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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
KAPtain in charge of multiple missions: Emerging roles of KAP1.
World J Biol Chem
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2014
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KAP1/TRIM28/TIF1? was identified nearly twenty years ago as a universal transcriptional co-repressor because it interacts with a large KRAB-containing zinc finger protein (KRAB-ZFP) transcription factor family. Many studies demonstrate that KAP1 affects gene expression by regulating the transcription of KRAB-ZFP-specific loci, trans-repressing as a transcriptional co-repressor or epigenetically modulating chromatin structure. Emerging evidence suggests that KAP1 also functions independent of gene regulation by serving as a SUMO/ubiquitin E3 ligase or signaling scaffold protein to mediate signal transduction. KAP1 is subjected to multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs), including serine/tyrosine phosphorylation, SUMOylation, and acetylation, which coordinately regulate KAP1 function and its protein abundance. KAP1 is involved in multiple aspects of cellular activities, including DNA damage response, virus replication, cytokine production and stem cell pluripotency. Moreover, knockout of KAP1 results in embryonic lethality, indicating that KAP1 is crucial for embryonic development and possibly impacts a wide-range of (patho)physiological manifestations. Indeed, studies from conditional knockout mouse models reveal that KAP1-deficiency significantly impairs vital physiological processes, such as immune maturation, stress vulnerability, hepatic metabolism, gamete development and erythropoiesis. In this review, we summarize and evaluate current literatures involving the biochemical and physiological functions of KAP1. In addition, increasing studies on the clinical relevance of KAP1 in cancer will also be discussed.
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Involvement of the HIF-1? and Wnt/?-catenin pathways in the protective effects of losartan on fatty liver graft with ischaemia/reperfusion injury.
Clin. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Besides cardioprotective effects, the AT1R (angiotensin-II type 1 receptor) antagonist losartan protects the liver from IRI [IR (ischaemia/reperfusion) injury], but the mechanism has not been fully determined. The HIF (hypoxia inducible factor)-1? and Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathways have been reported to be involved in the mechanism of liver IRI. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine whether the Wnt/HIF axis is part of the mechanism of the positive effect of AngII inhibition by losartan in liver IRI in rats. Various measurements were made in MCD/HF-NASH (methionine- and choline-deficient-diet/high-fat-diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) rats with liver IRI. Acute losartan pre-administration markedly reversed the IR-suppressed levels of the hepatic-protective factors IL (interleukin)-6, IFN (interferon)-?, Wnt3a, ?-catenin and HIF-1?, and decreased hepatic blood flow and IR-elevated serum ALT (alanine aminotransferase), hepatic TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-?, IL-1?, hepatic congestion, vacuolization and necrosis, hepatic Suzuki IRI scores, necrotic index and levels of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances) in MCD/HF-NASH rats. Furthermore, acute Wnt3a pre-treatment significantly inhibited IR-elevated serum ALT, hepatic Suzuki IRI scores and TBARS, and restored the IR-depleted ?-catenin/HIF-1? activity in MCD/HF-NASH rats. Simultaneous acute sFRP2 (secreted frizzled-related protein 2; a Wnt3a inhibitor) pre-treatment eliminated the losartan-related beneficial effects in MCD/HF-NASH rats with liver IRI, which was accompanied by a decrease in hepatic HIF-1?/?-catenin activity. Losartan-induced up-regulation of HIF-1? and Wnt/?-catenin signalling was associated with the recovery of IR-inhibited hepatic Bcl-2, Mn-SOD (manganese superoxide), Cu/Zn-SOD (copper/zinc superoxide) and GSH levels, and the suppression of IR-increased hepatic catalase and caspase 3/caspase 8 levels in MCD/HF-NASH rats. In conclusion, up-regulation of the HIF-1? and Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathways are part of the mechanism of the positive effects of losartan-related AngII inhibition in MCD/HF-NASH rats with liver IRI. Our study highlights the potential of the dual-organ protective agent losartan in NASH patients with steatotic livers and cardiovascular risk.
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Small GTPase Rab37 targets tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 for exocytosis and thus suppresses tumour metastasis.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Rab small GTPases are master regulators of membrane trafficking and guide vesicle targeting. Recent publications show that Rab-controlled trafficking pathways are altered during tumorigenesis. However, whether any of the Rabs plays a metastasis suppressor role is least explored. Here we address the metastasis suppressive function of human Rab37 (hRAB37) using secretomics, cell, animal and clinical analyses. We show that tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), a secreted glycoprotein that inhibits extracellular matrix turnover, is a novel cargo of hRAB37. hRAB37 regulates the exocytosis of TIMP1 in a nucleotide-dependent manner to inactivate matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) migration axis in vitro and in vivo. Dysfunction of hRAB37 or TIMP1 abrogates metastasis suppression. Lung cancer patients with metastasis and poor survival show low hRAB37 protein expression coinciding with low TIMP1 in tumours. Our findings identify hRAB37 as a novel metastasis suppressor Rab that functions through the TIMP1-MMP9 pathway and has significant prognostic power.
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Intrinsic surface-drying properties of bioadhesive proteins.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Sessile marine mussels must "dry" underwater surfaces before adhering to them. Synthetic adhesives have yet to overcome this fundamental challenge. Previous studies of bioinspired adhesion have largely been performed under applied compressive forces, but such studies are poor predictors of the ability of an adhesive to spontaneously penetrate surface hydration layers. In a force-free approach to measuring molecular-level interaction through surface-water diffusivity, different mussel foot proteins were found to have different abilities to evict hydration layers from surfaces-a necessary step for adsorption and adhesion. It was anticipated that DOPA would mediate dehydration owing to its efficacy in bioinspired wet adhesion. Instead, hydrophobic side chains were found to be a critical component for protein-surface intimacy. This direct measurement of interfacial water dynamics during force-free adsorptive interactions at solid surfaces offers guidance for the engineering of wet adhesives and coatings.
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Network-based analysis identifies epigenetic biomarkers of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma progression.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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A rapid progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) causes a high mortality rate because of the propensity for metastasis driven by genetic and epigenetic alterations. The identification of prognostic biomarkers would help prevent or control metastatic progression. Expression analyses have been used to find such markers, but do not always validate in separate cohorts. Epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, are a potential source of more reliable and stable biomarkers. Importantly, the integration of both expression and epigenetic alterations is more likely to identify relevant biomarkers.
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An arginine-rich motif of ring finger protein 4 (RNF4) oversees the recruitment and degradation of the phosphorylated and SUMOylated Krüppel-associated box domain-associated protein 1 (KAP1)/TRIM28 protein during genotoxic stress.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Krüppel-associated box domain-associated protein 1 (KAP1) is a universal transcriptional corepressor that undergoes multiple posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including SUMOylation and Ser-824 phosphorylation. However, the functional interplay of KAP1 PTMs in regulating KAP1 turnover during DNA damage response remains unclear. To decipher the role and cross-talk of multiple KAP1 PTMs, we show here that DNA double strand break-induced KAP1 Ser-824 phosphorylation promoted the recruitment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase, ring finger protein 4 (RNF4), and subsequent RNF4-mediated, SUMO-dependent degradation. Besides the SUMO interacting motif (SIM), a previously unrecognized, but evolutionarily conserved, arginine-rich motif (ARM) in RNF4 acts as a novel recognition motif for selective target recruitment. Results from combined mutagenesis and computational modeling studies suggest that RNF4 utilizes concerted bimodular recognition, namely SIM for Lys-676 SUMOylation and ARM for Ser(P)-824 of simultaneously phosphorylated and SUMOylated KAP1 (Ser(P)-824-SUMO-KAP1). Furthermore, we proved that arginines 73 and 74 within the ARM of RNF4 are required for efficient recruitment to KAP1 or accelerated degradation of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) under stress. In parallel, results of bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays validated the role of the ARM in recognizing Ser(P)-824 in living cells. Taken together, we establish that the ARM is required for RNF4 to efficiently target Ser(P)-824-SUMO-KAP1, conferring ubiquitin Lys-48-mediated proteasomal degradation in the context of double strand breaks. The conservation of such a motif may possibly explain the requirement for timely substrate selectivity determination among a myriad of SUMOylated proteins under stress conditions. Thus, the ARM dynamically regulates the SIM-dependent recruitment of targets to RNF4, which could be critical to dynamically fine-tune the abundance of Ser(P)-824-SUMO-KAP1 and, potentially, other SUMOylated proteins during DNA damage response.
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Minimizing the total service time of discrete dynamic berth allocation problem by an iterated greedy heuristic.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Berth allocation is the forefront operation performed when ships arrive at a port and is a critical task in container port optimization. Minimizing the time ships spend at berths constitutes an important objective of berth allocation problems. This study focuses on the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem (discrete DBAP), which aims to minimize total service time, and proposes an iterated greedy (IG) algorithm to solve it. The proposed IG algorithm is tested on three benchmark problem sets. Experimental results show that the proposed IG algorithm can obtain optimal solutions for all test instances of the first and second problem sets and outperforms the best-known solutions for 35 out of 90 test instances of the third problem set.
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Pregnane-type steroids from the Formosan soft coral Scleronephthya flexilis.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Three pregnane-type steroids, including a new metabolite, 3?-methoxy-5,20-pregnadiene (1) along with two known analogues, 3?-acetoxy-5,20-pregnadiene (2) and 5?-pregna-1,20-dien-3-one (3) were isolated from the soft coral Scleronephthya flexilis. Standard spectroscopic techniques were used to determine the structure of new steroid 1. The absolute stereochemistry of steroid 2 was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Steroid 3 exhibited potent activity against MOLT-4 tumor cells.
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Hemoglobin, iron, and vitamin B12 deficiencies and high blood homocysteine levels in patients with anti-thyroid autoantibodies.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Autoimmune thyroiditis can be diagnosed by measuring patients' serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TGA), and anti-thyroid microsomal antibody (TMA). This study evaluated whether there were hematinic deficiencies, high blood homocysteine levels, and serum gastric parietal cell antibody (GPCA) positivity in patients with TGA or TMA.
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Expression of a gene encoding a rice RING zinc-finger protein, OsRZFP34, enhances stomata opening.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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By oligo microarray expression profiling, we identified a rice RING zinc-finger protein (RZFP), OsRZFP34, whose gene expression increased with high temperature or abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. As compared with the wild type, rice and Arabidopsis with OsRZFP34 overexpression showed increased relative stomata opening even with ABA treatment. Furthermore, loss-of-function mutation of OsRZFP34 and AtRZFP34 (At5g22920), an OsRZFP34 homolog in Arabidopsis, decreased relative stomata aperture under nonstress control conditions. Expressing OsRZFP34 in atrzfp34 reverted the mutant phenotype to normal, which indicates a conserved molecular function between OsRZFP34 and AtRZFP34. Analysis of water loss and leaf temperature under stress conditions revealed a higher evaporation rate and cooling effect in OsRZFP34-overexpressing Arabidopsis and rice than the wild type, atrzfp34 and osrzfp34. Thus, stomata opening, enhanced leaf cooling, and ABA insensitivity was conserved with OsRZFP34 expression. Transcription profiling of transgenic rice overexpressing OsRZFP34 revealed many genes involved in OsRZFP34-mediated stomatal movement. Several genes upregulated or downregulated in OsRZFP34-overexpressing plants were previously implicated in Ca(2+) sensing, K(+) regulator, and ABA response. We suggest that OsRZFP34 may modulate these genes to control stomata opening.
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Low SOX17 expression is a prognostic factor and drives transcriptional dysregulation and esophageal cancer progression.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The transcriptional network of the SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 17 (SOX17) and the prognostic impact of SOX17 protein expression in human cancers remain largely unclear. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic effect of low SOX17 protein expression and its dysregulation of transcriptional network in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Low SOX17 protein expression was found in 47.4% (73 of 154) of ESCC patients with predicted poor prognosis. Re-expression of SOX17 in ESCC cells caused reduced foci formation, cell motility, decreased ESCC xenograft growth and metastasis in animals. Knockdown of SOX17 increased foci formation in ESCC and normal esophageal cells. Notably, 489 significantly differential genes involved in cell growth and motility controls were identified by expression array upon SOX17 overexpression and 47 genes contained putative SRY element in their promoters. Using quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR and promoter activity assays, we confirmed that MACC1, MALAT1, NBN, NFAT5, CSNK1A1, FN1 and SERBP1 genes were suppressed by SOX17 via the SRY binding-mediated transcriptional regulation. Overexpression of FN1 and MACC1 abolished SOX17-mediated migration and invasion suppression. The inverse correlation between SOX17 and FN1 protein expression in ESCC clinical samples further strengthened our conclusion that FN1 is a transcriptional repression target gene of SOX17. This study provides compelling clinical evidence that low SOX17 protein expression is a prognostic biomarker and novel cell and animal data of SOX17-mediated suppression of ESCC metastasis. We establish the first transcriptional network and identify new suppressive downstream genes of SOX17 which can be potential therapeutic targets for ESCC.
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Prognostic CpG methylation biomarkers identified by methylation array in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis. We aimed to identify a panel of CpG methylation biomarkers for prognosis prediction of ESCC patients.
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Predicting the severity and prognosis of trismus after intensity-modulated radiation therapy for oral cancer patients by magnetic resonance imaging.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To develop magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicators to predict trismus outcome for post-operative oral cavity cancer patients who received adjuvant intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), 22 patients with oral cancer treated with IMRT were studied over a two-year period. Signal abnormality scores (SA scores) were computed from Likert-type ratings of the abnormalities of nine masticator structures and compared with the Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA test between groups. Seventeen patients (77.3%) experienced different degrees of trismus during the two-year follow-up period. The SA score correlated with the trismus grade (r?=?0.52, p<0.005). Patients having progressive trismus had higher mean doses of radiation to multiple structures, including the masticator and lateral pterygoid muscles, and the parotid gland (p<0.05). In addition, this group also had higher SA-masticator muscle dose product at 6 months and SA scores at 12 months (p<0.05). At the optimum cut-off points of 0.38 for the propensity score, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 93% for predicting the prognosis of the trismus patients. The SA score, as determined using MRI, can reflect the radiation injury and correlate to trismus severity. Together with the radiation dose, it could serve as a useful biomarker to predict the outcome and guide the management of trismus following radiation therapy.
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Clinical effectiveness, toxicity, and failure patterns of helical tomotherapy for postoperative oral cavity cancer patients.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The outcome of postoperative high- and intermediate-risk oral cavity cancer (OCC) patients receiving helical tomotherapy (HT) remains limited.
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How change of public transportation usage reveals fear of the SARS virus in a city.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The outbreaks of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003 resulted in unprecedented impacts on people's daily life. One of the most significant impacts to people is the fear of contacting the SARS virus while engaging daily routine activity. Here we use data from daily underground ridership in Taipei City and daily reported new SARS cases in Taiwan to model the dynamics of the public fear of the SARS virus during the wax and wane of the SARS period. We found that for each reported new SARS case there is an immediate loss of about 1200 underground ridership (the fresh fear). These daily loss rates dissipate to the following days with an e-folding time of about 28 days, reflecting the public perception on the risk of contacting SARS virus when traveling with the underground system (the residual fear). About 50% of daily ridership was lost during the peak of the 2003 SARS period, compared with the loss of 80% daily ridership during the closure of the underground system after Typhoon Nari, the loss of 50-70% ridership due to the closure of the governmental offices and schools during typhoon periods, and the loss of 60% daily ridership during Chinese New Year holidays.
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Effects of positioning on radiographic measurements of ankle morphology: a computerized tomography-based simulation study.
Biomed Eng Online
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Measurements of the morphology of the ankle joint, performed mostly for surgical planning of total ankle arthroplasty and for collecting data for total ankle prosthesis design, are often made on planar radiographs, and therefore can be very sensitive to the positioning of the joint during imaging. The current study aimed to compare ankle morphological measurements using CT-generated 2D images with gold standard values obtained from 3D CT data; to determine the sensitivity of the 2D measurements to mal-positioning of the ankle during imaging; and to quantify the repeatability of the 2D measurements under simulated positioning conditions involving random errors.
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Ultrasonographic quantification of hepatic-renal echogenicity difference in hepatic steatosis diagnosis.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2013
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Ultrasound (US) is recommended for hepatic steatosis screening. The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of US hepatic-renal echo-intensity (HR) difference in the quantitative assessment of hepatic steatosis.
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Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma or low-grade intraductal carcinoma? Review of the literature.
Head Neck Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
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Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma (LG-SDC) is a rare neoplasm characterized by predominant intraductal growth, luminal ductal phenotype, bland microscopic features, and favorable clinical behavior with an appearance reminiscent of florid to atypical ductal hyperplasia to low grade intraductal breast carcinoma. LG-SDC is composed of multiple cysts, cribriform architecture with "Roman Bridges", "pseudocribriform" proliferations with floppy fenestrations or irregular slits, micropapillae with epithelial tufts, fibrovascular cores, and solid areas. Most of the tumor cells are small to medium sized with pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, and round to oval nuclei, which may contain finely dispersed or dark condensed chromatin. Foci of intermediate to high grade atypia, and invasive carcinoma or micro-invasion have been reported in up to 23 % of cases. The neoplastic cells have a ductal phenotype with coexpression of keratins and S100 protein and are surrounded by a layer of myoepithelial cells in non-invasive cases. The main differential diagnosis of LG-SDC includes cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma, sclerosing polycystic adenosis, salivary duct carcinoma in situ/high-grade intraductal carcinoma, and papillary-cystic variant of acinic cell carcinoma. There is no published data supporting the continuous classification of LG-SDC as a variant of cystadenocarcinoma. Given that most LG-SDC are non-invasive neoplasms; the terms "cribriform cystadenocarcinoma" and LG-SDC should be replaced by "low-grade intraductal carcinoma" (LG-IDC) of salivary gland or "low-grade intraductal carcinoma with areas of invasive carcinoma" in those cases with evidence of invasive carcinoma.
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Flexibilisquinone, a new anti-inflammatory quinone from the cultured soft coral Sinularia flexibilis.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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A new quinone derivative, flexibilisquinone (1), was isolated from the cultured soft coral Sinularia flexibilis, originally distributed in the waters of Taiwan. The structure of quinone 1 was established by extensive spectroscopic methods, particularly 1D and 2D NMR experiments. In the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects test, quinone 1 was found to significantly inhibit the accumulation of the pro-inflammatory iNOS and COX-2 proteins of the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells.
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HP1 promotes tumor suppressor BRCA1 functions during the DNA damage response.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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The DNA damage response (DDR) involves both the control of DNA damage repair and signaling to cell cycle checkpoints. Therefore, unraveling the underlying mechanisms of the DDR is important for understanding tumor suppression and cellular resistance to clastogenic cancer therapeutics. Because the DDR is likely to be influenced by chromatin regulation at the sites of DNA damage, we investigated the role of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) during the DDR process. We monitored double-strand breaks (DSBs) using the ?H2AX foci marker and found that depleting cells of HP1 caused genotoxic stress, a delay in the repair of DSBs and elevated levels of apoptosis after irradiation. Furthermore, we found that these defects in repair were associated with impaired BRCA1 function. Depleting HP1 reduced recruitment of BRCA1 to DSBs and caused defects in two BRCA1-mediated DDR events: (i) the homologous recombination repair pathway and (ii) the arrest of cell cycle at the G2/M checkpoint. In contrast, depleting HP1 from cells did not affect the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway: instead it elevated the recruitment of the 53BP1 NHEJ factor to DSBs. Notably, all three subtypes of HP1 seemed to be almost equally important for these DDR functions. We suggest that the dynamic interaction of HP1 with chromatin and other DDR factors could determine DNA repair choice and cell fate after DNA damage. We also suggest that compromising HP1 expression could promote tumorigenesis by impairing the function of the BRCA1 tumor suppressor.
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Three-dimensional computer graphics-based ankle morphometry with computerized tomography for total ankle replacement design and positioning.
Clin Anat
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Morphometry of the bones of the ankle joint is important for the design of joint replacements and their surgical implantations. However, very little three-dimensional (3D) data are available and not a single study has addressed the Chinese population. Fifty-eight fresh frozen Chinese cadaveric ankle specimens, 26 females, and 32 males, were CT-scanned in the neutral position and their 3D computer graphics-based models were reconstructed. The 3D morphology of the distal tibia/fibula segment and the full talus was analyzed by measuring 31 parameters, defining the relevant dimensions, areas, and volumes from the models. The measurements were compared statistically between sexes and with previously reported data from Caucasian subjects. The results showed that, within a general similarity of ankle morphology between the current Chinese and previous Caucasian subjects groups, there were significant differences in 9 out of the 31 parameters analyzed. From a quantitative comparison with available prostheses designed for the Caucasian population, few of these designs have both tibial and talar components suitable in dimension for the Chinese population. The current data will be helpful for the sizing, design, and surgical positioning of ankle replacements and for surgical instruments, especially for the Chinese population. Clin. Anat., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Suppresses Proliferation and Survival of TW2.6 Human Oral Cancer Cells via Inhibition of Akt Signaling.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a bioactive component extracted from honeybee hive propolis. Our observations indicated that CAPE treatment suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation of TW2.6 human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells dose-dependently. CAPE treatment decreased G1 phase cell population, increased G2/M phase cell population, and induced apoptosis in TW2.6 cells. Treatment with CAPE decreased protein abundance of Akt, Akt1, Akt2, Akt3, phospho-Akt Ser473, phospho-Akt Thr 308, GSK3?, FOXO1, FOXO3a, phospho-FOXO1 Thr24, phospho-FoxO3a Thr32, NF-?B, phospho-NF-?B Ser536, Rb, phospho-Rb Ser807/811, Skp2, and cyclin D1, but increased cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip. Overexpression of Akt1 or Akt2 in TW2.6 cells rescued growth inhibition caused by CAPE treatment. Co-treating TW2.6 cells with CAPE and 5-fluorouracil, a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug for oral cancers, exhibited additive cell proliferation inhibition. Our study suggested that administration of CAPE is a potential adjuvant therapy for patients with OSCC oral cancer.
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Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, CEA ratio, and treatment outcome of rectal cancer patients receiving pre-operative chemoradiation and surgery.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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To investigate serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a prognostic factor for rectal cancer patients receiving pre-operative chemoradiotherapy (CRT).
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Active Constituents from Liriope platyphylla Root against Cancer Growth In Vitro.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Liriope spicata is a well-known herb in traditional Chinese medicine, and its root has been clinically demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of metabolic and neural disorders. The constituents isolated from Liriope have also recently been shown to possess anticancer activity, although the mechanism of which remains largely unknown. Here, we illustrate the anticancer activity of LPRP-9, one of the active fractions we fractionated from the Liriope platyphylla root part (LPRP) extract. Treatment with LPRP-9 significantly inhibited proliferation of cancer cell lines MCF-7 and Huh-7 and down-regulated the phosphorylation of AKT. LPRP-9 also activates the stress-activated MPAK, JNK, p38 pathways, the p53 cell-cycle checkpoint pathway, and a series of caspase cascades while downregulating expression of antiapoptotic factors Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and survivin. Such activities strongly suggest a role for LPRP-9 in apoptosis and autophagy. We further purified and identified the compound (-)-Liriopein B from LPRP-9, which is capable of inhibiting AKT phosphorylation at low concentration. The overall result highlights the anticancer property of LPRP-9, suggests its mechanism for inhibition of proliferation and promotion of cell death for cancer cells via regulation of multitarget pathways, and denotes the importance of purifying components of fraction LPRP-9 to aid cancer therapy.
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Caffeic Acid phenethyl ester as a potential treatment for advanced prostate cancer targeting akt signaling.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Prostate cancer is the fifth most common cancer overall in the world. Androgen ablation therapy is the primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. However, most prostate cancer patients receiving the androgen ablation therapy ultimately develop recurrent castration-resistant tumors within 1-3 years after treatment. The median overall survival time is 1-2 years after tumor relapse. Chemotherapy shows little effect on prolonging survival for patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. More than 80% of prostate tumors acquire mutation or deletion of tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a negative regulator of PI3K/Akt signaling, indicating that inhibition of PI3K/Akt might be a potential therapy for advanced prostate tumors. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a strong antioxidant extracted from honeybee hive propolis. CAPE is a well-known NF-?B inhibitor. CAPE has been used in folk medicine as a potent anti-inflammatory agent. Recent studies indicate that CAPE treatment suppresses tumor growth and Akt signaling in human prostate cancer cells. We discuss the potential of using CAPE as a treatment for patients with advanced prostate cancer targeting Akt signaling pathway in this review article.
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Type II ground-glass hepatocytes as a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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Ground-glass hepatocytes are seen in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and are known to harbor pre-S mutants, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the association between ground-glass hepatocytes and HCC has yet to be clearly elucidated. The aim in the present study was to investigate the association of ground-glass hepatocytes with (1) the histologic characteristics of HBV-related HCC and (2) the grade of inflammation, stage of fibrosis, serologic markers of HBV infection, HBV viral load, and ?-fetoprotein levels. We evaluated 45 hepatectomy specimens from chronic HBV-infected patients: 25 with HCC and 20 without. In comparison with those without HCC, cases with HCC had a significantly higher prevalence of type II ground-glass hepatocytes (84% versus 55%, P = .0488), demonstrating a geographically clustered pattern (84% versus 45%, P = .0102) and exceeding type I in the individual samples (84% versus 35%, P = .0005). Type II ground-glass hepatocytes also had a statistically significant association with higher stages of fibrosis, being present in 21 cases (66%) with Ishak fibrosis stages 3 to 6 as compared with only 4 cases (31%) without type II ground-glass hepatocytes (P = .0176). In conclusion, type II ground-glass hepatocytes are more likely to be present in cases of HCC, growing in a clustered pattern, and are also associated with advanced fibrosis in chronic HBV infection. Our data suggest that a growth advantage or clonal proliferation of hepatocytes with mutant hepatitis B surface antigen may play a role in the pathogenesis of HBV-related HCC with clinical relevance.
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Three-dimensional doppler ultrasonography in assessing nodal metastases and staging head and neck cancer.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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This study built a simple prediction system by three-dimensional (3D) Doppler ultrasonography to evaluate the metastases of cervical lymph nodes and the preoperative initial stage of head and neck cancer.
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An Association between Air Pollution and Daily Outpatient Visits for Respiratory Disease in a Heavy Industry Area.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In this work we used daily outpatient data from the Landseed Hospital in a heavily industrial area in northern Taiwan to study the associations between daily outpatient visits and air pollution in the context of a heavily polluted atmospheric environment in Chung-Li area during the period 2007-2011. We test the normality of each data set, control for the confounding factors, and calculate correlation coefficient between the outpatient visits and air pollution and meteorology, and use multiple linear regression analysis to seek significance of these associations. Our results show that temperature and relative humidity tend to be negatively associated with respiratory diseases. NO and [Formula: see text] are two main air pollutants that are positively associated with respiratory diseases, followed by [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], CO, and [Formula: see text]. Young outpatients (age 0-15 years) are most sensitive to changing air pollution and meteorology factors, followed by the eldest (age [Formula: see text]66 years) and age 16-65 years of outpatients. Outpatients for COPD diseases are most sensitive to air pollution and meteorology factors, followed by allergic rhinitis, asthma, and pneumonia diseases. In the context of sex difference to air pollution and meteorological factors, male outpatients are more sensitive than female outpatients in the 16-65 age groups, while female outpatients are more sensitive than male outpatients in the young 0-15 age groups and in the eldest age groups. In total, female outpatients are more sensitive to air pollution and meteorological factors than male outpatients.
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Cholestane-3?, 5?, 6?-triol suppresses proliferation, migration, and invasion of human prostate cancer cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Oxysterols are oxidation products of cholesterol. Cholestane-3?, 5?, 6?-triol (abbreviated as triol) is one of the most abundant and active oxysterols. Here, we report that triol exhibits anti-cancer activity against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment of cells with triol dose-dependently suppressed proliferation of LNCaP CDXR-3, DU-145, and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells and reduced colony formation in soft agar. Oral administration of triol at 20 mg/kg daily for three weeks significantly retarded the growth of PC-3 xenografts in nude mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that triol treatment at 10-40 µM caused G1 cell cycle arrest while the TUNEL assay indicated that triol treatment at 20-40 µM induced apoptosis in all three cell lines. Micro-Western Arrays and traditional Western blotting methods indicated that triol treatment resulted in reduced expression of Akt1, phospho-Akt Ser473, phospho-Akt Thr308, PDK1, c-Myc, and Skp2 protein levels as well as accumulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip). Triol treatment also resulted in reduced Akt1 protein expression in PC-3 xenografts. Overexpression of Skp2 in PC-3 cells partially rescued the growth inhibition caused by triol. Triol treatment suppressed migration and invasion of DU-145, PC-3, and CDXR-3 cells. The expression levels of proteins associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition as well as focal adhesion kinase were affected by triol treatment in these cells. Triol treatment caused increased expression of E-cadherin protein levels but decreased expression of N-cadherin, vimentin, Slug, FAK, phospho-FAK Ser722, and phospho-FAK Tyr861 protein levels. Confocal laser microscopy revealed redistribution of ?-actin and ?-tubulin at the periphery of the CDXR-3 and DU-145 cells. Our observations suggest that triol may represent a promising therapeutic agent for advanced metastatic prostate cancer.
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Coordinate to guard: crosstalk of phosphorylation, sumoylation, and ubiquitylation in DNA damage response.
Front Oncol
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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Small ubiquitin-like modifier-1/2/3 (SUMO-1/2/3) and ubiquitin share similar structure and utilize analogous machinery for protein lysine conjugation. Although sumoylation and ubiquitylation have distinct functions, they are often tightly associated with each other to fine-tune protein fate in transducing signals to regulate a wide variety of cellular functions, including DNA damage response, cell proliferation, DNA replication, embryonic development, and cell differentiation. In this Perspective, we specifically highlight the role of sumoylation and ubiquitylation in ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) signaling in response to DNA double-strand breaks and hypothesize that ATM-induced phosphorylation is a unique node in regulating SUMO-targeted ubiquitylation in mammalian cells to combat DNA damage and to maintain genome integrity. A potential role for the coordination of three types of post-translational modification in dictating the tempo and extent of cellular response to genotoxic stress is speculated.
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[The development and current status of men in the nursing profession].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
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Nursing has been a quintessentially female-dominated occupation throughout much of its history. Today, educational developments, changes in healthcare service models and promotion of gender equality in education and employment have opened the doors to males to play increasingly important roles in the healthcare services as nursing professionals. The responsibilities of male nursing staff are expected to continue to increase. It remains difficult for male nurses to escape traditional gender stereotypes in nursing. The impact of personal characteristics, occupational roles, and professional identification in real practice are major issues of concern. This study reviewed relevant literature to identify factors of influence on male nursing staff professional practice. We hope this study can be a reference for future research on male nursing staff development, and that male nurses will increasingly create personal core values in a multi-discipline, cross-professional healthcare team, and exercise their abilities as a complement to female nurses.
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Comparison of functional and nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors in the pancreas and peripancreatic region.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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To present our experience of 93 neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) in the pancreas and peripancreatic region, with emphasis on how resectability affects long-term survival and the impact of functional status on the survival outcome.
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Influence of boundary on the effect of double-layer polarization and the electrophoretic behavior of soft biocolloids.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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The electrophoresis of a soft particle comprising a rigid core and a charged porous membrane layer in a narrow space is modeled. This simulates, for example, the capillary electrophoresis of biocolloids such as cells and microorganisms, and biosensor types of device. We show that, in addition to the boundary effect, the effects of double-layer polarization (DLP) and the electroosmotic retardation flow can be significant, yielding interesting electrophoretic behaviors. For example, if the friction coefficient of the membrane layer and/or the boundary is large, then the DLP effect can be offset by the electroosmotic retardation flow, making the particle mobility to decrease with increasing double layer thickness, which is qualitatively consistent with many experimental observations in the literature, but has not been explained clearly in previous analyses. In addition, depending upon the thickness of double layer, the friction of the membrane layer of a particle can either retard or accelerate its movement, an interesting result which has not been reported previously. This work is the first attempt to show solid evidence for the influence of a boundary on the effect of DLP and the electrophoretic behavior of soft particles. The model proposed is verified by the experimental data in the literature. The results of numerical simulation provide valuable information for the design of bio-analytical apparatus such as nanopore-based sensing applications and for the interpretation of relevant experimental data.
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High-mobility group A2 protein modulates hTERT transcription to promote tumorigenesis.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
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The high-mobility group A2 gene (HMGA2) is one of the most frequently amplified genes in human cancers. However, functions of HMGA2 in tumorigenesis are not fully understood due to limited knowledge of its targets in tumor cells. Our study reveals a novel link between HMGA2 and the regulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), the catalytic subunit of telomerase, which offers critical insight into how HMGA2 contributes to tumorigenesis. The expression of HMGA2 modulates the expression of hTERT, resulting in cells with enhanced telomerase activities and increased telomere length. Treatment with suberoylanilide hydroxamide (SAHA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, causes dose-dependent hTERT reporter activation, mimicking HMGA2 overexpression. By interacting with Sp1, HMGA2 interferes with the recruitment of HDAC2 to the hTERT proximal promoter, enhancing localized histone H3-K9 acetylation and thereby stimulating hTERT expression and telomerase activity. Moreover, HMGA2 knockdown by short hairpin HMGA2 in HepG2 cells leads to progressive telomere shortening and a concurrent decrease of steady-state hTERT mRNA levels, attenuating their ability to form colonies in soft agar. Importantly, HMGA2 partially replaces the function of hTERT during the tumorigenic transformation of normal human fibroblasts. These findings are potentially clinically relevant, because HMGA2 expression is reported to be upregulated in a number of human cancers as telomere maintenance is essential for tumorigenesis.
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Synthesis and characterisation of group nine transition metal complexes containing new mesityl and naphthyl based azaindole scorpionate ligands.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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Two novel boron-based flexible scorpionate ligands based on 7-azaindole, Li[HB(azaindolyl)(2)(1-naphthyl)] and Li[HB(azaindolyl)(2)(mesityl)] {Li[(Naphth)Bai] and Li[(Mes)Bai] respectively}, have been prepared (mesityl = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl). These salts have been isolated in two forms, either as dimeric structures which contain bridging hydride interactions with the lithium centres or as crystalline material containing mono nuclear bis-acetonitrile solvates. The newly formed ligands have been utilised to prepare a range of group nine transition metal complexes with the general formula [M(COD){?(3)-NNH-HB (azaindolyl)(2)(Ar)}] (where M = rhodium, iridium; Ar = 1-naphthyl, mesityl; COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) and [Rh(NBD){?(3)-NNH-HB (azaindolyl)(2)(Ar)}] (where NBD = 2,5-norbornadiene; Ar = 1-naphthyl, mesityl). These new complexes have been compared to the previously reported compounds which contain the related scorpionate ligands Li[HB(azaindolyl)(2)(phenyl)] and K[HB(azaindolyl)(3)] {Li[(Ph)Bai] and K[Tai] respectively}. Structural characterisation of the complexes [Rh(COD){?(3)-NNH-HB (azaindolyl)(2)(mesityl)}], [Ir(COD){?(3)-NNH-HB (azaindolyl)(2)(mesityl)}] and [Rh(NBD){?(3)-NNH-HB (azaindolyl)(2)(naphthyl)}] confirm the expected ?(3)-NNH coordination mode for these new ligands. Spectroscopic analysis suggests strong interactions of the B-H functional group with the metal centres in all cases.
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Ellagic acid inhibits oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL)-induced metalloproteinase (MMP) expression by modulating the protein kinase C-?/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/nuclear factor-?B (PKC-?/ERK/
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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Previous studies have shown that vascular endothelium-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to the destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques, a key event triggering acute myocardial infarction. In addition, studies have reported that the PKC-MEK-PPAR? signaling pathway is involved in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced expression of MMPs. Ellagic acid, a phenolic compound found in fruits and nuts, has potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancerous properties. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its antiatherogenic effects remain to be clarified. This study aimed to assess whether the effects of ellagic acid on the fibrotic markers MMP-1 and MMP-3 are modulated by the PKC-ERK-PPAR-? signaling pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that have been exposed to oxLDL. It was found that ellagic acid significantly inhibited oxLDL-induced expressions of MMP-1 and MMP-3. Pretreatment with ellagic acid and DPI, a well-known ROS inhibitor, attenuated the oxLDL-induced expression and activity of PKC-?. In addition, ellagic acid as well as pharmacological inhibitors of ROS, calcium, and PKC strongly suppressed the oxLDL-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and NF-?B activation. Moreover, ellagic acid ameliorated the oxLDL-induced suppression of PPAR-? expression. In conclusion, the data suggest that ellagic acid elicits its protective effects by modulating the PKC-?/ERK/PPAR-?/NF-?B pathway, resulting in the suppression of ROS generation and, ultimately, inhibition of MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression in HUVECs exposed to oxLDL.
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The structure of human ubiquitin in 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol: a new conformational switch.
Protein Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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A new crystal structure of human ubiquitin is reported at 1.8 Å resolution. Compared with the other known crystal structure or the solution NMR structure of monomeric human ubiquitin, this new structure is similar in its overall fold but differs with respect to the conformation of the backbone in a surface-exposed region. The conformation reported here resembles conformations previously seen in complex with deubiquinating enzymes, wherein the Asp52/Gly53 main chain and Glu24 side chain move. This movement exposes the backbone carbonyl of Asp52 to the exterior of the molecule, making it possible to engage in hydrogen-bond contacts with neighboring molecules, rather than in an internal hydrogen bond with the backbone of Glu24. This particular crystal form of ubiquitin has been used in a large number of solid state NMR studies. The structure described here elucidates the origin of many of the chemical shift differences comparing solution and solid state studies.
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Characterization of an in vitro differentiation assay for pancreatic-like cell development from murine embryonic stem cells: detailed gene expression analysis.
Assay Drug Dev Technol
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Embryonic stem (ES) cell technology may serve as a platform for the discovery of drugs to treat diseases such as diabetes. However, because of difficulties in establishing reliable ES cell differentiation methods and in creating cost-effective plating conditions for the high-throughput format, screening for molecules that regulate pancreatic beta cells and their immediate progenitors has been limited. A relatively simple and inexpensive differentiation protocol that allows efficient generation of insulin-expressing cells from murine ES cells was previously established in our laboratories. In this report, this system is characterized in greater detail to map developmental cell stages for future screening experiments. Our results show that sequential activation of multiple gene markers for undifferentiated ES cells, epiblast, definitive endoderm, foregut, and pancreatic lineages was found to follow the sequence of events that mimics pancreatic ontogeny. Cells that expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein, driven by pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 or insulin 1 promoter, correctly expressed known beta cell lineage markers. Overexpression of Sox17, an endoderm fate-determining transcription factor, at a very early stage of differentiation (days 2-3) enhanced pancreatic gene expression. Overexpression of neurogenin3, an endocrine progenitor cell marker, induced glucagon expression at stages when pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 message was present (days 10-16). Forced expression (between days 16 and 25) of MafA, a pancreatic maturation factor, resulted in enhanced expression of insulin genes, glucose transporter 2 and glucokinase, and glucose-responsive insulin secretion. Day 20 cells implanted in vivo resulted in pancreatic-like cells. Together, our differentiation assay recapitulates the proceedings and behaviors of pancreatic development and will be valuable for future screening of beta cell effectors.
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Odontogenic fibroma: a clinicopathological study of 15 cases.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Odontogenic fibroma (ODF) is a rare odontogenic tumor. It can be further divided into peripheral odontogenic fibroma (PODF) and central odontogenic fibroma (CODF). This retrospective study evaluated the clinical and histopathological features of 15 ODFs in Taiwanese patients.
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Image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy with helical tomotherapy for postoperative treatment of high-risk oral cavity cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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The aim of this study was to assess the treatment results and toxicity profiles of helical tomotherapy (HT) for postoperative high-risk oral cavity cancer.
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Reversible signal changes in MR diffusion-weighted imaging in a patient with status epilepticus.
Acta Neurol Taiwan
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Abnormality in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging representing early changes of acute ischemic lesions in human and animal models of focal status epilepticus has been reported to correlate with clinical outcome.
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Post-tonsillectomy pulmonary complication in a patient with tonsillar myeloid sarcoma.
Int. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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Myeloid sarcoma in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) manifesting as a non-healing tonsillar ulcer is an extremely rare occurrence. We report the case of a 57-year-old male smoker with a non-healing tonsillar ulcer who underwent tonsillectomy to rule out tonsillar carcinoma after failed antibiotic therapy. On postoperative day 2, he presented with a temperature of 40°C and white blood cell count of 34700/?L. Antibiotic therapy was begun; however, he died 1 day later due to pulmonary infection and septic shock. Though extremely rare, tonsillar involvement of MDS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a non-healing tonsillar lesion. When definitive diagnosis requires a tissue sample, punch biopsy may be preferable to tonsillectomy in a patient who may be immunocompromised, and appropriate prophylactic antibiotics should be administered.
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Influence of soft tissue artifacts on the calculated kinematics and kinetics of total knee replacements during sit-to-stand.
Gait Posture
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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The current study aimed to quantify the soft tissue artifacts of selected markers on the thigh and shank, and their effects on the calculated joint center translations, angles and moments of the knee during sit-to-stand. Ten patients with total knee replacements rose from a chair under simultaneous surveillance of a motion capture system, a force-plate and a fluoroscopy system. The "true" poses of the thigh and shank were defined by those of the femoral and tibial components obtained using a three-dimensional fluoroscopy method. The soft tissue artifacts of the skin markers were calculated as their movement relative to the underlying prosthesis components. The joint center translations, angles and moments at the knee were also calculated separately using skin markers and the registered prosthesis poses. Considerable soft tissue artifacts were found, leading to significantly underestimated flexion and internal rotation angles, and extensor moments, but overestimated joint center translations and adduction. The current study provides accurate data of the kinematics and kinetics of total knee replacements during sit-to-stand. The effects of soft tissue artifacts on the calculated joint center translations, angles and moments were also quantified for the first time in the literature. The results may help in developing guidelines for using skin markers and in establishing databases in the biomechanical assessment of sit-to-stand in patients with total knee replacements.
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Effects of soft tissue artifacts on the calculated kinematics and kinetics of the knee during stair-ascent.
J Biomech
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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Biomechanics of the knee during stair-ascent has mostly been studied using skin-marker-based motion analysis techniques, but no study has reported a complete assessment of the soft tissue artifacts (STA) and their effects on the calculated joint center translation, angles and moments at the knee in normal subjects during this activity. This study aimed to bridge the gap. Twelve young adults walked up a three-step stair while data were acquired simultaneously from a three-dimensional motion capture system, a force plate and a dynamic fluoroscopy system. The "gold standards" of poses of the knee were obtained using a 3D fluoroscopy method. The STA of the markers on the thigh and shank were then calculated, together with their effects on the calculated joint center translations, angles and moments at the knee. The STA of the thigh markers were greater than those on the shank, leading to significantly underestimated flexion and extensor moments, but overestimated joint center translations during the first half of the stance phase. The results will be useful for a better understanding of the normal biomechanics of the knee during stair-ascent, as a baseline for future clinical applications and for developing a compensation method to correct for the effects of STA.
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Mechanisms underlying benzyl alcohol cytotoxicity (triamcinolone acetonide preservative) in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Benzyl alcohol (BA) is the preservative in triamcinolone acetonide (TA) suspensions, which are used in treating vitreoretinal diseases and during surgery. This paper investigates the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways underlying BA toxicity in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells.
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Integrated hybrid silicon triplexer.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2010
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We demonstrate an integrated triplexer on silicon with a compact size of 1mm by 3.5mm by utilizing a selective area wafer bonding technique. The wavelength demultiplexer on the triplexer chip successfully separates signals at wavelengths of 1310 nm, 1490 nm and 1550 nm with more than 10 dB extinction ratio. The measured 3 dB bandwidth of the integrated laser and photodetectors are 2 GHz and 16 GHz, respectively. Open eye diagrams are also measured for the integrated photodetector up to 12.5 GHz PRBS inputs.
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Double addition of H2 to transition metal-borane complexes: a hydride shuttle process between boron and transition metal centres.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2010
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The addition of H(2) across a transition metal-borane bond is reported for the first time providing a mechanism for recharging borane functional groups to borohydride.
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Protein-ice interaction of an antifreeze protein observed with solid-state NMR.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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NMR on frozen solutions is an ideal method to study fundamental questions of macromolecular hydration, because the hydration shell of many biomolecules does not freeze together with bulk solvent. In the present study, we present previously undescribed NMR methods to study the interactions of proteins with their hydration shell and the ice lattice in frozen solution. We applied these methods to compare solvent interaction of an ice-binding type III antifreeze protein (AFP III) and ubiquitin a non-ice-binding protein in frozen solution. We measured (1)H-(1)H cross-saturation and cross-relaxation to provide evidence for a molecular contact surface between ice and AFP III at moderate freezing temperatures of -35 °C. This phenomenon is potentially unique for AFPs because ubiquitin shows no such cross relaxation or cross saturation with ice. On the other hand, we detected liquid hydration water and strong water-AFP III and water-ubiquitin cross peaks in frozen solution using relaxation filtered (2)H and HETCOR spectra with additional (1)H-(1)H mixing. These results are consistent with the idea that ubiquitin is surrounded by a hydration shell, which separates it from the bulk ice. For AFP III, the water cross peaks indicate that only a portion of its hydration shell (i.e., at the ice-binding surface) is in contact with the ice lattice. The rest of AFP IIIs hydration shell behaves similarly to the hydration shell of non-ice-interacting proteins such as ubiquitin and does not freeze together with the bulk water.
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Homonuclear mixing sequences for perdeuterated proteins.
J. Magn. Reson.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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We tested the performance of several (13)C homonuclear mixing sequences on perdeuterated microcrystalline ubiquitin. All sequences were applied without (1)H decoupling and at relatively low MAS frequencies. We found that RFDR gave the highest overall transfer efficiency and that DREAM performs surprisingly well under these conditions being twice as efficient in the aliphatic region of the spectrum than the other mixing sequences tested.
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Site-saturation mutagenesis of leucine 134 of Bacillus licheniformis nucleotide exchange factor GrpE reveals the importance of this residue to the co-chaperone activity.
Protein J.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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To elucidate the role of leucine 134 of Bacillus licheniformis nucleotide exchange factor (BlGrpE), site-saturation mutagenesis was employed to generate all possible replacements for this residue. Wild-type and mutant proteins were purified by nickel-chelated chromatography and had a molecular mass of approximately 34.5 kDa. As compared with wild-type BlGrpE, the nucleotide exchange factor (NEF) activity of L134H, L134K, L134R, L134D, L134E, L134N, L134Q, L134S, L134G and L134P was reduced by more than 96%. In vitro binding assay revealed that wild-type BlGrpE and the functional variants mainly interacted with the monomer of BlDnaK, but no such interaction was observed for the remaining mutant proteins. BlGrpE and 9 mutant proteins synergistically stimulated the ATPase activity of B. licheniformis DnaK (BlDnaK), whereas the NEF-defective variants had no synergistic stimulation. Comparative analysis of the far-UV CD spectra showed that the alpha-helical content of the inactive mutant BlGrpEs was reduced significantly with respect to wild-type protein. Moreover, the inactive mutant proteins also exhibited a more sensitivity towards the temperature-induced denaturation. Taken together, these results indicate that Leu134 might play a structural role for the proper function of BlGrpE.
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The association between ankle-brachial index and quality of life in chronic hemodialysis patients.
Angiology
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2010
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Ankle-brachial index (ABI) is an important indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and PAD has a negative impact on quality of life (QOL). However, the correlation between ABI and QOL is unknown among chronic hemodialysis patients. Ankle-brachial index was measured, and WHOQOL-BRIEF (TW) questionnaire was completed. The association between ABI and QOL was analyzed using linear regression. A total of 54 chronic hemodialysis patients (mean age of 56.2 +/- 14.6 years) were included. Ankle-brachial index was positively associated with QOL (r = .448, P = .001). The QOL scores were 3.1 +/- 2.9 and 2.6 +/- 0.4 for 37 patients with an ABI more than 0.9 and 17 patients with an ABI less than 0.9 or more than 1.3 (p < .001). In linear regression, only ABI was significantly associated with QOL scores with a beta of .448 (95% CI: 0.443 to 1.55, P = .001). Ankle-brachial index is positively correlated to QOL among chronic hemodialysis patients.
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Rhodium and iridium complexes containing diphenyl-2-(3-methyl)indolylphosphine: synthesis, structure and application in the catalytic transfer hydrogenation of ketones.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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The synthesis and characterisation of a number of group nine complexes containing the recently reported ligand, diphenyl-2-(3-methyl)indolylphosphine, is presented herein. The complexes [RhCl(COD){PPh(2)(C(9)H(8)N)}] (1), [IrCl(COD){PPh(2)(C(9)H(8)N)}] (2), [RhCl(NBD){PPh(2)(C(9)H(8)N)}] (3) and [Rh(COD)(MeCN){PPh(2)(C(9)H(8)N)}]BF(4) (4) (where COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene, NBD = 2,5- norbornadiene) have been structurally characterised by X-ray crystallography. The complex [Rh(2)(COD)(2){N(Me)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)Ph)}{PPh(2)(C(9)H(8)N)}][BF(4)](2) (8) was also isolated and structurally characterised. Complex 8 contains a [Rh(COD)] fragment coordinated to the aromatic ring of the indolyl group, providing the first example of a eta(6) coordination mode for this ligand. The synthesised complexes were investigated for their activity in the catalytic transfer hydrogenation of ketones and found to be moderately active catalysts.
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An exploration of Papanicolaou smear history and behavior of patients with newly diagnosed cervical cancer in Taiwan.
Cancer Nurs
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2010
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Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is an effective preventive measure in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The national health insurance made free annual cervical screening available to all Taiwanese women 30 years or older.
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A volumetric model-based 2D to 3D registration method for measuring kinematics of natural knees with single-plane fluoroscopy.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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Accurate measurement of the three-dimensional (3D) rigid body and surface kinematics of the natural human knee is essential for many clinical applications. Existing techniques are limited either in their accuracy or lack more realistic experimental evaluation of the measurement errors. The purposes of the study were to develop a volumetric model-based 2D to 3D registration method, called the weighted edge-matching score (WEMS) method, for measuring natural knee kinematics with single-plane fluoroscopy to determine experimentally the measurement errors and to compare its performance with that of pattern intensity (PI) and gradient difference (GD) methods.
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25Gb/s hybrid silicon switch using a capacitively loaded traveling wave electrode.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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We demonstrate a hybrid silicon modulator and switch operating up to 25 Gb/s with over 10 dB extinction ratio. The modulator has voltage-length product of 2.4 V-mm while the switch has switch time less than 35 ps and crosstalk smaller than -12 dB.
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Invasive ductal carcinoma arising in phyllodes tumor with isolated tumor cells in sentinel lymph node.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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Phyllodes tumor (PT) consists of stroma of variable grading and benign ductal epithelium. Although exceptional, carcinomas that arise from the epithelium in PTs do exist, and seem to behave less aggressively than the usually encountered breast carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, among the invasive carcinomas that have arisen in PTs, only 1 has been proved to have metastatic carcinoma in the lymph nodes. Here, we describe the youngest woman to have invasive ductal carcinoma that arose in a borderline PT, with isolated carcinoma cells in the sentinel lymph node. Whether such a combined lesion carries a more indolent course is also discussed.
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Clinicopathological study of 252 jaw bone periapical lesions from a private pathology laboratory.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2010
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Periapical lesions are common sequelae of pulp diseases. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical and histopathological features of periapical lesions sent to a private pathology laboratory by dentists in private clinics.
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Electrically-pumped compact hybrid silicon microring lasers for optical interconnects.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2009
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We demonstrate an electrically-pumped hybrid silicon microring laser fabricated by a self-aligned process. The compact structure (D = 50 microm) and small electrical and optical losses result in lasing threshold as low as 5.4 mA and up to 65 degrees C operation temperature in continuous-wave (cw) mode. The spectrum is single mode with large extinction ratio and small linewidth observed. Application as on-chip optical interconnects is discussed from a system perspective.
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Analysis and demonstration of coupling control in polymer microring resonators using photobleaching.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2009
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We describe postfabrication trimming of coupling in both laterally and vertically coupled polymer microring resonators (MRRs), using photobleaching. For both cases, a tapered directional-coupler-based simple analytical model is developed to simulate the change in coupling due to a bleaching-induced decrease in refractive index. A tightly focused laser beam spot (a few kilowatts per square centimeter) is used to precisely bleach the coupling region alone. Coupling control is achieved for (1) high-Q passive rings by bleaching the vertically coupled chromophore-doped bus waveguide, and for (2) laterally coupled electro-optic ring modulators, by bleaching both the ring and the waveguide in the coupling region. The power coupling ratio (PCR) of an undercoupled high-Q MRR filter is reduced by 0.54 percentage points for the TE mode, causing the MRR finesse to increase from a value of 72 to 108. For a ring modulator, the PCR was increased by 3.5 percentage points for the TM mode, causing a 6 dB increase in extinction ratio, to achieve a final value of nearly 25 dB. Phase/group-delay characterization confirmed that the ring was trimmed toward critical coupling.
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Kinematic analysis of a functional and sequential bimanual task in patients with left hemiparesis: intra-limb and interlimb coordination.
Disabil Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2009
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To characterise upper limb performance of each hand (intra-limb coordination) and interlimb coordination on a functional, sequential bimanual task in patients with left hemiparesis and age-matched controls.
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Clinicopathological study of oral giant cell fibromas.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2009
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Oral giant cell fibromas (GCFs) are found predominantly in Caucasians and rarely in other races. This retrospective study evaluated the clinicopathological features of 24 GCFs in Taiwanese patients.
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Oral verrucous hyperplasia: histologic classification, prognosis, and clinical implications.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2009
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Oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) is a premalignant lesion that may transform into an oral cancer.
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Early transcriptional deregulation of hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis and its consequent effects on murine cholestatic liver injury.
Apoptosis
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2009
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Mitochondria are known to be involved in cholestatic liver injury, but the damage and biogenesis of mitochondria in response to the early stage of cholestasis is unknown. A rat model of cholestasis was established by bile duct ligation (BDL), with simultaneous creation of the sham group receiving laparotomy without BDL. A significant decrease of liver peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha, mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (Tfam) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) mRNA and Tfam protein from 6 to 72 h after BDL was found, which was associated with significant decrease of the glutathione, GPx and catalase activity at 72 h. At 72 h after BDL, mitochondrial DNA copy number reached the lowest level, while caspase 9 and 3 activity, but not caspase 8, Bax, Bcl(2), Fas L and Fas-Fas L complex, were upregulated significantly in the liver homogenates of BDL rats. The apoptotic liver cells appeared in large amounts in the rat liver by 72 h after BDL. Our results indicate that transcriptional regulation of the mitochondrial biogenesis is impaired within a few hours after complete bile duct obstruction, resulting in later mitochondrial dysfunction and consequent cholestatic liver injury via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway.
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Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with helical tomotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer: a preliminary result.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
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To review the experience with and evaluate the treatment plan for helical tomotherapy for the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer.
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Computerized analyses of morphology and proliferative activity differentiate hepatoblastoma from paediatric hepatocellular carcinoma.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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To differentiate hepatoblastoma (HB) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by computerized image analysis. This is critical for treatment modalities and prognostic stratification but is usually difficult in small biopsy specimens.
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Role of the conserved Thr399 and Thr417 residues of Bacillus licheniformis gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase as evaluated by mutational analysis.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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Role of the conserved Thr399 and Thr417 residues of Bacillus licheniformis gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (BlGGT) was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. Substitutions of Thr399 and Thr417 of BlGGT with Ser resulted in a dramatic reduction in enzymatic activity. A complete loss of the GGT activity was observed in T399A, T399C, T417A, and T417K mutant enzymes. Furthermore, mutations on these two residues impaired the capability of autocatalytic processing of the enzyme. In vitro maturation experiments showed that BlGGT mutant precursors, pro-T399S, pro-T417S, and pro-T417A, could precede a time-dependent autocatalytic process to generate the 44.9- and 21.7-kDa subunits; however, the processed T417A had no enzymatic activity. Measurement of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence revealed alteration of the microenvironment of aromatic amino acid residues, while Far-UV circular dichroism spectra were nearly identical for wild-type and mutant enzymes. These results suggest that residues Thr399 and Thr417 are important for BlGGT in the enzymatic maturation and reaction.
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Pancreatic acinar tissue in liver explants: a morphologic and immunohistochemical study.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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Pancreatic acini-like tissue is occasionally seen in the liver. It is uncertain whether its presence represents heterotopia or metaplasia. To gain further insight into this issue, we performed a pathologic and immunohistochemical study in liver explants to identify pancreatic acinar tissue.
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Synovial sarcoma of the Eustachian tube.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2009
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Synovial sarcoma is a rare, aggressive high-grade neoplasm with poor prognosis. Synovial sarcoma is usually encountered in the lower extremities of young adults; only a few cases have been reported in the head and neck region.
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Significant association of hematinic deficiencies and high blood homocysteine levels with burning mouth syndrome.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
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Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by a burning sensation of the oral mucosa in the absence of clinically apparent mucosal alterations. In this study, we evaluated whether there was an intimate association of the deficiency of hemoglobin (Hb), iron, vitamin B12, or folic acid; high blood homocysteine level; and serum gastric parietal cell antibody (GPCA) positivity with BMS.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.