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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE8 Differentially Regulates Plant Immunity to Fungal Pathogens through Kinase-Dependent and -Independent Functions in Arabidopsis.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE8 (CDK8) is a widely studied component of eukaryotic Mediator complexes. However, the biological and molecular functions of plant CDK8 are not well understood. Here, we provide evidence for regulatory functions of Arabidopsis thaliana CDK8 in defense and demonstrate its functional and molecular interactions with other Mediator and non-Mediator subunits. The cdk8 mutant exhibits enhanced resistance to Botrytis cinerea but susceptibility to Alternaria brassicicola. The contributions of CDK8 to the transcriptional activation of defensin gene PDF1.2 and its interaction with MEDIATOR COMPLEX SUBUNIT25 (MED25) implicate CDK8 in jasmonate-mediated defense. Moreover, CDK8 associates with the promoter of AGMATINE COUMAROYLTRANSFERASE to promote its transcription and regulate the biosynthesis of the defense-active secondary metabolites hydroxycinnamic acid amides. CDK8 also interacts with the transcription factor WAX INDUCER1, implying its additional role in cuticle development. In addition, overlapping functions of CDK8 with MED12 and MED13 and interactions between CDK8 and C-type cyclins suggest the conserved configuration of the plant Mediator kinase module. In summary, while CDK8's positive transcriptional regulation of target genes and its phosphorylation activities underpin its defense functions, the impaired defense responses in the mutant are masked by its altered cuticle, resulting in specific resistance to B. cinerea.
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[Determination of five arsenic species in rice by liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of arsenic acid [As (V)], arsenious acid [As (III)], arsenobetaine (AsB), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in rice by liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). The extraction reagent was 0.3 mol/L nitric acid with heat-assistant condition for 1.5 h at 95 degrees C. Then, the five arsenic species were separated by an anion exchange column (Dionex IonPac AS19, 250 mm x 4 mm) and detected by ICP-MS. Four kinds of extracted solutions were compared through the extraction efficiency. The concentration of nitric acid, the temperature and the extraction time were optimized. The recoveries of the five arsenic species spiked in rice at two levels ranged from 89.6% to 99.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5) of 0.6% - 3.6%. The measured values of the arsenic species in standard rice materials were consistent with their standard values. The linear ranges were 0.05 - 200 microg/L for AsB and DMA, 0.10-400 microg/L for As (III) and MMA, 0.15-600 microg/L for As (V). The limits of detection for the five arsenic species were 0.15-0.45 microg/kg. The results showed that the method is much more precise for the risk assessment of the rice. This method is simple, accurate and durable for the determination of arsenic species in rice.
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A functional biphasic biomaterial homing mesenchymal stem cells for in vivo cartilage regeneration.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Cartilage regeneration after trauma is still a great challenge for clinicians and researchers due to many reasons, such as joint load-bearing, synovial movement and the paucity of endogenous repair cells. To overcome these limitations, we constructed a functional biomaterial using a biphasic scaffold platform and a bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)-specific affinity peptide. The biphasic scaffold platform retains more cells homogeneously within the sol-gel transition of chitosan and provides sufficient solid matrix strength. This biphasic scaffold platform is functionalized with an affinity peptide targeting a cell source of interest, BMSCs. The presence of conjugated peptide gives this system a biological functionality towards BMSC-specific homing both in vitro and in vivo. The functional biomaterial can stimulate stem cell proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation during in vitro culture. Six months after in vivo implantation, compared with routine surgery or control scaffolds, the functional biomaterials induced superior cartilage repair without complications, as indicated by histological observations, magnetic resonance imaging and biomechanical properties. Beyond cartilage repair, this functional biphasic scaffold may provide a biomaterial framework for one-step tissue engineering strategy by homing endogenous cells to stimulate tissue regeneration.
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[Predisposing factors of patellofemoral articular cartilage injury after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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To evaluate the effects of age, gender, tibial anterior laxity and time from surgery to follow-up on patellofemoral articular cartilage status after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by second-look arthroscopy.
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Neural processing of recollection, familiarity and priming at encoding: Evidence from a forced-choice recognition paradigm.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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The distinction between neural mechanisms of explicit and implicit expressions of memory has been well studied at the retrieval stage, but less at encoding. In addition, dissociations obtained in many studies are complicated by methodological difficulties in obtaining process-pure measures of different types of memory. In this experiment, we applied a subsequent memory paradigm and a two-stage forced-choice recognition test to classify study ERP data into four categories: subsequent remembered (later retrieved accompanied by detailed information), subsequent known (later retrieved accompanied by a feeling of familiarity), subsequent primed (later retrieved without conscious awareness) and subsequent forgotten (not retrieved). Differences in subsequent memory effects (DM effects) were measured by comparing ERP waveform associated with later memory based on recollection, familiarity or priming with ERP waveform for later forgotten items. The recollection DM effect involved a robust sustained (onset at 300ms) prefrontal positive-going DM effect which was right-lateralized, and a later (onset at 800ms) occipital negative-going DM effect. Familiarity involved an earlier (300-400ms) prefrontal positive-going DM effect and a later (500-600ms) parietal positive-going DM effect. Priming involved a negative-going DM effect which onset at 600ms, mainly distributed over anterior brain sites. These results revealed a sequence of components that represented cognitive processes underlying the encoding of verbal information into episodic memory, and separately supported later remembering, knowing and priming.
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[Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat associated protein genes cas1 and cas2 in Shigella].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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To detect the distribution of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) associated protein genes cas1 and cas2 in Shigella and to understand the characteristics of CRISPR with relationship between CRISPR and related characteristics on drug resistance.
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[Construction of a three-dimensional visualization model of arteries supplying the extrahepatic bile duct based on submillimeter CT data].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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To construct a three-dimensional (3D) model of arteries supplying the extrahepatic bile duct with a new segmentation algorithm based on submillimeter CT data.
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Transcription regulation mechanisms of bacteriophages: Recent advances and future prospects.
Bioengineered
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Phage diversity significantly contributes to ecology and evolution of new bacterial species through horizontal gene transfer. Therefore, it is essential to understand the mechanisms underlying phage-host interactions. After initial infection, the phage utilizes the transcriptional machinery of the host to direct the expression of its own genes. This review presents a view on the transcriptional regulation mechanisms of bacteriophages, and its contribution to phage diversity and classification. Through this review, we aim to broaden the understanding of phage-host interactions while providing a reference source for researchers studying the regulation of phage transcription.
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HBV preS2 transactivates FOXP3 expression in malignant hepatocytes.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Recent data reported the increased expression of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), the well known master regulator of CD4(+) C25(+) regulatory T cells, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. However, the mechanisms remain unknown. We previously showed that preS2, one of important regulatory proteins encoded by HBV, triggers transactivation of hTERT in malignant hepatocytes. Here, we aimed to explore the role of preS2 in regulating FOXP3 expression in HCC.
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A wide spectrum of variably periictal MRI abnormalities induced by a single or a cluster of seizures.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Although predominantly reported in patients with status epilepticus, periictal MRI abnormalities have been reported in patients with a single or a cluster of seizures. Clinicians are often presented with a dilemma concerning the features of MRI abnormalities induced by a single or a cluster of seizures, as they may represent the effect of seizure activity rather than its structural cause.
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[Analysis of the complications of gynecological laparoscopic operation within 10 years].
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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To investigate on the incidence of gynecological laparoscopic operation complications within ten years.
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[Applied rigid choledochoscope and pneumatic lithotripsy in targeting treatment of hepatolithiasis guided by three-dimensional visualization technology].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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To study the value of rigid choledochoscope and pneumatic lithotripsy in targeting treatment of hepatolithiasis under the guidance of three-dimensional visualization technology.
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Directing chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells with a solid-supported chitosan thermogel for cartilage tissue engineering.
Biomed Mater
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Hydrogels are attractive for cartilage tissue engineering because of their high plasticity and similarity with the native cartilage matrix. However, one critical drawback of hydrogels for osteochondral repair is their inadequate mechanical strength. To address this limitation, we constructed a solid-supported thermogel comprising a chitosan hydrogel system and demineralized bone matrix. Scanning electron microscopy, the equilibrium scanning ratio, the biodegradation rate, biomechanical tests, biochemical assays, metabolic activity tests, immunostaining and cartilage-specific gene expression analysis were used to evaluate the solid-supported thermogel. Compared with pure hydrogel or demineralized matrix, the hybrid biomaterial showed superior porosity, equilibrium swelling and degradation rate. The hybrid scaffolds exhibited an increased mechanical strength: 75% and 30% higher compared with pure hydrogels and demineralized matrix, respectively. After three days culture, bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) maintained viability above 90% in all three materials; however, the cell retention of the hybrid scaffolds was more efficient and uniform than the other materials. Matrix production and chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs in the hybrid scaffolds were superior to its precursors, based on glycosaminoglycan quantification and hyaline cartilage marker expression after three weeks in culture. Its easy preparation, favourable biophysical properties and chondrogenic capacity indicated that this solid-supported thermogel could be an attractive biomaterial framework for cartilage tissue engineering.
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Long noncoding RNA related to cartilage injury promotes chondrocyte extracellular matrix degradation in osteoarthritis.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial regulatory roles in diverse biologic processes, but knowledge of lncRNAs in osteoarthritis (OA) is limited. The aim of this study was to identify lncRNA expression in articular cartilage and to explore the function of cartilage injury-related lncRNAs (lncRNA-CIR) in OA.
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Molecular characterization of soluble and membrane-bound trehalases in the cotton mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum.
Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Trehalose, a major hemolymph sugar in insects, is hydrolyzed by trehalase. We identified a soluble and a membrane-bound form of trehalase and isolated the corresponding mRNA, ALTre-1, and ALTre-2 in the cotton mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum. The deduced amino acid sequences of ALTre-1 and ALTre-2 revealed mature proteins with 643 and 617 amino acids, respectively. ALTre-1 and ALTre-2 contained trehalase signature motifs, and ALTre-2 contained a putative transmembrane domain near the C-terminus, suggesting that ALTre-1 and ALTre-2 encoded a soluble trehalase and a membrane-bound trehalase, respectively. Comparison of trehalase activity at different developmental stages and in six tissues indicated that soluble trehalase activity accounted for the majority of total trehalase activity in A. lucorum. ALTre-1 and ALTre-2 were expressed in all tissues and stages, with the highest expression of both in the second instar nymphs, ALTre-1 in the ovary and malpighian tubules, ALTre-2 in the flight muscles and fat body. Following the exposure of second instar nymph to 20-E, the soluble trehalase activity increased gradually while the membrane-bound trehalase activity remained at its initial level. Similarly, 20-E upregulated ALTre-1 expression but had no effect on ALTre-2 expression. These results suggest that an increase of this soluble trehalase activity was upregulated by ALTre-1 gene.
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[Application of three-dimensional visualization technology in pancreaticoduodenctomy for patients with variant hepatic artery].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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To explore the application value of the MI-3DVS in patients with hepatic artery variation receiving duodenopancreatectomy.
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[Evaluation of gastroesophageal varices with three-dimensional visualization technology].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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To observe the prognostic value of Medical Image Three-dimensional (3D) Visualization System (MI-3DVS) in evaluation of the distribution and blood supply of gastroesophageal varices (EGV).
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[Three-dimensional reconstruction of individual hepatic veins and portal veins system in hepatectomy].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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To study the imaging characteristics and variations of individual digitized hepatic vein and portal vein which were reconstructed by medical image three-dimensional visualization system (MI-3DVS), assess the value of MI-3DVS assisted hepatectomy.
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Pelagibaca abyssi sp. nov., of the family Rhodobacteraceae, isolated from deep-sea water.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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A Gram-stain negative, oval-shaped, aerobic, catalase and oxidase-positive bacterium, designated JLT2014(T), was isolated from a deep-seawater sample (obtained at a 2,000 m depth) of the Southeastern Pacific Ocean. The dominant fatty acids were identified as C18:1?7c/C18:1?6c, C16:0 and C10:0 3-OH, which altogether represented 60.1 % of the total. The predominant respiratory quinone was identified as Q-10. The G+C content of genomic DNA was determined to be 66.4 mol %. The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolate can be affiliated with the Roseobacter clade within the family Rhodobacteraceae. Strain JLT2014(T) exhibited highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity value to Pelagibaca bermudensis HTCC2601(T) (sequence similarity value: 97.6 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain JLT2014(T) and P. bermudensis HTCC2601(T) was 46.9 ± 2 %. Based on phenotypic properties and phylogenetic analysis, the name Pelagibaca abyssi sp. nov. is proposed, with JLT2014(T)(=LMG 27363(T)=CGMCC 1.12376(T)) as the type strain.
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Determination of the second virial coefficient of bovine serum albumin under varying pH and ionic strength by composition-gradient multi-angle static light scattering.
J Biol Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Composition-gradient multi-angle static light scattering (CG-MALS) is an emerging technique for the determination of intermolecular interactions via the second virial coefficient B22. With CG-MALS, detailed studies of the second virial coefficient can be carried out more accurately and effectively than with traditional methods. In addition, automated mixing, delivery and measurement enable high speed, continuous, fluctuation-free sample delivery and accurate results. Using CG-MALS we measure the second virial coefficient of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solutions at various values of pH and ionic strength of a univalent salt (NaCl). The systematic variation of the second virial coefficient as a function of pH and NaCl strength reveals the net charge change and the isoelectric point of BSA under different solution conditions. The magnitude of the second virial coefficient decreases to 1.13 x 10(-5) ml*mol/g(2) near the isoelectric point of pH 4.6 and 25 mM NaCl. These results illuminate the role of fundamental long-range electrostatic and van der Waals forces in protein-protein interactions, specifically their dependence on pH and ionic strength.
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Fabry-Pérot cavity based on chirped sampled fiber Bragg gratings.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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A novel kind of Fabry-Pérot (FP) structure based on chirped sampled fiber Bragg grating (CSFBG) is proposed and demonstrated. In this structure, the regular chirped FBG (CFBG) that functions as reflecting mirror in the FP cavity is replaced by CSFBG, which is realized by chirping the sampling periods of a sampled FBG having uniform local grating period. The realization of such CSFBG-FPs having diverse properties just needs a single uniform pitch phase mask and sub-micrometer precision moving stage. Compared with the conventional CFBG-FP, it becomes more flexible to design CSFBG-FPs of diverse functions, and the fabrication process gets simpler. As a demonstration, based on the same experimental facilities, FPs with uniform FSR (~73 pm) and chirped FSR (varying from 28 pm to 405 pm) are fabricated respectively, which shows good agreement with simulation results.
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miR-99a and -99b inhibit cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion by targeting mTOR signaling pathway.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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MicroRNAs were demonstrated to play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. Here, we showed that miR-99a and -99b (miR-99a/b) were down-regulated in human cervical cancer patient tissues and were negatively related with lymphatic metastasis. In addition, overexpression of miR-99a/b inhibited cell growth and invasion, whereas suppression of miR-99a/b yielded the reverse phenotype. Dual luciferase report assay revealed that mTOR was identified as a novel target gene of both miR-99a and -99b. Altogether, these results suggested that miR-99a/b directly and negatively regulated mTOR expression in cervical cancer cells, and enforced the importance of miR-99a/b and their targets in the malignant phenotypes of cervical carcinogenesis.
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Three-dimensional reconstruction of the peripancreatic vascular system based on computed tomographic angiography images and its clinical application in the surgical management of pancreatic tumors.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of peripancreatic vessels for patients with suspected pancreatic cancer (PC).
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C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate changes after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: guideline to diagnose and monitor postoperative infection.
Arthroscopy
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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The purposes of our study were to determine normative C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) values from a retrospective review of patients with and without infection after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and to determine CRP and ESR threshold levels that can serve as diagnostic indicators of infection. We also tried to draw a curve of CRP and ESR value changes after treatment of ACL infection to evaluate the response to treatment of the infection.
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Detection and Analysis of CRISPRs of Shigella.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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The recently discovered CRISPRs (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and Cas (CRISPR-associated) proteins are a novel genetic barrier that limits horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes and the CRISPR loci provide a historical view of the exposure of prokaryotes to a variety of foreign genetic elements. The aim of study was to investigate the occurrence and distribution of the CRISPRs in Shigella. A collection of 61 strains of Shigella were screened for the existence of CRISPRs. Three CRISPR loci were identified among 61 shigella strains. CRISPR1/cas loci are detected in 49 strains of shigella. Yet, IS elements were detected in cas gene in some strains. In the remaining 12 Shigella flexneri strains, the CRISPR1/cas locus is deleted and only a cas3' pseudo gene and a repeat sequence are present. The presence of CRISPR2 is frequently accompanied by the emergence of CRISPR1. CRISPR3 loci were present in almost all strains (52/61). The length of CRISPR arrays varied from 1 to 9 spacers. Sequence analysis of the CRISPR arrays revealed that few spacers had matches in the GenBank databases. However, one spacer in CRISPR3 loci matches the cognate cas3 genes and no cas gene was present around CRISPR3 region. Analysis of CRISPR sequences show that CRISPR have little change which makes CRISPR poor genotyping markers. The present study is the first attempt to determine and analyze CRISPRs of shigella isolated from clinical patients.
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Study on hyperuricemia in HBV-associated glomerulonephritis.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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To determine the prevalence and risk factors for hyperuricemia in hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN).
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One-step repair for cartilage defects in a rabbit model: a technique combining the perforated decalcified cortical-cancellous bone matrix scaffold with microfracture.
Am J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Cartilage repair still presents a challenge to clinicians and researchers alike. A more effective, simpler procedure that can produce hyaline-like cartilage is needed for articular cartilage repair.
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Histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate promotes the osteogenic differentiation of rat adipose-derived stem cells.
Dev. Growth Differ.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Adult stem cells hold great promise for use in tissue repair and regeneration. Recently, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were found to be an appealing alternative to bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) for bone tissue engineering. The main benefit of ADSCs is that they can be easily and abundantly available from adipose tissue. However, our prior study discovered an important phenomenon that BMSCs have greater osteogenic potential than ADSCs in vitro and epigenetic regulation plays a critical role in runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) expression and thus osteogenesis. In this study, we aimed to improve the osteogenic potential of ADSCs by histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaBu). We found that NaBu promoted rat ADSC osteogenic differentiation by altering the epigenetic modifications on the Runx2 promoter.
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Surface modification on polycaprolactone electrospun mesh and human decalcified bone scaffold with synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells-affinity peptide for tissue engineering.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSC) have been studied for over a decade since first being successfully isolated in 2001. These cells demonstrate the most promising therapeutic efficacy for musculoskeletal regeneration of the MSC family, particularly for cartilage regeneration. However, the mobilization and transfer of MSCs to defective or damaged tissues and organs in vivo with high accuracy and efficiency has been a major problem in tissue engineering (TE). In the present study, we identified a seven amino acid peptide sequence [SMSCs-affinity peptide (LTHPRWP; L7)] through phage display technology that has a high specific affinity to SMSCs. Our analysis suggested that L7 efficiently and specifically interacted with SMSCs without any species specificity. Thereafter, L7 was covalently conjugated onto both polycaprolactone (PCL) electrospun meshes and human decalcified bone scaffolds (hDBSc) to investigate its TE applications. After 24 h coculture with human SMSCs (hSMSCs), L7-conjugated PCL electrospun meshes had significantly more adherent hSMSCs than the control group, and the cells expanded well. Similar results were obtained using hDBSs. These results suggest that the novel L7 peptide sequence has a high specific affinity to SMSCs. Covalently conjugating this peptide to either artificial polymer material (PCL mesh) or natural material (hDBS) significantly enhances the adhesion of SMSCs. This method is applicable to a wide range of potential SMSC-based TE applications, particularly to cartilage regeneration, via surface modification on various type of materials. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014.
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Characterizing heat shock protein 90 gene of Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) and its expression in response to different temperature and pesticide stresses.
Cell Stress Chaperones
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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In this study, we cloned a full-length cDNA of heat shock protein (HSP) gene of Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) [AlHSP90, KC109781] and investigated its expression in response to temperature and pesticide stresses. The open reading frame (ORF) of AlHSP90 is 2,169 bp in length, encoding a 722 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular weight of 82.99 kDa. Transcriptional and translational expression profiles of AlHSP90 under extreme temperature or pesticide stresses were examined by fluorescent real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. Results showed that the expression profiles of AlHSP90 protein were in high agreement with those of AlHSP90 RNA and indicated that AlHSP90 was not only an important gene for A. lucorum adults in response to extremely high temperature, but also involved in the resistance or tolerance to cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and emamectin benzoate, especially for female adults to emamectin benzoate and for male adults to cyhalothrin. Transcriptional results of AlHSP90 also confirmed that AlHSP90 was an important gene involved in the resistance or tolerance to both temperature and pesticide stresses. In addition, our study also revealed that ?24 °C may be the suitable temperature range for A. lucorum survival, which is also confirmed by the results of the expression of AlHSP90, the nymph mortality, and the intrinsic rate of increase (r m) when A. lucorum is reared at six different temperatures. Therefore, these studies are significant in elucidating the AlHSP90 in response to temperature and pesticide stresses and would provide guidance for A. lucorum management with different pesticides or temperatures in fields.
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The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging for different types of subscapularis lesions.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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To investigate the accuracy of preoperative 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) interpreted with standardized procedure for diagnosing subscapularis (SSC) tears identified by arthroscopy. The diagnostic accuracy of MRI for different types of SSC lesions was also evaluated.
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The effects of co-delivery of BMSC-affinity peptide and rhTGF-?1 from coaxial electrospun scaffolds on chondrogenic differentiation.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Electrospinning is a promising technology for the fabrication of scaffolds in cartilage tissue engineering. Two other important elements for tissue engineering are seed cells and bioactive factors. Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) and rhTGF-?1 are extensively studied for cartilage regeneration. However, little is known about scaffolds that can both specifically enrich BMSCs and release rhTGF-?1 to promote chondrogenic differentiation of the incorporated BMSCs. In this study, we first fabricated coaxial electrospun fibers using a polyvinyl pyrrolidone/bovine serum albumin/rhTGF-?1 composite solution as the core fluid and poly(?-caprolactone) solution as the sheath fluid. Structural analysis revealed that scaffold fibers were relatively uniform with a diameter of 674.4 ± 159.6 nm; the core-shell structure of coaxial fibers was homogeneous and proteins were evenly distributed in the core. Subsequently, the BMSC-specific affinity peptide E7 was conjugated to the coaxial electrospun fibers to develop a co-delivery system of rhTGF-?1 and E7. The results of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance indicate that the conjugation between the E7 and scaffolds was covalent. The rhTGF-?1 incorporated in E7-modified scaffolds could maintain sustained release and bioactivity. Cell adhesion, spreading, and DNA content analyses indicate that the E7 promoted BMSC initial adhesion, and that the scaffolds containing both E7 and rhTGF-?1 (CBrhTE) were the most favorable for BMSC survival. Meanwhile, CBrhTE scaffolds could promote the chondrogenic differentiation ability of BMSCs. Overall, the CBrhTE scaffold could synchronously improve all three of the basic components required for cartilage tissue engineering in vitro, which paves the road for designing and building more efficient tissue scaffolds for cartilage repair.
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Investigation on the structure and upconversion fluorescence of Yb³?/Ho³? co-doped fluorapatite crystals for potential biomedical applications.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Rare-earth Yb(3+) and Ho(3+) co-doped fluorapatite (FA:Yb(3+)/Ho(3+)) crystals were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, and their structure, upconversion properties, cell proliferation and imaging were investigated. The synthesized crystals, with a size of 16 by 286?nm, have a hexagonal crystal structure of classic FA and a Ca/Yb/Ho molar ratio of 100/16/2.1. Several reasonable Yb(3+)/Ho(3+) -embedding lattice models along the fluorine channel of the FA crystal cell are proposed for the first time, such as models for (Ca7YbHo©)(PO4)6F2 and (Ca6YbHoNa2)(PO4)6F2. The activated FA:Yb(3+)/Ho(3+) crystals were found to exhibit distinct upconversion fluorescence. The 543- and 654-nm signals in the emission spectra could be assigned, respectively, to the (5)F4 ((5)S2) - (5)I8 and (5)F5 - (5)I8 transitions of holmium via 980-nm near-infrared excitation and the energy transfer of ytterbium. After the surfaces were grafted with hydrophilic dextran, the crystals displayed clear fluorescent cell imaging. Thus, the prepared novel FA:Yb(3+)/Ho(3+) upconversion fluorescent crystals have potential applications in the biomedical field.
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In situ forces and length patterns of the fibular collateral ligament under controlled loading: an in vitro biomechanical study using a robotic system.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The aim of this study was to determine the in situ forces and length patterns of the fibular collateral ligament (FCL) and kinematics of the knee under various loading conditions.
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Renoprotective effect of atorvastatin on STZ-diabetic rats through attenuating kidney-associated dysmetabolism.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Atorvastatin (AT) has been alternatively used for managing diabetic complications in clinic. However, AT-related therapeutic potentiality remains relatively unexplored, especially in diabetic nephropathy. This study aimed to investigate the underlying potentiality that AT exerted on anti-diabetic nephropathy role against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced kidney injury in rats. STZ-diabetic rats were intragastrically administered with AT (10, 20 mg/kg/d) for consecutive 8 weeks. The effects of AT on body weight, levels of blood glucose, lipometabolism, redox state, cellular metabolism, regulator factor and kidney morphological changes were monitored by routine measurement, biochemistry assay, PT-PCR analysis, ultrastructural and pathological observations, respectively. Compared with the diabetic nephropathy rats, AT elevated the body weight of diabetic nephropathy rats (P<0.01), effectively reduced the blood glucose level (P<0.01), increased the levels of insulin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in plasma (P<0.01), and decreased the 24 h urine protein content and serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P<0.01). Meanwhile, increase in kidney tissue, the intrarenal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were enhanced, while the malonaldehyde (MDA) content was reduced (P<0.01). In addition, the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1) mRNA in kidney tissue was notably down-regulated (P<0.01). Furthermore, AT contributed to alleviating STZ-induced nephritic damages in rats. These results demonstrate that atorvastatin exerts the effective protective role against kidney injuries of STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy rat, which the underlying mechanisms are associated with ameliorating glyco, lipometabolism, enhancing antioxidant ability, and mitigating renal damage.
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Self-rectifying performance in the sandwiched structure of Ag/In-Ga-Zn-O/Pt bipolar resistive switching memory.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We reported that the resistive switching of Ag/In-Ga-Zn-O/Pt cells exhibited self-rectifying performance at low-resistance state (LRS). The self-rectifying behavior with reliability was dynamic at elevated temperature from 303 to 393 K. The Schottky barrier originated from the interface between Ag electrode and In-Ga-Zn-O films, identified by replacing Ag electrode with Cu and Ti metals. The reverse current at 1.2 V of LRS is strongly suppressed and more than three orders of magnitude lower than the forward current. The Schottky barrier height was calculated as approximately 0.32 eV, and the electron injection process and resistive switching mechanism were discussed.
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Electrospun fibrous scaffolds combined with nanoscale hydroxyapatite induce osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Periodontal repair is a complex process in which regeneration of alveolar bone is a vital component. The aim of this study was to develop a biodegradable scaffold with good biocompatibility and osteoinductive ability. Two types of composite fibrous scaffolds were produced by electrospinning, ie, type I collagen/poly(?-caprolactone) (COL/PCL) and type I collagen/poly(?-caprolactone)/nanoscale hydroxyapatite (COL/PCL/nHA) with an average fiber diameter of about 377 nm. After a simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion test, the COL/PCL/nHA-SBF scaffold developed a rough surface because of the calcium phosphate deposited on the fibers, suggesting that the presence of nHA promoted the mineralization potential of the scaffold. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy clearly showed the calcium and phosphorus content in the COL/PCL/nHA and COL/PCL/nHA-SBF scaffolds, confirming the findings of nHA and calcium phosphate precipitation on scanning electron micrographs. Water contact analysis revealed that nHA could improve the hydrophilic nature of the COL/PCL/nHA-SBF scaffold. The morphology of periodontal ligament cells cultured on COL/PCL-SBF and COL/PCL/nHA-SBF was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that cells adhered to either type of scaffold and were slightly spindle-shaped in the beginning, then extended gradually with stretched filopodia, indicating an ability to fill the fiber pores. A Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that both scaffolds supported cell proliferation. However, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that expression of the bone-related markers, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, was upregulated only on the COL/PCL/nHA-SBF scaffold, indicating that this scaffold had the ability to induce osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells. In this study, COL/PCL/nHA-SBF produced by electrospinning followed by biomimetic mineralization had combined electrospun fibers with nHA in it. This scaffold has good biocompatibility and osteoinductive ability as a result of the characteristics of nHA, so could be innovatively applied to periodontal tissue engineering as a potential scaffold.
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[Three-dimensional laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a case report and literature review].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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We report a case of gallbladder stone receiving three-dimensional (3D) laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which allowed 3D visualization of the laparoscopic operative field and faithfully displayed the 3D anatomic structures of the abdominal organs and the gallbladder triangle. The operation was successfully completed in 32 min without intraoperative complications. 3D laparoscopic surgery allows more precise operation with reduced complications and helps to shorten the operative time, and is suitable for more complex laparoscopic surgery.
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Anatomic, Arthroscopically Assisted, Mini-Open Fibular Collateral Ligament Reconstruction: An In Vitro Biomechanical Study.
Am J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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BACKGROUND:The fibular collateral ligament (FCL) is the primary restraint to varus rotation of the knee joint. Arthroscopic techniques are widely used and minimally invasive, but anatomic arthroscopic reconstruction of an isolated FCL injury has not been reported. HYPOTHESIS:Anatomic reconstruction of an isolated FCL injury can be performed arthroscopically and will restore the knee to near-normal stability. STUDY DESIGN:Controlled laboratory study. METHODS:A total of 12 nonpaired, fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were biomechanically subjected to a 10-N·m varus moment and 5-N·m external and internal rotation torques at 0°, 15°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of knee flexion, respectively (0° only for varus loading). Testing was performed with an intact and sectioned FCL and also after an anatomic reconstruction of the FCL by arthroscopic technique. Kinematics of each knee under various loading conditions was determined with a robotic universal force/moment sensor testing system. RESULTS:After sectioning, significant increases were found in varus rotation at 0°, 15°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of knee flexion; in external rotation at 15°, 30°, and 60° of knee flexion; and in internal rotation at 30°, 60°, and 90° of knee flexion. After reconstruction, full recovery of knee stability was observed in varus rotation at 0°, 15°, 30°, and 60°; in external rotation at 0°, 15°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120°; and in internal rotation at 0°, 15°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120°. When the sectioned and intact FCL knee conditions were compared, significant increases of 3.4° at 90° of flexion and 3.4° at 120° of flexion were found (P < .001, both conditions); when the reconstructed and sectioned FCL knee conditions were compared, significant decreases of 1.7° at 90° of flexion and 1.7° at 120° of knee flexion were found (P = .033 and .043, respectively). CONCLUSION:An anatomic reconstruction of the FCL can be performed by an arthroscopically assisted mini-open technique with an isolated FCL injury, and near-normal stability of the knee can be restored. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Anatomic reconstruction of the FCL by an arthroscopically assisted mini-open technique is a viable, less invasive option to treat nonrepairable isolated FCL injury.
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[A simulation study for the effect of acid concentration and temperture on sick sinus syndrome].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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The effective therapeutics for the sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaker dysfunction induced by SCN5A gene mutation this is still being explored recently. In this study, a two-dimensional experimental model of rabbit SAN-atrial cell system which proposed by Zhang et al., was used as a prototype, the gene mutation was considered, and effects of both the acid concentration and temperature were also introduced. The effects of acid concentration and temperature on sick sinus syndrome (SSS) at the tissue level were investigated by simulation. The results showed that the SAN abnormal pacemaker could be caused by the reduction of I(Na), which is induced by the two mutations of T220I and delF1617. The results also showed that if we properly adjusted the acid concentration and temperature of the system, not only could we increase the relevant currents, but also could we increase I(Na) which reduced by gene mutations, so that the pacemaking behavior of SAN tissue could return to normal state from abnormalities. The above simulation results imply that the abnormal pacemaking of SAN system may closely relate to the gene mutation of ion channel mutations, and the acid concentration and temperature may play a modulatory role. Our study could be useful for clinical medical diagnosis and therapy of cardiac disease.
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Biological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells grown on different topographical nanofibrous poly-L-lactide meshes.
J Biomed Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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The nanotopographical features of artificial scaffolds have complex effects on the biological characteristics of stem cells. They influence cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation, and differentiation; however we have limited knowledge on how these processes occur under nanotopographical cues. In this study, two kinds of electrospun nanofibrous meshes with different fiber arrangements (totally non-woven and lattice-like) were fabricated and used for in vitro culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). By comparing the characteristic marks related to osteogenic differentiation, we found that with prolonged culture time, osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), as well as related genes (Runx2 and Colla genes), were all expressed at higher levels on lattice-like nanofibrous meshes than on non-woven ones. These results indicated that the lattice-like nanofibrous mesh activated the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs owing to changes in cell morphology directed by nanofiber orientations. Compared with pure non-woven nanofibrous meshes, lattice-like ones possessed a combined structure of parallel, magnetic-line-like, and non-woven regions. MSCs adhering onto them had upregulated expression levels of integrin subunits a5 and b1, and activated downstream signaling pathways of Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). When the specific inhibitors PD98059 and Y27632 were used to inhibit phosphorylated ERK and p160 ROCKII activity, respectively, F-actin became disordered and the expression level of Runx2 was downregulated. Thus, we concluded that the scaffold nanotopography may modulate the microenvironment of MSCs and promote their osteogenic differentiation through the RhoA and ERK signaling pathways. These findings provided valuable information on the selection of artificial matrices suitable for MSCs application in bone tissue engineering.
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A general approach to spindle-assembled lanthanide borate nanocrystals and their photoluminescence upon Eu3+/Tb3+ doping.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Uniform-assembled lanthanide borate nanocrystals have been synthesized via a facile self-assembly process under hydrothermal conditions. All of the prepared lanthanide borate assemblies exhibit a spindle-like profile despite the fact that they belong to different crystal systems and have different formulas for composition. Each assembly is composed of small nanocrystals that are tightly attached along with their lateral surfaces. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy have been used to characterize the structure and morphology of these samples. The mechanism responsible for the growth and assembly of these lanthanide borate assemblies is also demonstrated. After Eu(3+) and/or Tb(3+) ions are doped inside these assemblies, strong and multicolor emissions can be realized. Notably, tunable emission and a warm-white color can be achieved in the Eu(3+)/Tb(3+) codoped samples.
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Internal rotation resistance test at abduction and external rotation: a new clinical test for diagnosing subscapularis lesions.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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A new clinical test for evaluating subscapularis (SSC) integrity was described, and its diagnostic value was compared with the present SSC tests (the lift-off, belly-press, IRLS and bear-hug tests). The new test is called internal rotation resistance test at abduction and external rotation (IRRT). The test is performed at maximal 90° of abduction and maximal external rotation.
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Functional responses and prey-stage preferences of a predatory gall midge and two predacious mites with twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae, as host.
J. Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of vegetables and other economically important crops. This study evaluated the functional responses and prey-stage preferences of three species of predators, a predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), and two predatory mite species, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Amblyseius swirskii (AnthiasHenriot), with T. urticae as the host, under laboratory conditions. The results showed that F. acarisuga was highly effective and the two species of predacious mites were moderately effective in feeding on T. urticae eggs. Logistic regression analysis suggested Type II (convex) functional responses for all three species. However, based on the estimates of the handling time and the attacking rates, the three predators had different predation capacities. Among the three species, F. acarisuga had the highest predation on T. urticae. The maximum daily predation by a larval F. acarisuga was 50 eggs/day, followed by a female N. californicus (25.6 eggs/day) and a female A. swirskii (15.1 eggs/day). A female N. californicus produced more eggs than a female A. swirskii did when they both fed on T. urticae eggs. In addition, all three predator species had no preystage preference for either prey eggs or nymphs. The findings from this study could help select better biological control agents for effective control of T. urticae and other pests in vegetable productions.
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Detection of ADAMTS-4 activity using a fluorogenic peptide-conjugated Au nanoparticle probe in human knee synovial fluid.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif-4 (ADAMTS-4) plays a pivotal role in degrading aggrecan, which is an early event in cartilage degrading joint diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA). Detection of ADAMTS-4 activity could provide useful clinical information for early diagnosis of such diseases and disease-modifying therapy. Therefore, we developed a ADAMTS-4 detective fluorescent turn-on AuNP probe (ADAMTS-4-D-Au probe) by conjugating gold nanoparticles with a FITC-modified ADAMTS-4-specific peptide (DVQEFRGVTAVIR). When the ADAMTS-4-D-Au probe was incubated with ADAMTS-4, the fluorescence recovered and fluorescence intensity markedly increased in proportion to concentrations of ADAMTS-4 and the probe. A nearly 3-fold increase in fluorescent intensity in response to only 3.9 pM of ADAMTS-4 was detected, whereas almost no fluorescence recovery was observed when the probe was incubated with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -3, and -13. These results indicate a relative high sensitivity and specificity of the probe. Moreover, ADAMTS-4-D-Au probe was used to detect ADAMTS-4 activity in synovial fluid from 11 knee surgery patients. A substantial increase in fluorescent intensity was observed in the acute joint injury group as compared to the chronic joint injury and end-stage OA groups, indicating that this simple and low-cost sensing system might serve as a new detection method for ADAMTS-4 activity in biological samples and in screens for inhibitors for ADAMTS-4-related joint diseases. Additionally, this probe could be a potential biomarker for early diagnosis of cartilage-degrading joint diseases.
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Transposition of ISEcp1 modulates blaCTX-M-55-mediated Shigella flexneri resistance to cefalothin.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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The aim of this study was to uncover the mechanisms underlying Shigella flexneri resistance to cefalothin. In this study, a resistance-related S. flexneri isolate, S. flexneri YDC, was obtained from S. flexneri mel-1998023/zz pre-incubated with cefalothin at a dose of 0.5× the minimum inhibitory concentration. The ISEcp1 coding element was identified upstream of blaCTX-M-55 in S. flexneri YDC. To further determine the role of ISEcp1 in S. flexneri resistance, plasmids containing blaCTX-M-55 recombinant with or without the ISEcp1 sequence were constructed and named as pCTX and pISECTX, respectively. It was shown that Escherichia coli DH5?(pISECTX) was resistant to all ?-lactams tested. In contrast, E. coli DH5?(pCTX) was sensitive to all except ?-lactams cefazolin and cefalothin. In addition, reverse transcription PCR showed that expression levels of blaCTX-M-55 were higher in E. coli DH5?(pISECTX). The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) assay demonstrated that extended-spectrum ?-lactamase was only positively detected in E. coli DH5?(pISECTX) but not in E. coli DH5?(pCTX). Taken together, these results suggest that the translocated ISEcp1 element upstream of blaCTX-M-55 is required for overexpression of blaCTX-M-55, leading to cephalosporin resistance.
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Evidence for differential alternative splicing in blood of young boys with autism spectrum disorders.
Mol Autism
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Since RNA expression differences have been reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) for blood and brain, and differential alternative splicing (DAS) has been reported in ASD brains, we determined if there was DAS in blood mRNA of ASD subjects compared to typically developing (TD) controls, as well as in ASD subgroups related to cerebral volume.
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Nanoparticle delivery of the bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene to adipose-derived stem cells promotes articular cartilage repair in vitro and in vivo.
Arthroscopy
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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To evaluate the effect of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles delivering pDC316-BMP4-EGFP plasmid into rabbit adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in vitro and chondrogenesis of the bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4)-transfected ADSCs seeded onto poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLLGA) scaffold in a rabbit model.
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Neuroimaging of six neurosyphilis cases mimicking viral encephalitis.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Neurosyphilis is known as "the great imitator" due to its wide range of clinical symptoms and abnormalities upon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Typical findings of both neurosyphilis and viral encephalitis include unilateral or bilateral MR hyperintensities in mesiotemporal lobes upon T2-weighted imaging or fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging. Accordingly, patients with neurosyphilis are frequently misdiagnosed with viral encephalitis, which prevents them from receiving appropriate treatment and often results in greater neurologic damage.
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Improvement of the oral bioavailability of coenzyme Q10 with lecithin nanocapsules.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Coenzyme Q10-loaded lecithin nanocapsules (CoQ10-LNCs), composed of a CoQ10/lecithin/ GTCC/glycerol aqueous solution, were prepared by high-pressure homogenization. The zeta potential of the CoQ10-LNCs above -60 mV was determined on a Malvern Zetasize 2000 (Malvern Instruments, UK). The spherical shape of the CoQ10-LNCs was observed by using freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM), and the particle size was found to be below 100 nm. The supercooled state of the CoQ10-LNCs was observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In an oral bioavailability study, the CoQ10 plasma level after administering CoQ10-LNCs was higher than that after administering a CoQ10 tablet over 24 hours, and the relative bioavailability of CoQ10 was improved to 176.6% in mice. Based on the above results, the LNC delivery system might be a potential vehicle for improving the oral bioavailability of CoQ10.
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Expression of integrin ?3 and osteopontin in the eutopic endometrium of adenomyosis during the implantation window.
Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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To investigate the expression of integrin ?3 and osteopontin (OPN) in the eutopic endometrium of adenomyosis and to characterize possible endometrial defects in adenomyosis.
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Hepatitis B virus core protein enhances human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression and hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation in a c-Ets2-dependent manner.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
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Hepatitis B virus core protein can regulate viral replication and host gene expression. However, it is unclear whether and how hepatitis B virus core protein regulates hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation. Induction of hepatitis B virus core protein over-expression significantly enhanced the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells, while knockdown of hepatitis B virus core protein expression inhibited the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Altered hepatitis B virus core protein expression significantly changed the growth of implanted hepatocellular carcinoma in vivo. Microarray analysis indicated that hepatitis B virus core protein up-regulated human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression, which was further validated by over-expression and knockdown assays in vitro. Furthermore, knockdown of human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression mitigated the hepatitis B virus core protein-enhanced hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and clone formation in vitro. Luciferase assays indicated that hepatitis B virus core protein enhanced the promoter activity of human telomerase reverse transcriptase, which was dependent on the binding of c-Ets2 to the promoter region between -192 and -187. In addition, hepatitis B virus core protein enhanced human telomerase reverse transcriptase transcription in HepG2 cells, but not in the c-Ets2-silencing HepG2 cells. Moreover, hepatitis B virus core protein promoted c-Ets2 nuclear translocation. Finally, significantly higher levels of human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression and nuclear c-Ets2 accumulation were detected in hepatitis B virus core protein-positive hepatocellular carcinoma samples. Our findings demonstrate that hepatitis B virus core protein promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation by up-regulating the c-Ets2-dependent expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase.
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Genome wide differences of gene expression associated with HLA-DRB1 genotype in multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Using two microarray platforms, we identify HLA-DRB5 as the most highly expressed gene in MS compared to healthy subjects. As expected, HLA-DRB5 expression was associated with the HLA-DRB1*1501 MS susceptibility allele. Besides HLA-DRB5, there were 1219 differentially expressed exons (p<0.01, |fold change (FC)|>1.2) that differed between HLA-DRB1*1501 Positive multiple sclerosis subjects (MSP) compared to HLA-DRB1*1501 negative multiple sclerosis subjects (MSN). Analysis of the regulated genes revealed significantly different immune signaling pathways including IL-4 and IL-17 in these two MS genotypes. Different risk alleles appear to be associated with different patterns of gene expression that may reflect differences in pathophysiology of these two MS subtypes. These preliminary data will need to be confirmed in future studies.
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Dysregulated expression of T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 is associated with the disease severity and the outcome of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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We aimed to investigate the expression of T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) on peripheral blood cells in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients and to analyze its clinical significance.
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Isolation and characterization of two novel serpins from the tick Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Two novel serpins with anti-chymotrypsin activity, RHS-1 and RHS-2, were identified in the tick Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides. The complementary cDNA sequence of RHS-1 was 1286 base pairs (bp) and encoded a deduced 403-amino acid protein with a signal peptide, whereas that of RHS-2 was 1682bp and encoded a deduced 380-amino acid protein with no signal peptide. Although both RHS-1 and RHS-2 exhibited high sequence similarities to known serpins from other ticks, the level of similarity at the amino acid level between the 2 serpins characterized here was only 32.5%. Salivary gland-specific expression of RHS-1 and midgut-specific expression of RHS-2 were found by Western blot using the relevant antiserum. We tested the ability of purified recombinant rRHS-1 and rRHS-2 to inhibit various serine proteases and found that both significantly inhibited chymotrypsin (95.6% and 94.2%, respectively). We further demonstrated that RHS-1, but not RHS-2 exhibited anticoagulation activity, based on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Disruption of the genes encoding the 2 serpins with RNA interference (RNAi) led to a significant decrease in tick attachment and engorgement rates. These results indicate that RHS-1 and RHS-2 are 2 novel serpins with anti-chymotrypsin activity that are involved in blood feeding of R. haemaphysaloides.
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Downregulation of miRNA-128 sensitises breast cancer cell to chemodrugs by targeting Bax.
Cell Biol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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miR-128 is more highly expressed in drug-resistant breast cancer samples than in drug-sensitive samples. We have confirmed that Bax is the target of miR-128 by negative post-transcriptional regulation. miR-128 and Bax were detected in the breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, which was then transfected with miR-128 MIMIC (precursor of miR-128) or AMO (antisense-miR-128 oligonucleotides). After transfection, the chemosensitivity of MDA-MB-231 cell was up-regulated with increasing of Bax and inhibition of miR-128.
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Risk factors and clinical analysis for invasive fungal infection in neonatal intensive care unit patients.
Am J Perinatol
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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In this study, we seek to determine independent risk factors of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in neonatal infants.
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Proinflammatory Cytokines Stimulate Mitochondrial Superoxide Flashes in Articular Chondrocytes In Vitro and In Situ.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Mitochondria play important roles in many types of cells. However, little is known about mitochondrial function in chondrocytes. This study was undertaken to explore possible role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in inflammatory response in articular chondrocytes.
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Structural and functional insights into Saccharomyces cerevisiae riboflavin biosynthesis reductase RIB7.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Saccharomyces cerevisiae RIB7 (ScRIB7) is a potent target for anti-fungal agents because of its involvement in the riboflavin biosynthesis pathway as a NADPH-dependent reductase. However, the catalytic mechanism of riboflavin biosynthesis reductase (RBSRs) is controversial, and enzyme structure information is still lacking in eukaryotes. Here we report the crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RIB7 at 2.10 Å resolution and its complex with NADPH at 2.35 Å resolution. ScRIB7 exists as a stable homodimer, and each subunit consists of nine central ?-sheets flanked by five helices, resembling the structure of RIB7 homologues. A conserved G(76)-X-G(78)-Xn-G(181)-G(182) motif is present at the NADPH pyrophosphate group binding site. Activity assays confirmed the necessity of Thr79, Asp83, Glu180 and Gly182 for the activity of ScRIB7. Substrate preference of ScRIB7 was altered by mutating one residue (Thr35) to a Lysine, implying that ScRIB7 Thr35 and its corresponding residue, a lysine in bacteria, are important in substrate-specific recognition.
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Gene expression profiling of blood in brain arteriovenous malformation patients.
Transl Stroke Res
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) are an important cause of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in young adults. Gene expression profiling of blood has led to the identification of stroke biomarkers, and may help identify BAVM biomarkers and illuminate BAVM pathogenesis. It is unknown whether blood gene expression profiles differ between 1) BAVM patients and healthy controls, or 2) unruptured and ruptured BAVM patients at presentation. We characterized blood transcriptional profiles in 60 subjects (20 unruptured BAVM, 20 ruptured BAVM, and 20 healthy controls) using Affymetrix whole genome expression arrays. Expression differences between groups were tested by ANOVA, adjusting for potential confounders. Genes with absolute fold change ? 1.2 (false discovery rate corrected p ? 0.1) were selected as differentially expressed and evaluated for over-representation in KEGG biological pathways (p ? 0.05). Twenty-nine genes were differentially expressed between unruptured BAVM patients and controls, including 13 which may be predictive of BAVM. Patients with ruptured BAVM compared to unruptured BAVM differed in expression of 1490 genes, with over-representation of genes in 8 pathways including MAPK, VEGF, Wnt signaling and several inflammatory pathways. These results suggest clues to the pathogenesis of BAVM and/or BAVM rupture and point to potential biomarkers or new treatment targets.
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Effects of gender on gene expression in the blood of ischemic stroke patients.
J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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This study examined the effects of gender on RNA expression after ischemic stroke (IS). RNA obtained from blood of IS patients (n=51; 153 samples at < or =3, 5, and 24?hours) and from matched controls (n=52) were processed on Affymetrix microarrays. Analyses of covariance for stroke versus control samples were performed separately for both genders and the regulated genes for females compared with males. In all, 242, 227, and 338 male-specific genes were regulated at < or =3, 5, and 24?hours after IS, respectively, of which 59 were regulated at all time points. Overall, 774, 3,437, and 571 female-specific stroke genes were regulated at < or =3, 5, and 24?hours, respectively, of which 152 were regulated at all time points. Male-specific stroke genes were associated with integrin, integrin-liked kinase, actin, tight junction, Wnt/?-catenin, RhoA, fibroblast growth factors (FGF), granzyme, and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)2 signaling. Female-specific stroke genes were associated with p53, high-mobility group box-1, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)1?, interleukin (IL)1, IL6, IL12, IL18, acute-phase response, T-helper, macrophage, and estrogen signaling. Cell death signaling was overrepresented in both genders, although the molecules and pathways differed. Gender affects gene expression in the blood of IS patients, which likely implies gender differences in immune, inflammatory, and cell death responses to stroke.
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Structural insights into protein arginine symmetric dimethylation by PRMT5.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2011
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Symmetric and asymmetric dimethylation of arginine are isomeric protein posttranslational modifications with distinct biological effects, evidenced by the methylation of arginine 3 of histone H4 (H4R3): symmetric dimethylation of H4R3 leads to repression of gene expression, while asymmetric dimethylation of H4R3 is associated with gene activation. The enzymes catalyzing these modifications share identifiable sequence similarities, but the relationship between their catalytic mechanisms is unknown. Here we analyzed the structure of a prototypic symmetric arginine dimethylase, PRMT5, and discovered that a conserved phenylalanine in the active site is critical for specifying symmetric addition of methyl groups. Changing it to a methionine significantly elevates the overall methylase activity, but also converts PRMT5 to an enzyme that catalyzes both symmetric and asymmetric dimethylation of arginine. Our results demonstrate a common catalytic mechanism intrinsic to both symmetric and asymmetric arginine dimethylases, and show that steric constrains in the active sites play an essential role in determining the product specificity of arginine methylases. This discovery also implies a potentially regulatable outcome of arginine dimethylation that may provide versatile control of eukaryotic gene expression.
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The X-chromosome has a different pattern of gene expression in women compared with men with ischemic stroke.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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Differences in ischemic stroke between men and women have been mainly attributed to hormonal effects. However, sex differences in immune response to ischemia may exist. We hypothesized that differential expression of X-chromosome genes in blood immune cells contribute to differences between men and women with ischemic stroke.
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Sulfonated polystyrene fiber network-induced hybrid proton exchange membranes.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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A novel type of hybrid membrane was fabricated by incorporating sulfonated polystyrene (S-PS) electrospun fibers into Nafion for the application in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. With the introduction of S-PS fiber mats, a large amount of sulfonic acid groups in Nafion aggregated onto the interfaces between S-PS fibers and the ionomer matrix, forming continuous pathways for facile proton transport. The resultant hybrid membranes had higher proton conductivities than that of recast Nafion, and the conductivities were controlled by selectively adjusting the fiber diameters. Consequently, hybrid membranes fabricated by ionomers, such as Nafion, incorporated with ionic-conducting nanofibers established a promising strategy for the rational design of high-performance proton exchange membranes.
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Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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Coupling between superradiant and subradiant mode resonators in a metamaterial unit cell plays an important role in observing the sharp transparency peak due to destructive interference between the resonators. This effect is enhanced as the resonators are brought closer to each other in a conventional planar arrangement. We present a novel coupling scheme of planar terahertz metamaterial to tune the plasmon-induced transparency peak by physically varying the distance between the superradiant and the subradiant resonators in such a way that the transparency peak begins to disappear as the coupled resonators are brought closer than a critical separation distance. The effect is attributed to the disappearance of the resonant behavior of the subradiant resonator in a closely coupled regime. The simple planar design presented here demonstrates a scheme to manipulate the electromagnetically induced transparency-like behavior in terahertz metamaterials and this could lead to the development of unique slow light devices for terahertz applications.
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RNA expression profiles from blood for the diagnosis of stroke and its causes.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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A blood test to detect stroke and its causes would be particularly useful in babies, young children, and patients in intensive care units and for emergencies when imaging is difficult to obtain or is unavailable. Whole genome microarrays were used to show specific gene expression profiles in rats 24 hours after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, hypoxia, and hypoglycemia. These proof-of-principle studies revealed that groups of genes (called gene profiles) can distinguish ischemic stroke patients from controls within 3 to 24 hours after the strokes. In addition, gene expression profiles have been developed that distinguish stroke due to large-vessel atherosclerosis from cardioembolic stroke. These profiles will be useful for predicting the causes of cryptogenic stroke. The results in adults suggest that similar diagnostic tools could be developed for children.
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Selection of housekeeping genes for normalization of RT-PCR in hypoxic neural stem cells of rat in vitro.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Gene expression analysis under various conditions using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) needs reliable control genes. Housekeeping genes are commonly used as the control. However, no validated housekeeping gene is available for study of hypoxic neural stem cell culture. To choose appropriate internal control genes, the expression of eight commonly used housekeeping genes was examined in rat neural stem cell model to find one or more stably expressed genes under hypoxic/ischemic conditions. Two genes, HPRT and RPL13A were identified as the most confidential housekeeping genes in this research by geNorm and NormFinder softwares. As a groundwork, the most stable housekeeping genes for neural stem cells under hypoxic/ischemic conditions are initially investigated and validated in this experiment, which might provide a better understanding for the gene expression study in ischemic and necrotic neural stem cell cultures or in ischemic diseases of the central nervous system (CNS).
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Antirheumatoid Arthritis Activities and Chemical Compositions of Phenolic Compounds-Rich Fraction from Urtica atrichocaulis, an Endemic Plant to China.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2011
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Urtica atrichocaulis, an endemic plant to China, is commonly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis even though its pharmaceutical activities and chemical constituents were not studied. Herein, we reported our investigations on the chemical compositions of the phenolic compounds-rich fraction from U. atrichocaulis (TFUA) and their antirheumatoid arthritis activities. We found that the TFUA significantly inhibited the adjuvant-induced rats arthritis, carrageenin-induced rats paw edema, cotton pellet-induced mice granuloma, and the acetic acid-induced mice writhing response. Our phytochemical investigations on the TFUA resulted in the first-time isolation and identification of 17 phenolic constituents and a bis (5-formylfurfuryl) ether. The extensive HPLC analysis also revealed the chemical compositions of TFUA. Our further biological evaluation of the main phenolic components, individually and collectively, indicated that the antirheumatoid arthritis activities of TFUA were the combined effect of multiple phenolic constituents.
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Crystal structure of the cell corpse engulfment protein CED-2 in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the cell corpse engulfment proteins CED-2, CED-5, and CED-12 act in the same pathway to regulate the activation of the Rac small GTPase, CED-10, leading to the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton for engulfing apoptotic cells. Nevertheless, it is not well understood how these proteins act together. Here we report the crystal structures of the CED-2 protein as determined by X-ray crystallography. The full-length CED-2 protein and its truncated form containing the N-terminal SH2 domain and the first SH3 domain show similar three-dimensional structures. A CED-2 point mutation (F125G) disrupting its interaction with the PXXP motif of CED-5 did not affect its rescuing activity. However, CED-2 was found to interact with the N-terminal region of CED-5. Our findings suggest that CED-2 may regulate cell corpse engulfment by interacting with CED-5 through the N-terminal region rather than the PXXP motif.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.