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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effect of Nanostructures on the Meniscus Shape and Disjoining Pressure of Ultrathin Liquid Film.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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The stability of thin liquid films on nanostructured surfaces is important but poorly understood. Here, we develop a general model of the meniscus shape and disjoining pressure for thin liquid films on nanostructured surfaces based on the minimization of the free energy and the Derjaguin approximation. This model is then compared with molecular dynamics simulations for a water-gold system with triangular and square nanostructures of varying depth and film thickness, demonstrating the robustness of the analytical model.
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[Laser microdissection and mass spectrometry based proteomics in the diagnosis of kidney diseases].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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In recent years, laser microdissection followed by mass spectrometry (LMD/MS) has been successfully applied to the proteomic studies of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) renal tissues. This new technique improves the diagnosis of kidney diseases and has a better potential for future clinical application. The review focuses on the use of this methodology for exploring the mechanisms, diagnosis and classification of kidney diseases including renal amyloidosis and membrane proliferative glomerulonephritis.
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[Comparison of cost-effectiveness between urimem and direct freezing for urinary protein preservation].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To compare two enrichment and preservation methods of urinary proteins, stored in polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane (Urimem) or direct freezing, we examined the differences between the two methods in time, space, costs of supplies and electricity, degree of protein degradation and convenience of the sample handling. The urimem method is superior in the storage space, the cost of electricity and the clinical convenience compared to the direct freezing method. However, the direct freezing method is superior in the time and the cost of supplies to the urimem method. The enrichment and preservation of urinary proteins using urimem have more cost-effective benefits compared to those of the direct freezing method.
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Impact of mesophyll diffusion on estimated global land CO2 fertilization.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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In C3 plants, CO2 concentrations drop considerably along mesophyll diffusion pathways from substomatal cavities to chloroplasts where CO2 assimilation occurs. Global carbon cycle models have not explicitly represented this internal drawdown and therefore overestimate CO2 available for carboxylation and underestimate photosynthetic responsiveness to atmospheric CO2. An explicit consideration of mesophyll diffusion increases the modeled cumulative CO2 fertilization effect (CFE) for global gross primary production (GPP) from 915 to 1,057 PgC for the period of 1901-2010. This increase represents a 16% correction, which is large enough to explain the persistent overestimation of growth rates of historical atmospheric CO2 by Earth system models. Without this correction, the CFE for global GPP is underestimated by 0.05 PgC/y/ppm. This finding implies that the contemporary terrestrial biosphere is more CO2 limited than previously thought.
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Prevalence of and risk factors for pterygia in a rural northern chinese population.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Abstract Purpose: To determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for pterygia development in a high-latitude-dwelling Northern Chinese population.
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Soluble FGL2, a novel effector molecule of activated hepatic stellate cells, regulates T-cell function in cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatol Int
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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To investigate the effects of soluble FGL2 (sFGL2) secreted by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) on immune suppression in cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Alcohol consumption and visual impairment in a rural northern chinese population.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Abstract Purpose: To investigate alcohol drinking status and the association between drinking patterns and visual impairment in an adult population in northern China.
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Women and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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Primary biliary cirrhosis occurs more frequently in women, and previous studies indicated that the average age of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) onset makes pregnancy in PBC patients uncommon. However, more recently, improved diagnostic testing has enabled detection of PBC in younger women, including those of childbearing age. This has led investigators to become increasingly interested in the relationship between the ontogeny of PBC and pregnancy. Published cases indicate that the typical age for pregnant women to be diagnosed with PBC is in the early 30s, and that during gestation, pruritus and jaundice are the most common symptoms. During gestation, susceptible women may experience onset of PBC resulting from the drastic changes in female hormones; this would include not only the mitochondrial damage due to accumulation of bile acids but also changes in the immune response during the different stages of pregnancy that might play an important role in the breakdown of self-tolerance. The mechanisms underlying the potential relationship between PBC and pregnancy warrant further investigation. For women first diagnosed with PBC during gestation, or those for whom first appearance of a flare up occurs during and postpartum, investigation of the immune response throughout gestation could provide new avenues for immunologic therapeutic intervention and the discovery of new treatment strategies for PBC.
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[Effect of low dosage of ciplatin on the shape and otoferlin in cochlea inner hair cells].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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To establish the stable and efficient hearing damage model by using low dosage of cispla tin, and investigate the mechanism.
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Brain-targeted delivery of trans-activating transcriptor-conjugated magnetic PLGA/lipid nanoparticles.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Magnetic poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/lipid nanoparticles (MPLs) were fabricated from PLGA, L-?-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-amino (polyethylene glycol) (DSPE-PEG-NH2), and magnetic nanoparticles (NPs), and then conjugated to trans-activating transcriptor (TAT) peptide. The TAT-MPLs were designed to target the brain by magnetic guidance and TAT conjugation. The drugs hesperidin (HES), naringin (NAR), and glutathione (GSH) were encapsulated in MPLs with drug loading capacity (>10%) and drug encapsulation efficiency (>90%). The therapeutic efficacy of the drug-loaded TAT-MPLs in bEnd.3 cells was compared with that of drug-loaded MPLs. The cells accumulated higher levels of TAT-MPLs than MPLs. In addition, the accumulation of QD-loaded fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled TAT-MPLs in bEnd.3 cells was dose and time dependent. Our results show that TAT-conjugated MPLs may function as an effective drug delivery system that crosses the blood brain barrier to the brain.
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Targeting the SMO oncogene by miR-326 inhibits glioma biological behaviors and stemness.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Few studies have associated microRNAs (miRNAs) with the hedgehog (Hh) pathway. Here, we investigated whether targeting smoothened (SMO) with miR-326 would affect glioma biological behavior and stemness.
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Preparation of bufalin-loaded pluronic polyetherimide nanoparticles, cellular uptake, distribution, and effect on colorectal cancer.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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A large number of studies have shown that bufalin can have a significant antitumor effect in a variety of tumors. However, because of toxicity, insolubility in water, fast metabolism, short half-life, and other shortcomings, its application is limited in cancer therapy. In this study, we explored the anti-metastatic role of bufalin-loaded pluronic polyetherimide nanoparticles on HCT116 colon cancer-bearing mice. Nanoparticle size, shape, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro drug release were studied. Also, cellular uptake of nanoparticles, in vivo tumor targeting, and tumor metastasis were studied. The nanoparticles had a particle size of about 60 nm and an encapsulation efficiency of 75.71%, by weight. The in vitro release data showed that free bufalin was released faster than bufalin-loaded pluronic polyetherimide nanoparticles, and almost 80% of free bufalin was released after 32 hours. Nanoparticles had an even size distribution, were stable, and had a slow release and a tumor-targeting effect. Bufalin-loaded pluronic polyetherimide nanoparticles can significantly inhibit the growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer.
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A CXCR4-Targeted Site-Specific Antibody-Drug Conjugate.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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A chemically defined anti-CXCR4-auristatin antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) was synthesized that selectively eliminates tumor cells overexpressing the CXCR4 receptor. The unnatural amino acid p-acetylphenylalanine (pAcF) was site-specifically incorporated into an anti-CXCR4 immunoglobulin?G (IgG) and conjugated to an auristatin through a stable, non-cleavable oxime linkage to afford a chemically homogeneous ADC. The full-length anti-CXCR4 ADC was selectively cytotoxic to CXCR4(+) cancer cells in?vitro (half maximal effective concentration (EC50 )?80-100?pM). Moreover, the anti-CXCR4 ADC eliminated pulmonary lesions from human osteosarcoma cells in a lung-seeding tumor model in mice. No significant overt toxicity was observed but there was a modest decrease in the bone-marrow-derived CXCR4(+) cell population. Because CXCR4 is highly expressed in a majority of metastatic cancers, a CXCR4-auristatin ADC may be useful for the treatment of a variety of metastatic malignancies.
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New insight into amyloid fibril formation of hen egg white lysozyme using a two-step temperature-dependent FTIR approach.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) is widely used in the mechanistic study of amyloid fibril formation. Yet, the fibrillation mechanism of HEWL is not well understood. In particular, in situ structural evidence for the on-pathway oligomeric intermediate has never been captured. Such evidence is crucial for confirming nucleated conformational conversion mechanism. Herein, we attempt to use a two-step temperature-dependent Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) approach to capture the in situ evidence for the on-pathway oligomeric intermediate and the oligomer-to-fibril transition during HEWL fibrillation. Key features of this approach include using lower temperature to generate the on-pathway oligomeric intermediate, using elevated temperature to eliminate the interference from the off-pathway oligomer and to facilitate the oligomer-to-fibril transition, and using FTIR difference spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy to tackle structure and morphology. Using such an approach, we reveal that the on-pathway oligomeric intermediate is in parallel ?-sheet configuration featuring a frequency at 1622 cm(-1) and the oligomer-to-fibril transition is accompanied by a spectral transition from 1622 to 1618 cm(-1). We also discover the beneficial role of the off-pathway oligomer in the capturing of the transient on-pathway oligomeric intermediate by serving as a monomer-releasing reservoir. This approach should also be useful in other amyloidogenic systems.
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Targeting Glutathione S-transferase M4 in Ewing sarcoma.
Front Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Ewing sarcoma is a malignant pediatric bone and soft tissue tumor. Although the 5-year survival rate of localized disease approaches 75%, the prognosis of metastatic and/or therapy-resistant disease remains dismal despite the wide use of aggressive therapeutic strategies. We previously reported that high expression of glutathione S-transferase M4 (GSTM4) in primary tumors correlates with poor patient outcomes. GSTM4 is required for oncogenic transformation and mediates resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs in Ewing sarcoma cells. Here, we performed RNA-sequencing analyses of Ewing sarcoma cells and combined our results with publicly available datasets to demonstrate that GSTM4 is a major GST specifically expressed in Ewing sarcoma. Pharmacological inhibition of GSTM4 activity using a pan GST inhibitor, 6-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-ylthio) hexanol (NBDHEX), significantly limited cellular proliferation and oncogenic transformation of Ewing sarcoma cells. Moreover, combined use of NBDHEX and etoposide synergistically increased cytotoxicity, suggesting a role for GSTM4 as an inhibitor of apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that GSTM4 limits apoptosis owing to its ability to interact with Apoptosis Signal-regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1) and inhibit signaling via the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase axis. To exploit our observation that GSTM4 expression is specifically up-regulated in Ewing sarcoma, we tested the effect of a GSTM4-activated anti-cancer agent, O(2)-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate or JS-K, on tumor growth and survival. We found that JS-K robustly decreased Ewing sarcoma cell viability and xenograft tumor growth and improved overall survival of xenograft mice. Our data suggest that GSTM4 is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of high GSTM4-expressing Ewing sarcoma. Strategies that combine standard chemotherapy with agents that inhibit GSTM4, that are activated by GSTM4, or that block GSTM4/ASK1 interactions, can potentially be more specific and/or efficacious than standard therapeutic approaches.
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Hotspot mutations in common oncogenes are infrequent in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Oncogene mutations contribute to carcinogenesis and can provide potential therapeutic targets for clinical anticancer management. However, oncogene mutation patterns in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have yet to be fully elucidated. To gain insight into mutation patterns in NPC, a high-throughput OncoCarta panel assay was used to determine 238 hotspot mutations across 19 common oncogenes in 8 NPC cell lines and 160 NPC patient samples from southern China. Statistical analyses were further conducted to identify associations between oncogene mutations and selected clinicopathological characteristics. In total, we identified 24 mutations across 11 oncogenes in 17 (10.6%) NPC patients. Four patients exhibited mutations in at least one oncogene. We also identified a PIK3CA H1047R mutant in 7 NPC cell lines. In addition, oncogene mutations showed no correlation with either risk habits (smoking and drinking) or other clinical characteristics except for TNM stage. KIT mutations were associated with poorer overall and relapse-free survival. Furthermore, KIT mutations together with age and N stage were independent prognostic factors in NPC. Taken together, the present study is the first report on mutations in multiple oncogenes in NPC. We found that hotspot oncogene mutations are infrequent in NPC patients from southern China. The lack of hotspot mutations requires a comprehensive characterization of gene mutations in NPC for developing new therapeutic targets in the future.
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A mixed treatment comparison of gabapentin enacarbil, pramipexole, ropinirole and rotigotine in moderate-to-severe restless legs syndrome.
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Abstract Objective: A mixed treatment comparison (MTC) was performed to investigate the relative efficacy and safety of licensed pharmaceuticals for moderate-to-severe restless legs syndrome (RLS).
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CNS, lung, and lymph node involvement in Gaucher disease type 3 after 11years of therapy: Clinical, histopathologic, and biochemical findings.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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A Caucasian male with Gaucher disease type 3, treated with continuous enzyme therapy (ET) for 11years, experienced progressive mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, lung disease, and neurological involvement leading to death at an age of 12.5years. Autopsy showed significant pathology of the brain, lymph nodes, and lungs. Liver and spleen glucosylceramide (GluCer) and glucosylsphingosine (GluS) levels were nearly normal and storage cells were cleared. Clusters of macrophages and very elevated GluCer and GluS levels were in the lungs, and brain parenchymal and perivascular regions. Compared to normal brain GluCer (GC 18:0), GluCer species with long fatty acid acyl chains were increased in the patient's brain. This profile was similar to that in the patient's lungs, suggesting that these lipids were present in brain perivascular macrophages. In the patient's brain, generalized astrogliosis, and enhanced LC3, ubiquitin, and Tau signals were identified in the regions surrounding macrophage clusters, indicating proinflammation, altered autophagy, and neurodegeneration. These findings highlight the altered phenotypes resulting from increased longevity due to ET, as well as those in poorly accessible compartments of brain and lung, which manifested progressive disease involvement despite ET.
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[Depressive symptoms and related factors among primary and middle school students in Changfeng county of Anhui province:a two-year longitudinal study].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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To assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms, trends on its longitudinal development and related influencing factors among primary and middle school students in Changfeng county of Anhui province.
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[Dynamic expressions of IL-22 and hepatic stellate cells senescence in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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To investigate the dynamic expressions of interleukin-22 (IL-22) , Interleukin-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1), and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) senescence in mice with Schistosoma japonicum infection.
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Rotenone remarkably attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in chronic obstructive uropathy.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Mitochondrial abnormality has been shown in many kidney disease models. However, its role in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) is still uncertain. In present study, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone was applied to the mice subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Following 7-days rotenone treatment, a remarkable attenuation of tubular injury was detected by PAS staining. In line with the improvement of kidney morphology, rotenone remarkably blunted fibrotic response as shown by downregulation of fibronectin (FN), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), collagen I, collagen III, and ?-SMA, paralleled with a substantial decrease of TGF-? 1. Meanwhile, the oxidative stress markers thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and inflammatory markers TNF-?, IL-1?, and ICAM-1 were markedly decreased. More importantly, the reduction of mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (mtND1) expression in obstructed kidneys was moderately but significantly restored by rotenone, suggesting an amelioration of mitochondrial injury. Collectively, mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone protected kidneys against obstructive injury possibly via inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis, suggesting an important role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of obstructive kidney disease.
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A pre-operative CT and non-contrast-enhanced C-arm CT registration framework for trans-catheter aortic valve implantation.
Comput Med Imaging Graph
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Contrast-enhanced C-arm CT is routinely used for intra-operative guidance during the trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI); however, the requirement for contrast agent injection is not preferable, especially for patients with renal insufficiencies. To address this problem, we present a novel framework for fully automatic registration of pre-operative CT and non-contrast-enhanced C-arm CT. The proposed framework provides an improved workflow and minimizes the usage of contrast agent in the TAVI procedure. Our framework consists of three steps: coarse rigid-body alignment, anatomical knowledge-based prior deformation field generation, and fine deformable registration. We validated the proposed framework on 20 real patient data sets. Based on the 20 data sets, the mesh-to-mesh errors at the aortic root from different methods are measured. Our proposed method significantly outperforms the other state-of-the-art methods. Specifically, we achieve the registration accuracy at 1.76±0.43mm which is clinically plausible. Quantitative evaluation on real non-contrast enhanced C-arm CT data sets confirms the applicability in the clinical usage. The proposed heart registration method is generic and hence can be easily applied to other cardiac applications.
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Associations between problematic internet use and adolescents' physical and psychological symptoms: possible role of sleep quality.
J Addict Med
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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To evaluate the associations between problematic Internet use (PIU) and physical and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescents, and to investigate the possible role of sleep quality in this association.
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Effects of dimethylaminoethanol and compound amino acid on D-galactose induced skin aging model of rat.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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A lasting dream of human beings is to reverse or postpone aging. In this study, dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) and compound amino acid (AA) in Mesotherapy were investigated for their potential antiaging effects on D-galactose induced aging skin. At 18 days after D-gal induction, each rat was treated with intradermal microinjection of saline, AA, 0.1% DMAE, 0.2% DMAE, 0.1% DMAE + AA, or 0.2% DMAE + AA, respectively. At 42 days after treatment, the skin wound was harvested and assayed. Measurement of epidermal and dermal thickness in 0.1% DMAE + AA and 0.2% DMAE + AA groups appeared significantly thicker than aging control rats. No differences were found in tissue water content among groups. Hydroxyproline in 0.1% DMAE + AA, 0.2% DMAE + AA, and sham control groups was much higher than all other groups. Collagen type I, type III, and MMP-1 expression was highly upregulated in both 0.1% DMAE + AA and 0.2% DMAE + AA groups compared with aging control. In contrast, TIMP-1 expression levels of various aging groups were significantly reduced when compared to sham control. Coinjection of DMAE and AA into target tissue has marked antiaging effects on D-galactose induced skin aging model of rat.
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[Relations between duration of sleep, dietary patterns and the prevalence of overweight/obesity among 11-13 year-olds in Xuzhou, Jiangsu province of China].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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To describe the relationships between sleep duration, dietary patterns and overweight/obesity among adolescents in Xuzhou, and to develop prevention and intervention strategies for adolescent-obesity.
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[Trends on the prevalence rates of obesity and cardiometabolic among children and adolescents in Beijing, during 2004-2013].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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To analyze the trends on the prevalence rates of obesity and cardiometabolic among children and adolescents in Beijing, during 2004-2013.
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Preparation of electrodeposited Mo-Ni coating and its spectral properties.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Mo-Ni coatings were prepared on Ni alloy by electrodeposition method. The properties of microhardness, wear weight loss and friction coefficients, and thermal expansion of the coatings were investigated, respectively. Mo-Ni coatings were characterized with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), energy-dispersive analyses of X-ray (EDAX), scanning electron microcopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, respectively. Mo-Ni coating shows higher microhardness, lower wear weight loss and friction coefficient compared with those of Ni alloy. The microhardness of Mo-Ni coating is as high as 518 HV, which is 72.67% higher than that of the Ni alloy (300 HV). The wear weight losses of Mo-Ni coating is 1.94 times lower than that of Ni alloy. The friction coefficient of Ni alloy and Mo-Ni coating are 0.640 and 0.559 respectively. The physical thermal expansion curve of Ni alloy has two the peaks in the ranges of 100-120 and 570-640 degrees C respectively; and that of Ni alloy+Mo-Ni coating has one the peaks in the ranges of 570-640 degrees C. The peak of the physical thermal expansion curve of Ni alloy+Mo-Ni coating in the ranges of 570-640 degrees C is much smaller than that of the Ni alloy. Because the part of nickel was replaced by molybdenum in the Ni lattice, molybdenum decreases the lattices transformation of nickel (bcc --> fcc). The reason for the formation of the small peak of the physical thermal expansion curve of Ni alloy+Mo-Ni coating in the ranges of 595-625 degrees C is the changes of MoNi4 and MoNi from the semi-crystalline structure to the crystalline structure respectively.
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TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE27 affects aluminum sensitivity by modulating the O-acetylation of xyloglucan and aluminum-binding capacity in Arabidopsis.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Xyloglucan (XyG) has been reported to contribute to the aluminum (Al)-binding capacity of the cell wall in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the influence of O-acetylation of XyG, accomplished by the putative O-acetyltransferase TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE27 (TBL27 [AXY4]), on its Al-binding capacity is not known. In this study, we found that the two corresponding TBL27 mutants, axy4-1 and axy4-3, were more Al sensitive than wild-type Columbia-0 plants. TBL27 was expressed in roots as well as in leaves, stems, flowers, and siliques. Upon Al treatment, even within 30 min, TBL27 transcript accumulation was strongly down-regulated. The mutants axy4-1 and axy4-3 accumulated significantly more Al in the root and wall, which could not be correlated with pectin content or pectin methylesterase activity, as no difference in the mutants was observed compared with the wild type when exposed to Al stress. The increased Al accumulation in the wall of the mutants was found to be in the hemicellulose fraction. While the total sugar content of the hemicellulose fraction did not change, the O-acetylation level of XyG was reduced by Al treatment. Taken together, we conclude that modulation of the O-acetylation level of XyG influences the Al sensitivity in Arabidopsis by affecting the Al-binding capacity in the hemicellulose.
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Parthenolide-induced apoptosis, autophagy and suppression of proliferation in HepG2 cells.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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To investigate the anticancer effects and underlying mechanisms of parthenolide on HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
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mPGES-2 Deletion Remarkably Enhances Liver Injury in Streptozotocin-Treated Mouse via Induction of GLUT2.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-2 (mPGES-2) deletion does not influence in vivo PGE2 production and the function of this enzyme remains elusive. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of mPGES-2 in STZ-induced type-1 diabetes and organ injuries.
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Noninvasive cardiac output monitoring using bioreactance-based technique in pediatric patients with or without ventricular septal defect during anesthesia: in comparison with echocardiography.
Paediatr Anaesth
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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We evaluated the use of bioreactance-based noninvasive cardiac output (CO) monitoring technique (NICOM(™) , CONICOM ) in pediatric patients with or without ventricular septal defect (VSD) during anesthesia induction to determine its agreement with the measurements assessed by echocardiography (echo, COECHO ).
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An in vivo model of human small intestine using pluripotent stem cells.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into organ-specific subtypes offers an exciting avenue for the study of embryonic development and disease processes, for pharmacologic studies and as a potential resource for therapeutic transplant. To date, limited in vivo models exist for human intestine, all of which are dependent upon primary epithelial cultures or digested tissue from surgical biopsies that include mesenchymal cells transplanted on biodegradable scaffolds. Here, we generated human intestinal organoids (HIOs) produced in vitro from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that can engraft in vivo. These HIOs form mature human intestinal epithelium with intestinal stem cells contributing to the crypt-villus architecture and a laminated human mesenchyme, both supported by mouse vasculature ingrowth. In vivo transplantation resulted in marked expansion and maturation of the epithelium and mesenchyme, as demonstrated by differentiated intestinal cell lineages (enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, tuft cells and enteroendocrine cells), presence of functional brush-border enzymes (lactase, sucrase-isomaltase and dipeptidyl peptidase 4) and visible subepithelial and smooth muscle layers when compared with HIOs in vitro. Transplanted intestinal tissues demonstrated digestive functions as shown by permeability and peptide uptake studies. Furthermore, transplanted HIO-derived tissue was responsive to systemic signals from the host mouse following ileocecal resection, suggesting a role for circulating factors in the intestinal adaptive response. This model of the human small intestine may pave the way for studies of intestinal physiology, disease and translational studies.
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Xyloglucan Endotransglucosylase-Hydrolase17 Interacts with Xyloglucan Endotransglucosylase-Hydrolase31 to Confer Xyloglucan Endotransglucosylase Action and Affect Aluminum Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Previously, we reported that although the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Xyloglucan Endotransglucosylase-Hydrolase31 (XTH31) has predominately xyloglucan endohydrolase activity in vitro, loss of XTH31 results in remarkably reduced in vivo xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) action and enhanced Al resistance. Here, we report that XTH17, predicted to have XET activity, binds XTH31 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitations assays and that this interaction may be required for XTH17 XET activity in planta. XTH17 and XTH31 may be colocalized in plant cells because tagged XTH17 fusion proteins, like XTH31 fusion proteins, appear to target to the plasma membrane. XTH17 expression, like that of XTH31, was substantially reduced in the presence of aluminum (Al), even at concentrations as low as 10 µm for 24 h or 25 µm for just 30 min. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transfer DNA insertion mutant of XTH17, xth17, showed low XET action and had moderately shorter roots than the wild type but was more Al resistant than the wild type. Similar to xth31, xth17 had low hemicellulose content and retained less Al in the cell wall. These data suggest a model whereby XTH17 and XTH31 may exist as a dimer at the plasma membrane to confer in vivo XET action, which modulates cell wall Al-binding capacity and thereby affects Al sensitivity in Arabidopsis.
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Metabolomic Profiling of Autoimmune Hepatitis: The Diagnostic Utility of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is often confused with other liver diseases because of their shared nonspecific symptoms and serological and histological overlap. This study compared the plasma metabolomic profiles of patients with AIH, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), PBC/AIH overlap syndrome (OS), and drug-induced liver injury (DILI) with those of healthy subjects to identify potential biomarkers of AIH. Metabolomic profiling and biomarker screening were performed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) coupled with a partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Compared with the levels in healthy volunteers and other liver disease patients, AIH patients exhibited relatively high levels of plasma pyruvate, lactate, acetate, acetoacetate, and glucose. Such metabolites are typically related to energy metabolism alterations and may be a sign of metabolic conversion to the aerobic glycolysis phenotype of excessive immune activation. Increased aromatic amino acids and decreased branched-chain amino acids were found in the plasma of AIH patients. The whole NMR profiles were stepwise-reduced, and nine metabolomic biomarkers having the greatest significance in the discriminant analysis were obtained. The diagnostic utility of the selected metabolites was assessed, and these biomarkers achieved good sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy (all above 93%) in distinguishing AIH from PBC, DILI, and OS. This report is the first to present the metabolic phenotype of AIH and the potential utility of (1)H NMR metabolomics in the diagnosis of AIH.
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The Receptor-Like Kinase SIT1 Mediates Salt Sensitivity by Activating MAPK3/6 and Regulating Ethylene Homeostasis in Rice.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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High salinity causes growth inhibition and shoot bleaching in plants that do not tolerate high salt (glycophytes), including most crops. The molecules affected directly by salt and linking the extracellular stimulus to intracellular responses remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that rice (Oryza sativa) Salt Intolerance 1 (SIT1), a lectin receptor-like kinase expressed mainly in root epidermal cells, mediates salt sensitivity. NaCl rapidly activates SIT1, and in the presence of salt, as SIT1 kinase activity increased, plant survival decreased. Rice MPK3 and MPK6 function as the downstream effectors of SIT1. SIT1 phosphorylates MPK3 and 6, and their activation by salt requires SIT1. SIT1 mediates ethylene production and salt-induced ethylene signaling. SIT1 promotes accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to growth inhibition and plant death under salt stress, which occurred in an MPK3/6- and ethylene signaling-dependent manner in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our findings demonstrate the existence of a SIT1-MPK3/6 cascade that mediates salt sensitivity by affecting ROS and ethylene homeostasis and signaling. These results provide important information for engineering salt-tolerant crops.
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GSTM3 reverses the resistance of hepatoma cells to radiation by regulating the expression of cell cycle/apoptosis-related molecules.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Radiotherapy (RT) is a major modality of hepatoma treatment. However, liver tumors often acquire radioresistance, which contributes to RT failure. The exact mechanisms of the radioresistance in hepatoma cells are largely unknown. Glutathione S-transferase M3 (GSTM3) is a phase II transferase, however, recent studies have suggested that GSTM3 is a potential tumor suppressor. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of GSTM3 in reversing radioresistance, and to explore the molecular mechanism of this in the human radiation-resistant PRF/PLC/5R hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line. The radioresistant PLC/PRF/5R cells were used as cell model, and were derived from PLC/PRF/5 parental cells using fractionated irradiation. The radiosensitivity of the cells was tested by clonogenic assay and flow cytometry analyses. The expression of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bax, p21, p27 and p53 was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting with or without radiation. The results showed that the expression levels of GSTM3 were significantly lower in the PLC/PRF/5R cells than in the PLC/PRF/5 parental cells. GSTM3 overexpression sensitized the PLC/PRF/5R cells to radiation mainly though induction of apoptosis. According to the evidence from Annexin-V/PI staining, it markedly increased the percentage of apoptotic PRF/PLC/5R cells. The clonogenic assay indicated that GSTM3 significantly decreased the RT survival fraction in PRF/PLC/5R cells. Furthermore, GSTM3 increased the expression of cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes (Bcl-2, Bax, p21, p27 and p53) in PRF/PLC/5R cells with irradiation. These findings suggest that GSTM3 plays an pivotal role in reversing the radioresistance of HCC and may be a potential target for sensitizing HCC cells to RT. The underlying mechanisms may be linked to the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis facilitation.
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Estrogen promotes stemness and invasiveness of ER-positive breast cancer cells through Gli1 activation.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Although long-term estrogen (E2) exposure is associated with increased breast cancer (BC) risk, and E2 appears to sustain growth of BC cells that express functional estrogen receptors (ERs), its role in promoting BC stem cells (CSCs) remains unclear. Considering that Gli1, part of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) developmental pathway, has been shown to mediate CSCs, we investigated whether E2 and Gli1 could promote CSCs and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in ER+ BC cell lines.
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The catalytic triad of testes-specific protease 50 (TSP50) is essential for its function in cell proliferation.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Testes-specific protease 50 (TSP50) is a novelly identified pro-oncogene and it shares a similar enzymatic structure with many serine proteases. Our previous results suggested that TSP50 could promote tumorigenesis through degradation of I?B? protein and activating NF-?B signaling, and the threonine mutation in its catalytic triad could depress TSP50-mediated cell proliferation. However, whether the two other residues in the catalytic triad of TSP50 play a role in maintaining protease activity and tumorigenesis, and the mechanisms involved in this process remain unclear. Here, we constructed and characterized three catalytic triad mutants of TSP50 and found that all the mutants could significantly depress TSP50-induced cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro and tumor formation in vivo, and the aspartic acid at position 206 in the catalytic triad played a more crucial role than threonine and histidine in this process. Mechanistic studies revealed that the mutants in the catalytic triad abolished the enzyme activity of TSP50, but did not change the cellular localization. Furthermore, our data indicated that all the three mutants suppressed activation of NF-?B signal by preventing the interaction between TSP50 and the NF-?B:I?B? complex. Most importantly, we demonstrated that TSP50 could interact with I?B? protein and cleave it directly as a new protease in vitro.
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Optimization of GPR40 Agonists for Type 2 Diabetes.
ACS Med Chem Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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GPR40 (FFA1 and FFAR1) has gained significant interest as a target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. TAK-875 (1), a GPR40 agonist, lowered hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and lowered both postprandial and fasting blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients in phase II clinical trials. We optimized phenylpropanoic acid derivatives as GPR40 agonists and identified AMG 837 (2) as a clinical candidate. Here we report our efforts in searching for structurally distinct back-ups for AMG 837. These efforts led to the identification of more polar GPR40 agonists, such as AM-4668 (10), that have improved potency, excellent pharmacokinetic properties across species, and minimum central nervous system (CNS) penetration.
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The aryl hydrocarbon receptor suppresses osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through the activation of the ERK signaling pathway.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Ahr activation is known to be associated with synovitis and exacerbated RA, but its contributions to bone loss have not been completely elucidated. Osteoblast proliferation and differentiation are abnormal at the erosion site in RA. Here, we reported that the expression of Ahr was increased in the hind paws' bone upon collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice, and the levels of Ahr were negatively correlated with bone mineral density (BMD). In addition, immunofluorescent staining showed that the high expression of Ahr was mainly localized in osteoblasts from the CIA mice compared to normal controls. Moreover, the luciferase intensity of Ahr in the nucleus increased by 12.5% in CIA osteoblasts compared to that in normal controls. In addition, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) activation of the Ahr inhibited pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cellular proliferation and differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA expression in the osteoblasts of CIA mice were reduced compared to normal controls. In contrast, decreased ALP expression by activated Ahr was completely reversed after pretreatment with an Ahr inhibitor (CH-223191) in MC3T3-E1 cell lines and primary osteoblasts on day 5. Our data further showed that activation of Ahr promoted the phosphorylation of ERK after 5days. Moreover, Ahr-dependent activation of the ERK signaling pathway decreased the levels of proliferation cells and inhibited ALP activity in MC3T3-E1 cells. These results demonstrated that the high expression of Ahr may suppress osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through activation of the ERK signaling pathway, further enabling bone erosion in CIA mice.
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IL-17 regulates the expressions of RANKL and OPG in human periodontal ligament cells via TRAF6/TBK1-JNK/NF-?B pathways.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Interleukin-17 (IL-17 or IL-17A), a pleiotropic cytokine produced by T helper (Th) 17 cells, is involved in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, including periodontitis. Although the ability of pro-inflammation in periodontitis have been widely investigated, the other biological functions of IL-17, including its role in bone remodeling and the underlying molecular mechanism, have not been well clarified. In the present study, IL-17 could significantly enhance the expression of receptor activator for nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) and inhibit the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs), the two critical indicators for osteoclastogenesis, suggesting IL-17 may play a destructive role in the pathogenesis of periodontal bone remodeling. Pharmaceutical signal inhibitors targeted at MAPKs, Akt or NF-?B signals, inhibited IL-17-induced RANKL and OPG regulation. Notably, the enhancement of RANKL was significantly blocked by the inhibitors of JNK and NF-?B signals. The upstream signals were further investigated with the small interfering RNA (siRNA). Both TRAF6 and TBK1 were found to be the critically signal molecules for IL-17-dependent RANKL regulation in hPDLCs. These findings may provide comprehensive understanding of the role of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and might also provide a reasonable way for periodontitis therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Prognostic value of poorly differentiated clusters in invasive breast cancer.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Our study aimed to assess the prognostic value of poorly differentiated clusters (PDCs) in invasive breast cancer.
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Is replacement of the supraclavicular fossa with the lower level classification based on magnetic resonance imaging beneficial in nasopharyngeal carcinoma?
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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To investigate the pattern of lymph node metastasis and treatment outcome after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and assess the possibility of replacing Ho's supraclavicular fossa (SCF) with the lower level (LL; cervical extension below caudal edge of cricoid cartilage) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a criterion for N3 disease.
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Overexpression of CIP2A is an independent prognostic indicator in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and its depletion suppresses cell proliferation and tumor growth.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) is an oncoprotein that acts as a prognostic marker for several human malignancies. In this study, we investigated the clinical significance of CIP2A and its function in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
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Preventive and therapeutic effects of sodium bicarbonate on melamine-induced bladder stones in mice.
Urolithiasis
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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The actual preventive and therapeutic effects of alkalinizing urine on melamine-induced bladder stones (cystolith) are not completely known. Using an ideal model, two experiments were conducted in Balb/c mice. The mice were fed a normal diet in controls and a melamine diet in the other groups. The first day was set as experiment-day 1. In "Experiment 1", either low-/mid-/high-dose sodium bicarbonate (SB) or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once daily) to the mice for 14 days. Relative to the model group, the mean pH of the urine in the SB groups was significantly elevated at 3 h after SB administration, with a significant decrease in cystolith incidence on experiment-day 14. In "Experiment 2", on experiment-day 12, the melamine diet was replaced by a normal diet in 4 groups with melamine withdrawal (MW). Meanwhile, either mid-/high-dose SB or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once) to the mice in the corresponding groups. On experiment-day 12, after an additional 8 h, the cystolith incidence was significantly reduced in the high-SB, MW + mid-SB and MW + high-SB groups than in the model group. In conclusion, low urinary pH is one of the main determinants of the formation of melamine-associated stones, urinary alkalinization can be achieved by a proper dose of oral SB, and SB acts to prevent and treat melamine-induced cystoliths in mice.
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Knockdown of toll-like receptor 4 inhibits human NSCLC cancer cell growth and inflammatory cytokine secretion in vitro and in vivo.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling has been implicated in tumor cell invasion, survival and metastasis in several types of cancers. However, the expression of TLR4 in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its biological function in the development and progression of NSCLC have not been elucidated to date. Here, we sought to characterize the expression of TLR4 in patients with NSCLC and to investigate the biological roles of TLR4 in lung metastasis, cell invasion and survival. In this study, we found that TLR4 expression was elevated in most patients with NSCLC, and its expression levels correlated with key pathological characteristics, including tumor differentiation, stage and metastasis. Our data also showed that downregulation of TLR4 expression using an RNA silencing approach in A549 tumor cells significantly suppressed cell proliferation, cell migration and cell invasion, and induced tumor apoptosis in vitro, and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. In addition, we also found that downregulation of TLR4 expression significantly decreased cell TNF-? and IL-6 levels. Furthermore, we found that knockdown of TLR4 was able to significantly suppress constitutive phosphorylation of Akt and PI3K, which may contribute to the inhibition of tumor growth. These data suggest that TLR4 plays an important role in tumorigenic properties of human NSCLC, and that RNA interference-directed targeting of TLR4 could be used as a potential anticancer therapeutic target in NSCLC.
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CXCR5(+) CD4(+) T follicular helper cells participate in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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There is increasing interest in the role of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in autoimmunity from the perspective of both their role in breach of tolerance and their effects on the natural history of disease progression. Indeed, the critical role of Tfh cells in autoimmunity is further highlighted based on their location in the germinal center (GC), a pathogenic hot spot for development of autoreactivity. To address the role of Tfh cells in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), we comprehensively evaluated the immunobiology of CXCR5(+) CD4(+) Tfh cells in 69 patients with PBC, including a nested subgroup of 16 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and 20 healthy controls (HC), followed for one year. We report herein several key observations. Firstly, there was an increased frequency of circulating Tfh cells in patients with PBC compared to AIH (p < 0.05) and HC (p < 0.01). Second, the function of circulating Tfh cells from PBC patients, including IL-21 production (p < 0.05), the ability to promote B cell maturation and autoantibody production, were greater than HC. Third, the frequency of these cells was significantly decreased in UDCA responders compared to UDCA-treated non-responders, in both cross-sectional (p = 0.023) and longitudinal studies (p = 0.036),respectively. Indeed, similar increases of Tfh cells were noted in liver and spleen. In conclusion, these results significantly extend our understanding of lymphoid subpopulations in PBC and their relative role in disease expression. Our data also provide a novel biomarker for evaluation of the effectiveness of new therapeutic approaches. (Hepatology 2014;).
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Determination of five pyrethroids in tea drinks by dispersive solid phase extraction with polyaniline-coated magnetic particles.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The polyaniline-coated magnetic particles with bowl-shaped morphology (Fe3O4/C/PANI microbowls) were successfully prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The prepared microbowls were used as the magnetic adsorbent in dispersive solid phase extraction of five pyrethroids, including cyhalothrin, beta-cypermethrin, esfenvalerate, permethrin and bifenthrin in plain tea drinks. The effects of experiment factors, including amount of Fe3O4/C/PANI microbowls, pH value, ultrasound extraction time and desorption conditions, were investigated. The extraction recoveries obtained with 8 mg of magnetic microbowls were satisfactory, and the microbowls can be reused after easy washing. Thus, a simple, selective and effective method for the determination of the pyrethroids was established successfully. The results showed that the method had good linearity (r=0.9992-0.9998), and the limits of detections (LODs) were from 0.025 to 0.032 ng mL(-1). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 2.4-6.1% and 3.5-8.8%, respectively. Recoveries obtained by analyzing the real tea drinks were in the range of 72.1-118.4%.
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MicroRNA-183 inhibits apoptosis and promotes proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells by targeting PDCD4.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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MicroRNA plays an important role in multiple processes of cancer development. Aberrant expression of miR-183 has been frequently reported in a variety of cancer types; however, the roles and mechanisms of miR-183 in gastric cancer are largely unknown. Here, we report that miR-183 is significantly up-regulated in human gastric tumor tissues compared to the adjacent normal tissues. Up-regulation of miR-183 is associated with advanced clinical stage, positive lymph node, deep stromal invasion, and distant metastasis in gastric cancer patients. We further demonstrated that miR-183 promotes gastric cancer cell growth in vitro by inhibition of apoptosis. Moreover, overexpression of miR-183 enhances gastric cancer cell migration and invasion. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that overexpression of miR-183 decreased, and inhibition of miR-183 increased the expression of PDCD4, a tumor suppressor, at both mRNA and protein levels. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-183 may modulate progression and metastatic potential of gastric cancer through inhibition of PDCD4 expression. miR-183 could serve as a potential biomarker for gastric cancer progression and a novel therapeutic target for gastric cancer treatment.
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Comparison of Long-Term Survival and Toxicity of Cisplatin Delivered Weekly versus Every Three Weeks Concurrently with Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We aimed to compare the long-term survival outcomes and acute toxicity of cisplatin administered weekly versus every three weeks concurrently with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
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Prognostic Value and Staging Classification of Retropharyngeal Lymph Node Metastasis in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients Treated with Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The development of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has revolutionized the management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value and classification of TNM stage system for retropharyngeal lymph node (RLN) metastasis in NPC in the IMRT era.
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COX-2 but not mPGES-1 contributes to renal PGE2 induction and diabetic proteinuria in mice with type-1 diabetes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been implicated to play a pathogenic role in diabetic nephropathy (DN) but its source remains unlcear. To elucidate whether mPGES-1, the best characterized PGE2 synthase, was involved in the development of DN, we examined the renal phenotype of mPGES-1 KO mice subjected to STZ-induced type-1 diabetes. After STZ treatment, mPGES-1 WT and KO mice presented the similar onset of diabetes as shown by similar elevation of blood glucose. Meanwhile, both genotypes of mice exhibited similar increases of urinary and renal PGE2 production. In parallel with this comparable diabetic status, the kidney injury indices including the urinary albumin excretion, kidney weight and the kidney histology (PAS staining) did not show any difference between the two genotypes. By Western-blotting and quantitative qRT-PCR, mPGES-1, mPGES-2, cPGES and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) remain unaltered following six weeks of diabetes. Finally, a selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (50 mg/kg/day) was applied to the STZ-treated KO mice, which resulted in significant reduction of urinary albumin excretion (KO/STZ: 141.5±38.4 vs. KO/STZ + Celebrex: 48.7±20.8 ug/24 h, p<0.05) and the blockade of renal PGE2 induction (kidney: KO/STZ: 588.7±89.2 vs. KO/STZ + Celebrex: 340.8±58.7 ug/24 h, p<0.05; urine: KO/STZ 1667.6±421.4 vs. KO/STZ + Celebrex 813.6±199.9 pg/24 h, p<0.05), without affecting the blood glucose levels and urine volume. Taken together, our data suggests that an as yet unidentified prostaglanind E synthase but not mPGES-1 may couple with COX-2 to mediate increased renal PGE2 sythsesis in DN.
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The golden ratio and Loshu-Fibonacci diagram: Novel research view on relationship of Chinese medicine and modern biology.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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Associating geometric arrangements of 9 Loshu numbers modulo 5, investigating property of golden rectangles and characteristics of Fibonacci sequence modulo 10 as well as the two subsequences of its modular sequence by modulo 5, the Loshu-Fibonacci Diagram is created based on strict logical deduction in this paper, which can disclose inherent relationship among Taiji sign, Loshu and Fibonacci sequence modulo 10 perfectly and unite such key ideas of holism, symmetry, holographic thought and yin-yang balance pursuit from Chinese medicine as a whole. Based on further analysis and reasoning, the authors discover that taking the golden ratio and Loshu-Fibonacci Diagram as a link, there is profound and universal association existing between researches of Chinese medicine and modern biology.
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[Gender difference on depressive symptoms among Chinese children and adolescents].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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To explore the epidemiological characteristics and gender difference of depressive symptoms among Chinese children and adolescents.
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Surveillance for Avian Influenza A(H7N9), Beijing, China, 2013.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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During surveillance for pneumonia of unknown etiology and sentinel hospital-based surveillance in Beijing, China, we detected avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in 4 persons who had pneumonia, influenza-like illness, or asymptomatic infections. Samples from poultry workers, associated poultry environments, and wild birds suggest that this virus might not be present in Beijing.
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Features of urate deposition in patients with gouty arthritis of the foot using dual-energy computed tomography.
Int J Rheum Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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To investigate features of urate deposition in gout and the association between these features and attacks of gouty arthritis using dual-energy computed tomography (CT).
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Gender- and Puberty-Dependent Association Between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms: National Survey Among Chinese Adolescents.
J Phys Act Health
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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The study aims to understand the possible gender difference in the associations between physical activity and depressive symptoms during pubertal transition.
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A Modified Staged Surgical Intervention for Blepharophimosis-Ptosis-Epicanthus Inversus Syndrome: 125 Cases With Encouraging Results.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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Blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is a rare autosomal dominant condition characterized by typical eyelid malformations that include blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus inversus, and telecanthus.
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Targeted degradation of sense and antisense C9orf72 RNA foci as therapy for ALS and frontotemporal degeneration.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Expanded hexanucleotide repeats in the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) gene are the most common genetic cause of ALS and frontotemporal degeneration (FTD). Here, we identify nuclear RNA foci containing the hexanucleotide expansion (GGGGCC) in patient cells, including white blood cells, fibroblasts, glia, and multiple neuronal cell types (spinal motor, cortical, hippocampal, and cerebellar neurons). RNA foci are not present in sporadic ALS, familial ALS/FTD caused by other mutations (SOD1, TDP-43, or tau), Parkinson disease, or nonneurological controls. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are identified that reduce GGGGCC-containing nuclear foci without altering overall C9orf72 RNA levels. By contrast, siRNAs fail to reduce nuclear RNA foci despite marked reduction in overall C9orf72 RNAs. Sustained ASO-mediated lowering of C9orf72 RNAs throughout the CNS of mice is demonstrated to be well tolerated, producing no behavioral or pathological features characteristic of ALS/FTD and only limited RNA expression alterations. Genome-wide RNA profiling identifies an RNA signature in fibroblasts from patients with C9orf72 expansion. ASOs targeting sense strand repeat-containing RNAs do not correct this signature, a failure that may be explained, at least in part, by discovery of abundant RNA foci with C9orf72 repeats transcribed in the antisense (GGCCCC) direction, which are not affected by sense strand-targeting ASOs. Taken together, these findings support a therapeutic approach by ASO administration to reduce hexanucleotide repeat-containing RNAs and raise the potential importance of targeting expanded RNAs transcribed in both directions.
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A protein A modified Au-graphene oxide composite as an enhanced sensing platform for SPR-based immunoassay.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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A sensitive and selective wavelength modulation surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor is reported with Au nanoparticle decorated graphene oxide (GO) as an enhanced sensing platform. GO sheets possess favourable water dispersibility, good biocompatibility and high loading capacity. An Au-GO composite with the Au spheres size of 15-20 nm was synthesized and modified with staphylococcal protein A (SPA). The as-prepared composite assembles directly onto the Au film surface of the SPR sensor. Meanwhile, SPA specifically recognizes and binds the Fc portion of antibodies, contributing to highly oriented antibody immobilization on the chip surface without any antibody modification. Consequently, the biosensor based on the SPA modified Au-GO composite exhibits a satisfactory response to rabbit IgG in the concentration range of 0.1-50 ?g mL(-1), while the biosensor based on the sole SPA layer for antibody immobilization shows a response in the concentration range of 1.6-50 ?g mL(-1). Experimental results show that the SPA modified Au-GO composite can be successfully used for the signal amplification of immunosensors, thereby improving the sensitivity and obviating the need of chemical modification of the antibody.
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Changes in BMI and waist circumference among primary and secondary school students from 2005 to 2010 in Anhui, China.
Ann. Hum. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Abstract Aim: To examine the change in Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among primary and secondary school students aged 7-18 in Anhui Province between 2005-2010. Subjects and methods: A total of 15 812 primary and secondary school students aged 7-18 were included in two national surveys on students constitution and health in 2005 and 2010 in Anhui Province. Measurements of height, weight and WC were taken by trained investigators. BMI was calculated for each subject. Results: The mean BMI and WC were significantly increased from 2005 to 2010. For boys, mean increases were 0.85?kg/m(2) and 2.01?cm or 0.08 and 0.34 SD score units, while for girls those were 0.39?kg/m(2) and 2.10?cm or 0.20 and 0.39 SD score units (all p?
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Development of new N-Arylbenzamides as STAT3 Dimerization Inhibitors.
Medchemcomm
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2013
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The O-tosylsalicylamide S3I-201 (10) was used as a starting point for design and synthesis of novel STAT-3 dimerization inhibitors with improved drug-like qualities. The phosphonic acid 12d and salicylic acids 13f, 13g with a shorter amide linker lacking the O-tosyl group had improved STAT-3 inhibitory activity. The equivalent potencies observed by the replacement of phosphonic acid moiety of 12d with 5-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid group as in 13f further validates 5-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid as a phosphotyrosine mimic. The salicylic acid 13f displayed improved whole cell activity. The focused library of salicylic acids 13 with benzamide linker indicated that hydrophobic heptyl and cyclohexyl are the best tolerated R groups and a biphenyl ether (as the Ar group) significantly contributes to STAT3 inhibitory activity. Our docking studies indicated that the acidic groups of 12d, 13f and 13g interact in the p-Tyr-705 binding site in a broadly similar manner, while the phenoxybenzoyl group and the cyclohexylbenzyl group occupying pY+1 and pY-X hydrophobic pockets respectively. The in vitro and cell based potency of 13f warrants further development of this scaffold as STAT3 inhibitors.
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The sedative effects and the attenuation of cardiovascular and arousal responses during anesthesia induction and intubation in pediatric patients: a randomized comparison between two different doses of preoperative intranasal dexmedetomidine.
Paediatr Anaesth
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Premedication with intranasal dexmedetomidine (DEX) has shown to be an effective sedative in pediatric patients. This prospective, randomized, and controlled investigation was designed to evaluate whether the difference in intranasal DEX dosing would produce different beneficial effects on the attenuation of cardiovascular and arousal responses during anesthesia induction and intubation.
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A low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP)-like molecule identified from Chlamys farreri participated in immune response against bacterial infection.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is a group of important endocytic receptors contributing to binding ligands and maintaining internal environment. In the present study, an LRP-like molecule was identified from Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri (CfLPR), and its mRNA expression profiles, tissue location, and immunology activities were analyzed to explore its possible function in the innate immune system. The ORF of CfLRP was of 1971 bp encoding a polypeptide of 656 amino acids with ten low-density lipoprotein-receptor YWTD (LY) domains and one scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain. It shared similar structure with out-membrane domains of LRP family members in mammalian. The mRNA transcripts of CfLRP were dominantly expressed in hepatopancreas and mantle (P < 0.01), and its mRNA level in hemocytes was up-regulated (P < 0.01) significantly after the stimulations of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) and ?-glucan. Western blotting assay using polyclonal antibody specific for CfLRP revealed that CfLRP was localized in the plasma. The recombinant protein of CfLRP (rCfLRP) could bind acetylated low density lipoprotein (Ac-LDL), metalloprotease SPF1 of Vibrio splendidus and mannan, but could not bind other typical PAMPs such as LPS, PGN, ?-glucan and zymosan. Meanwhile, rCfLRP also exhibited strong bacteriostatic activity to Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio anguillarum and V. splendidus. These results indicated that CfLRP could serve as a receptor to recognize and eliminate the invading pathogens, which provided a new implication in the function of LRP-like molecules in invertebrate immunity.
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Partial characterization, in vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of patatin purified from potato fruit juice.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Patatin from potato fruit juice was purified by a combination of ultrafiltration and chromatographic techniques. The in vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activity against mouse melanoma B16 cells of patatin were investigated. The results showed that the monosaccharide composition of patatin included rhamnose, mannose, glucose, and galactose with a molar ratio of 41 : 30 : 21 : 8, and patatin consisted of (1 ? 3) linked ?-mannose, (1 ? 4) linked ?-galactose, (1 ? 4) linked ?-glucose, and (1 ? 2) linked ?-rhamnose. Furthermore, patatin possessed significant antioxidant activities measured by scavenging of the DPPH and superoxide free radicals, notable reducing power, protective effects against hydroxyl radical-induced oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation inhibitory. Moreover, patatin was identified as a potent antiproliferative agent against mouse melanoma B16 cells, causing cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Assays of apoptotic cells also showed that patatin treatment at concentrations of 20 mg mL(-1) resulted in a marked reduction of viable cells. These results obtained in in vitro models suggested that patatin may have potential application as a cancer chemopreventive agent and food ingredient.
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[Expression of peroxiredoxin I in the rats exposed to silica].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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To evaluate the change in protein expression of peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) during pulmonary fibrosis among rats exposed to silica dust and to investigate the role of Prx I in pulmonary fibrosis.
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A systematic review and meta-analysis of acute stroke unit care: Whats beyond the statistical significance?
BMC Med Res Methodol
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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The benefits of stroke unit care in terms of reducing death, dependency and institutional care were demonstrated in a 2009 Cochrane review carried out by the Stroke Unit Trialists Collaboration.
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Alantolactone induces cell apoptosis partially through down-regulation of testes-specific protease 50 expression.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Testes-specific protease 50 (TSP50) is aberrantly expressed in many cancer biopsies and plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis, which make it a potential cancer therapeutic target for drug discovery. Here, we constructed a firefly luciferase reporter driven by the TSP50 gene promoter to screen natural compounds capable of inhibiting the expression of TSP50. Then we identified alantolactone, a sesquiterpene lactone, could efficiently inhibit the promoter activity of TSP50 gene, further results revealed that alantolactone also efficiently inhibited the expression of TSP50 in both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, we found alantolactone could increase the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, and activate caspase-9 and caspase-3 in the cancer cells with high expression of TSP50, surprisingly, the same effects can also be observed in the same cells just by knockdown of TSP50 gene expression. Furthermore, our results suggested that overexpression of TSP50 decreased the cell sensitivity to alantolactone-induced apoptosis in those cancer cells. Taken together, these results suggest that alantolactone induces mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis at least partially via down-regulation of TSP50 expression.
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[Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic abnormalities in 387 obese children and adolescents in Beijing, China].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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To determine the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic abnormalities in obese children and adolescents in Beijing.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.