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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Practice patterns of post-radical prostatectomy incontinence surgery in Ontario.
Can Urol Assoc J
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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We assess the practice patterns of artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) and urethral sling insertion after radical prostatectomy (RP) from a large population-based cohort.
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[Clinical efficacy of CCG7942/POG9354 protocol in treatment of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor in children.]
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To investigate the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) in children and the survival of patients treated with the CCG7942/POG9354 protocol.
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Selective inhibition of EZH2 and EZH1 enzymatic activity by a small molecule suppresses MLL-rearranged leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and related EZH1 control gene expression and promote tumorigenesis via methylating histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27). These methyltransferases are ideal therapeutic targets due to their frequent hyperactive mutations and overexpression found in cancer including hematopoietic malignancies. Here, we characterized a set of small molecules that allow pharmacological manipulation of EZH2 and EZH1, which include UNC1999, a selective inhibitor of both enzymes, and UNC2400, an inactive analog compound useful for assessment of off-target effect. UNC1999 suppresses global H3K27 tri-/di-methylation (H3K27me3/2) and inhibits growth of MLL-rearranged leukemia cells. UNC1999-induced transcriptome alterations overlap those following knockdown of EED, a common cofactor of EZH2 and EZH1, demonstrating UNC1999's on-target inhibition. Mechanistically, UNC1999 preferentially affects distal regulatory elements such as enhancers, leading to de-repression of Polycomb targets including Cdkn2a. Gene de-repression correlates with decrease in H3K27me3 and concurrent gain in H3K27 acetylation. UNC2400 does not induce such effects. Oral administration of UNC1999 prolongs survival of a well-defined murine leukemia model bearing MLL-AF9. Collectively, our study provides the detailed profiling for a set of chemicals to manipulate EZH2 and EZH1 and establishes specific enzymatic inhibition of PRC2-EZH2 and PRC2-EZH1 by small-molecule compounds as a novel therapeutics for MLL-rearranged leukemia.
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[Low-concentration contrast material for dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography by a combination of iterative reconstruction and low-tube-voltage technique: feasibility study].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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To assess the impact of low concentration contrast media on the degree of vascular enhancement, image quality and radiation dose in coronary CT angiography (cCTA) studies when using a combination of iterative reconstruction and low tube voltage.
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Nonlocal thermal transport across embedded few-layer graphene sheets.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Thermal transport across the interfaces between few-layer graphene sheets and soft materials exhibits intriguing anomalies when interpreted using the classical Kapitza model, e.g. the conductance of the same interface differs greatly for different modes of interfacial thermal transport. Using atomistic simulations, we show that such thermal transport follows a nonlocal flux-temperature drop constitutive law and is characterized jointly by a quasi-local conductance and a nonlocal conductance instead of the classical Kapitza conductance. The nonlocal model enables rationalization of many anomalies of the thermal transport across embedded few-layer graphene sheets and should be used in studies of interfacial thermal transport involving few-layer graphene sheets or other ultra-thin layered materials.
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[Recognizing the vaccination strategy of pertussis according to the family aggregation feature of transmission].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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To understand the age distribution of pertussis patients admitted in the children hospital and to analyze the source of infection as well as its transmission patterns.
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Multicolor (Vis-NIR) mesoporous silica nanospheres linked with lanthanide complexes using 2-(5-bromothiophen)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline for in vitro bioimaging.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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A novel mesoporous nanosphere functionalized with 3-(aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and 2-(5-bromothiophen)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (5-Br-Tip) was synthesized (denoted as Tip-MSS). With the coordinating function of the 5-Br-Tip to lanthanide (Ln) ions, for the first time, LnL3(5-Br-Tip) complexes were linked to the mesoporous nanospheres. The derived materials, named Ln-Tip-MSS (Ln = Eu, Tb, Sm, Nd, Yb), were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, TEM, XRD (wide-angle and small-angle), N2 adsorption/desorption analysis, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Upon excitation in the ligand absorption, the Ln-Tip-MSS nanomaterials show characteristic visible (Eu, Tb, Sm) and NIR (Sm, Nd, Yb) luminescence (multicolor emission covered from 450 nm to 1400 nm spectral region). Of importance is that, with low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility given by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, the Eu-Tip-MSS was successfully applied to cell imaging in vitro based on the Eu(3+) luminescence (under 405 nm excitation).
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[Correlation analysis of survival period and CD4+ Tcell-iATP levels in liver transplant recipients].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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To analyze the correlation between survival time after liver transplantation and the intracellular (i)ATP levels of CD4+ T cells.
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Baicalein Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiac Remodeling via Inhibition of AKT/mTOR, ERK1/2, NF-?B, and Calcineurin Signaling Pathways in Mice.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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Baicalein, a specific lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitor, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, the functional role of baicalein in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and cardiac remodeling remains unclear. Here we investigated the effect of baicalein on cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis and the underlying mechanism.
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MicroRNA-21 Affects Proliferation and Apoptosis by Regulating Expression of PTEN in Human Keloid Fibroblasts.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression in the progress of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. A keloid is considered to be a type of benign tumor. The exact contribution of miRNAs in keloid fibroblasts remains largely unknown.
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Human NLRP3 inflammasome senses multiple types of bacterial RNAs.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Inflammasomes are multiprotein platforms that activate caspase-1, which leads to the processing and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18. Previous studies demonstrated that bacterial RNAs activate the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-repeat-containing family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in both human and murine macrophages. Interestingly, only mRNA, but neither tRNA nor rRNAs, derived from bacteria could activate the murine Nlrp3 inflammasome. Here, we report that all three types of bacterially derived RNA (mRNA, tRNA, and rRNAs) were capable of activating the NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages. Bacterial RNA's 5'-end triphosphate moieties, secondary structure, and double-stranded structure were dispensable; small fragments of bacterial RNA were sufficient to activate the inflammasome. In addition, we also found that 20-guanosine ssRNA can activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages but not in murine macrophages. Therefore, human and murine macrophages may have evolved to recognize bacterial cytosolic RNA differently during bacterial infections.
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Comparative proteomic analysis of seedling leaves of cold-tolerant and -sensitive spring soybean cultivars.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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Cold stress adversely affects the growth and development of seedling of spring soybean. Revealing responses in seedling to cold stress at proteomic level will help us to breed cold-tolerant spring soybean cultivars. In this study, to understand the responses, a proteomic analysis on the leaves of seedlings of one cold-tolerant soybean cultivar and one cold-sensitive soybean cultivar at 5 °C for different times (12 and 24 h) was performed, with some proteomic results being further validated by physiological and biochemical analysis. Our results showed that 57 protein spots were found to be significantly changed in abundance and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. All the identified proteins were found to be involved in 13 metabolic pathways and cellular processes, including photosynthesis, protein folding and assembly, cell rescue and defense, cytoskeletal proteins, transcription and translation regulation, amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, protein degradation, storage proteins, signal transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, and unknown. Based on the majority of the identified cold-responsive proteins, the effect of cold stress on seedling leaves of the two spring soybean cultivars was discussed. The reason that soybean cv. Guliqing is more cold-tolerant than soybean cv. Nannong 513 was due to its more protein, lipid and polyamine biosynthesis, more effective sulfur-containing metabolite recycling, and higher photosynthetic rate, as well as less ROS production and lower protein proteolysis and energy depletion under cold stress. Such a result will provide more insights into cold stress responses and for further dissection of cold tolerance mechanisms in spring soybean.
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A comparison of activity classification in younger and older cohorts using a smartphone.
Physiol Meas
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Automatic recognition of human activity is useful as a means of estimating energy expenditure and has potential for use in fall detection and prediction. The emergence of the smartphone as a ubiquitous device presents an opportunity to utilize its embedded sensors, computational power and data connectivity as a platform for continuous health monitoring. In the study described herein, 37 older people (83.9? ± ?3.4?years) performed a series of activities of daily living (ADLs) while a smartphone (containing a triaxial accelerometer, triaxial gyroscope and barometric pressure sensor) was placed in the front pocket of their trousers. These results are compared to a similar trial conducted previously in which 20 young people (21.9? ± ?1.65?years) were asked to perform the same ADLs using the same smartphone (again in the front pocket of their trousers).In each trial, the participants were asked to perform several activities (standing, sitting, lying, walking on level ground, up and down staircases, and riding an elevator up and down) in a free-living environment. During each acquisition session, the internal sensor signals were recorded and subsequently used to develop activity classifiers based on a decision tree algorithm that classified ADL in epochs of ~1.25?s. When training and testing with the younger cohort, using a leave-one-out cross validation procedure, a total classification sensitivity of 80.9% ± 9.57% ([Formula: see text] = 0.75? ± ?0.12) was obtained. Retraining and testing on the older cohort, again using cross validation, gives a comparable total class sensitivity of 82.0% ± 8.88% ([Formula: see text] =0.74? ± ?0.12).When trained with the younger group and tested on the older group, a total class sensitivity of 69.2% ± 24.8% (95% confidence interval [69.6%, 70.6%]) and [Formula: see text] = 0.60? ± ?0.27 (95% confidence interval [0.58, 0.59]) was obtained. When trained on the older group and tested on the younger group, a total class sensitivity of 80.5% ± 6.80% (95% confidence interval [79.0%, 80.6%]) and [Formula: see text] = 0.74? ± ?0.08 (95% confidence interval [0.73, 0.75]) was obtained.An instance of the decision tree classifier developed was implemented on the smartphone as a software application. It was capable of performing real-time activity classification for a period of 17?h on a single battery charge, illustrating that smartphone technology provides a viable platform on which to perform long-term activity monitoring.
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Immunoregulatory effects on Caco-2 cells and mice of exopolysaccharides isolated from Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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On the basis of our previous results on potential immunoregulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, the immunoregulatory effects of exopolysaccharides (EPS) isolated from L. acidophilus NCFM and their regulating mechanisms are further investigated in the current research. Stimulated by EPS preparations, four immune-related genes in the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2 cells, namely, interleukin-1? (IL-1?), chemokine C-C motif 2 (CCL2), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), and pentraxin 3 (PTX3), first showed an increase at 2-4 h, peaked at 4 h, and then decreased at 4-12 h. Similar trends were observed in vivo: four genes showed transient expression (highest on the 4th day) in the cecum and colon of mice. Meanwhile, the organ coefficient, clearance index and phagocytic index all significantly increased with time extension and dose increase of EPS stimulation. EPS triggered NF-?B and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathways in Caco-2 cells, and the activated pathways initiated the genes expression. EPS compounds from L. acidophilus NCFM may play an important role in host immunoregulation and might be applied as a new type of immunoregulatory agent in functional foods.
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Increasing Efficiency in Production of Cloned Piglets.
Cell Reprogram
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Abstract The low efficiency in obtaining piglets after production of cloned embryos was challenged in two steps-first by performing in vitro culture for 5-6 days after cloning to obtain later-stage embryos for more precise selection for transfer, and second by reducing the number of embryos transferred per recipient sow. The data set consisted of combined results from a 4-year period where cloning was performed to produce piglets that were transgenic for important human diseases. For this, different transgenes and cell types were used, and the cloning work was performed by several persons using oocytes from different pig breeds, but following a standardized and optimized protocol. Results showed that in vitro culture is possible with a relatively stable rate of transferable embryos around 41% and a pregnancy rate around 90%. Furthermore, a reduction from around 80 embryos to 40 embryos transferred per recipient was possible without changing the efficiency of around 14% (piglets born out of embryos transferred). It was concluded that this approach can increase the efficiency in obtaining piglets by means of in vitro culture and selection of high-quality embryos with subsequent transfer into more recipients. Such changes can also reduce the need for personnel, time, and material when working with this technology.
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Skeletal muscle glucose metabolism and inflammation in the development of the metabolic syndrome.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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Insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle play a major role in the development of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of obesity-linked metabolic dysfunction and this review will focus on the contributing role of adiponectin and inflammation. The beneficial effects of adiponectin on both insulin action and inflammation are now well documented and will be reviewed. More recent work provided new insights into adiponectin signaling mechanisms. The development of strategies to mimic adiponectin action holds promise that adiponectin-based compounds may translate into effective therapeutic applications. We will also discussed the novel role of long chain ?-3 PUFA-derived resolution mediators, which in addition to resolving inflammation, can also exert glucoregulatory effects in models of obesity and insulin resistance. We will focus on one resolution mediator, protectin DX (PDX), which was recently shown to act as a muscle interleukin-6 secretagogue. PDX and its isomer PD1 also enhance adiponectin expression and action. Ultimately, it is via a better understanding the molecular mechanisms of action via which inflammation, insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction occur in skeletal muscle, and also how they crosstalk with each other, that we can generate new and improved therapies for obesity-linked metabolic complications.
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Trans-arterial p53-Gene-Embolization with Gelatin Sponge Microparticles for Hepatocellular Carcinoma with BCLC Stage B: Single-Center Experience.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Trans-arterial chemoembolization for hepatic cellular carcinoma (HCC) is a recommended treatment schedule for stage B patients under the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) diagnostic and treatment strategy system. Data from treatments with embolization performed with different embolizing microparticle reagents either alone or in combination with different chemotherapeutic agents showed favorable safety profile and significant efficacy in tumor control. In addition, recombinant adenoviral human p53 gene (rAd-p53) therapy has been shown effective in the treatment of many solid tumors and some pre-cancerous lesions such as oral leukoplakia, while also presenting a favorable safety profile. To date, no data are available regarding the safety and efficacy of trans-catheter treatment of HCC with embolizing microparticles combined with rAd-p53 in the world. In this study, we demonstrated the safety and efficacy of trans-arterial embolization combined with rAd-p53 gene therapy (TAGE) in the treatment of patients with BCLC stage B HCC. In this retrospective study, 15 HCC patients with BCLC stage B were received TAGE. Fifteen males were included with an average age of 65 (53-89) years and with Child-Pugh score A or B (12 or 3, respectively). The embolic agent used in TAE was gelatin sponge microparticles of diameter 350-560 µm, and 3-5 × 10(12) viral of rAd-p53 was diluted with physiological saline into 15 ml suspension. The study endpoints included response rate, 1 year survival, liver function, and adverse effects. With a median follow-up time of 15.5 months, 15 HCC patients received a total number of 64 TAGE treatments without any significant complication. Based on the modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors, complete response (CR) was observed in four, six, and six patients at 1, 3, and 6 months after the first treatment, respectively. The objective tumor response (CR + PR) rates at 1, 3, and 6 months were 100.0, 93.3, and 80.0 %. The total survival rates of 6 and 12 months in 15 patients were 100 %, 100 % respectively. The median survival time was 32 months in all. Mild or median fever was observed in all 15 patients, which occurred 4-12 h after treatment and lasted for 12-24 h. Transient abdominal pain, nausea, and cholecystitis were the common side effects with a frequency of 46.7, 33.3, and 26.7 %, respectively, and three cases (20 %) showed decrease in platelet count. However, other severe (grade 3 or 4) adverse events associated with TAGE were not observed. TAGE is a safe and effective treatments for HCC with BCLC stage B HCC patients.
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Alignment method combining interference lithography with anisotropic wet etch technique for fabrication of high aspect ratio silicon gratings.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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A method was developed for aligning interference fringes generated in interference lithography to the vertical {111} planes of <110> oriented silicon wafers. The alignment error is 0.036°. This high precision method makes it possible to combine interference lithography with anisotropic wet etch technique for the fabrication of high aspect ratio silicon gratings with extremely smooth sidewalls over a large sample area. With this alignment method, 320 nm and 2 ?m period silicon gratings have been successfully fabricated. The highest aspect ratio is up to 100. The sample area is about 50 mm × 60 mm. The roughness (root mean square) of the sidewall is about 0.267 nm.
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Facile synthesis of spinel CuCo2O4 nanocrystals as high-performance cathode catalysts for rechargeable Li-air batteries.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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CuCo2O4 nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple and low-cost urea combustion method and characterized as bifunctional catalysts for non-aqueous Li-air batteries. The resulting CuCo2O4 catalyst has been demonstrated to effectively reduce the charge-discharge polarization of Li-air batteries in a simulated air environment (80% Ar?:?20% O2).
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Experimental and density functional theory (DFT) studies on the interactions of Ru(ii) polypyridyl complexes with the RAN triplex poly(U)?poly(A)*poly(U).
Metallomics
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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There is renewed interest in investigating triple helices because these novel structures have been implicated as a possible means of controlling cellular processes by endogenous or exogenous mechanisms. Due to the Hoogsteen base pairing, triple helices are, however, thermodynamically less stable than the corresponding duplexes. The poor stability of triple helices limits their practical applications under physiological conditions. In contrast to DNA triple helices, small molecules stabilizing RNA triple helices at present are less well established. Furthermore, most of these studies are limited to organic compounds and, to a far lesser extent, to metal complexes. In this work, two Ru(ii) complexes, [Ru(bpy)2(btip)](2+) (Ru) and [Ru(phen)2(btip)](2+) (Ru), have been synthesized and characterized. The binding properties of the two metal complexes with the triple RNA poly(U)?poly(A)*poly(U) were studied by various biophysical and density functional theory methods. The main results obtained here suggest that the slight binding difference in Ru and Ru may be attributed to the planarity of the intercalative ligand and the LUMO level of Ru(ii) complexes. This study further advances our knowledge on the triplex RNA-binding by metal complexes, particularly Ru(ii) complexes.
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Role of general practitioners in prevention and treatment of hepatitis B in China.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may impose an economic burden to patients or their families. The prevention and control of HBV could effectively reduce the burden. However, the management of HBV-related patients has not been well controlled in China. With the development of general practitioner (GP) system in this country, GPs may greatly improve the management of the patients with HBV infection. However, the role of GPs in controlling HBV infection has been rarely studied.
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Effects of side chains on DNA binding, cell permeability, nuclear localization and cytotoxicity of 4-aminonaphthalimides.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Nucleic acid binding molecules have been extensively explored for nucleic acid assay, nuclear imaging, and antitumor and antivirus therapies. Most of these molecules usually bear positive charges to enhance their binding affinity. However, their in vivo applications are limited by poor membrane permeability and the lack of selectivity to nucleic acids. Here we describe the effects of positive charged side chains (including aminoethyl, dimethylaminopropyl and guanidinoethyl) on the DNA binding ability, cell permeability, cellular localization and cytotoxicity of 4-aminonaphthalimides, a class of DNA-intercalating agents and fluorophores. The synthesized 4-aminonaphthalimides have a strong binding ability to duplex DNA, and can be used as pre-staining dyes for gel electrophoresis of DNA and RNA. When entering into cells, they rapidly concentrate in cell nuclei, especially in nucleoli. The guanidinoethyl side chains increase the binding ability to nucleic acids, but do not favour the cell permeability and cytotoxicity; dimethylaminopropyl groups enhance the cell permeability and cytotoxicity of 4-aminonaphthalimides. These results suggest the potential applications of 4-aminonaphthalimides in nucleic acid assay and nuclear imaging, and provide useful information for the molecular design of DNA-binding drugs and fluorescent probes.
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[Determination of twelve active compounds in Qili Qiangxin capsules by UPLC-MS].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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In order to establish an UPLC-MS method for determination of twelve active compounds in Qili Qiangxin capsules including astragaloside, calycosin-7-0-glucoside, ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rd, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rf, periplocin, periplocoside H1, hesperidin, narirutin, isoquercitrin, the chromatographic separations were performedon a Phenomenex UPLC Kinetex C18 column (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 2.6 microm) with gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0.1% aqueous formic acidat a flow rate of 0.4 mL x min(-1). The temperature was set as 40 degrees C and injection volume was 5 microL. The monitoring of all analytes was achieved under the negative ionization mode with TOF-MS and TOF-MS/MS method. The twelve analytes showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9990) within the test ranges, the average recoveries were 98.0%-102%, respectively, and the RSD were less than 3.9%, respectively. The established method is simple, rapid, and sensitive, and can be used for quality control of Qili Qiangxin capsules.
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Size-controlled synthesis of granular polyphosphate nanoparticles at physiologic salt concentrations for blood clotting.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Size-controlled granular polyphosphate (PolyP) nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation in aqueous solutions containing physiological concentrations of calcium and magnesium. We demonstrate using dynamic light scattering (DLS) that the solubility is correlated inversely with PolyP chain length, with very long chain PolyP (PolyP1000+, more than 1000 repeating units) normally found in prokaryotes precipitating much more robustly than shorter chains like those found in human platelet dense granules (PolyP80, range 76-84 repeating units). It is believed that the precipitation of PolyP is a reversible process involving calcium coordination to phosphate monomers in the polymer chain. The particles are stable in aqueous buffer and albumin suspensions on time scales roughly equivalent to catastrophic bleeding events. Transmission electron microscopy images demonstrate that the PolyP nanoparticles are spherical and uniformly electron dense, with a particle diameter of 200-250 nm, closely resembling the content of acidocalcisomes. X-ray elemental analysis further reveals that the P/Ca ratio is 67:32. The granular nanoparticles also manifest promising procoagulant effects, as measured by in vitro clotting tests assaying contact pathway activity.
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Walking Reduces Postprandial Insulin Secretion in Obese Adolescents Consuming a High-Fructose or High-Glucose Diet.
J Phys Act Health
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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This study assessed if walking at a self-selected pace could improve postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in obese adolescents consuming high-fructose (HF) or high-glucose (HG) diets.
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[To accelerate pace of studying standard pieces of Chinese medicine as standard material].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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To elucidate the necessary and research of accelerating basic research of Chinese standard pieces as standard materials.
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[Consistency study of PowerPlex 21 kit and Goldeneye 20A kit and forensic application].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To ensure the consistency of genotype results for PowerPlex 21 kit and Goldeneye 20A kit.
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Genotoxicity assessment of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with different particle sizes and surface coatings.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been widely used for various biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery. However, their potential toxic effects, including genotoxicity, need to be thoroughly understood. In the present study, the genotoxicity of IONPs with different particle sizes (10, 30 nm) and surface coatings (PEG, PEI) were assessed using three standard genotoxicity assays, the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames test), the in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test, and the in vivo micronucleus assay. In the Ames test, SMG-10 (PEG coating, 10 nm) showed a positive mutagenic response in all the five test bacterial strains with and without metabolic activation, whereas SEI-10 (PEI coating, 10 nm) showed no mutagenesis in all tester strains regardless of metabolic activation. SMG-30 (PEG coating, 30 nm) was not mutagenic in the absence of metabolic activation, and became mutagenic in the presence of metabolic activation. In the chromosomal aberration test, no increase in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations was observed for all three IONPs. In the in vivo micronucleus test, there was no evidence of increased micronuclei frequencies for all three IONPs, indicating that they were not clastogenic in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrated that IONPs with PEG coating exhibited mutagenic activity without chromosomal and clastogenic abnormalities, and smaller IONPs (SMG-10) had stronger mutagenic potential than larger ones (SMG-30); whereas, IONPs with SEI coating (SEI-10) were not genotoxic in all three standard genotoxicity assays. This suggests that the mutagenicity of IONPs depends on their particle size and surface coating.
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Functional polymorphisms of caveolin-1 variants as potential biomarkers of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Abstract Objective: To investigate the association of caveolin-1 (CAV1) genetic variants (C239A (rs1997623), G14713A (rs3807987), G21985A (rs12672038), T29107A (rs7804372)) with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) susceptibility. Methods: A total of 427 patients with ESCC and 427 healthy controls were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results: There were significant differences between patients and controls in distributions of their genotypes and allelic frequencies in G14713A and T29107A polymorphisms. Furthermore, haplotype analysis revealed that haplotypes CAAT and CAGT were associated with high risk for ESCC, while haplotype CGGA was protective against ESCC. Stratified analysis showed the associations between the SNPs (G14713A and T29107A) and ESCC risk were noteworthy among female patients and patients who never smoke or drank alcohol. Conclusions: Genetic polymorphisms of CAV1 G14713A and T29107A might affect an individual's susceptibility in developing ESCC, making them efficient potential genetic biomarkers for early detection of ESCC.
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Differentiation of neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis in a cohort from the mainland of China.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Although there were criteria for diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS), it is still difficult to differentiate NMO from MS, due to the overlapping clinical manifestations. Therefore it is necessary to characterize clinical features of NMO and MS patients in the mainland of China, to simplify the process of disease diagnosis, and to identify criteria for the differential diagnosis of NMO and MS.
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Initiation of chemotherapy in cancer patients with poor performance status: a population-based analysis.
J Palliat Care
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Practice guidelines indicate that patients who have months to weeks left to live should not be offered chemotherapy. We examined factors associated with clinician-reported poor performance status as determined by the Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) and subsequent initiation of intravenous (IV) chemotherapy in an ambulatory cancer population in Ontario, Canada.
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3D Fiber-Based Hybrid Nanogenerator for Energy Harvesting and as a Self-Powered Pressure Sensor.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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In the past years, scientists have shown that development of a power suit is no longer a dream by integrating the piezoelectric nanogenerator (PENG) or triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with commercial carbon fiber cloth. However, there is still no design applying those two kinds of NG together to collect the mechanical energy more efficiently. In this paper, we demonstrate a fiber-based hybrid nanogenerator (FBHNG) composed of TENG and PENG to collect the mechanical energy in the environment. The FBHNG is three-dimensional and can harvest the energy from all directions. The TENG is positioned in the core and covered with PENG as a coaxial core/shell structure. The PENG design here not only enhances the collection efficiency of mechanical energy by a single carbon fiber but also generates electric output when the TENG is not working. We also show the potential that the FBHNG can be weaved into a smart cloth to harvest the mechanical energy from human motions and act as a self-powered strain sensor. The instantaneous output power density of TENG and PENG can achieve 42.6 and 10.2 mW/m(2), respectively. And the rectified output of FBHNG has been applied to charge the commercial capacitor and drive light-emitting diodes, which are also designed as a self-powered alert system.
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The research for the relationship between nutritional status of vitamin A in infant's body and immunization effect of hepatitis B and measles vaccine.
Pak J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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This paper is to discuss the relationship among the nutritional status of vitamin A in infant's body, antibody level of hepatitis B's surface and antibody concentration of measles IgG.2ml of infant's venous blood is collected according to the inclusion criteria in planned immunization agencies at the local hospital; the method of combining dietary record review for 24 hours and diet records of 2 days is performed on infant caregivers, so as to know the eating food and its quantity for infants in successive 72 hours. Thus we conclude that the vitamin A in serum maybe has certain relationship with maintaining effective protection level of anti - HBs antibody and measles IgG antibody.
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Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the montane grasshopper, Qinlingacris elaeodes (Orthoptera: Catantopidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Abstract Qinlingacris elaeodes is the dominant grasshopper at an altitude of 3000 meters and above, and is a representative species of the genus Qinlingacris endemic to China. The sequenced mitochondrial genome of this grasshopper is 14,818?bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes (ND1-6, COI-III, ATP6, ATP8, ND4L, CTYB), 21 transfer RNAs, and 2 ribosomal RNAs (12S and 16S). The orientation and gene order of these genes are identical to those found in the putative ancestral insect mitogenome. The 13 PCGs start with a typical ATN codon as their start codons. The usual TAA and TAG termination codons are found for 12 PCGs. However, the ND5 gene has an incomplete termination codon (T).
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Candidate Pathway-Based GWAS Identifies Novel Associations of Genomic Variants in the Complement System Associated with Coronary Artery Disease.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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-Genomic variants identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) explain <20% of heritability of coronary artery disease (CAD), thus many risk variants remain missing for CAD. Identification of new variants may unravel new biological pathways and genetic mechanisms for CAD. To identify new variants associated with CAD, we developed a candidate pathway-based GWAS by integrating expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis and mining of GWAS data with variants in a candidate pathway.
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[Research on the variation regularity of effluent from the leachate reverse osmosis concentrate recirculation].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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To provide certain theoretical basis for selecting recirculation landfill scientifically and reasonably, the variation regularity of recirculation effluent from the landfill columns in three different years was studied. By using leachate reverse osmosis concentrate from a refuse landfill in Chengdu, the recirculation experiments were carried out in three landfill columns filled with garbage in 1, 5 and 15 landfill ages respectively. The variation regularity of pH, total organic carbon, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and heavy metals of recirculation effluent was researched. It showed that the one-year landfill column with a favorable ability of removing nitrate nitrogen and degradation rate of nitrate nitrogen reaching above 88% was in the stage of producing methanation, but the concentration of organic matter and ammonia nitrogen of the effluent is higher and changes in the parameters mainly depend on the biological function. The five-year landfill column without typical features of mineralized refuse and with relatively poor adsorption capacity and biological effects, as well as removal capacity of organic matter, salinity, Cr and Ni approaches stabilization. The fifteen-year landfill column has high capability of adsorption, complexing, as well as organic matter, salinity, Cr and Ni removal, and the removal rate at the initial stage reaches 90%, 78%, 93% and 78%, respectively, but the recirculation process and progress need to be controlled when the rate approaches or reaches the adsorption capacity.
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Serum metabonomic analysis of apoE(-/-) mice reveals progression axes for atherosclerosis based on NMR spectroscopy.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial and progressive disease commonly correlated with a high fat diet. The aim of this study was to identify potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis and monitoring of the progression of atherogenesis in apoE(-/-) mice using (1)H NMR-based metabonomics. The apoE(-/-) mice were split into four groups according to the duration of high fat feeding (0 w, 2 w, 4 w and 8 w), and each group possessed different pathological characteristics. Serum (1)H NMR-based metabonomics selectively captured the metabotypes that correlated with the degree of atherosclerosis, showing a time-dependent progression from the physiological to pathophysiological status. It was noted that changes in HDL, choline, taurine, glycine and glucose may be regarded as specific biomarkers of the early stage of atherosclerosis. With the progression of atherosclerosis, disorders in the metabolism of amino acids such as valine, alanine and methionine appeared when large atherosclerotic plaques existed. Multiple biochemical disorders involving lipid metabolism, energy and fatty acid metabolism were observed in the progression of atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice. This study demonstrated that (1)H NMR-based metabonomics can provide biochemical information about the progression of atherogenesis and offer a non-invasive means to discover potential biomarkers for the onset and development of atherosclerosis.
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Dynamic adjustment of echolocation pulse structure of big-footed myotis (Myotis macrodactylus) in response to different habitats.
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Studying relationships between characteristics of sonar pulses and habitat clutter level is important for the understanding of signal design in bat echolocation. However, most studies have focused on overall spectral and temporal parameters of such vocalizations, with focus less on potential variation in frequency modulation rates (MRs) occurring within each pulse. In the current study, frequency modulation (FM) characteristics were examined in echolocation pulses recorded from big-footed myotis (Myotis macrodactylus) bats as these animals searched for prey in five habitats differing in relative clutter level. Pulses were analyzed using ten parameters, including four structure-related characters which were derived by dividing each pulse into three elements based on two knees in the FM sweep. Results showed that overall frequency, pulse duration, and MR all varied across habitat. The strongest effects were found for MR in the body of the pulse, implying that this particular component plays a major role as M. macrodactylus, and potentially other bat species, adjust to varying clutter levels in their foraging habitats.
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[Quantitative analysis of theophylline and its metabolites in urine of Chinese healthy subjects after oral administration of theophylline sustained-release tablets].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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To study the metabolite excretion of theophylline, a rapid and specific method by liquid chromatography with heated electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HESI/MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of theophylline, 1, 3-dimethyluric acid (1,3-DMU), 3-methylxanthine (3-MX) and 1-methyluric acid (1-MU) in human urine was developed using theophylline-d6 and 5-fluorouracil as internal standards. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) with heated electrospray ionization (HESI) was used in the negative mode for mass spectrometric detection. After diluted with methanol and centrifuged, the analytes and ISs were separated on a XDB-Phenyl (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column with a mixture of water-methanol-formic acid (30 : 70 : 0.15) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.6 mL x min(-1). The linear calibration curves for theophylline, 1, 3-DMU, 3-MX and 1-MU were obtained in the concentration range of 1.0-250 microg x mL(-1), separately. The method herein described is effective and convenient, and can be used for determination of theophylline and its three metabolites. The results showed that urinary excretion ratio of theophylline, 1,3-DMU, 3-MX and 1-MU is approximately 1 : 3 : 1 : 2 in Chinese subjects, which is similar to the reported excretion pattern in Caucasian.
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Alteration of postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations with meal frequency and composition.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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A frequent eating pattern may alter glycaemic control and augment postprandial insulin concentrations in some individuals due to the truncation of the previous postprandial period by a subsequent meal. The present study examined glucose, insulin, C-peptide and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) responses in obese individuals when meals were ingested in a high-frequency pattern (every 2 h, 6M) or in a low-frequency pattern (every 4 h, 3M) over 12 h. It also examined these postprandial responses to high-frequency, high-protein meals (6MHP). In total, thirteen obese subjects completed three 12 h study days during which they consumed 6276 kJ (1500 kcal): (1) 3M - 15 % protein and 65 % carbohydrate; (2) 6M - 15 % protein and 65 % carbohydrate; (3) 6MHP - 45 % protein and 35 % carbohydrate. Blood samples were collected every 10 min and analysed for glucose, insulin, C-peptide and GIP. Insulin total AUC (tAUC) and peak insulin concentrations (P< 0·05) were higher in the 3M condition than in the 6M condition, but there were no differences in glucose tAUC between the conditions. The 6MHP regimen (glucose: 3569 (se 83) mmol/l × min (64·3 (se 1·5) g/dl × min), insulin: 1·577 (se 0·146) pmol/l (22·7 (se 2·1) ?IU/dl) for 12 h) lowered glucose and insulin excursions more so over 12 h than either the 3M regimen (glucose: 3913 (se 78) mmol/l × min (70·5 (se 1·4) g/dl × min), insulin: 2·195 (se 0·146) pmol/l × min (31·6 (se 2·1) ?IU/dl × min) for 12 h) or the 6M regimen (glucose: 3902 (se 83) mmol/l × min (70·3 (se 1·5) g/dl × min), insulin: 1·861 (se 0·174) pmol/l × min (26·8 (se 2·5) ?IU/dl × min) for 12 h; P< 0·01). Insulin secretion, GIP concentrations and the glucose:insulin ratio were not altered by meal frequency or composition. In obese subjects, ingestion of meals in a low-frequency pattern does not alter glucose tAUC, but increases postprandial insulin responses. The substitution of carbohydrates with protein in a frequent meal pattern results in tighter glycaemic control and reduced postprandial insulin responses.
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[Nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 secretion in osteocytes induced by intermittent cyclic compressive force].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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This paper is aimed to investigate the effect of rest-inserted loading on the mechanosensitivity of osteocytes. In the investigation, cultured MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells were strained on cyclic compressive force (CCF) by the self-made compressive loading device. Then we observed the effect of different rest periods-inserted loading (5 s, 15 s, 30 s, respectively) on the mechanosensitivity of osteocytes. We then determined the levels of secreted nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by Griess method and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. We then stained the cytoskeleton F-actin using immunofluorescence. We found that the expressions of NO and PGE2 in rest-inserted strained groups (> 15 s) were significantly increased compared to those in the continuous strained group. And rest-inserted loading promoted the parallel alignment of stress fibers. It indicates that rest-inserted loading could promote the mechanosensitivity of osteocytes, and this might be related to the parallel alignment of stress fibers.
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Emodin ameliorates ethanol-induced fatty liver injury in mice.
Pharmacology
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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The liver plays a central role in ethanol (EtOH) metabolism, and oxidative stress is implicated in alcohol-mediated liver injury. The present study aimed to investigate the role of emodin in EtOH-induced fatty liver injury. Liver histology, biochemistry and gene-expression studies were performed. Mice fed with an EtOH-containing diet exhibited severe macrovesicular steatosis and higher serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. However, emodin ameliorated liver steatosis and lowered ALT and AST. Emodin also decreased hepatic triglyceride in mice fed with EtOH. In addition, emodin attenuates Oil Red O staining in alcoholic fatty liver in mice. Hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 protein levels were upregulated in EtOH-fed mice, but downregulated in emodin-treated mice. In addition, emodin decreased hepatic oxidative stress. Furthermore, emodin significantly reduced liver ?-smooth muscle actin and collagen type I, whereas it increased the mRNA levels of PPAR-?. Taken together, emodin plays protective roles in alcohol-mediated liver steatosis.
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Prevalence, Incidence, Clearance, and Associated Factors of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection among Men: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Rural China.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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The natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men on a population base has rarely been studied in general, particularly among Chinese men.
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Human GH Receptor-IGF-1 Receptor Interaction: Implications for GH Signaling.
Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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GH signaling yields multiple anabolic and metabolic effects. GH binds the transmembrane GH receptor (GHR) to activate the intracellular GHR-associated tyrosine kinase, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and downstream signals, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) activation and IGF-1 gene expression. Some GH effects are partly mediated by GH-induced IGF-1 via IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), a tyrosine kinase receptor. We previously demonstrated in non-human cells that GH causes formation of a GHR-JAK2-IGF-1R complex and that presence of IGF-1R (even without IGF-1 binding) augments proximal GH signaling. In this study, we use human LNCaP prostate cancer cells as a model system to further study the IGF-1R's role in GH signaling. GH promoted JAK2 and GHR tyrosine phosphorylation and STAT5 activation in LNCaP cells. By coimmunoprecipitation and a new split luciferase complementation assay, we find that GH augments GHR/IGF-1R complex formation, which is inhibited by a Fab of an antagonistic anti-GHR monoclonal antibody. Short hairpin RNA-mediated IGF-1R silencing in LNCaP cells reduced GH-induced GHR, JAK2, and STAT5 phosphorylation. Similarly, a soluble IGF-1R extracellular domain fragment (sol IGF-1R) interacts with GHR in response to GH and blunts GH signaling. Sol IGF-1R also markedly inhibits GH-induced IGF-1 gene expression in both LNCaP cells and mouse primary osteoblast cells. On the basis of these and other findings, we propose a model in which IGF-1R augments GH signaling by allowing a putative IGF-1R-associated molecule that regulates GH signaling to access the activated GHR/JAK2 complex and envision sol IGF-1R as a dominant-negative inhibitor of this IGF-1R-mediated augmentation. Physiological implications of this new model are discussed.
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[Determination of gamma-aminobutyric acid in aerial part of Panax notoginseng by HPLC].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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The content of gamma-aminobutyric acid in the aerial part of Panax notoginseng in different productive area was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. HPLC analysis was made on a C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm,5 microm) with acetonitrile and water containing 4.1 g x L(-1) sodium acetate as mobile phase. The detection wavelength was 254 nm. The HPLC method showed good linearity within the range of 0.01 - 1.03 g x L(-1). The average recovery of GABA in the stems and leaves of P. notoginseng and the flowers of P. notoginseng was 101.7% (RSD 1.1%, n = 3) and 97.3% (RSD 0.38%, n = 3), respectively. The contents of GABA in the samples of different productive areas were not significant different, and the average contents of GABA in the stems and leaves of P. notoginseng and the flowers of P. notoginseng were 0.49% and 0.53%. This method was simple and reliable, and it was suitable for the determination of gamma-aminobutyric acid in the aerial part of P. notoginseng.
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[Analysis and evaluation of nutritive elements in aerial part of Panax notoginseng].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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To make full use of the plant resources of Panax notoginseng, nutritional compositions and mineral elements were analyzed in aerial part of P. notoginseng from different areas in Yunnan.
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Colwellia aquaemaris sp. nov., isolated from the Cynoglossus semilaevis culture tank in a recirculating mariculture system.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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A Gram-staining-negative, heterotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated S1T, was isolated from the Cynoglossus semilaevis culture pond in a recirculating mariculture system in Tianjin, China. The taxonomy of strain S1T was studied by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain S1T were non-spore-forming, curved rods with 0.4-0.6 ?m wide and 1.2-2.0 ?m long, motile by means of a single polar ?agellum. It was positive for oxidase and catalase activities. Strain S1T was able to grow at 4-30 oC (optimum, 25 oC), at pH 5.5-10.0 (optimum, pH 6.5-7.5) and in the presence of 1-5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2 %). Strain S1T contained Q-8 as the sole respiratory quinone and C16:1?7c/C16:1?6c and C16:0 as the predominant cellular fatty acids. The genome DNA G+C content was 40.1 mol % (Tm). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain S1T was placed in the genus Colwellia, and formed a distinct lineage in the phylogenetic tree together with Colwellia meonggei MA1-3T, C. aestuarii SMK-10T, C. polaris 537T and C. chukchiensis BCw111T, with 97.7 %, 96.1 %, 95.9 % and 95.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness of strain S1T to C. meonggei MA1-3T was 23.5 ± 3.6 %. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidences, strain S1T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Colwellia, for which the name Colwellia aquaemaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S1T (=CGMCC 1.12165T=JCM 18479T).
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[Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against S100A9].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Objective To prepare monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against S100A9, and characterize these antibodies' properties for functional studies. Methods We amplified cDNA fragment of S100A9 from adult human liver sample, then constructed the vectors pGEX-4T-1-S100A9 and pET-32a-S100A9 for protein expression. The S100A9 protein fused respectively with the His-tag and GST-tag were expressed in E.coli and purified for immunizing mice as antigen and hybridoma screening, respectively. After hybriodma screening, the titer of mAbs was determined by ELISA and the specificity was identified by Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence technique. Results Both GST-tagged and His-tagged S100A9 fusion proteins were successfully constructed and expressed in E.coli. Eighteen hybridoma cell strains secreting S100A9 mAbs were obtained, of which 15 showed strong positive reaction but 3 showed weak positive reaction to the recombinant protein in Western blotting. Two hybridoma cell strains were capable of binding to S100A9 native protein in tumor tissue interstitial fluid. Conclusion We successfully prepared the mAbs against S100A9 protein, which provide the useful tool for further study on biological function and clinical detection of S100A9.
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[Diversity of antimicrobial bacteria associated with Siganus fuscescens from Naozhou island in Zhanjiang, China].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Marine bacteria are a rich source of potentially useful antimicrobial molecules. The purpose of the study is to explore the diversity of bacteria with antimicrobial activity isolated from Siganus fuscescens gastrointestinal tract collected from Naozhou Island (20 degrees 52' N-20 degrees 56' N 110 degrees 33' E-110 degrees 38' E), Leizhou Bay, South China Sea.
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Enhanced acid tolerance of Rhizopus oryzae during fumaric acid production.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Ensuring a suitable pH in the culture broth is a major problem in microorganism-assisted industrial fermentation of organic acids. To address this issue, we investigated the physiological changes in Rhizopus oryzae at different extracellular pH levels and attempted to solve the issue of cell shortage under low pH conditions. We compared various parameters, such as membrane fatty acids' composition, intracellular pH, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. It was found that the shortage of intracellular ATP might be the main reason for the low rate of fumaric acid production by R. oryzae under low pH conditions. When 1 g/l citrate was added to the culture medium at pH 3.0, the intracellular ATP concentration increased from 0.4 to 0.7 µmol/mg, and the fumaric acid titer was enhanced by 63 % compared with the control (pH 3.0 without citrate addition). The final fumaric acid concentration at pH 3.0 reached 21.9 g/l after 96 h of fermentation. This strategy is simple and feasible for industrial fumaric acid production under low pH conditions.
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Survival of people living with HIV after treatment with traditional Chinese medicine in Henan province of China: a retrospective cohort study.
J Tradit Chin Med
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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To provide survival estimates of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) after treatment with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in rural China, to identify the prognostic factors at enrollment, and to explore the effectiveness ofTCM in treating PLHIV.
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Dynamic Analysis of GH Receptor Conformational Changes by Split Luciferase Complementation.
Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The transmembrane GH receptor (GHR) exists at least in part as a preformed homodimer on the cell surface. Structural and biochemical studies suggest that GH binds GHR in a 1:2 stoichiometry to effect acute GHR conformational changes that trigger the activation of the receptor-associated tyrosine kinase, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and downstream signaling. Despite information about GHR-GHR association derived from elegant fluorescence resonance energy transfer/bioluminescence resonance energy transfer studies, an assessment of the dynamics of GH-induced GHR conformational changes has been lacking. To this end, we used a split luciferase complementation assay that allowed detection in living cells of specific ligand-independent GHR-GHR interaction. Furthermore, GH treatment acutely augmented complementation of enzyme activity between GHRs fused, respectively, to N- and C-terminal fragments of firefly luciferase. Analysis of the temporal pattern of GH-induced complementation changes, pharmacological manipulation, genetic alteration of JAK2 levels, and truncation of the GHR intracellular domain (ICD) tail suggested that GH acutely enhances proximity of the GHR homodimer partners independent of the presence of JAK2, phosphorylation of GHR-luciferase chimeras, or an intact ICD. However, subsequent reduction of complementation requires JAK2 kinase activity and the ICD tail. This conclusion is in contrast to existing models of the GHR activation process.
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Efficient production of triacylglycerols rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by osmo-heterotrophic marine protists.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Thraustochytrids have recently emerged as a promising source for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production due to their high growth rate and oil content. In this study, two thraustochytrid isolates, Aurantiochytrium sp. PKU#SW7 and Thraustochytriidae sp. PKU#Mn16 were used for DHA production. Following growth parameters were optimized to maximize DHA production: temperature, pH, salinity, and glucose concentration. Both isolates achieved the highest DHA yield at the cultivation temperature of 28 °C, pH 6, 100 % seawater, and 2 % glucose. A DHA yield of 1.395 g/l and 1.426 g/l was achieved under the optimized culture conditions. Further investigation revealed that both isolates possess simple fatty acids profiles with palmitic acid and DHA as their dominant constituents, accounting for ?79 % of total fatty acids. To date, very few studies have focused on the DHA distribution in various lipid fractions which is an important factor for identifying strains with a potential for industrial DHA production. In the present study, the lipids profiles of each strain both revealed that the majority of DHA was distributed in neutral lipids (NLs), and the DHA distribution in NLs of PKU#SW7 was exclusively in the form of triacylglycerols (TAGs) which suggest that PKU#SW7 could be utilized as an alternative source of DHA for dietary supplements. The fermentation process established for both strains also indicating that Aurantiochytrium sp. PKU#SW7 was more suitable for cultivation in fermenter. In addition, the high percentage of saturated fatty acids produced by the two thraustochytrids indicates their potential application in biodiesel production. Overall, our findings suggest that two thraustochytrid isolates are suitable candidates for biotechnological applications.
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Picornavirus morphogenesis.
Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The Picornaviridae represent a large family of small plus-strand RNA viruses that cause a bewildering array of important human and animal diseases. Morphogenesis is the least-understood step in the life cycle of these viruses, and this process is difficult to study because encapsidation is tightly coupled to genome translation and RNA replication. Although the basic steps of assembly have been known for some time, very few details are available about the mechanism and factors that regulate this process. Most of the information available has been derived from studies of enteroviruses, in particular poliovirus, where recent evidence has shown that, surprisingly, the specificity of encapsidation is governed by a viral protein-protein interaction that does not involve an RNA packaging signal. In this review, we make an attempt to summarize what is currently known about the following topics: (i) encapsidation intermediates, (ii) the specificity of encapsidation (iii), viral and cellular factors that are required for encapsidation, (iv) inhibitors of encapsidation, and (v) a model of enterovirus encapsidation. Finally, we compare some features of picornavirus morphogenesis with those of other plus-strand RNA viruses.
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[Role of oxidative stress in endoplasmic reticulum stress? induced apoptosis of alveolar macrophages triggered by quartz dust].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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To investigate the role of oxidative stress in the endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis of alveolar macrophages triggered by quartz dust.
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Deletion of Placental Growth Factor Prevents Diabetic Retinopathy and Is Associated With Akt Activation and HIF1alpha-VEGF Pathway Inhibition.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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A new diabetic mouse strain, the Akita.PlGF knockout ((-/-)), was generated to study the role of placental growth factor (PlGF) in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). PlGF deletion did not affect blood glucose but reduced the body weight of Akita.PlGF(-/-) mice. Diabetes-induced retinal cell death, capillary degeneration, pericyte loss, and blood-retinal barrier breakdown were prevented in these mice. Protein expression of PlGF was upregulated by diabetes, particularly in vascular cells. Diabetes-induced degradation of ZO-1 and VE-cadherin was reversed due to PlGF deficiency; their expression was correlated with that of sonic hedgehog and angiopoietin-1. PlGF deletion in Akita mice resulted in an increased Akt phosphorylation. Diabetes-activated hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1?-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, including expression of HIF1?, VEGF, VEGFR1-3, and the extent of phospho (p)-VEGFR1, p-VEGFR2, and p-endothelial nitric oxide synthase, was inhibited in the retinas of diabetic PlGF(-/-) mice. However, expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, CD11b, and CD18 was not inhibited by PlGF deletion, nor was retinal leukostasis. These results suggest that PlGF is critical for the development of DR, and its genetic deletion protects the retina from diabetic damage. Protective mechanisms are associated with Akt activation and HIF1?-VEGF pathway inhibition, but independent of retinal leukostasis in the retinas of diabetic PlGF(-/-) mice.
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Seroprevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in the general rural population of Anyang, China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Despite the probably causal link between Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) infection and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare but aggressive skin malignancy, little is known about the seroepidemiology of MCPyV among healthy adults in China.
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Identification and characterization of microRNAs related to salt stress in broccoli, using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of endogenous regulators of a broad range of physiological processes, which act by regulating gene expression post-transcriptionally. The brassica vegetable, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), is very popular with a wide range of consumers, but environmental stresses such as salinity are a problem worldwide in restricting its growth and yield. Little is known about the role of miRNAs in the response of broccoli to salt stress. In this study, broccoli subjected to salt stress and broccoli grown under control conditions were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. Differential miRNA expression was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The prediction of miRNA targets was undertaken using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Orthology (KO) database and Gene Ontology (GO)-enrichment analyses.
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Knowledge of risk factors and the periodontal disease-systemic link in dental students' clinical decisions.
J Dent Educ
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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This study evaluated second-, third-, and fourth-year dental students' ability to identify systemic conditions associated with periodontal disease, risk factors most important for referral, and medications with an effect on the periodontium and their ability to apply this knowledge to make clinical decisions regarding treatment and referral of periodontal patients. A twenty-one question survey was administered at one U.S. dental school in the spring semester of 2012 to elicit the students' knowledge and confidence regarding clinical reasoning. The response rate was 86 percent. Periodontal risk factors were accurately selected by at least 50 percent of students in all three classes; these were poorly controlled diabetes, ?6 mm pockets posteriorly, and lack of response to previous non-surgical therapy. Confidence in knowledge, knowledge of risk factors, and knowledge of medications with an effect on the periodontium improved with training and were predictive of better referral decision making. The greatest impact of training was seen on the students' ability to make correct decisions about referral and treatment for seven clinical scenarios. Although the study found a large increase in the students' abilities from the second through fourth years, the mean of 4.6 (out of 7) for the fourth-year students shows that, on average, those students missed correct treatment or referral on more than two of seven clinical cases. These results suggest that dental curricula should emphasize more critical decision making with respect to referral and treatment criteria in managing the periodontal patient.
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Effect of EPHA1 Genetic Variation on Cerebrospinal Fluid and Neuroimaging Biomarkers in Healthy, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease Cohorts.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Ephrin type-A receptor 1 (EPHA1) (11771145) was documented to be one of the most strongly associated locus with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a recent meta-analysis of five genome wide association studies. However, its contribution to the pathogenesis of AD remains unclear to date. Here, we addressed the role of EPHA1 in AD by investigating the influence of EPHA1 on cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging biomarkers in three clinical stages from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. We did not detect significant association of EPHA1 with amyloid-? deposition or tau protein. However, the A-allele in the mild cognitive impairment group remarkably prevented hippocampal atrophy (partial correlation coefficient 2.812, 95% CI 0.651 to 4.973) at two-year follow-up. Additionally, AD subjects with the A-allele displayed less atrophy and greater cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgl) in the right lateral occipitotemporal gyrus (volume: partial correlation coefficient 540.10, 95% CI 247.26 to 832.95; CMRgl: partial correlation coefficient 0.056, 95% CI 0.024 to 0.087) and inferior temporal gyrus (volume: partial correlation coefficient 327.98, 95% CI 11.65 to 644.31; CMRgl: partial correlation coefficient 0.055, 95% CI 0.019 to 0.091) at baseline. This study suggests EPHA1 (rs11771145) interferes with the pathological alteration of the hippocampus and the lateral occipitotemporal and inferior temporal gyri throughout the AD process, leading to a lower risk of AD. However, the limited sample size and follow-up as well as the diversity across ethnicities precluded explanation of these findings.
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RAR?-C-Fos-PPAR?2 signaling rather than ROS generation is critical for all-trans retinoic acid-inhibited adipocyte differentiation.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Obesity has become a worldwide public health problem, which is mainly determined by excess energy intake and adipose tissue expansion. Adipose tissue expansion can occur through hyperplasia (adipocyte differentiation) or hypertrophy. Retinoic acid was shown to inhibit adipocyte differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism is unclear. In the study, we found that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) inhibited 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. We did not observe significant apoptosis in differentiated adipocytes treated by ATRA. ATRA increased ROS generation and disturbed redox balance. However, antioxidant treatment did not ameliorate the reduction of lipid accumulation induced by ATRA, indicating that ROS generation was not involved in ATRA-inhibited adipocyte differentiation. ATRA reduced C/EBP?, PPAR? and its target gene expression. In the presence of ATRA, retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ?/? expression was increased. Inhibition of RAR?, but not RAR?, blocked ATRA-induced reduction of PPAR?2 expression. ATRA induced a profound interaction between RAR? and C-Fos protein, reflected by Co-IP results. C-Fos was found to exhibit a differentiation-dependent DNA binding activity to PPAR?2 promoter. RAR? inhibitor significantly suppressed ATRA-inhibited DNA binding activity of C-Fos to PPAR?2 promoter, indicating that downregulation of C-Fos activity mediated activation of RAR?-exerted reduction of PPAR?2 expression and thus inhibition of adipocyte differentiation induced by ATRA. Taken together, these data demonstrates that RAR?-C-Fos-PPAR?2 signaling rather than ROS generation is critical for ATRA-inhibited adipocyte differentiation.
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Racial disparities in risk of second breast tumors after ductal carcinoma in situ.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of race/ethnicity on second breast tumors among women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We identified 102,489 women diagnosed with primary DCIS between 1988 and 2009 from the 18 NCI-SEER Registries. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate race/ethnicity-associated relative risks (RRs) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of ipsilateral breast tumors (IBT; defined as DCIS or invasive carcinoma in the ipsilateral breast) and contralateral breast tumors (CBT; defined as DCIS or invasive carcinoma in the contralateral breast). Overall, 2,925 women had IBT and 3,723 had CBT. Compared with white women, black (RR 1.46; 95 % CI 1.29-1.65), and Hispanic (RR 1.18; 95 % CI 1.03-1.36) women had higher IBT risk, which was similar for invasive IBT and ipsilateral DCIS. A significant increase in IBT risk among black women persisted, regardless of age at diagnosis, treatment, tumor grade, tumor size, and histology. The CBT risk was significantly increased among black (RR 1.21; 95 % CI 1.08-1.36) and Asian/PI (RR 1.16; 95 % CI 1.02-1.31) women compared with white women. The association was stronger for invasive CBT among black women and for contralateral DCIS among Asian/PI women (P heterogeneity < 0.0001). The black race-associated CBT risk was more pronounced among women ?50 years at diagnosis and those with comedo DCIS; in contrast, a significant increase in risk among Asian/PI women was restricted to those <50 years and those with noncomedo DCIS. Racial/ethnic differences in risks of second breast tumors after DCIS could not be explained by pathologic features and treatment.
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Hormesis Effects of Amoxicillin on Growth and Cellular Biosynthesis of Microcystis aeruginosa at Different Nitrogen Levels.
Microb. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Coexisting antibiotic contaminants have potential to regulate cyanobacterial bloom, and the regulation is likely affected by nitrogen supply. A typical cyanobaterium Microcystis aeruginosa was cultured with 0.05-50 mg L(-1) of nitrogen and exposed to 100-600 ng L(-1) of amoxicillin for 7 days. Algal growth was not significantly (p?>?0.05) affected by amoxicillin at the lowest nitrogen level of 0.05 mg L(-1), stimulated by 600 ng L(-1) of amoxicillin at a moderate nitrogen level of 0.5 mg L(-1) and enhanced by 100-600 ng L(-1) of amoxicillin at higher nitrogen levels of 5-50 mg L(-1). Amoxicillin affected chlorophyll-a, psbA gene, and rbcL gene in a similar manner as algal growth, suggesting a regulation of algal growth via the photosynthesis system. At each nitrogen level, synthesis of protein and polysaccharides as well as production and release of microcystins (MCs) increased in response to environmental stress caused by amoxicillin. Expression of ntcA and mcyB showed a positive correlation with the total content of MCs under exposure to amoxicillin at nitrogen levels of 0.05-50 mg L(-1). Nitrogen and amoxicillin significantly (p?
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Detecting multiple cell-secreted cytokines from the same aptamer-functionalized electrode.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Inflammatory cytokines are secreted by immune cells in response to infection or injury. Quantification of multiple cytokines in parallel may help with disease diagnosis by illuminating inflammatory pathways related to disease onset and progression. This paper describes development of an electrochemical aptasensor for simultaneous detection of two important inflammatory cytokines, interferon gamma (IFN-?) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). To enable multiplexing, IFN-? and TNF-? aptamers were labeled with anthraquinone (AQ) and methylene blue (MB) redox reporters respectively. Random immobilization of two aptamer on gold exhibited redox peaks at -0.37V (AQ) and -0.15V (MB) vs. Ag/AgCl reference. When challenged with either IFN-? or TNF-?, redox signal of the appropriate reporter changed in concentration dependent manner. To demonstrate one possible application of this sensing approach, electrodes were integrated into microfluidic devices and used to dynamically monitor cytokine release from immune cells. Two cell types, primary human CD4 T-cells and U937 monocytic cells, were used to compare differences in cytokine secretions upon stimulation. These cells were infused into the microfluidic devices and stimulated to commence cytokine production. Release of IFN-? and TNF-? was monitored concurrently from the same small group of cells over the course of 2h. The strategy of encoding specific aptamer types with unique redox reporters allows sensitive and specific detection of multiple protein biomarkers from the same electrode.
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Phenylephrine enhances glutamate release in the medial prefrontal cortex through interaction with N-type Ca(2+) channels and release machinery.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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?1 -adrenoceptors (?1 -ARs) stimulation has been found to enhance excitatory processes in many brain regions. A recent study in our laboratory showed that ?1 -ARs stimulation enhances glutamatergic transmission via both pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms in layer V/VI pyramidal cells of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, a number of pre-synaptic mechanisms may contribute to ?1 -ARs-induced enhancement of glutamate release. In this study, we blocked the possible post-synaptic action mediated by ?1 -ARs to investigate how ?1 -ARs activation regulates pre-synaptic glutamate release in layer V/VI pyramidal neurons of mPFC. We found that the ?1 -ARs agonist phenylephrine (Phe) induced a significant enhancement of glutamatergic transmission. The Phe-induced potentiation was mediated by enhancing pre-synaptic glutamate release probability and increasing the number of release vesicles via a protein kinase C-dependent pathway. The mechanisms of Phe-induced potentiation included interaction with both glutamate release machinery and N-type Ca(2+) channels, probably via a pre-synaptic Gq /phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway. Our results may provide a cellular and molecular mechanism that helps explain ?1 -ARs-mediated influence on PFC cognitive functions. Alpha1 -adrenoceptor (?1 -ARs) stimulation has been reported to enhance glutamatergic transmission in layer V/VI pyramidal neurons of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We found that ?1 -ARs agonist phenylephrine (Phe) increases pre-synaptic glutamate release probability and the number of released vesicles via interaction with both glutamate release machinery and N-type Ca(2+) channels. Our results may provide a cellular and molecular mechanism that helps explain ?1 -ARs-mediated influence on PFC cognitive functions. Gq, Gq protein; PLC, phospholipase C; PKC, protein kinase C; AMPA, ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid; NMDA, N-methyl-d-aspartate; Glu, glutamate; Phe, phenylephrine.
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Ruthenium (II) Complexes Interact with Human Serum Albumin and Induce Apoptosis of Tumor Cells.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The interaction of ruthenium (II) complex [Ru(bpy)2(mal)](2+) (RBM) and [Ru(phen)2(mal)](2+) (RPM) (bpy?=?2, 2-bipyridine, phen?=?1,10-phenanthroline, mal?=?malonyl carboxylate) with human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by using fluorescence, UV absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy approaches. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of complexes to HSA was observed and the quenching mechanism was suggested as static quenching according to the Stern-Volmer (S-V) equation. The number of binding sites n and observed binding constant Kb was measured by fluorescence quenching method. The thermodynamic parameters ?H, ?S, and ?G at different temperatures were calculated and the results indicate the binding reaction is mainly entropy-driven and Vander Waals force played a major role in the reaction. The result of CD showed that the secondary structure of HSA molecules was changed in the presence of the ruthenium (II) complexes. Furthermore, the cell viability of ruthenium (II) complexes was evaluated by MTT and complex RPM has shown significant higher anticancer potency than RBM against all the cell lines screened. RPM showed a significant antitumor activity through induction of apoptosis in A549 cells.
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Deformation analysis of vesicles in an alternating-current electric field.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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In this paper the shape equation for axisymmetric vesicles subjected to an ac electric field is derived on the basis of the liquid-crystal model. The equilibrium morphology of a lipid vesicle is determined by the minimization of its free energy in coupled mechanical and ac electric fields. Besides elastic bending, the effects of the osmotic pressure difference, surface tension, Maxwell pressure, and flexoelectric and dielectric properties of phospholipid membrane as well are taken into account. The influences of elastic bending, osmotic pressure difference, and surface tension on the frequency-dependent behavior of a vesicle membrane in an ac electric field are examined. The singularity of the ac electric field is also investigated. Our theoretical results of vesicle deformation agree well with previous experimental and numerical results. The present study provides insights into the physical mechanisms underpinning the frequency-dependent morphological evolution of vesicles in the electric and mechanical fields.
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Prognosis in very young women with triple-negative breast cancer: retrospective study of 216 cases.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The aim of this investigation was to compare clinical pathological characteristics and prognosis of very young and older triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients in order to assess their relevance to TNBC in an younger population. Data of TNBC patients diagnosed between 2002 and 2007 were retrospectively analyzed by computer based chart information. Baseline tumor characteristics, biological markers, and patients' prognosis were compared between very young (?35 years) and older (>35 years) TNBC patients. In the 216 cases of operable TNBC patients, 48 (22.2 %) were ?35 years and 168 (77.8 %) were >35 years. Very young TNBC patients had showed a high clinical stage, more positive lymph nodes, Ck5/6 and/or EGFR expression (P = 0.049, 0.006, and 0.011, respectively). Compared to older TNBC patients, very young TNBC patients have short disease-free survival (P = 0.031), while no significant difference was found in overall survival (OS) (P = 0.075). In multivariate analysis, lymph node metastatic status was a significant predictor of OS. TNBC of very young patients is an aggressive breast cancer subtype, but the overall survival of both young and older TNBC patients did not have significant differences.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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