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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Accuracy of real-time tissue elastography for the evaluation of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a prospective multicenter study.
Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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The prognosis and management of hepatic fibrosis are closely related to the stage of the disease. The limitations of liver biopsy, which is the gold standard for treatment, include its invasiveness and sampling error. Ultrasound elasticity might be the most promising imaging technology for the noninvasive and accurate assessment of hepatic fibrosis. Real-time tissue elastography (RTE) measures the relative stiffness of the tissue in the region of interest caused by the heartbeat. Many studies have verified that RTE is useful for the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC).
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Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of Sarcandra glabra polysaccharide in type 2 diabetic mice.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Sarcandra glabra (Thunb.) Nakai is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine and dietary supplement used for treating several diseases. The anti-diabetic activity of S. glabra polysaccharides is reported for the first time. The in vitro ?-glucosidase inhibition assay indicated that the acidic S. glabra polysaccharide (SGP-2) has an IC50 of 87.06 ± 11.76 ?g mL(-1), which was much lower than acarbose at 338.90 ± 46.86 ?g mL(-1). Moreover, high fat diet (HFD) with streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice were administered SGP-2 (150, 300, or 600 mg kg(-1) per day, respectively) for 3 weeks. Postprandial blood glucose levels (PBGL), total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in diabetic mice treated with SGP-2 were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared to those of the model group. The results of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index indicated that SGP-2 could significantly improve (p < 0.05) the insulin resistance and glucose tolerance in diabetic mice. Furthermore, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, hexokinase and pyruvate kinase were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in SGP-2 treated groups. Thus we proposed that SGP-2 exerted hypoglycemic activity by relieving insulin resistance, reducing postprandial blood glucose levels and ameliorating lipid metabolism, as well as alleviating oxidative stress. These data suggested that SGP-2 with anti-hyperglycemic activity could be used in medicinal preparations for diabetes mellitus and its complications.
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Predicting subsequent relapse by drug-related cue-induced brain activation in heroin addiction: an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study.
Addict Biol
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Abnormal salience attribution is implicated in heroin addiction. Previously, combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a drug cue-reactivity task, we demonstrated abnormal patterns of subjective response and brain reactivity in heroin-dependent individuals. However, whether the changes in cue-induced brain response were related to relapse was unknown. In a prospective study, we recruited 49 heroin-dependent patients under methadone maintenance treatment, a gold standard treatment (average daily dose 41.8?±?16.0?mg), and 20 healthy subjects to perform the heroin cue-reactivity task during fMRI. The patients' subjective craving was evaluated. They participated in a follow-up assessment for 3 months, during which heroin use was assessed and relapse was confirmed by self-reported relapse or urine toxicology. Differences between relapsers and non-relapsers were analyzed with respect to the results from heroin-cue responses. Compared with healthy subjects, relapsers and non-relapsers commonly demonstrated significantly increased brain responses during the processing of heroin cues in the mesolimbic system, prefrontal regions and visuospatial-attention regions. However, compared with non-relapsers, relapsers demonstrated significantly greater cue-induced craving and the brain response mainly in the bilateral nucleus accumbens/subcallosal cortex and cerebellum. Although the cue-induced heroin craving was low in absolute measures, the change in craving positively correlated with the activation of the nucleus accumbens/subcallosal cortex among the patients. These findings suggest that in treatment-seeking heroin-dependent individuals, greater cue-induced craving and greater specific regional activations might be related to reward/craving and memory retrieval processes. These responses may predict relapse and represent important targets for the development of new treatment for heroin addiction.
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Nanosuspension Development of Scutellarein as an Active and Rapid Orally Absorbed Precursor of its BCS Class IV Glycoside Scutellarin.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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This work addressed solubility and membrane permeability problems of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) Class IV glycoside scutellarin (SG) by developing a nanosuspension of its aglycone scutellarein (S) as a precursor. An S nanosuspension containing poloxamer 188 was prepared using antisolvent precipitation where hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin was utilized as a lyophilizing protectant. Particle size and polydispersity index after redispersion were 342.6 ± 18.2 and 0.32 ± 0.06 nm, respectively. The dissolution rate of the S nanosuspension was superior compared with the physical mixture. No free S, but SG and SG's isomer were detected in plasma following oral delivery of SG or S, S nanosuspension or physical mixture of S. The Cmax values of SG after dosing with the S nanosuspension were 12.0, 8.0, and 4.5-fold higher than the SG, S, or physical mixture, respectively. The Tmax and mean residence time (MRTlast ) of SG after dosing with the S nanosuspension were significantly shorter than S and SG. Treatments with SG, S, or S nanosuspensions reduced the hemorrhage rate in a zebrafish model, but the S nanosuspension exhibited the strongest rescue effect. This study highlights a new strategy to circumvent BCS Class IV flavonoid glycosides using a formulation of their aglycone as a precursor to accelerate oral absorption and improve bioactivity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:3576-3584, 2014.
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Recognition of Bungarus multicinctus venom by a DNA aptamer against ?-bungarotoxin.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Antibody-based technology is the main method for diagnosis and treatment of snake bite envenoming currently. However, the development of an antibody, polyclonal or monoclonal, is a complicated and costly procedure. Aptamers are single stranded oligonucleotides that recognize specific targets such as proteins and have shown great potential over the years as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. In contrast to antibodies, aptamers can be selected in vitro without immunization of animals, and synthesized chemically with extreme accuracy, low cost and high degree of purity. In this study we firstly report on the identification of DNA aptamers that bind to ?-bungarotoxin (?-BuTx), a neurotoxin from the venom of Bungarus multicinctus. A plate-SELEX method was used for the selection of ?-BuTx specific aptamers. After 10 rounds of selection, four aptamer candidates were obtained, with the dissociation constant ranged from 65.9 nM to 995 nM measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. Competitive binding assays using both the fluorescently labeled and unlabeled aptamers revealed that the four aptamers bound to the same binding site of ?-BuTx. The best binder, ?B-1, bound specifically to ?-BuTx, but not to BSA, casein or ?-Bungarotoxin. Moreover, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and enzyme-linked aptamer assay demonstrated that ?B-1 could discriminate B. multicinctus venom from other snake venoms tested. The results suggest that aptamer ?B-1 can serve as a useful tool for the design and development of drugs and diagnostic tests for ?-BuTx poisoning and B. multicinctus bites.
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Dual specificity phosphatase 4 gene expression in association with triple-negative breast cancer outcome.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive cancer with limited treatment options. Dual specificity phosphatase 4 (DUSP4) has recently been suggested as a potential marker of chemotherapy resistance for TNBC. DUSP4 gene expression levels were measured in breast cancer tissue from 469 TNBC patients aged 20-75 years who participated in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study, and their association with recurrence/breast cancer mortality and total mortality was evaluated. Information on breast cancer diagnosis, treatment, and disease progression was collected via medical chart review and multiple in-person follow-up surveys. A Cox regression model was applied in the data analyses. Over a median follow-up of 5.3 years (range: 0.7-8.9 years), 100 deaths and 92 recurrences/breast cancer deaths were documented. Expression levels of transcript variant 1 (NM_001394) and transcript variant 2 (NM_057158) of the DUSP4 gene were studied and were highly correlated (r = 0.76). Low DUSP4 expression levels, particularly of variant 1, were associated with both increased recurrence/breast cancer mortality and increased overall mortality. Hazard ratios with adjustment for age at diagnosis and TNM stage associated with below versus above the median expression level were 1.97 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.27-3.05) for recurrence/breast cancer mortality and 2.09 (95 % CI: 1.38-3.17) for overall mortality. Additional adjustment for expression levels of MKI67 and TP53, common treatment types, breast cancer subtype, and grade did not materially alter the observed associations. Low DUSP4 expression levels predict recurrence and mortality in TNBC patients independently from known clinical and molecular predictors.
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Genome-wide association analysis in East Asians identifies breast cancer susceptibility loci at 1q32.1, 5q14.3 and 15q26.1.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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In a three-stage genome-wide association study among East Asian women including 22,780 cases and 24,181 controls, we identified 3 genetic loci newly associated with breast cancer risk, including rs4951011 at 1q32.1 (in intron 2 of the ZC3H11A gene; P=8.82×10(-9)), rs10474352 at 5q14.3 (near the ARRDC3 gene; P=1.67×10(-9)) and rs2290203 at 15q26.1 (in intron 14 of the PRC1 gene; P=4.25×10(-8)). We replicated these associations in 16,003 cases and 41,335 controls of European ancestry (P=0.030, 0.004 and 0.010, respectively). Data from the ENCODE Project suggest that variants rs4951011 and rs10474352 might be located in an enhancer region and transcription factor binding sites, respectively. This study provides additional insights into the genetics and biology of breast cancer.
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Long-term cognitive function change among breast cancer survivors.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Cognitive decline is a common health problem among breast cancer patients and understanding trajectories of cognitive change following among breast cancer survivors is an important public health goal. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the cognitive function changes from 18 month to 3 years after breast cancer diagnosis among participants of the Shanghai Breast cancer survivor study, a population-based cohort study of breast cancer survivors. In our study, we completed cognitive function evaluation for 1,300 breast cancer survivors at the 18th month's survey and 1,059 at 36th month's survey, respectively, using a battery of cognitive function measurements. We found the scores in attention and executive function, immediate memory and delayed memory significantly improved from 18 to 36 months after breast cancer diagnosis. The improvements appeared in breast cancer survivors receiving treatments (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, tamoxifen, or chemotherapy combined with or without tamoxifen), but not in those who received neither chemotherapy nor tamoxifen treatment. The results indicate that cognitive functions, particularly immediate verbal episodic memory, and delayed memory significantly improved among breast cancer survivors from 18 to 36 months after cancer diagnosis. In general, comorbidity was inversely associated with the improvements.
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Restraint of the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells by a nonfouling zwitterionic hydrogel.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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The success of human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) therapies is largely dependent on the ability to maintain the multipotency of cells and control their differentiation. External biochemical and biophysical cues can readily trigger hMSCs to spontaneously differentiate, thus resulting in a rapid decrease in the multipotent cell population and compromising their regenerative capacity. Herein, we demonstrate that nonfouling hydrogels composed of pure poly(carboxybetaine) (PCB) enable hMSCs to retain their stem-cell phenotype and multipotency, independent of differentiation-promoting media, cytoskeletal-manipulation agents, and the stiffness of the hydrogel matrix. Moreover, encapsulated hMSCs can be specifically induced to differentiate down osteogenic or adipogenic pathways by controlling the content of fouling moieties in the PCB hydrogel. This study examines the critical role of nonspecific interactions in stem-cell differentiation and highlights the importance of materials chemistry in maintaining stem-cell multipotency and controlling differentiation.
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pH-responsive thiolated chitosan nanoparticles for oral low-molecular weight heparin delivery: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Abstract The aim of present study was to investigate a pH-responsive and mucoadhesive nanoparticle system for oral bioavailability enhancement of low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH). The thioglycolic acid (TGA) was first covalently attached to chitosan (CS) with 396.97?±?54.54??mol thiol groups per gram of polymer and then the nanoparticles were prepared with thiolated chitosan (TCS) and pH-sensitive polymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP) by ionic cross-linking method. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized for the shape, particle size, zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency and loading capacity. In vitro results revealed the acid stability of pH-responsive nanoparticles, which had a significant control over LMWH release and could effectively protect entrapped drugs in simulated gastric conditions. By the attachment of the thiol ligand, an improvement of permeation-enhancing effect on freshly excised carp intestine (1.86-fold improvement) could be found. The mucoadhesive properties were evaluated using fluorescently labeled TCS or CS nanoparticles. As compared with the controls, a significant improvement of mucoadhesion on rat intestinal mucosa was observed in TCS/HPMCP nanoparticles via confocal laser scanning microscopy. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was significantly prolonged and an increase in the oral bioavailability of LMWH was turned out to be pronounced after oral delivered LMWH-loaded TCS/HPMCP nanoparticles in rats, which suggested enhanced anticoagulant effects and improved absorption of LMWH. In conclusion, pH-responsive TCS/HPMCP nanoparticles hold promise for oral delivery of LMWH.
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Optimal cutoff of the waist-to-hip ratio for detecting cardiovascular risk factors among Han adults in Xinjiang.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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The optimal cutoff of the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) among Han adults in Xinjiang, which is located in the center of Asia, is unknown. We aimed to examine the relationship between different WHRs and cardiovascular risk factors among Han adults in Xinjiang, and determine the optimal cutoff of the WHR.
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Potential association of hyperhomocysteinemia with the progression of IgA nephropathy: a retrospective study.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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The high blood homocysteine (Hcy) levels found in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) have been implicated in an increased risk of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study investigated the association of HHcy with progression of IgA nephropathy.
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Best Anthropometric and Atherogenic Predictors of Metabolic Syndrome in the Chinese Han Population in Xinjiang: The Cardiovascular Risk Survey.
Ann. Nutr. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Objective: This study aimed to identify the best predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS) by comparing the predicting ability of various anthropometric and atherogenic parameters in the Chinese Han population in Xinjiang. Methods: A representative, cross-sectional sample of 5,757 Chinese Han adults were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey conducted from October 2007 to March 2010. MetS prevalence, area under the curve (AUC), distance on the receiver operating characteristic curve and the cut-offs of each variable were compared for the presence of MetS. Results: According to the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) and the Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII), 32.1, 48.5, 39.3% of men and 38.0, 45.1, 44.9% of women had MetS in Xinjiang. According to the IDF criteria, the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) had the highest AUC value in men (0.836) and women (0.837), with the optimal cut-off of 0.54 in men and 0.53 in women. According to both the JIS and ATPIII criteria, triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol TG/HDL-C had the highest AUC value in men (0.830 and 0.833, respectively) and women (0.832 and 0.827, respectively), with the optimal cut-offs being 1.6 and 1.2 in men and 1.1 and 1.1 in women, respectively. Conclusion: WHtR was the best predictor of MetS according to the IDF criteria while TG/HDL-C was the best predictor of MetS according to the JIS and ATPIII criteria. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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-94 ATTG insertion/deletion polymorphism of the NFKB1 gene is associated with coronary artery disease in Han and Uygur women in China.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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The nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) signaling pathway plays a key role in the regulatory network of inflammation. The deletion variant allele of the NFKB1-94 insertion/deletion (ins/del) ATTG promoter polymorphism results in lower transcription levels of the p50 subunit, and the variant allele has been associated with several inflammatory diseases as well as with coronary artery disease (CAD) with inflammation playing an important part in the pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the human NFKB1 gene polymorphism and CAD in a Han and Uygur population of China.
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[Inhibitory effects of epileptic spikes on theta rhythm in rat pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy].
Sheng Li Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Epilepsy clinically has an inhibitory impact on cognitive function, but whether it is associated with epileptogenesis is unclear. Since the epileptic spike characterizes temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the present study was aimed to analyze the transient effects of sporadic spikes (SSs) on theta rhythm during epileptogenesis. The local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded in CA1 area in four rats with the pilocarpine injections during exploration, and theta phase stability and power were globally estimated around SSs, also during prolonged period without SS (both as experiments) as well as pre-injections (control). Finally, the LFPs were simulated by changing the average excitatory and inhibitory synaptic gain values (including slow and fast inhibition loops) with the help of simplified dynamical model of CA1 networks, and then theta phase stability was evaluated in several cases. It was found that the SSs could have negative impacts on theta rhythm both transiently and persistently, which may be dependent on the temporal courses leading to epilepsy, being acuter in early stage than later stage, but even in latent stage, theta power was strong. The simulations partly demonstrated that the synaptic imbalance concomitant with the occurrence of SSs might be related to the dynamics of theta phase stability. The results indicate that the SSs might have persistent negative impacts on the cognition rhythm, and the effects might alter during epileptogenesis, leading to the cognitive dysfunction.
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The survival and the long-term trends of patients with gastric cancer in Shanghai, China.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Gastric cancer remains a major health issue and a leading cause of death worldwide. This study presented a long-term survival data of gastric cancer registered in Shanghai of China from 1972-2003, with aims to describe the trends as well as the age, sex, stage and tumor sites specific characteristics.
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[The influence of fibronectin on the formation of multi-cellular spheroid of ovarian cancer].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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To investigate the role of Fibronectin in the formation of multi-cellular spheroid of ovarian cancer and the integrin receptor involved in the process.
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Correlation of ADC value with pathologic indexes in colorectal tumor homografts in Balb/c mouse.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Noninvasive diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is a well-studied MR imaging technique for quantifying water diffusion especially in tumor area. The correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and apoptosis or proliferation is not clear by now. This study aimed to investigate whether DWI-ADC value could be used as an imaging marker related with pathologic indexes of tumors.
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The ERK/eIF4F/Bcl-XL pathway mediates SGP-2 induced osteosarcoma cells apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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The aim of this study is to assess the molecular foundation of anti-tumor activity of SGP-2 in osteosarcoma cells. SGP-2 significantly blocks cell proliferation in human osteosarcoma U2OS cell model and inhibits tumor growth without causing apparent toxicity effect in mouse sarcoma S-180 cell-derived tumor model. Moreover, SGP-2 induces intrinsic apoptosis including the activation of caspase-3/7/9, the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m), and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondrion, controlled by the down-regulation of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-XL). Further research reveals that SGP-2 inhibits the assembly of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) complex which is responsible for the decline of Bcl-XL. Finally, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) controls SGP-2 induced intrinsic apoptosis. Taken together, SGP-2 exerts anti-tumor effect through intrinsic apoptotic pathway controlled by ERK/eIF4F/Bcl-XL pathway.
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Coupling between gamma-band power and cerebral blood volume during recurrent acute neocortical seizures.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Characterization of neural and hemodynamic biomarkers of epileptic activity that can be measured using non-invasive techniques is fundamental to the accurate identification of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) in the clinical setting. Recently, oscillations at gamma-band frequencies and above (>30 Hz) have been suggested to provide valuable localizing information of the EZ and track cortical activation associated with epileptogenic processes. Although a tight coupling between gamma-band activity and hemodynamic-based signals has been consistently demonstrated in non-pathological conditions, very little is known about whether such a relationship is maintained in epilepsy and the laminar etiology of these signals. Confirmation of this relationship may elucidate the underpinnings of perfusion-based signals in epilepsy and the potential value of localizing the EZ using hemodynamic correlates of pathological rhythms. Here, we use concurrent multi-depth electrophysiology and 2-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy to examine the coupling between multi-band neural activity and cerebral blood volume (CBV) during recurrent acute focal neocortical seizures in the urethane-anesthetized rat. We show a powerful correlation between gamma-band power (25-90 Hz) and CBV across cortical laminae, in particular layer 5, and a close association between gamma measures and multi-unit activity (MUA). Our findings provide insights into the laminar electrophysiological basis of perfusion-based imaging signals in the epileptic state and may have implications for further research using non-invasive multi-modal techniques to localize epileptogenic tissue.
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Incidence and survival analysis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in shanghai: a population-based study from 2001 to 2010.
Gastroenterol Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Objectives. A population-based study was undertaken to investigate the epidemiological features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) in Shanghai, especially the incidence and the preliminary exploration of survival. Methods. A total of 1923 patients with GISTs diagnosed from 2001 to 2010 in Shanghai were reviewed. The annual incidence and overall survival of GISTs were calculated; Cox proportional hazards' regression was used to analyze several prognostic factors. Results. The average crude incidence of GISTs was 2.11 per 100,000 between 2004 and 2008, and the age-standardized incidence was 1.28 per 100,000. The incidence increased gradually from 2004 to 2008. In addition, 57% of cases had GIST in the stomach and 33% in the intestine. The 5-year overall survival of GISTs was 86.98%. The Cox regression analysis showed older age (?65?yr versus <40?yr, HR = 5.085; (40, 65)?yr versus <40?yr, HR = 1.975), male gender (HR = 1.474), and tumor locations (intestinal versus stomach, HR = 1.609) were predictors of its mortality. Conclusion. GISTs, mainly occurring in the stomach, are more common in elderly population, with an increasing incidence from 2004 to 2008. Older age, male gender, and tumor locations are risk factors for its mortality.
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Effects of postmastectomy radiotherapy on prognosis in different tumor stages of breast cancer patients with positive axillary lymph nodes.
Cancer Biol Med
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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To explore the effects of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) on the locoregional failure-free survival (LRFFS) and overall survival (OS) of breast cancer patients under different tumor stages and with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes (ALNs).
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Urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress and breast cancer survival.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Systemic oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of many chronic diseases, including breast cancer. No studies have investigated F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs), valid biomarkers of systemic oxidative stress, in association with breast cancer prognosis. We conducted a nested case-control study in a prospective breast cancer survivor cohort to investigate systemic oxidative stress and survival.
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Bilaterally symmetrical congenital absence of radial artery: a case report.
BMC Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The radial artery is used for the access of coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention, as well as for coronary artery bypass surgery. Variations of upper limb arteries are common, however, congenital absence of radial artery is scarce, and most cases were unilateral radial artery absence.
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Effects of genipin cross-linking of chitosan hydrogels on cellular adhesion and viability.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of genipin (Gp) cross-linking of chitosan (CHI) hydrogels on the cell adhesion and viability.
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Association of Egr3 genetic polymorphisms and coronary artery disease in the Uygur and Han of China.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Endothelial cell activation and dysfunction are the foundation of atherosclerosis, including coronary artery disease (CAD). Endothelial cell activation is mediated by the level of gene transcription. Early growth response 3 (Egr3) is a critical determinant of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signalling in activated endothelial cells. If endothelial cells are excessively activated, it may lead to vasculopathic diseases, such as pathologic angiogenesis, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the Egr3 gene polymorphisms and CAD.
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Lactoferrin suppresses the Epstein-Barr virus-induced inflammatory response by interfering with pattern recognition of TLR2 and TLR9.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection contributes to tumorigenesis of various human malignancies including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). EBV triggers innate immune and inflammatory responses partly through Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. Lactoferrin (LF), with its anti-inflammatory properties, is an important component of the innate immune system. We previously reported that LF protects human B lymphocytes from EBV infection by its ability to bind to the EBV receptor CD21, but whether LF can suppress EBV-induced inflammation is unclear. Here, we report that LF reduced synthesis of IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) induced by EBV in macrophages via its suppression of NF-?B activity. LF interacted with TLR2 and interfered with EBV-triggered TLR2-NF-?B activation. LF inhibited the ability of TLR9 to recognize dsDNA by binding to its co-receptor CD14, which blocked the interaction between CD14 and TLR9. EBV-induced inflammation was thus aggravated in the presence of CD14. In addition, LF expression levels were significantly downregulated in NPC specimens, and correlated inversely with IL-8 and MCP-1 expression. These findings suggest that LF may suppress the EBV-induced inflammatory response through interfering with the activation of TLR2 and TLR9.
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Curcumin inhibits lung cancer cell migration and invasion through Rac1-dependent signaling pathway.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Curcumin, a natural and crystalline compound isolated from the plant Curcuma longa with low toxicity in normal cells, has been shown to protect against carcinogenesis and prevent tumor development. However, little is known about antimetastasis effects and mechanism of curcumin in lung cancer. Rac1 is an important small Rho GTPases family protein and has been widely implicated in cytoskeleton rearrangements and cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. In this study, we examined the influence of curcumin on in vitro invasiveness of human lung cancer cells and the expressions of Rac1. The results indicate that curcumin at 10 ?M slightly reduced the proliferation of 801D lung cancer cells but showed an obvious inhibitory effect on epidermal growth factor or transforming growth factor ?1-induced lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Meanwhile, we demonstrated that the suppression of invasiveness correlated with inhibition of Rac1/PAK1 signaling pathways and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9 protein expression by combining curcumin treatment with the methods of Rac1 gene silence and overexpression in lung cancer cells. Laser confocal microscope also showed that Rac1-regulated actin cytoskeleton rearrangement may be involved in anti-invasion effect of curcumin on lung cancer cell. At last, through xenograft experiments, we confirmed the connection between Rac1 and the growth and metastasis inhibitory effect of curcumin in vivo. In summary, these data demonstrated that low-toxic levels of curcumin could efficiently inhibit migration and invasion of lung cancer cells through inhibition of Rac1/PAK1 signaling pathway and MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression, which provided a novel insight into the molecular mechanism of curcumin against lung cancer.
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microRNA-423-3p promotes tumor progression via modulation of AdipoR2 in laryngeal carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Despite of the variety of combined modality treatments for laryngeal carcinoma have been introduced, the distance recurrence rate and 5-year overall survival rate over the past decades are still the major issues, underlining the importance to better understand the biological bases that contribute to disease progression. Here, we reported that miR-423-3p overexpressed in primary laryngeal carcinoma cell line where it plays a critical role in tumor progression. Suppression of miR-423-3p expression resulted in decreasing cell proliferation, clonogenicity, cell migration and invasion. By using in silico prediction algorithms for target identification, AdipoR2 (adiponectin receptor 2) and DUSP4 (MAP kinase phosphatase 2) were identified to be potential targets of miR-423-3p. Overexpression of miR-423-3p was associated with epigenetic silencing of AdipoR2 in human laryngeal carcinoma samples, which have been previously implicated in suppression of tumor proliferation and angiogenesis. Luciferase reporter assays and western blot further confirmed the direct interaction of miR-423-3p with AdipoR2. Our findings have demonstrated that miR-423-3p plays an important oncogenic role in laryngeal carcinoma progression, and further suggest that suppression of miR-423-3p expression might be useful for its clinical management.
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Lactoferrin deficiency promotes colitis-associated colorectal dysplasia in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nonresolving inflammatory processes affect all stages of carcinogenesis. Lactoferrin, a member of the transferrin family, is involved in the innate immune response and anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-tumor activities. We previously found that lactoferrin is significantly down-regulated in specimens of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and negatively associated with tumor progression, metastasis, and prognosis of patients with NPC. Additionally, lactoferrin expression levels are decreased in colorectal cancer as compared with normal tissue. Lactoferrin levels are also increased in the various phases of inflammation and dysplasia in an azoxymethane-dextran sulfate sodium (AOM-DSS) model of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). We thus hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory function of lactoferrin may contribute to its anti-tumor activity. Here we generated a new Lactoferrin knockout mouse model in which the mice are fertile, develop normally, and display no gross morphological abnormalities. We then challenged these mice with chemically induced intestinal inflammation to investigate the role of lactoferrin in inflammation and cancer development. Lactoferrin knockout mice demonstrated a great susceptibility to inflammation-induced colorectal dysplasia, and this characteristic may be related to inhibition of NF-?B and AKT/mTOR signaling as well as regulation of cell apoptosis and proliferation. Our results suggest that the protective roles of lactoferrin in colorectal mucosal immunity and inflammation-related malignant transformation, along with a deficiency in certain components of the innate immune system, may lead to serious consequences under conditions of inflammatory insult.
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Epidemiological analysis of trauma patients following the Lushan earthquake.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A 7.0-magnitude earthquake hit Lushan County in China's Sichuan province on April 20, 2013, resulting in 196 deaths and 11,470 injured. This study was designed to analyze the characteristics of the injuries and the treatment of the seismic victims.
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Characteristics of HIV-1 natural drug resistance-associated mutations in former paid blood donors in Henan Province, China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Natural drug resistance is a major cause of antiviral treatment failure. The characteristics of HIV-1 natural drug resistance-associated mutations in former paid blood donors in Henan Province remain unclear.
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Efficient and Bright Colloidal Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes via Controlling the Shell Thickness of Quantum Dots.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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In this paper, we use a simple device architecture based on solution-processed ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) as the electron injection/transport layer and bilayer structure of poly(ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/poly[9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-[4-(3-methylpropyl)]-diphenylamine] (TFB) as the hole injection/transport layer to assess the effect of shell thickness on the properties of quantum-dot-based light emitting diodes (QD-LEDs), comprising CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-shell QDs as the emitting layer. QDs with varying shell thickness were assessed to determine the best option of shell thickness, and the best improvement in device performance was observed when the shell thickness was 2.1 nm. Thereafter, different emissions of QDs, but with optimized same shell thickness (?2.1 nm), were selected as emitters to be fabricated into same structured QD-LEDs. Highly bright orange-red and green QD-LEDs with peak luminances up to ?30?000 and ?52?000 cd m(-2), and power efficiencies of 16 and 19.7 lm W(-1), respectively, were demonstrated successfully. These results may demonstrate a striking basic prototype for the commercialization of QD-based displays and solid-state lightings.
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Highly efficient near-infrared light-emitting diodes by using type-II CdTe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots as a phosphor.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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In this paper, we present an innovative method for the synthesis of CdTe/CdSe type-II core/shell structure quantum dots (QDs) using greener chemicals. The PL of CdTe/CdSe type-II core/shell structure QDs ranges from 600 to 820 nm, and the as-synthesized core/shell structures show narrow size distributions and stable and high quantum yields (50–75%). Highly efficient near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been demonstrated by employing the CdTe/CdSe type-II core/shell QDs as emitters. The devices fabricated based on these type-II core/shell QDs show color-saturated near-infrared emission from the QD layers, a low turn-on voltage of 1.55 V, an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 1.59%, and a current density and maximum radiant emittance of 2.1 × 10(3) mA cm?2 and 17.7 mW cm?2 at 8 V; it is the first report to use type-II core/shell QDs as near-infrared emitters and these results may offer a practicable platform for the realization of near-infrared QD-based light-emitting diodes, night-vision-readable displays, and friend/foe identification system.
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Takagi--Sugeno Model Based Analysis of EWMA RtR Control of Batch Processes With Stochastic Metrology Delay and Mixed Products.
IEEE Trans Cybern
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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In many batch-based industrial manufacturing processes, feedback run-to-run control is used to improve production quality. However, measurements may be expensive and cannot always be performed online. Thus, the measurement delay always exists. The metrology delay will affect the stability and performance of the process. Moreover, since quality measurements are performed offline, delay is not fixed but is stochastic in nature. In this paper, a modeling approach Takagi--Sugeno (T--S) model is presented to handle stochastic metrology delay in both single-product and mixed-product processes. Based on the Markov characteristics of the delay, the membership of the T--S model is derived. Performance indices such as the mean and the variance of the closed-loop output of the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control algorithm can be derived. A steady-state error of the process output always exists, which leads the output deviating from the target. To remove the steady-state error, an algorithm called compensatory EWMA run-to-run (COM-EWMA-RtR) algorithm is proposed. The validity of the T--S model analysis and the efficiency of the proposed COM-EWMA-RtR algorithm are confirmed by simulation.
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[Genetic evolution analysis of matrix protein 2 gene of avian influenza H5N1 viruses from boundary of Yunnan province].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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To elucidate the variation in characterizations and genetic evolution of the matrix protein 2 or ion channel protein(M2) genes of avian influenza subtype H5N1 viruses in the boundary region of Yunnan province from 2008 to 2012.
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Retention of ?-helical structure by HDL mimetic peptide ATI-5261 upon extensive dilution represents an important determinant for stimulating ABCA1 cholesterol efflux with high efficiency.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2013
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ATI-5261 is a novel, single-helix peptide that stimulates cellular cholesterol efflux with high potency similar to native apolipoproteins on a molar basis. Presently we investigated structural features of the peptide that conferred cholesterol efflux activity. Analogs of ATI-5261 with amino acids arranged in reverse order or with individual arginine (R) to glutamine (Q) substitutions (i.e. R3Q, R14Q, or R23Q) stimulated ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux similar to ATI-5261. Consequently, neither the presence of specific positively charged residues nor their specific arrangement along the length of the peptide was necessary for mediating cholesterol efflux. Similarly, peptides composed of all d-amino acids stimulated cholesterol efflux efficiently, indicating a stereospecific component was not required for promotion of cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Removal of two or more positively charged residues (R3, 14?Q and R3, 14, 23?Q) however, greatly reduced the ability of ATI-5261 to mediate cellular cholesterol efflux. This was accompanied by a loss of ?-helical structure upon dilution, indicating the secondary structure of individual peptide strands was important for stimulating cholesterol efflux. Surprisingly, peptides with removal of two or more positively charged residues retained the ability to bind phospholipid and adopt an ?-helical structure. These data indicate that the propensity of a hydrophobic peptide to form an amphipathic ?-helix is not sufficient to mediate cellular cholesterol efflux. Efficient stimulation of cholesterol efflux requires that ATI-5261 retain ?-helical structure upon dilution.
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Modeling hard clinical end-point data in economic analyses.
J Med Econ
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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The availability of hard clinical end-point data, such as that on cardiovascular (CV) events among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, is increasing, and as a result there is growing interest in using hard end-point data of this type in economic analyses. This study investigated published approaches for modeling hard end-points from clinical trials and evaluated their applicability in health economic models with different disease features.
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[The difference of IL-28B polymorphisms between hepatitis C patients with and without cryoglobulinemia].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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To determine whether patients infected with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) show a differential distribution profile of IL-28B polymorphisms according to the presence of concomitant cryoglobulinemia.
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Targeting protein kinase CK2 suppresses prosurvival signaling pathways and growth of glioblastoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Gliomas are the most frequently occurring primary malignancies in the brain, and glioblastoma is the most aggressive of these tumors. Protein kinase CK2 is composed of two catalytic subunits (? and/or ?) and two ? regulatory subunits. CK2 suppresses apoptosis, promotes neoangiogenesis, and enhances activation of the JAK/STAT, NF-?B, PI3K/AKT, Hsp90, Wnt, and Hedgehog pathways. Aberrant activation of the NF-?B, PI3K/AKT, and JAK/STAT-3 pathways is implicated in glioblastoma progression. As CK2 is involved in their activation, the expression and function of CK2 in glioblastoma was evaluated. Experimental Design and
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[Genetic evolution of non-structural gene among avian influenza H5N1 viruses isolated from the boundary of Yunnan province].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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To elucidate the characteristics of variation and the genetic evolution of non-structural protein (NS1, NS2) genes related to avian influenza subtype H5N1 viruses isolated from the boundary region of Yunnan province.
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Associations of reproductive time events and intervals with breast cancer risk: A report from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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While there is clear evidence for an association between later age at first live birth and increased breast cancer risk, associations with the timing of other reproductive events are less clear. As breast tissues undergo major structural and cellular changes during pregnancy, we examined associations between reproductive time events and intervals with breast cancer risk among parous women from the population-based Shanghai Breast Cancer Study (SBCS). Unconditional logistic regression was used to evaluate associations with breast cancer risk for 3,269 cases and 3,341 controls. In addition to later age at first live birth, later ages at first pregnancy and last pregnancy were significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk (p-trend?=?0.002, 0.015, 0.008, respectively); longer intervals from menarche to first or last live birth were also associated with increased risk (p-trend?
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Formation of microvascular networks in vitro.
Nat Protoc
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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This protocol describes how to form a 3D cell culture with explicit, endothelialized microvessels. The approach leads to fully enclosed, perfusable vessels in a bioremodelable hydrogel (type I collagen). The protocol uses microfabrication to enable user-defined geometries of the vascular network and microfluidic perfusion to control mass transfer and hemodynamic forces. These microvascular networks (?VNs) allow for multiweek cultures of endothelial cells or cocultures with parenchymal or tissue cells in the extra-lumen space. The platform enables real-time fluorescence imaging of living engineered tissues, in situ confocal fluorescence of fixed cultures and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging of histological sections. This protocol enables studies of basic vascular and blood biology, provides a model for diseases such as tumor angiogenesis or thrombosis and serves as a starting point for constructing prevascularized tissues for regenerative medicine. After one-time microfabrication steps, the system can be assembled in less than 1 d and experiments can run for weeks.
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A novel polymorphism (901G > a) of C5L2 gene is associated with coronary artery disease in Chinese Han and Uyghur population.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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C5L2, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), has been demonstrated to be a ligand for acylation-stimulating protein (ASP). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association of a novel variation (901A > G) of C5L2 gene with coronary artery disease (CAD).
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[Recent incidences and trends of childhood malignant solid tumors in Shanghai, 2002-2010].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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To examine the recent incidences and trends of childhood malignant solid tumors in Shanghai.
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Cost-effectiveness of new oral anticoagulants in the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia and the leading cause of stroke, an event with high human and economic burden. Novel oral anticoagulants have been approved in many markets as alternatives to warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with AF - dabigatran etexilate, apixaban and rivaroxaban. Given the high burden of AF, and given that new treatments can more effectively prevent stroke than warfarin, but at higher drug cost, there has been a need for systematic evaluation of the costs and benefits of these new treatments. In this study, we summarize the findings of a systematic literature review on the cost-effectiveness of the new oral anticoagulants. We find that there is substantial heterogeneity between the studies and their numerical findings, despite using a common set of four trials for their clinical inputs. However, there is broad consensus among them that each of the novel oral anticoagulants is cost-effective versus warfarin or aspirin.
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No association between genetic variants in angiogenesis and inflammation pathway genes and breast cancer survival among Chinese women.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Angiogenesis and inflammation are implicated in breast cancer prognosis; however, the role of individual germline variation in related genes is unknown.
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Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system for atypical endometrial hyperplasia.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynaecologic malignancy in the world and develops through preliminary stages of endometrial hyperplasia. Typical endometrial hyperplasia suggests a significant pre-malignant state with frank progression to endometrial carcinoma. Because atypical endometrial hyperplasia tends to occur at a young age, it has become increasingly important and necessary to find a safe and effective fertility-sparing treatment with better tolerability and fewer side effects than the options for treatment that are currently available. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system has already been used to provide endometrial protection in women with breast cancer who are on adjuvant tamoxifen. The antiproliferative function of levonorgestrel is thought to reduce the risk of endometrial hyperplasia.
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The ubiquitin ligase Stub1 negatively modulates regulatory T cell suppressive activity by promoting degradation of the transcription factor Foxp3.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress inflammatory immune responses and autoimmunity caused by self-reactive T cells. The key Treg cell transcription factor Foxp3 is downregulated during inflammation to allow for the acquisition of effector T cell-like functions. Here, we demonstrate that stress signals elicited by proinflammatory cytokines and lipopolysaccharides lead to the degradation of Foxp3 through the action of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Stub1. Stub1 interacted with Foxp3 to promote its K48-linked polyubiquitination in an Hsp70-dependent manner. Knockdown of endogenous Stub1 or Hsp70 prevented Foxp3 degradation. Furthermore, the overexpression of Stub1 in Treg cells abrogated their ability to suppress inflammatory immune responses in vitro and in vivo and conferred a T-helper-1-cell-like phenotype. Our results demonstrate the critical role of the stress-activated Stub1-Hsp70 complex in promoting Treg cell inactivation, thus providing a potential therapeutic target for the intervention against autoimmune disease, infection, and cancer.
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White matter impairment in chronic heroin dependence: a quantitative DTI study.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Exposure to addictive drugs has been associated with disrupted brain white matter integrity. A few studies have examined the white matter deficits in heroin users; however, the results were influenced by the use of substitution drugs such as methadone and buprenorphine. The present study assessed the alteration in white matter integrity and heroin-related neuropathology in heroin dependents who had not received any replacement therapy using quantitative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The study comprised 17 heroin-dependent (HD) subjects and 15 matched healthy controls (HC). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and eigenvalues (??, ?||) of white matter in the whole brain were measured and compared using a voxel-based analysis. The correlation between DTI measurements in identified regions and history of heroin exposure was tested by partial correlation analysis. Compared with HCs, HD subjects displayed decreased FA in the bilateral frontal lobe sub-gyrus, cingulate gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, extra-nuclear, left temporal lobe sub-gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus. Among these regions, the HD group had significantly increased ?? in the bilateral frontal lobe sub-gyrus, cingulate gyrus and extra-nuclear relative to the HC group. There were no group differences in ?||. In addition, there were no significant correlations between duration of heroin use or accumulated dosage and FA or ?? values. In conclusion, chronic heroin-dependent subjects had widespread disruption of white matter structural connectivity located mainly in anterior and superior regions of the brain. Damage to myelin other than axons was the primary pathological feature in the brain of the heroin user.
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Genetic variation in Tanis was associated with elevating plasma triglyceride level in Chinese nondiabetic subjects.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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The association of genetic polymorphisms of Tanis with triglyceride concentration in human has not been thoroughly examined. We aimed to investigate the relationship between triglyceride concentrations and Tanis genetic polymorphisms.
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Stability of nanosuspensions in drug delivery.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
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Nanosuspensions are nanosized colloidal dispersion systems that are stabilized by surfactants and/or polymers. Because nanosizing results in the creation of new interfaces and in a positive Gibbs free energy change, nanosuspensions are thermodynamically unstable systems with a tendency toward agglomeration or crystal growth. Despite extensive research on nanosuspension technology, stability remains a limitation for pharmaceutical or industrial applications of nanosuspensions. Furthermore, the empirical relationship between stabilizer efficacy and nanosuspension stability has not been well characterized. This review focuses on the issue of nanosuspension stability in drug delivery to present the state of the art of nanosuspensions. Therefore, this review will discuss unstable suspensions, methods and guidelines for selecting and optimizing stabilizers, approaches for enhancing stability, and other factors that influence nanosuspension stability. This review could serve as a reference for the educated selection of a stabilizer for a specific drug candidate and the optimization of the operational parameters for nanosuspension formulation, rather than the currently practiced trial-and-error approach.
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The resting-state neurovascular coupling relationship: rapid changes in spontaneous neural activity in the somatosensory cortex are associated with haemodynamic fluctuations that resemble stimulus-evoked haemodynamics.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Although promise exists for patterns of resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain connectivity to be used as biomarkers of early brain pathology, a full understanding of the nature of the relationship between neural activity and spontaneous fMRI BOLD fluctuations is required before such data can be correctly interpreted. To investigate this issue, we combined electrophysiological recordings of rapid changes in multi-laminar local field potentials from the somatosensory cortex of anaesthetized rats with concurrent two-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy measurements of resting-state haemodynamics that underlie fluctuations in the BOLD fMRI signal. After neural events were identified, their time points served to indicate the start of an epoch in the accompanying haemodynamic fluctuations. Multiple epochs for both neural events and the accompanying haemodynamic fluctuations were averaged. We found that the averaged epochs of resting-state haemodynamic fluctuations taken after neural events closely resembled the temporal profile of stimulus-evoked cortical haemodynamics. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate that averaged epochs of resting-state haemodynamic fluctuations resembling the temporal profile of stimulus-evoked haemodynamics could also be found after peaks in neural activity filtered into specific electroencephalographic frequency bands (theta, alpha, beta, and gamma). This technique allows investigation of resting-state neurovascular coupling using methodologies that are directly comparable to that developed for investigating stimulus-evoked neurovascular responses.
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Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles have prolonged in vitro antitumour activity, cellular uptake and improved in vivo bioavailability.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The aim of the present study was to blend liquid lipids with solid lipids to encapsulate curcumin in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), thereby improving the dispersibility and chemical stability of curcumin, prolonging its antitumour activity and cellular uptake and enhancing its bioavailability.
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SAA1 genetic polymorphisms are associated with plasma glucose concentration in non-diabetic subjects.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Abstract Background: Serum amyloid A (SAA) was reported to be associated with insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. The present study aimed to investigate the association of SAA genetic polymorphisms with plasma glucose levels in non-diabetic subjects. Methods: All participants (n=1220) were selected from subjects participating in the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2229338, rs12218, rs4638289, rs7131332 and rs11603089) of SAA gene were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Results: In the present study, we found rs2229338, rs4638289 and rs12218 were significantly associated with plasma glucose levels in a dominate model, recessive model or additive model before and after multivariate adjustment (all p<0.05). These associations were not found in rs7131332 and rs11603089 before and after adjustment of key co-variants. Conclusions: The genetic polymorphisms of SAA1 were associated with plasma glucose levels in non-diabetic subjects.
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CYP2C19 phenotype, stent thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and mortality in patients with coronary stent placement in a Chinese population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Several studies have indicated that CYP2C19 loss-of-function polymorphisms have a higher risk of stent thrombosis (ST) after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). However, this association has not been investigated thoroughly in a Chinese population. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 loss-of-function polymorphisms on the occurrence of ST and other adverse clinical events in a Chinese population.
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Exercise after diagnosis and metabolic syndrome among breast cancer survivors: a report from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Limited data are available on the prevalence of MetS and its association with exercise among breast cancer survivors. The present study included 1,696 breast cancer survivors from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study, a population-based prospective cohort study conducted between April 2002 and October 2011 in Shanghai, China. All women had a physical examination taken at study clinic approximately 60 months post-diagnosis. Exercise was assessed at approximately 6, 18, 36, and 60 months post-diagnosis. Information on medical history, tumor characteristics, cancer treatment, anthropometrics, and lifestyle was collected at study enrollment. Associations between exercise and MetS at 60 months post-diagnosis were evaluated with multivariable logistic regression models. The mean age of the study population was 56.68 at 60-month survey, and the mean follow-up since cancer diagnosis was 63.66 months. The prevalence of MetS using National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria at approximately 60 months after diagnosis was 33.14%. Among overweight and obesity breast cancer survivors (body mass index (BMI) ? 25 kg/m(2) at baseline), the prevalence was 55.18%. The most common type of exercise in this population was walking (45.40%) at baseline. Exercise participation between 6 and 60 months post-diagnosis was inversely associated with the prevalence of MetS with the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for exercise participation of ? 3.5 h/week (30 min/day) being 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.98). In addition consistent exercise participation reduced the prevalence of MetS (adjusted OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.50-1.00). Associations of exercise with MetS were not modified by baseline waist circumference, BMI, comorbidity, baseline menopausal status, TNM stage, cancer treatment, or ER/PR status (p interactions > 0.05). Regular and persistent exercise after cancer diagnosis, even at low-to-moderate intensity level, decreases the prevalence of MetS among long-term breast cancer survivors.
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Personalized antiplatelet therapy according to CYP2C19 genotype after percutaneous coronary intervention: a randomized control trial.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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The objective of this study is to compare personalized antiplatelet therapy according to CYP2C19 phenotype with conventional antiplatelet therapy in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
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Nitrotyrosine level was associated with mortality in patients with acute kidney injury.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To examine the characteristics of oxidative stress in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) and investigate the association between plasma nitrotyrosine levels and 90-day mortality in patients with AKI.
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Relation of Leptin, Ghrelin and Inflammatory Cytokines with Body Mass Index in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients often suffer from anorexia and poor nutrition, causing weight loss. The peptide hormones leptin and its counterpart ghrelin, acting in the regulation of food intake and fat utilization, play an important role in nutritional balance. This study aimed to investigate the association of blood concentrations of leptin, ghrelin and inflammatory cytokines with body mass index (BMI) in TB patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
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The incidence and survival rate of population-based pancreatic cancer patients: Shanghai Cancer Registry 2004-2009.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. Large population-based evidence on its survival rate and influence factors is lacking in China.
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Menopausal symptoms among breast cancer patients: a potential indicator of favorable prognosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Menopausal symptoms have been suggested to be an indicator of better prognosis among patients treated for breast cancer, because women who experience these symptoms usually have a lower level of estrogen. We tested this hypothesis in a population-based, prospective cohort study involving 4,842 women with stage 0 to III primary breast cancer who were enrolled in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study between March 2002 and April 2006, were aged 20 to 75 years, and were recruited 6 months post-diagnosis. They were followed-up by in-person surveys and record linkages with the vital statistics registry. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of menopausal symptoms at baseline with breast cancer recurrence. Approximately 56% of patients experienced at least one menopausal symptom, including hot flashes, night sweats, and/or vaginal dryness at baseline. During a median follow-up period of 5.3 years, 720 women had a recurrence. Experiencing hot flashes or having ?2 menopausal symptoms was associated with lower risk of recurrence among premenopausal women (hazard ratio [HR]=0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.96 for hot flashes; 0.73, 0.56-0.96 for ?2 menopausal symptoms). Lower recurrence risk in relation to hot flashes was also observed among women who were not overweight/obese (HR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.64-0.99), those with relatively low waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (HR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.97), and those who used tamoxifen (HR=0.75, 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). Consistently experiencing multiple menopausal symptoms was associated with lower recurrence risk among women with low WHR or who used tamoxifen. This large, population-based cohort study of women with breast cancer confirms that experiencing menopausal symptoms is an indicator of favorable breast cancer prognosis.
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Performance of breast cancer screening methods and modality among Chinese women: a report from a society-based breast screening program (SBSP) in Shanghai.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To evaluate the screening performance of individual and combined use of clinical breast examination, ultrasonography and mammography in Chinese women, we conducted a biennial breast cancer screening program among 14,464 women aged 35 to 74 years old who lived in Qibao County, Minhang district of Shanghai, China, between May 2008 and Sept 2012. All participants were submitted to clinical breast examination, and then women with positive results and all women at age of 45-69 years old were preformed breast ultrasonography and mammography. The examination results were compared against pathological findings as the gold standard of reference. A total of 66 women were diagnosed with breast cancer in the two rounds of the screening, yielding an incident rate of 194 per 100,000 person-years. The sensitivity of clinical breast examination, ultrasonography and mammography alone were 61.4%, 53.7% and 67.3%, respectively. While mammography performed better in elder age groups and hormone receptor positive disease groups, ultrasonography had a higher sensitivity in younger age group and did not differ in sensitivity by estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor status. Combined use of the two imaging examinations increased the sensitivity in almost all age groups, but had a higher sensitivity in hormone receptor positive cancers than in those negative. Our results suggest that the Qibao modality is an effective strategy for breast cancer screening among Chinese women, especially for early detection of elder and hormone receptor positive breast cancer.
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Scavenger receptor B1 is a potential biomarker of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma and its growth is inhibited by HDL-mimetic nanoparticles.
Theranostics
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a very regional malignant head and neck cancer that has attracted widespread attention for its unique etiology, epidemiology and therapeutic options. To achieve high cure rates in NPC patients, theranostic approaches are actively being pursued and improved efforts remain desirable in identifying novel biomarkers and establishing effective therapeutic approaches with low long-term toxicities. Here, we discovered that the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-B1) was overexpressed in all investigated NPC cell lines and 75% of NPC biopsies, demonstrating that SR-B1 is a potential biomarker of NPC. Additional functional analysis showed that SR-B1 has great effect on cell motility while showing no significant impact on cell proliferation. As high-density lipoproteins (HDL) exhibit strong binding affinities to SR-B1 and HDL mimetic peptides are reportedly capable of inhibiting tumor growth, we further examined the SR-B1 targeting ability of a highly biocompatible HDL-mimicking peptide-phospholipid scaffold (HPPS) nanocarrier and investigated its therapeutic effect on NPC. Results show that NPC cells with higher SR-B1 expression have superior ability in taking up the core constituents of HPPS. Moreover, HPPS inhibited the motility and colony formation of 5-8F cells, and significantly suppressed the NPC cell growth in nude mice without inducing tumor cell necrosis or apoptosis. These results indicate that HPPS is not only a NPC-targeting nanocarrier but also an effective anti-NPC drug. Together, the identification of SR-B1 as a potential biomarker and the use of HPPS as an effective anti-NPC agent may shed new light on the diagnosis and therapeutics of NPC.
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Early and late stimulus-evoked cortical hemodynamic responses provide insight into the neurogenic nature of neurovascular coupling.
J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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Understanding neurovascular coupling is a prerequisite for the interpretation of results obtained from modern neuroimaging techniques. This study investigated the hemodynamic and neural responses in rat somatosensory cortex elicited by 16?seconds electrical whisker stimuli. Hemodynamics were measured by optical imaging spectroscopy and neural activity by multichannel electrophysiology. Previous studies have suggested that the whisker-evoked hemodynamic response contains two mechanisms, a transient backwards dilation of the middle cerebral artery, followed by an increase in blood volume localized to the site of neural activity. To distinguish between the mechanisms responsible for these aspects of the response, we presented whisker stimuli during normocapnia (control), and during a high level of hypercapnia. Hypercapnia was used to predilate arteries and thus possibly inhibit aspects of the response related to the early mechanism. Indeed, hemodynamic data suggested that the transient stimulus-evoked response was absent under hypercapnia. However, evoked neural responses were also altered during hypercapnia and convolution of the neural responses from both the normocapnic and hypercapnic conditions with a canonical impulse response function, suggested that neurovascular coupling was similar in both conditions. Although data did not clearly dissociate early and late vascular responses, they suggest that the neurovascular coupling relationship is neurogenic in origin.
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Sirtuin 1-mediated cellular metabolic memory of high glucose via the LKB1/AMPK/ROS pathway and therapeutic effects of metformin.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
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Cellular metabolic memory occurs in diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigate the role of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and metformin in this phenomenon. In bovine retinal capillary endothelial cells (BRECs) and retinas of diabetic rats, the inflammatory gene, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), and the proapoptotic gene, Bax, induced by hyperglycemia, remained elevated after returning to normoglycemia. BRECs with small interfering RNA-mediated SIRT1 knockdown had increased sensitivity to hyperglycemia stress, whereas SIRT1 overexpression or activation by metformin inhibited the increase of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-mediated glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity through the upregulation of liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase (LKB1/AMPK), ultimately suppressing NF-?B and Bax expression. Furthermore, we showed that hyperglycemia led to PARP activation, which in turn may have downregulated SIRT1. Of importance, this study also demonstrated that metformin suppressed the "memory" of hyperglycemia stress in the diabetic retinas, which may be involved in the SIRT1/LKB1/AMPK pathway. Our data suggest that SIRT1 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of the cellular metabolic memory, and the use of metformin specifically for such therapy may be a new avenue of investigation in the diabetes field.
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Therapeutic potential of AZD1480 for the treatment of human glioblastoma.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2011
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Aberrant activation of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway has been implicated in glioblastoma (GBM) progression. To develop a therapeutic strategy to inhibit STAT-3 signaling, we have evaluated the effects of AZD1480, a pharmacologic inhibitor of JAK1 and JAK2. In this study, the in vitro efficacy of AZD1480 was tested in human and murine glioma cell lines. AZD1480 treatment effectively blocks constitutive and stimulus-induced JAK1, JAK2, and STAT-3 phosphorylation in both human and murine glioma cells, and leads to a decrease in cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, we used human xenograft GBM samples as models for the study of JAK/STAT-3 signaling in vivo, because human GBM samples propagated as xenografts in nude mice retain both the hallmark genetic alterations and the invasive phenotype seen in vivo. In these xenograft tumors, JAK2 and STAT-3 are constitutively active, but levels vary among tumors, which is consistent with the heterogeneity of GBMs. AZD1480 inhibits constitutive and stimulus-induced phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT-3 in these GBM xenograft tumors in vitro, downstream gene expression, and inhibits cell proliferation. Furthermore, AZD1480 suppresses STAT-3 activation in the glioma-initiating cell population in GBM tumors. In vivo, AZD1480 inhibits the growth of subcutaneous tumors and increases survival of mice bearing intracranial GBM tumors by inhibiting STAT-3 activity, indicating that pharmacologic inhibition of the JAK/STAT-3 pathway by AZD1480 should be considered for study in the treatment of patients with GBM tumors.
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Interaction of protein inhibitor of activated STAT 2 (PIAS2) with receptor of activated C kinase 1, RACK1.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
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In this study, the evolutionarily conserved intracellular adaptor protein, receptor of activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) was identified as a novel interaction partner of protein inhibitor of activated STAT 2 (PIAS2) using a yeast two-hybrid screening system. The direct interaction and co-localization of RACK1 with PIAS2 was confirmed by immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining analysis, respectively. The 5th to 7th Trp-Asp 40 (5-7 WD40) repeats of RACK1 were identified as the minimal domain required for interaction with PIAS2 by deletion analysis. Furthermore, multiple PIAS2-domains, particularly the PINIT and RLD domains, bind the RACK1 5-7 WD40 domain.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.