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Essential Structural Requirements and Additive Effects for Flavonoids to Scavenge Methylglyoxal.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Reactive dicarbonyl species, such as methylglyoxal (MGO), are considered as the major precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are believed to be one of the physiological causes of diabetes and its complications. Scavenging of reactive dicarbonyl species using naturally occurring flavonoids has been proposed as an effective way to prevent diabetic complications. To elucidate the structural requirements of flavonoids in scavenging MGO, seven flavonoids (quercetin, luteolin, epicatechin, genistein, daidzein, apigenin, and phloretin) and five sub-components of the flavonoids (gallic acid, phloroglucinol, pyrogallol, pyrocatechol, and resorcinol) were examined in this study. Our results showed the following: (1) 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene (pyrogallol) has higher MGO scavenging activity than 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene and 1,2- and 1,3-dihydroxybenzene, and substitution at position 5 of pyrogallol diminished the scavenging activity, indicating that position 5 is the active site of pyrogallol; (2) the A ring is the active site of flavonoids in contributing the MGO-trapping efficacy, and the hydroxyl group at C-5 on the A ring enhances the trapping efficacy; (3) the double bond between C-2 and C-3 on the C ring could facilitate the trapping efficacy; and (4) the number of hydroxyl groups on the B ring does not significantly influence the trapping efficacy. In addition, we found there is an additive effect in MGO trapping by two common flavonoids, quercetin and phloretin, indicating that flavonoid-enriched foods and beverages hold great promise to prevent the development of diabetic complications.
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Induction of lung cancer cell apoptosis through a p53 pathway by [6]-shogaol and its cysteine-conjugated metabolite M2.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Dietary chemoprevention of cancer offers the possibility to suppress or inhibit cancer growth before it develops into more advanced and lethal stages. To this end, identification of novel compounds and their mechanisms of action is constantly needed. In this study, we describe that a major component of dry ginger (Zingiber officinalis), [6]-shogaol (6S), can be quickly metabolized in A549 human lung cancer cell line. One of the resulting metabolites, the cysteine-conjugated 6S (M2), exhibits toxicity to cancer cells similar to the parent compound 6S, but is relatively less toxic toward normal cells than 6S. We further demonstrate that both compounds can cause cancer cell death by activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Our results show that the cancer cell toxicity is initiated by early modulation of glutathione (GSH) intracellular content. The subsequently generated oxidative stress activates a p53 pathway that ultimately leads to the release of mitochondria-associated apoptotic molecules such as cytochrome C, and cleaved caspases 3 and 9. In a xenograft nude mouse model, a dose of 30 mg/kg of 6S or M2 was able to significantly decrease tumor burden, without any associated toxicity to the animals. This effect was correlated with an induction of apoptosis and reduction of cell proliferation in the tumor tissues. Taken together, our results show that 6S metabolism is an integral part of its anticancer activities in vitro and in vivo. This allows us to characterize M2 as a novel compound with superior in vivo chemopreventive properties that targets similar anticancer mechanisms as 6S.
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Effect of microfluidisation on antioxidant properties of corn bran.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The microfluidisation process was used to reduce the particle size and loosen the tight microstructure of corn bran. This process significantly increased corn bran's antioxidant activity exhibited through a surface reaction phenomenon and the extractability of phenolic compounds after alkaline and acid hydrolysis. For corn bran microfluidised through an 87 ?m interaction chamber for 5 passes, the two most largely increased phenolic acids released after alkaline hydrolysis were p-coumaric acid (51.1%) and ferulic acid (45.1%). On the other hand, high shear stress during microfluidisation caused partial dispersion or dissolution of free phenolic compounds in water which was lost after the process. It was also found that bran residues after alkaline and acid hydrolysis still exhibited strong antioxidant activity via a surface reaction phenomenon, probably indicating the conventional method based on solvent extraction and relatively mild alkaline and/or acid hydrolysis underestimates the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of corn bran.
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Identification and Pharmacokinetics of Novel Alkylresorcinol Metabolites in Human Urine, New Candidate Biomarkers for Whole-Grain Wheat and Rye Intake.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Biomarkers of dietary intake are prominent tools in nutritional research. Alkylresorcinol metabolites, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,5-DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid (3,5-DHPPA), have been proposed as exposure biomarkers of whole-grain (WG) wheat and rye intake. However, the profile of alkylresorcinol metabolites is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolism of alkylresorcinols in mice and in humans, while further determining urinary pharmacokinetics of the novel alkylresorcinol metabolites to explore their potential as biomarkers of WG wheat intake. Utilization of the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach resulted in 10 alkylresorcinol metabolites identified in mice and in humans, including 3 phenolic acids and 7 of their phase II conjugates. Among them, 2 novel metabolites were discovered: 5-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)pentanoic acid (3,5-DHPPTA) and 2-(3,5-dihydroxybenzamido)acetic acid (3,5-DHBA glycine). The structures of these 2 metabolites were confirmed by comparing with authentic standards synthesized in-house. In the pharmacokinetic study, a group of 12 volunteers consumed a polyphenolic-restricted diet for 4 d before ingesting WG wheat bread containing 61 mg of alkylresorcinols. Urine samples were collected for 32 h, and alkylresorcinol metabolites were quantified with HPLC-coulometric electrode array detection. The mean urinary excretion rates and mean apparent half-life of 3,5-DHPPTA, 3,5-DHBA glycine, 3,5-DHBA, and 3,5-DHPPA at each time point were determined. Our results suggest that 3,5-DHPPTA and 3,5-DHBA glycine may be used in combination with 3,5-DHBA and 3,5-DHPPA as potential biomarkers to increase the accuracy of recording WG wheat and rye intake in epidemiologic studies. Further validation of 3,5-DHPPTA and 3,5-DHBA glycine as potential biomarkers is warranted.
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Cysteine-conjugated metabolite of ginger component [6]-shogaol serves as a carrier of [6]-shogaol in cancer cells and in mice.
Chem. Res. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Shogaols, a series of major constituents in dried ginger (Zingiber officinale), show high anticancer potencies. Previously, we reported that a major metabolite resulting from the mercapturic acid pathway, 5-cysteinyl-[6]-shogaol (M2), showed comparable growth inhibitory effects toward cancer cells to [6]-shogaol (6S). Here, we probe the mechanism by which M2 exerts its bioactivity. We utilized a series of chemical stability tests in conjunction with bioassays to show that thiol-conjugates display chemopreventative potency by acting as carriers of active ginger component 6S. M2 chemical degradation to 6S was observed in an environment most resembling physiological conditions, with a pH of 7.4 at 37 °C. The metabolic profiles of M2 in cancer cells HCT-116 and H-1299 resembled those of 6S, indicating that its biotransformation route was initiated by deconjugation. Further, the presence of excess glutathione significantly delayed 6S and M2 metabolism and counteracted cell death induced by 6S and M2, suggesting that increasing available free thiols exogenously both promoted the formation of 5-glutathionyl-[6]-shogaol (M13) and inhibited the production of free 6S from M2 deconjugation, resulting in delayed 6S cell entry and bioactivity. Given the chemopreventative properties of M2 and our observations in vitro, we investigated its metabolism in mice. M2 and 6S showed similar metabolic profiles in mouse urine and fecal samples. Six new thiol-conjugated metabolites (M16-M21), together with previously reported ones, were identified by LC/MS. In particular, the increase of 5-N-acetylcystenyl-[6]-shogaol (M5) and its 3-demethylated product (M16) abundance in mouse feces after treatment with M2 indicates that in addition to acting as a carrier of 6S, M2 is also directly acetylated to M5, which is further demethylated to M16 in vivo. In conclusion, the cysteine-conjugated metabolite of [6]-shogaol M2 exerts its bioactivity by acting as a carrier of 6S in both cancer cells and in mice.
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Metabolites of ginger component [6]-shogaol remain bioactive in cancer cells and have low toxicity in normal cells: chemical synthesis and biological evaluation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Our previous study found that [6]-shogaol, a major bioactive component in ginger, is extensively metabolized in cancer cells and in mice. It is unclear whether these metabolites retain bioactivity. The aim of the current study is to synthesize the major metabolites of [6]-shogaol and evaluate their inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in human cancer cells. Twelve metabolites of [6]-shogaol (M1, M2, and M4-M13) were successfully synthesized using simple and easily accessible chemical methods. Growth inhibition assays showed that most metabolites of [6]-shogaol had measurable activities against human cancer cells HCT-116 and H-1299. In particular, metabolite M2 greatly retained the biological activities of [6]-shogaol, with an IC(50) of 24.43 µM in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells and an IC(50) of 25.82 µM in H-1299 human lung cancer cells. Also exhibiting a relatively high potency was thiol-conjugate M13, with IC(50) values of 45.47 and 47.77 µM toward HCT-116 and H-1299 cells, respectively. The toxicity evaluation of the synthetic metabolites (M1, M2, and M4-M13) against human normal fibroblast colon cells CCD-18Co and human normal lung cells IMR-90 demonstrated a detoxifying metabolic biotransformation of [6]-shogaol. The most active metabolite M2 had almost no toxicity to CCD-18Co and IMR-90 normal cells with IC(50)s of 99.18 and 98.30 µM, respectively. TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay indicated that apoptosis was triggered by metabolites M2, M13, and its two diastereomers M13-1 and M13-2. There was no significant difference between the apoptotic effect of [6]-shogaol and the effect of M2 and M13 after 6 hour treatment.
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Metabolism of ginger component [6]-shogaol in liver microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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There are limited data on the metabolism of [6]-shogaol (6S), a major bioactive component of ginger. This study demonstrates metabolism of 6S in liver microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human.
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Structure elucidation and chemical profile of sphingolipids in wheat bran and their cytotoxic effects against human colon cancer cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Sphingolipids are known to have diverse properties and physiological functions. These distinctive lipids have been identified in wheat bran, a food well-known for its chemopreventive activity. However, the complete profile of sphingolipids in wheat bran and their contributions to the cancer preventive effect of wheat bran have not been fully explored until this study. Twelve sphingolipids (1-12) were purified from wheat bran extract and characterized by analyzing their 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and seven sphingolipids (13-19) were characterized based on their tandem mass spectra (MS(n): n = 2-4). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of sphingolipids 1, 6-9, 11-14, and 16-19 in wheat bran. In particular, 2-N-(2-hydroxy-15-tricosenoyl)-4-hydroxysphinganine (peak 17) is a novel compound. Additionally, compounds 2-4 were reported with complete NMR data for the first time. Sphingolipids (1-12) showed little growth inhibition against human colon cancer cell lines (HCT-116 and HT-29) in vitro.
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5-alk(en)ylresorcinols as the major active components in wheat bran inhibit human colon cancer cell growth.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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We and others have found that wheat bran oil is the active constituent in wheat bran for colon cancer prevention. However, the active components in wheat bran oil are still unknown. Using human colon cancer cells (HCT-116 and HT-29) as the guiding assays, we further purified the active components from wheat bran using column chromatography. In this study, we identified that a fraction containing 5-n-alk(en)ylresorcinols had the strongest inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human HCT-116 and HT-29 colon cancer cells. Further purification led to the identification of 14 5-alk(en)ylresorcinols. Among them, 7, (10Z,13Z,16Z)-5-(nonadeca-10,13,16-trienyl)resorcinol, is a novel compound and 5, 6, 9, 10, and 13 were purified as individual compounds for the first time. The identification and structural elucidation of these compounds were based on 1D and 2D NMR and tandem mass spectral analyses. All these compounds (1-14) except 10 were evaluated for growth inhibition of human colon cancer cell lines (HCT-116 and HT-29). Our results indicate that increasing the length of the side chain will diminish the inhibitory activity, and the existence of a double bond and a carbonyl group will strengthen such an activity.
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Synthesis and inhibitory activities against colon cancer cell growth and proteasome of alkylresorcinols.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
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We have identified alkylresorcinols (ARs) as the major active components in wheat bran against human colon cancer cell growth (HCT-116 and HT-29) using a bioassay-guided approach. To further study the structure-activity relationships, 15 ARs and their intermediates (1-15) were synthesized expediently by the modified Wittig reaction in aqueous media, and six 5-alkylpyrogallols and their analogues (16-21) were prepared by the general Grignard reaction. The synthetic AR analogues were evaluated for activities against the growth of human colon cancer cells HCT-116 and HT-29 and the chymotrypsin-like activity of the human 20S proteasome. Our results found that (1) AR C13:0 and C15:0 (13 and 14) had the greatest inhibitory effects in human colon cancer cells HCT-116 and HT-29, while decreasing or increasing the side chain lengths diminished the activities; (2) two free meta-hydroxyl groups at C-1 and C-3 on the aromatic ring of the AR analogues greatly contributed to their antitumor activity; (3) the introduction of a third hydroxyl group at C-2 (20 and 21) into the aromatic ring of the AR analogues yielded no significant enhancement in activity against HCT-116 cells and decimated the effects against HT-29 cells, but dramatically increased the activity against the chymotrypsin-like activity of the human 20S proteasome; and (4) AR C11:0 (12) was found to have the greatest effect in a series of AR C9:0-C17:0 against the chymotrypsin-like activity of the human 20S proteasome.
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Metabolism of [6]-shogaol in mice and in cancer cells.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
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Ginger has received extensive attention because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. However, the metabolic fate of its major components is still unclear. In the present study, the metabolism of [6]-shogaol, one of the major active components in ginger, was examined for the first time in mice and in cancer cells. Thirteen metabolites were detected and identified, seven of which were purified from fecal samples collected from [6]-shogaol-treated mice. Their structures were elucidated as 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-4-decen-3-ol (M6), 5-methoxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-one (M7), 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-decan-3-one (M8), 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-ol (M9), 5-methylthio-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-one (M10), 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-one (M11), and 5-methylthio-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-ol (M12) on the basis of detailed analysis of their (1)H, (13)C, and two-dimensional NMR data. The rest of the metabolites were identified as 5-cysteinyl-M6 (M1), 5-cysteinyl-[6]-shogaol (M2), 5-cysteinylglycinyl-M6 (M3), 5-N-acetylcysteinyl-M6 (M4), 5-N-acetylcysteinyl-[6]-shogaol (M5), and 5-glutathiol-[6]-shogaol (M13) by analysis of the MS(n) (n = 1-3) spectra and comparison to authentic standards. Among the metabolites, M1 through M5, M10, M12, and M13 were identified as the thiol conjugates of [6]-shogaol and its metabolite M6. M9 and M11 were identified as the major metabolites in four different cancer cell lines (HCT-116, HT-29, H-1299, and CL-13), and M13 was detected as a major metabolite in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells. We further showed that M9 and M11 are bioactive compounds that can inhibit cancer cell growth and induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. Our results suggest that 1) [6]-shogaol is extensively metabolized in these two models, 2) its metabolites are bioactive compounds, and 3) the mercapturic acid pathway is one of the major biotransformation pathways of [6]-shogaol.
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