 21 sets of twins. Of note, the following pattern was identified in three sets of the twins: One twin had TOF, while the other one had VSD. A risk factor survey revealed that threatened abortion in early pregnancy was associated with familial CHD. In conclusion, genetic factors may have important roles in the development of CHD, and TOF and VSD may have similar molecular mechanisms. Threatened abortion in early pregnancy is a novel environmental factor that may be specific in Chinese females with CHD.
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catena-Poly[di-?3-bromido-bis-[(1-ethyl-1H-imidazole-?N (3))disilver(I)]].
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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The asymmetric unit of the title coordination complex, [Ag2Br2(C5H8N2)2] n , comprises a monodentate 1-ethyl-imida-zole ligand, an Ag(+) cation and a ?3-bridging Br(-) anion, giving a distorted tetra-hedral AgNBr3 stereochemistry about the Ag(+) cation [Ag-N = 2.247?(2)?Å and Ag-Br = 2.7372?(4)-2.7523?(4)?Å]. Two bridging bromide anions generate the dimeric [Ag2Br2(C5H8N)2] repeat unit [Ag?Ag = 3.0028?(5)?Å], while a third Br(-) anion links the units through corner sharing in an inversion-related Ag2Br2 association [Ag?Ag = 3.0407?(4)?Å], generating a one-dimensional ribbon step-polymer structure, extending along the c axis.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.