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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Sophoridinol Derivatives as a Novel Family of Potential Anticancer Agents.
ACS Med Chem Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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New N-substituted sophoridinic acid/ester and sophoridinol derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity in human HepG2 hepatoma cells from the lead sophoridine (1). Among the newly synthesized compounds, sophoridinol 7i displayed a potential antiproliferative activity with an IC50 of 3.1 ?M. Importantly, it exerted an almost equipotent effect against both wild MCF-7 and adriamycin (AMD)-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7/AMD) breast carcinoma cell lines. Its mode of action was to arrest the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase, consistent with that of the parent 1. In addition, compound 7i also showed a reasonable ClogP value and favorable pharmacokinetic property with an area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 10.3 ?M·h in rats, indicating an ideal druggable characteristic. We consider sophoridinol derivatives to be a novel family of promising antitumor agents with an advantage of inhibiting drug-resistant cancer cells.
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Long-term efficacy and complications of black diaphragm intraocular lens implantation in patients with traumatic aniridia.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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To determine the efficacy and complications of long-term black diaphragm intraocular (BDI) lens implantation in patients with traumatic aniridia.
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[Effect of bile acids on surface tension of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in rabbits].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To observe changes in surface tension of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) in rabbits with hyperbilirubinemia and the influence of bile diluents and 5 different bile acids on BALF surface tension to provide better insight into the regulatory role of bile acids on respiratory function.
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[The application of nasal ventilation function on sleep-disordered breathing disorders].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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To explore the change of nasal ventilation function in a group of SDB patients and its relationship to PSG parameters.
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Plasma Levels of Heat Shock Protein 90 Alpha Associated with Lung Cancer Development and Treatment Responses.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Altered expression of heat shock protein 90 alpha (Hsp90?) was associated with tumor development, progression, and metastasis. This study explored plasma levels of Hsp90? protein in patients with lung cancer and other controls to assess its diagnostic value and monitor treatment responses for patients with lung cancer.
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Identification, Separation and Characterization of Process-Related Impurities of Bifendate Derivative (DB-6), an Investigational Agent Combating Acute Liver Failure.
J Chromatogr Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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DB-6, with an IUPAC name of (Z)-5-(2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-((2,4-dioxothiazolidin-5-ylidene)methyl)phenyl)-5'-methyl-7,7'-dimethoxy-[4,4'-bibenzo[d][1,3]dioxole]-5,5'-dicarboxylate, is an investigational agent for acute liver failure. The focus of this study is the identification and characterization of major unknown impurities in DB-6 bulk drug samples. Four major impurities of DB-6 were detected by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and designated as IMP-I, IMP-II, IMP-III and IMP-IV. Accurate masses of these impurities were determined by using a Q-TOF mass spectrometer. Based on chromatographic, spectrometric data and plausible chemical transformation mechanism, the structures of IMP-I, IMP-II, IMP-III and IMP-IV were identified, respectively, as bifendate, (E)-5-(2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-((2,4-dioxothiazolidin-5-ylidene)methyl)phenyl)-5'-methyl-7,7'-dimethoxy-[4,4'-bibenzo[d][1,3]dioxole]-5,5'-dicarboxylate, (Z)-5-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) thiazolidine-2,4-dione and bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-((Z)-(2,4-dioxothiazolidin-5-ylidene)methyl)phenyl)-7,7'-dimethoxy-[4,4'-bibenzo[d][1,3]dioxole]-5,5'-icarboxylate. The impurities were isolated by preparative-HPLC or preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography and their structures were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy.
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RNA virus population diversity, an optimum for maximal fitness and virulence.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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The ability of an RNA virus to exist as a population of genetically distinct variants permits the virus to overcome events during infections that would otherwise limit virus multiplication or drive the population to extinction. Viral genetic diversity is created by the ribonucleotide misincorporation frequency of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). We have identified a poliovirus (PV) RdRp derivative (H273R) possessing a mutator phenotype. GMP misincorporation efficiency for H273R RdRp in vitro was increased by 2-3-fold that manifested in a 2-3-fold increase in the diversity of the H273R PV population in cells. Circular sequencing analysis indicated that some mutations were RdRp-independent. Consistent with the population genetics theory, H273R PV was driven to extinction more easily than WT in cell culture. Furthermore, we observed a substantial reduction in H273R PV virulence, measured as the ability to cause paralysis in the cPVR mouse model. Reduced virulence correlated with the inability of H273R PV to sustain replication in tissues/organs in which WT persists. Despite the attenuated phenotype, H273R PV was capable of replicating in mice to levels sufficient to induce a protective immune response, even when the infecting dose used was insufficient to elicit any visual signs of infection. We conclude that optimal RdRp fidelity is a virulence determinant that can be targeted for viral attenuation or antiviral therapies, and we suggest that the RdRp may not be the only source of mutations in a RNA virus genome.
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High glucose-induced Galectin-1 in human podocytes implicates the involvement of Galectin-1 in diabetic nephropathy.
Cell Biol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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The diabetic milieu is believed to change the activity, or result in damage of podocytes-a key component of the glomerular filtration barrier and known to secrete matrix for glomerular basement membrane. This in turn contributes to diabetic nephropathy. However, how podocyte dysfunction is triggered in diabetic nephropathy remains ambiguous. Galectin-1 belongs to Galectin family that bind to ?-galactoside residues of glycosylated proteins. We explored whether Galectin-1 is dysregulated in diabetic nephropathy using three different techniques, namely real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunofluorescent staining, to follow the expression of Galectin-1 under high glucose levels in podocytes. High glucose consistently induced Galectin-1 expression. Immunohistochemistry using a Galectin-1-specific antibody also showed elevated Galectin-1 in renal tissues of diabetic patients with manifestation of nephropathy, indicating a correlation of Galectin-1 overexpression with diabetic nephropathy. Upregulation of Galectin-1 is associated with loss of podocin, which is important for the physiological function of podocytes and decreases in the renal tissues of diabetic nephropathy. Increased Galectin-1 is a causal event for the high glucose-induced loss of podocin, since silencing Galectin-1 in podocytes increased podocin expression in the presence of 25?mM glucose. Thus expression of Galectin-1 in diabetic nephropathy may serve as a marker and contribute to disease progression by interfering with podocin expression.
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[Significance of 2-hour blood glucose after standardized steamed bread meal in diabetic screening].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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To explore the significance of 2-hour blood glucose after standardized steamed bread meal (SB-2 hBG) in diabetic screening.
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[Improvement of islet ?-cell function after sleeve gastrectomy with ileal interposition duodenojejunal bypass in non-obese type 2 diabetes mellitus].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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To investigate the improvement of islet ?-cell function after sleeve gastrectomy with ileal interposition duodenojejunal bypass operation in non-obese type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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Effect of cosolutes on the sorption of phenanthrene onto mineral surface of river sediments and kaolinite.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Sorption of phenanthrene onto the natural sediment with low organic carbon content (OC%), organic-free sediment, and kaolinite was investigated through isotherm experiments. Effects of cosolutes (pyrene, 4-n-nonyphenol (NP), and humic acid (HA)) on phenanthrene sorption were also studied by comparing apparent solid-water distribution coefficients (K d (app)) of phenanthrene. Two addition sequences, including "cosolute added prior to phenanthrene" and "cosolute and phenanthrene added simultaneously," were adopted. The Freundlich model fits phenanthrene sorption on all 3 sorbents well. The sorption coefficients on these sorbents were similar, suggesting that mineral surface plays an important role in the sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants on low OC% sediments. Cosolutes could affect phenanthrene sorption on the sorbents, which depended on their properties, concentrations, and addition sequences. Pyrene inhibited phenanthrene sorption. Sorbed NP inhibited phenanthrene sorption at low levels and promoted sorption at high levels. Similar to NP, effect of HA on phenanthrene sorption onto the natural sediment depended on its concentrations, whereas, for the organic-free sediment and kaolinite, preloading of HA at high levels led to an enhancement in phenanthrene K d (app) while no obvious effect was observed at low HA levels; dissolved HA could inhibit phenanthrene sorption on the two sorbents.
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[Monitoring and control of pan-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and infection in a medical intensive care unit].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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To describe the monitoring and control of pan-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRABA) colonization and infection in a medical intensive care unit (ICU), and to summarize the effective measures of surveillance of nosocomial infection and control.
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Monitoring changes of tumor microenvironment in colorectal submucosa using multiphoton microscopy.
Scanning
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Recently, targeting tumor microenvironment has become a novel approach for cancer therapy. Collagen is one of important components of tissue microenvironment, and has been considered as a new visible target for cancer therapy. In this work, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was used to monitor the changes of collagen in tumor microenvironment during tumor progression. It was found that MPM facilitates imaging of tumor cells and collagen. MPM images in different tumor microenvironment during tumor progression shows obvious increase in cell number and collagen degration. In addition, the quantitative analysis of collagen content and orientation index in tumor microenvironment shows significant alteration during tumor progression. These results suggest that MPM has the ability to monitor the changes of collagen morphology in tumor microenvironment and quantify content and orientation index of collagen during tumor progression. Therefore this technique is a powerful imaging tool for the investigation of targeting tumor microenvironment for cancer therapy. SCANNING 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Role of dentin matrix protein 1 in cartilage redifferentiation and osteoarthritis.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to test the possible involvement, relevance and significance of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) in chondrocyte redifferentiation and OA.
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Considerable methane uptake by alpine grasslands despite the cold climate: In situ measurements on the central Tibetan Plateau, 2008-2013.
Glob Chang Biol
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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The uptake of CH4 by aerate soil plays a secondary role in the removal of tropospheric CH4 , but it's still highly uncertain in terms of its magnitude, spatial and temporal variation. In an attempt to quantify the sink of the vast alpine grasslands (1,400,000 km(2) ) of the Tibetan Plateau, we conducted in situ measurements in an alpine steppe (4730 m) and alpine meadow (4900 m) using the static chamber and gas chromatograph method. For the alpine steppe, measurements (2008-2013) suggested that there is large inter-annual variability of CH4 uptake, ranging from -48.8 to -95.8 ?g CH4 m(-2) h(-1) (averaged of -71.5±2.5 ?g CH4 m(-2) h(-1) ), due to the variability in precipitation seasonality. The seasonal pattern of CH4 uptake in the form of stronger uptake in the early growing season and weaker uptake in the rainy season closely matched the precipitation seasonality and subsequent soil moisture variation. The relationships between alpine steppe CH4 uptake and soil moisture/temperature are best depicted by a quadratic function and an exponential function (Q10 =?1.67) respectively. Our measurements also showed that the alpine meadow soil (average of -59.2±3.7 ?g CH4 m(-2) h(-1) ) uptake less CH4 than the alpine steppe and produces a similar seasonal pattern, which is negatively regulated by soil moisture. Our measurements quantified - at values far higher than those estimated by process-based models - that both the alpine steppe and alpine meadow are considerable CH4 sinks, despite the cold weather of this high-altitude area. The consecutive measurements gathered in this study also highlight that precipitation seasonality tends to drive the inter-annual variation of CH4 uptake, indicating that future work should be done to better characterize how CH4 cycling might feedback to the more extreme climate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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GO-COO-HP-?-CD nanosphere: a complex construction and its drug-loading properties.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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A novel nanosphere based on carboxylated GO (GO-COOH) and hydroxypropyl-beta-CD (HP-?-CD) was synthesized to construct a complex of GO-COO-HP-?-CD. The complex formation process was studied using spectral characterization and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy patterns show that HP-?-CD molecules either cover or intercalate into GO-COOH interlayers in the complex. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicate that GO-COOH and HP-?-CD are linked with covalent bonds formed via esterification. When employed as nanohybrid drug carriers for dexamethasone, the inclusion displays good dispersibility validated by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Cytotoxicity assays and hemolysis testing demonstrate that the nanospheres possess good biological compatibility. The loading capacity of dexamethasone is as high as 32.33%, with loading efficiency 64.66%.
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[Relationship between metabolic diseases and all-cause and cardiovascular death in an elderly male population during a 15-year follow-up].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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To explore the relationship between metabolic diseases and death from all causes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in an elderly male population.
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CD4(+) T Cell Help Guides Formation of CD103(+) Lung-Resident Memory CD8(+) T Cells during Influenza Viral Infection.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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Tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells provide enhanced protection against infection at mucosal sites. Here we found that CD4(+) T cells are important for the formation of functional lung-resident CD8(+) T cells after influenza virus infection. In the absence of CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells displayed reduced expression of CD103 (Itgae), were mislocalized away from airway epithelia, and demonstrated an impaired ability to recruit CD8(+) T cells to the lung airways upon heterosubtypic challenge. CD4(+) T cell-derived interferon-? was necessary for generating lung-resident CD103(+) CD8(+) Trm cells. Furthermore, expression of the transcription factor T-bet was increased in "unhelped" lung Trm cells, and a reduction in T-bet rescued CD103 expression in the absence of CD4(+) T cell help. Thus, CD4(+) T cell-dependent signals are important to limit expression of T-bet and allow for the development of CD103(+) CD8(+) Trm cells in the lung airways following respiratory infection.
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Stimulation of osteogenic and angiogenic ability of cells on polymers by pulsed laser deposition of uniform akermanite-glass nanolayer.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Polymer biomaterials have been widely used for bone replacement/regeneration because of their unique mechanical properties and workability. Their inherent low bioactivity makes them lack osseointegration with host bone tissue. For this reason, bioactive inorganic particles have been always incorporated into the matrix of polymers to improve their bioactivity. However, mixing inorganic particles with polymers always results in inhomogeneity of particle distribution in polymer matrix with limited bioactivity. This study sets out to apply the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique to prepare uniform akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7, AKT) glass nanocoatings on the surface of two polymers (non-degradable polysulfone (PSU) and degradable polylactic acid (PDLLA)) in order to improve their surface osteogenic and angiogenic activity. The results show that a uniform nanolayer composed of amorphous AKT particles (?30 nm) of thickness 130 nm forms on the surface of both PSU and PDLLA films with the PLD technique. The prepared AKT-PSU and AKT-PDLLA films significantly improved the surface roughness, hydrophilicity, hardness and apatite mineralization, compared with pure PSU and PDLLA, respectively. The prepared AKT nanocoatings distinctively enhance the alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity and bone-related gene expression (ALP, OCN, OPN and Col I) of bone-forming cells on both PSU and PDLLA films. Furthermore, AKT nanocoatings on two polymers improve the attachment, proliferation, VEGF secretion and expression of proangiogenic factors and their receptors of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The results suggest that PLD-prepared bioceramic nanocoatings are very useful for enhancing the physicochemical, osteogenic and angiogenic properties of both degradable and non-degradable polymers for application in bone replacement/regeneration.
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Identification of dirty necrosis in colorectal carcinoma based on multiphoton microscopy.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Dirty necrosis within glandular lumina is often considered as a characteristic of colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) that is a diagnostically useful feature of CRCs with DNA microsatellite instability (MSI). Multiphoton microscopy (MPM), which is based on the second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence signals, was used to identify dirty necrosis. Our results demonstrated that MPM has the ability to exhibit the microstructure of dirty necrosis and the signal intensity as well as an emission spectrum that can help to differentiate dirty necrosis from cancer cells. These findings indicate that MPM may be helpful in distinguishing MSI colorectal carcinoma via the identification of dirty necrosis.
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Pathological patterns of primary nephrotic syndrome in Central China: a retrospective study of 627 cases.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The pathological patterns underlying PNS in adult are poorly studied in Central China.
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Anaerobic/aerobic conditions and biostimulation for enhanced chlorophenols degradation in biocathode microbial fuel cells.
Biodegradation
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Anaerobic/aerobic conditions affected bacterial community composition and the subsequent chlorophenols (CPs) degradation in biocathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Bacterial communities acclimated with either 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) or 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) under anaerobiosis can degrade the respective substrates more efficiently than the facultative aerobic bacterial communities. The anaerobic bacterial communities well developed with 2,4-DCP were then adapted to 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and successfully stimulated for enhanced 2,4,6-TCP degradation and power generation. A 2,4,6-TCP degradation rate of 0.10 mol/m(3)/d and a maximum power density of 2.6 W/m(3) (11.7 A/m(3)) were achieved, 138 and 13 % improvements, respectively compared to the controls with no stimulation. Bacterial communities developed with the specific CPs under anaerobic/aerobic conditions as well as the stimulated biofilm shared some dominant genera and also exhibited great differences. These results provide the most convincing evidence to date that anaerobic/aerobic conditions affected CPs degradation with power generation from the biocathode systems, and using deliberate substrates can stimulate the microbial consortia and be potentially feasible for the selection of an appropriate microbial community for the target substrate (e.g. 2,4,6-TCP) degradation in the biocathode MFCs.
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[Real-time ultrasound guided placement of permanent internal jugular vein catheters in maintenance hemodialysis patients].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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To investigate the value of real-time ultrasound guided placement of permanent internal jugular vein (IJV) catheterization in maintenance hemodialysis patients, and analyze its technical success and complication rate.
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Effects of hypoxia on progranulin expression in HT22 mouse hippocampal cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The present study evaluated the effect of hypoxia on the expression of progranulin in HT22 mouse hippocampal cells. To investigate progranulin (PGRN) and the alterations in its expression following hypoxia, the HT22 cells were treated with various concentrations of sodium hydrosulfite (Na2S2O4; 1-20 mM) for a fixed time (6 h) or with a fixed concentration (5 mM) for different lengths of time (2-0 h). The expression of PGRN in the HT22 cells following hypoxia was analyzed by an immunocytochemistry assay and western blot analysis. The data revealed that the HT22 cells were capable of expressing PGRN. Double labeling results revealed that PGRN was able to co-localize with the neuronal markers, ?III-tubulin and doublecortin. Western blot analyses indicated that hypoxia was able to decrease the PGRN levels in a concentration-dependent manner at 6 h, although there was a marginal increase within a shorter period. The results of this study revealed that hypoxic injury is capable of significantly affecting the expression of PGRN, thereby it may provide novel insights with regard to the role of PGRN in ischemic brain injury.
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RhoA activation by CNFy restores cell-cell adhesion in kindlin-2-deficient keratinocytes.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Kindlins are a family of integrin adapter and cell-matrix adhesion proteins causally linked to human genetic disorders. Kindlin-2 is a ubiquitously expressed protein with manifold functions and interactions. The contribution of kindlin-2 to integrin-based cell-matrix adhesions has been extensively explored, while other integrin-independent roles emerge. Because of the early involvement of kindlin-2 in development, no viable animal models with its constitutional knockout are available to study its physiological functions in adult skin. Here, we uncovered a critical physiological role of kindlin-2 in the epidermis by using a skin-equivalent model with shRNA-mediated knock-down of kindlin-2 in keratinocytes. Kindlin-2-deficient keratinocytes built stratified epidermal layers, but displayed impaired dermal-epidermal and intra-epidermal adhesion and barrier function. Co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that kindlin-2 interacts with both integrin- and cadherin-based adhesions. In kindlin-2-deficient keratinocytes, reduced cell-cell adhesion was associated with abnormal cytoplasmic distribution of adherens junctions and desmosomal proteins, which was dependent on RhoA activation. Direct activation of RhoA with recombinant bacterial cytotoxic necrotizing factor y (CNFy) reverted the abnormal phenotype and barrier function of kindlin-2-deficient keratinocytes and skin equivalents. These findings have physiological and pathological significance, since kindlin-2 expression modulates the phenotype in Kindler syndrome, a skin fragility disorder caused by kindlin-1 deficiency. Our results suggest that pharmacological regulation of RhoGTPase activity may represent a therapeutic option for skin fragility.
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Immunogenicity of the capsid precursor and a nine-amino-acid site-directed mutant of the 3C protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus coexpressed by a recombinant goatpox virus.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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The myristoylated capsid precursor mP1-2A of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), when expressed in mammalian cells and processed by the FMDV 3C protease, can self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs). In the present study, nine amino acids of the 3C protease were replaced by site-directed mutagenesis to create a mutant 3C protease, 9m3C. To coexpress mP1-2A and 9m3C and test the resulting proteolytic processing and VLP assembly, two recombinant goatpox viruses (rGTPVs) were constructed by the insertion of two coding regions, one for mP1-2A and the other for either 9m3C (rGTPV-mP1-2A-9m3C) or Theileria protective antigen (TPA) as a control (rGTPV-mP1-2A-TPA). The two exogenous genes were inserted into an intergenic region between loci gp_24 and gp_24.5 of the rGTPV genome. Western blotting of cells infected with rGTPV-mP1-2A-9m3C showed that proteins VP0, VP1, and VP3 from the mP1-2A processed by the 9m3C protease could be detected by polyclonal FMDV sera. As observed by electron microscopy, the infected cells produced VLPs with a diameter of about 25 ± 2 nm. Titers of neutralizing antibody against FMDV were significantly higher in mice inoculated with rGTPV-mP1-2A-9m3C, which expresses the 9m3C protease together with mP1-2A, than mice inoculated with the control rGTPV-mP1-2A-TPA, which does not express the protease. An ovine immunization test determined that sheep inoculated intramuscularly with rGTPV-mP1-2A-9m3C produced FMDV-specific neutralizing antibody, but its titers did not meet the requirement of the World Organization for Animal Health. The result indicates that further modifications of rGTPV-mP1-2A-9m3C are necessary to produce an effective vaccine.
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Delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging at 3.0T using 0.15mmol/kg of contrast agent for the assessment of chronic myocardial infarction.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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A recent international, multicenter, double-blinded, randomized trial shows delayed-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DE-MRI) using contrast doses of ?0.2mmol/kg is effective in the detection and assessment of myocardial infarction (MI), and 0.1mmol/kg is not enough; intermediate doses between 0.1 and 0.2mmol/kg have not been tested. The aim of this study was to prospectively test the performance of DE-MRI using 0.15mmol/kg of contrast agent for the detection of MI.
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The effect of hypoxia on the stemness and differentiation capacity of PDLC and DPC.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Introduction. Stem cells are regularly cultured under normoxic conditions. However, the physiological oxygen tension in the stem cell niche is known to be as low as 1-2% oxygen, suggesting that hypoxia has a distinct impact on stem cell maintenance. Periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) and dental pulp cells (DPCs) are attractive candidates in dental tissue regeneration. It is of great interest to know whether hypoxia plays a role in maintaining the stemness and differentiation capacity of PDLCs and DPCs. Methods. PDLCs and DPCs were cultured either in normoxia (20% O2) or hypoxia (2% O2). Cell viability assays were performed and the expressions of pluripotency markers (Oct-4, Sox2, and c-Myc) were detected by qRT-PCR and western blotting. Mineralization, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) deposition, and lipid droplets formation were assessed by Alizarin red S, Safranin O, and Oil red O staining, respectively. Results. Hypoxia did not show negative effects on the proliferation of PDLCs and DPCs. The pluripotency markers and differentiation potentials of PDLCs and DPCs significantly increased in response to hypoxic environment. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that hypoxia plays an important role in maintaining the stemness and differentiation capacity of PDLCs and DPCs.
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The effect of left ventricular electrical delay on the acute hemodynamic response with cardiac resynchronization therapy.
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves hemodynamic function, as well as reduces hospitalizations and mortality among patients with systolic dysfunction, QRS prolongation, and heart failure. The magnitude of the hemodynamic response is associated with improved outcomes, so optimization of this parameter is a goal of therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of left ventricular (LV) electrical delay, as assessed by the QLV interval, on the acute hemodynamic response to CRT.
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Enhanced high-solids anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by the addition of scrap iron.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge usually requires pretreatment procedure to improve the bioavailability of sludge, which involves considerable energy and high expenditures. This study proposes a cost-effective method for enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge without a pretreatment by directly adding iron into the digester. The results showed that addition of Fe(0) powder could enhance 14.46% methane yield, and Fe scrap (clean scrap) could further enhance methane yield (improving rate 21.28%) because the scrap has better mass transfer efficiency with sludge and liquid than Fe(0) powder. The scrap of Fe with rust (rusty scrap) could induce microbial Fe(III) reduction, which resulted in achieving the highest methane yield (improving rate 29.51%), and the reduction rate of volatile suspended solids (VSS) was also highest (48.27%) among Fe powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap. PCR-DGGE proved that the addition of rusty scrap could enhance diversity of acetobacteria and enrich iron-reducing bacteria to enhance degradation of complex substrates.
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Transcriptome Sequencing and Profiling of Expressed Genes in Phloem and Xylem of Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud) is a highly versatile herbaceous plant which is widely cropped in southern China. The success of this herbaceous plant relies on wide use in modern industry. Understanding the profiling of expressed genes in phloem and xylem of ramie is crucial for improving its industrial performance. Herein, we uncover the transcriptome profile in phloem and xylem in present study. Using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology, 57 million high quality reads were generated. De novo assembly yielded 87,144 unigenes with an average length of 635 bp. By sequence similarity searching for public databases, a total of 32,541 (41.77%) unigenes were annotated for their function. Among these genes, 57,873 (66.4%) and 28,678 (32.9%) unigenes were assigned to categories of Gene Ontology and Orthologous Groups database, respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 18,331 (21.0%) unigenes were mapped to 125 pathways. The metabolic pathways were assigned the most unigene (4,793, 26.2%). Furthermore, Pol II and Pol III subunits as well as the genes of Galactose metabolism pathway had higher expression in phloem compared to xylem. In addition, fatty acid metabolism pathway genes showed more abundant in xylem than phloem. These results suggest that high activities of RNA synthesis and Galactose metabolism pathway promises fiber synthesis in phloem. The present study is the initial exploration to uncover the fiber biosynthesis difference between phloem and xylem in ramie through the analysis of deep sequencing data.
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The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The complete 16,043 bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae) has been sequenced. The genome encodes 37 genes usually found in insect mitogenomes. The mitogenome information for B. minax was compared to the homologous sequences of Bactrocera oleae, Bactrocera tryoni, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera cucurbitae and Ceratitis capitata. The analysis indicated the structure and organization are typical of, and similar to, the nine closely related species mentioned above, although it contains the lowest genome-wide A+T content (67.3%). Four short intergenic spacers with a high degree of conservation among the nine tephritid species mentioned above and B. minax were observed, which also have clear counterparts in the control regions (CRs). Correlation analysis among these ten tephritid species revealed close positive correlation between the A+T content of zero-fold degenerate sites (P0FD), the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P0FD sites to all degenerate sites (zero-fold degenerate sites, two-fold degenerate sites and four-fold degenerate sites) and amino acid sequence distance (ASD) were found. Further, significant positive correlation was observed between the A+T content of four-fold degenerate sites (P4FD) and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites; however, we found significant negative correlation between ASD and the A+T content of P4FD, and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites. A higher nucleotide substitution frequency at non-synonymous sites compared to synonymous sites was observed in nad4, the first time that has been observed in an insect mitogenome. A poly(T) stretch at the 5' end of the CR followed by a [TA(A)]n-like stretch was also found. In addition, a highly conserved G+A-rich sequence block was observed in front of the poly(T) stretch among the ten tephritid species and two tandem repeats were present in the CR.
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Th1/Th2 polarization in tonsillar lymphocyte form patients with IgA nephropathy.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Abstract Imbalance of Th1/Th2 pro-inflammatory cytokines plays an important role in the development and progression of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Clinical development and exacerbation of IgAN are frequently preceded by episodes of upper respiratory tract infection, and palatine tonsils represent the predominant immunocompetent tissue of the upper respiratory tract. This study examined tonsillar lymphocytes of IgAN who suffered from tonsillitis (n?=?22), and using tonsils derived from patients with chronic tonsillitis (n?=?24) but without renal disease as a control. We identified a polarization toward Th2 response in tonsils of IgAN patients. TH0 cells are differentially mobilized during contact sensitization and by adjuvants such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that induce T-helper type 1 (Th1) responses, or ?-hemolytic streptococcus (HS) that induces T-helper type 2 (Th2) responses. Th1:Th2 ratio is correlated with proteinuria and renal pathologic changes in IgAN group. Our study suggests that IgAN is associated with the change in Th1/Th2 balance in favor of Th2 lymphocytes.
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Comparison of permanganate preoxidation and preozonation on algae containing water: cell integrity, characteristics, and chlorinated disinfection byproduct formation.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Aqueous suspensions of Microcystis aeruginosa were preoxidized with either ozone or permanganate and then subjected to chlorination under conditions simulating drinking water purification. The impacts of the two oxidants on the algal cells and on the subsequent production of dissolved organic matter and disinfection byproducts were investigated. Preozonation dramatically increased disinfection byproduct formation during chlorination, especially the formation of haloaldehydes, haloacetonitriles, and halonitromethanes. Preoxidation with permanganate had much less effect on disinfection byproduct formation. Preozonation destroyed algal cell walls and cell membranes to release intracellular organic matter (IOM), and less than 2.0% integrated cells were left after preozonation with the dosage as low as 0.4 mg/L. Preoxidation with permanganate mainly released organic matter adsorbed on the cells surface without causing any damage to the cells integrity, so the increase in byproduct formation was much less. More organic nitrogen and lower molecular weight precursors were produced in a dissolved phase after preozonation than permanganate preoxidation, which contributes to the significant increase of disinfection byproducts after preozonation. The results suggest that permanganate is a better choice than ozone for controlling algae derived pollutants and disinfection byproducts.
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The association between GAD1 gene polymorphisms and cerebral palsy in Chinese infants.
Tsitol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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Studies suggest that GAD1 gene was a functional candidate susceptibility gene for cerebral palsy (CP). In order to investigate the contribution of GAD1 gene to the etiology of CP in Chinese infants, we carried out a case-control association study between GAD1 gene and CP. In this study, 374 health controls and 392 infants with CP were recruited. Genomic DNA was extracted from venous blood and all three single nucleotide polymorphisms in GAD1 (rs3791874, rs3791862 and rs16858977) were genotyped by Sequenoms MassARRAY system. There were no significant differences in allele or genotype frequencies between CP or mixed CP patients and controls at any of the three genetic polymorphisms. Through haplotype analysis we found that haplotype GG (rs3791862, rs16858977) frequency demonstrated significantly statistical difference between mixed CP patients and controls (p = 0.0371). Our positive findings of haplotype GG suggested that variation of GAD1 gene was an important risk factor for mixed CP.
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Inhibition effect of small interfering RNA of connective tissue growth factor on the expression of extracellular matrix molecules in cultured human renal proximal tubular cells.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Abstract Objective: In this study, we investigated the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) by pRetro-Super (PRS) retrovirus vector on the expression of CTGF and related extracellular matrix molecules in human renal proximal tubular cells (HKCs) induced by high glucose, to provide help for renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis therapy. Methods: HKCs were exposed to d-glucose to observe their dose and time effect, while the mannitol as osmotic control. Retrovirus producing CTGF siRNA were constructed from the inverted oligonucleotides and transferred into packaging cell line PT67 with lipofectamine, and the virus supernatant was used to infect HKC. The expression of CTGF, fibronectin (FN) and collagen-type I (col1) were measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. Results: In response to high glucose, CTGF expression in HKCs was increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas the increase did not occur in the osmotic control. Introduction of PRS-CTGF-siRNA resulted in the significant reduction of CTGF, FN, col1 mRNA (p??0.05). Conclusions: CTGF siRNA therapy can effectively reduce the levels of CTGF, FN and col1 induced by high glucose in cultured HKCs, which suggested that it may be a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent the renal interstitial fibrosis in the future.
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Novel GO-COO-?-CD/CA inclusion: its blood compatibility, antibacterial property and drug delivery.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Abstract GO-COO-?-CD/CA inclusion (carboxylated graphene-?-cyclodextrin/chlorhexidine acetate) was fabricated with a graphene-based drug carrier. The reaction time and ratio of carrier to drug were optimized by X-ray diffraction spectra to ensure the complete wrapping of CA. Hemolysis test and recalcification test demonstrated that the inclusion possessed good blood compatibility due to the inherent biocompatibility of ?-CD molecules in the carrier. The inclusion displayed excellent inhibition effect on both gram negative bacteria of Escherichia coli and gram positive bacteria of Staphylococcus Aureus, while showing no cytotoxicity. More importantly, the drug efficiency was greatly improved with CA dosage as less as one-third of the pure drug due to the synergistic effect of the drug and carrier. Dynamic simulation implies that the delivery profile of CA from the inclusion is in accordance with the first-order dynamic equation, i.e. ln(1-Mt/M)?=?-kt.
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Rapid acceleration of ferrous iron/peroxymonosulfate oxidation of organic pollutants by promoting Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycle with hydroxylamine.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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The reaction between ferrous iron (Fe(II)) with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) generates reactive oxidants capable of degrading refractory organic contaminants. However, the slow transformation from ferric iron (Fe(III)) back to Fe(II) limits its widespread application. Here, we added hydroxylamine (HA), a common reducing agent, into Fe(II)/PMS process to accelerate the transformation from Fe(III) to Fe(II). With benzoic acid (BA) as probe compound, the addition of HA into Fe(II)/PMS process accelerated the degradation of BA rapidly in the pH range of 2.0-6.0 by accelerating the key reactions, including the redox cycle of Fe(III)/Fe(II) and the generation of reactive oxidants. Both sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals were considered as the primary reactive oxidants for the degradation of BA in HA/Fe(II)/PMS process with the experiments of electron spin resonance and alcohols quenching. Moreover, HA was gradually degraded to N2, N2O, NO2 (?), and NO3 (?), while the environmentally friendly gas of N2 was considered as its major end product in the process. The present study might provide a promising idea based on Fe(II)/PMS process for the rapid degradation of refractory organic contaminants in water treatment.
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Greater omentum folding in the open surgical placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters: a randomized controlled study and systemic review.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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Mechanical catheter dysfunction caused by omentum entrapment remains a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the outcomes of omentum folding at the time of primary open catheter insertion.
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Lung-resident memory CD8 T cells (TRM) are indispensable for optimal cross-protection against pulmonary virus infection.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Previous studies have shown that some respiratory virus infections leave local populations of tissue TRM cells in the lungs which disappear as heterosubtypic immunity declines. The location of these TRM cells and their contribution to the protective CTL response have not been clearly defined. Here, fluorescence microscopy is used to show that some CD103(+) TRM cells remain embedded in the walls of the large airways long after pulmonary immunization but are absent from systemically primed mice. Viral clearance from the lungs of the locally immunized mice precedes the development of a robust Teff response in the lungs. Whereas large numbers of virus-specific CTLs collect around the bronchial tree during viral clearance, there is little involvement of the remaining lung tissue. Much larger numbers of TEM cells enter the lungs of the systemically immunized animals but do not prevent extensive viral replication or damage to the alveoli. Together, these experiments show that virus-specific antibodies and TRM cells are both required for optimal heterosubtypic immunity, whereas circulating memory CD8 T cells do not substantially alter the course of disease.
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[Effect of high blood levels of bile acid on respiratory functions of New Zealand rabbits].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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To compare the patterns of respiratory function variations resulting from the classical reflex of blood pressure fall and high blood levels of bile acid, so as to provide evidence for the regulation of respiratory function via bile acids.
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Mesenchymal stem cells and nano-structured surfaces.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), and adipocytes (fat cells). Their multi-potency provides a great promise as a cell source for tissue engineering and cell-based therapy for many diseases, particularly bone diseases and bone formation. To be able to direct and modulate the differentiation of MSCs into the desired cell types in situ in the tissue, nanotechnology is introduced and used to facilitate or promote cell growth and differentiation. These nano-materials can provide a fine structure and tuneable surface in nanoscales to help the cell adhesion and promote the cell growth and differentiation of MSCs. This could be a dominant direction in future for stem cells based therapy or tissue engineering for various diseases. Therefore, the isolation, manipulation, and differentiation of MSCs are very important steps to make meaningful use of MSCs for disease treatments. In this chapter, we have described a method of isolating MSC from human bone marrow, and how to culture and differentiate them in vitro. We have also provided research methods on how to use MSCs in an in vitro model and how to observe MSC biological response on the surface of nano-scaled materials.
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Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the developing maize endosperm.
Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that are approximately 20-22 nucleotides long. miRNAs have been shown to be important regulators that control a large variety of biological functions in eukaryotic cells. To investigate the roles of miRNAs in maize endosperm development, two small RNA libraries of maize endosperm at two developmental stages were sequenced. A total of 17,773,394 and 18,586,523 small RNA raw reads were obtained, respectively. Further analysis identified and characterized 95 known miRNAs belonging to 20 miRNA families. In addition, 18 novel miRNAs were identified and grouped into 11 families. Potential targets for 5 of the novel miRNA families were successfully predicted. We had also identified 12 corresponding miRNAs* of these novel miRNAs. In summary, we investigated expression patterns of miRNA in maize endosperm at key developmental stages and identified miRNAs that are likely to playing an important role in endosperm development.
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Activation of the interleukin-4/signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 signaling pathway and homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 production by tonsillar mononuclear cells in IgA nephropathy.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Clinical development and exacerbation of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) are frequently preceded by episodes of upper respiratory tract infection such as tonsillitis. This study aimed to determine the role of the interleukin-4 (IL-4)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) signaling pathway and homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) in aberrant IgA1 O-glycosylation production, and identify potential therapeutic targets in IgAN.
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Enhanced anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge digestion by the addition of zero valent iron.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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Anaerobic digestion is promising technology to recover energy from waste activated sludge. However, the sludge digestion is limited by its low efficiency of hydrolysis-acidification. Zero valent iron (ZVI) as a reducing material is expected to enhance anaerobic process including the hydrolysis-acidification process. Considering that, ZVI was added into an anaerobic sludge digestion system to accelerate the sludge digestion in this study. The results indicated that ZVI effectively enhanced the decomposition of protein and cellulose, the two main components of the sludge. Compared to the control test without ZVI, the degradation of protein increased 21.9% and the volatile fatty acids production increased 37.3% with adding ZVI. More acetate and less propionate are found during the hydrolysis-acidification with ZVI. The activities of several key enzymes in the hydrolysis and acidification increased 0.6-1 time. ZVI made the methane production raise 43.5% and sludge reduction ratio increase 12.2 percent points. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that the abundances of hydrogen-consuming microorganisms including homoacetogens and hydrogenotrophic methanogens with ZVI were higher than the control, which reduced the H2 accumulation to create a beneficial condition for the sludge digestion in thermodynamics.
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Prognostic significance of sphingosine kinase 2 expression in non-small cell lung cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2) as a conserved lipid kinase has not been thoroughly elucidated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of SphK2 in NSCLC tissues and to determine its correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics and its impact on patient prognosis. We assessed the expression of SphK2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (as a proliferative index) by immunohistochemistry in 180 NSCLC patients formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. Relationship between the expression of SphK2 and PCNA and various clinicopathological features in these patients was evaluated. We detected that expression of SphK2 was gradually upregulated from normal, metaplasia/dysplasia tissues to NSCLC tissues. At the same time, PCNA expression followed a similar pattern. Statistical analysis showed that expression of SphK2 in NSCLC tissues was strongly associated with PCNA expression, histology grade, live vaccine strain invasion, lymph node status, clinical stage, tumors size, and histology type. Patients with SphK2 overexpression in their tissues had lower overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates than those with low SphK2 expression. Using uni- and multivariate analysis, we found that SphK2 overexpression was an independent prognostic factor for both OS and DFS. The expression of SphK2 parallels the progression of NSCLC, and SphK2 overexpression may represent a novel and potentially independent biomarker for the prognosis of patients with NSCLC.
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Study of tonsillectomy for IgA nephropathy patients: short- and longer-term observation.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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We observed serum parameters and urinary findings of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients in the short and longer time after tonsillectomy, to provide evidences to clarify the role of tonsils in the pathogenesis of IgAN and the feasibility of tonsillectomy for IgAN patients.
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Osteocyte-induced angiogenesis via VEGF-MAPK-dependent pathways in endothelial cells.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Recently, it has been suggested osteocytes control the activities of bone formation (osteoblasts) and resorption (osteoclast), indicating their important regulatory role in bone remodelling. However, to date, the role of osteocytes in controlling bone vascularisation remains unknown. Our aim was to investigate the interaction between endothelial cells and osteocytes and to explore the possible molecular mechanisms during angiogenesis. To model osteocyte/endothelial cell interactions, we co-cultured osteocyte cell line (MLOY4) with endothelial cell line (HUVECs). Co-cultures were performed in 1:1 mixture of osteocytes and endothelial cells or by using the conditioned media (CM) transfer method. Real-time cell migration of HUVECs was measured with the transwell migration assay and xCELLigence system. Expression levels of angiogenesis-related genes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and mitogen-activated phosphorylated kinase (MAPK) signaling were monitored by western blotting using relevant antibodies and inhibitors. During the bone formation, it was noted that osteocyte dendritic processes were closely connected to the blood vessels. The CM generated from MLOY4 cells-activated proliferation, migration, tube-like structure formation, and upregulation of angiogenic genes in endothelial cells suggesting that secretory factor(s) from osteocytes could be responsible for angiogenesis. Furthermore, we identified that VEGF secreted from MLOY4-activated VEGFR2-MAPK-ERK-signaling pathways in HUVECs. Inhibiting VEGF and/or MAPK-ERK pathways abrogated osteocyte-mediated angiogenesis in HUVEC cells. Our data suggest an important role of osteocytes in regulating angiogenesis.
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Diagnostic utility of TP53 and cytokeratin 7 immunohistochemistry in idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease-associated neoplasia.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Long-standing inflammatory bowel disease is associated with increased risk of developing colorectal adenocarcinoma. Significant intra- and inter-observers variability exists in histologic interpretation of dysplasia in surveillance biopsies. In this study, we evaluated the utility of a panel of immunohistochemical markers in diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease-associated neoplasia. We reviewed 39 colectomy specimens with inflammatory bowel disease-associated neoplasia. In these 39 cases, we identified 172 foci of interest (5 normal, 58 negative for dysplasia, 15 indefinite for dysplasia, 59 low-grade dysplasia, 18 high-grade dysplasia, and 17 invasive adenocarcinoma). They were subjected to immunohistochemistry for TP53 and CK7. Logistic regression was used to evaluate their association with the presence of dysplasia. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal cutoffs and assess the diagnostic performance of TP53 and CK7. Both TP53 nuclear staining and CK7 immunoreactivity gradually increased in the progression of inflammatory bowel disease-associated neoplasia (P<0.0001). CK7 immunoreactivity increased along with the increase of inflammation severity (P=0.0002) as well as reactive changes (P=0.04) in the colonic mucosa. But TP53 nuclear staining was independent of either feature. When both TP53>8% and CK7>30% as identified from logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to diagnose dysplasia, the specificity achieved as high as 95%. When either TP53>8% or CK7>30% was used to diagnose dysplasia, the sensitivity achieved was 82%. Our results suggested that a combination of CK7 and TP53 immunohistochemistry may be helpful in diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease-associated dysplasia in difficult cases.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 26 July 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.133.
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Should evolutionary geneticists worry about higher-order epistasis?
Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Natural selection drives evolving populations up the fitness landscape, the projection from nucleotide sequence space to organismal reproductive success. While it has long been appreciated that topographic complexities on fitness landscapes can arise only as a consequence of epistatic interactions between mutations, evolutionary genetics has mainly focused on epistasis between pairs of mutations. Here we propose a generalization to the classical population genetic treatment of pairwise epistasis that yields expressions for epistasis among arbitrary subsets of mutations of all orders (pairwise, three-way, etc.). Our approach reveals substantial higher-order epistasis in almost every published fitness landscape. Furthermore we demonstrate that higher-order epistasis is critically important in two systems we know best. We conclude that higher-order epistasis deserves empirical and theoretical attention from evolutionary geneticists.
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[The correlation of serum specific IgE detection and skin prick test in allergic rhinitis].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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To investigate the correlation between serum specific immunoglobin E(sIgE) and skin prick test(SPT) and their differences of the positive rate.
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Progranulin expression in neural stem cells and their differentiated cell lineages: an immunocytochemical study.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Progranulin (PGRN) is a neurotrophic factor that regulates neurite outgrowth and enhances neuronal survival. The association between PGRN and neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation may aid in elucidating the underlying pathogenesis and potential treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. To investigate the association between PGRN and NSCs and their lineages, primary NSCs were prepared from the subventricular zone of neonatal Sprague Dawley pups (age, 1 day) and cultured in the neural stem cell medium. After 7 days in culture, NSCs aggregated into neurospheres and were maintained in the differential medium for 7 days following three passages. In addition, PGRN expression in neurospheres and differentiated cells (neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) were analyzed by immunocytochemistry. The PGRN expression and localization was also investigated in the brain tissues of neonatal rats (age, 1 and 7 days) by double immunofluorescence staining. The data indicated that PGRN was highly expressed in NSCs and their differentiated cell lineages in vitro. The results also demonstrated that PGRN was predominantly expressed in neurons and microglia in vivo, and marginally in NSCs, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The present study suggested that PGRN may be involved in the regulation of NSC differentiation.
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Asynchronous responses of soil microbial community and understory plant community to simulated nitrogen deposition in a subtropical forest.
Ecol Evol
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition greatly affects ecosystem processes and properties. However, few studies have simultaneously examined the responses of both the above- and belowground communities to N deposition. Here, we investigated the effects of 8 years of simulated N deposition on soil microbial communities and plant diversity in a subtropical forest. The quantities of experimental N added (g of N m(-2) year(-1)) and treatment codes were 0 (N0, control), 6 (N1), 12 (N2), and 24 (N3). Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis was used to characterize the soil microbial community while plant diversity and coverage were determined in the permanent field plots. Microbial abundance was reduced by the N3 treatment, and plant species richness and coverage were reduced by both N2 and N3 treatments. Declines in plant species richness were associated with decreased abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, increased bacterial stress index, and reduced soil pH. The plasticity of soil microbial community would be more related to the different responses among treatments when compared with plant community. These results indicate that long-term N deposition has greater effects on the understory plant community than on the soil microbial community and different conservation strategies should be considered.
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New insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of peritoneal fibrosis: a potential role of Wnt/?-catenin induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition and stem cells for therapy.
Med. Hypotheses
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Peritoneal fibrosis is a chronic, progressive progress, which is associated with ultrafiltration failure. In the development of peritoneal fibrosis, Epithelial to mesenchymal transition is an important cellular process whereby epithelial cells transform into mesenchymal cells under physiology and pathology conditions, along with change of cell morphology and expression of related genes. It plays an important role in embryogenesis and development of tissues and organs, as well as organ fibrosis and tumorigenesis. Several intracellular signal transduction pathways induce the process of Epithelial to mesenchymal transition. In recent researches, Wnt/?-catenin induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition was suggested to be an important reason for tissues and organs fibrosis. The following paper reviews the potential role of Wnt/?-catenin induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition in peritoneal fibrosis. New potential therapeutic interventions of peritoneal fibrosis are discussed.
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Similar outcomes of IBD inpatients with Clostridium difficile infection detected by ELISA or PCR assay.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is known as a risk factor for exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CDI has been most commonly tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for toxins, but with a suboptimal sensitivity. Compared with conventional ELISA, the polymerase chain reaction-based assay (PCR) is a highly sensitive detection technique for C. difficile. However, its pure detection of only the DNA of toxin B may lead to over-treatment.
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Delivery of dimethyloxallyl glycine in mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds to improve angiogenesis and osteogenesis of human bone marrow stromal cells.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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Development of hypoxia-mimicking bone tissue engineering scaffolds is of great importance in stimulating angiogenesis for bone regeneration. Dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG) is a cell-permeable, competitive inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase (HIF-PH), which can stabilize hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) expression. The aim of this study was to develop hypoxia-mimicking scaffolds by delivering DMOG in mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffolds and to investigate whether the delivery of DMOG could induce a hypoxic microenvironment for human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC). MBG scaffolds with varied mesoporous structures (e.g. surface area and mesopore volume) were prepared by controlling the contents of mesopore-template agent. The composition, large-pore microstructure and mesoporous properties of MBG scaffolds were characterized. The effect of mesoporous properties on the loading and release of DMOG in MBG scaffolds was investigated. The effects of DMOG delivery on the cell morphology, cell viability, HIF-1? stabilization, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and bone-related gene expression (alkaline phosphatase, ALP; osteocalcin, OCN; and osteopontin, OPN) of hBMSC in MBG scaffolds were systematically investigated. The results showed that the loading and release of DMOG in MBG scaffolds can be efficiently controlled by regulating their mesoporous properties via the addition of different contents of mesopore-template agent. DMOG delivery in MBG scaffolds had no cytotoxic effect on the viability of hBMSC. DMOG delivery significantly induced HIF-1? stabilization, VEGF secretion and bone-related gene expression of hBMSC in MBG scaffolds in which DMOG counteracted the effect of HIF-PH and stabilized HIF-1? expression under normoxic condition. Furthermore, it was found that MBG scaffolds with slow DMOG release significantly enhanced the expression of bone-related genes more than those with instant DMOG release. The results suggest that the controllable delivery of DMOG in MBG scaffolds can mimic a hypoxic microenvironment, which not only improves the angiogenic capacity of hBMSC, but also enhances their osteogenic differentiation.
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The rs391957 variant cis-regulating oncogene GRP78 expression contributes to the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is one of the most important responders to disease-related stress. We assessed the association of the promoter polymorphisms of GRP78 with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and GRP78 expression in a Chinese population. We examined 1007 patients undergoing diagnostic HCC and 810 unrelated healthy controls. Mechanisms by which the GRP78 promoter polymorphism modulates HCC risk and GRP78 levels were analyzed. The promoter haplotype and diplotype carrying rs391957 (-415bp) allele G and genotype GG was strongly associated with HCC risk. Luciferase reporter assays indicated that the promoter carrying rs391957 allele G (haplotype GCCd) showed increased activity in HepG2 cells and Hela cells. rs391957 was also shown to increase the affinity of the transcriptional activator Ets-2, the resistance to apoptosis, as well as cell instability in stressful microenvironment. Furthermore, compared with allele A, rs391957 allele G was associated with higher levels of GRP78 mRNA and protein in HCC tissues. These findings provided new insights into the pathogenesis of HCC and an unexpected effect of the interaction between rs391957 and Ets-2 on hepatocarcinogenesis, and especially supported the hypothesis that stress-related and evolutionarily conserved genetic variant(s) influencing transcriptional regulation could predict susceptibilities.
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Down-regulation of DNA methyltransferase 3B in staurosporine-induced apoptosis and its mechanism in human hepatocarcinoma cell lines.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
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Abnormal DNA methylation is one of the important characteristics in tumor cells. Apoptosis plays an essential role in cell survival and processing. It is not clear whether DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) change in apoptosis and how DNMTs are regulated in apoptosis. In this study, we found that SMMC-7721 or BEL-7404 cells were induced to apoptosis by STS, meanwhile the DNMT3B protein and mRNA level were decreased. To explore the mechanism of DNMT3B down-regulation, we found that the mRNA decay was not changed and core promoter activity of DNMT3B gene was decreased in STS-induced apoptosis. In order to figure out the signal molecule involved in transcriptional regulation of DNMT3B gene by STS, p-JNK, p-ERK, and p-p38 were examined. In STS-induced apoptosis p-JNK level was increased, and p-ERK and p-p38 were decreased. Furthermore, the inhibitor of p-JNK significantly alleviated the decline of DNMT3B protein. We also found that the siRNA of DNMT3B strengthened the cleavage of PARP and pro-caspase-3 as well as up-regulated the p16 gene expression in STS-treated cells. We concluded here that STS-regulated DNMT3B gene expression via p-JNK and down-regulation of DNMT3B-mediated STS-induced apoptosis through the up-regulation p16 expression.
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High dose urokinase against massive pulmonary embolism in nephrotic syndrome.
Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Patients with nephrotic syndrome carry a high risk of pulmonary embolism due to the abnormalities in coagulation and fibrinolysis. Thrombolytic therapy for critical pulmonary embolism in nephrotic syndrome patients was rarely reported and remains controversial in the regimen selection so far. We reported a case of fatal pulmonary embolism, complicating in hepatitis B virus-associated nephrotic syndrome. The patient presented with chest pain, hemoptysis and shortness of breath on admission and his initial vital signs showed a high risk of developing hypotension. Urgent radiological examinations confirmed massive embolisms in bilateral pulmonary arteries. Prompt thrombolytic therapy was performed right after the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism with an intravenous infusion of urokinase (20 000 U/kg) in 2 h. Complete resolution of pulmonary embolism was achieved after urokinase administration and the patient was discharged in good conditions. This report highlighted the efficacy and safety of prompt thrombolytic therapy with urokinase for nephrotic syndrome patients presented with massive pulmonary embolism. In this study, we also briefly discuss the recent findings on the current state of urokinase in the clinical practice of thrombolysis.
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A Systematic, Integrated Study on the Neuroprotective Effects of Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Revealed by (1)H NMR-Based Metabonomics and the NF-?B Pathway.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is the main active component of the Chinese herb Carthamus tinctorius L.. Purified HSYA is used as a neuroprotective agent to prevent cerebral ischemia. Injectable safflor yellow (50?mg, containing 35?mg HSYA) is widely used to treat patients with ischemic cardiocerebrovascular disease. However, it is unknown how HSYA exerts a protective effect on cerebral ischemia at the molecular level. A systematical integrated study, including histopathological examination, neurological evaluation, blood-brain barrier (BBB), metabonomics, and the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway, was applied to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of HSYA neuroprotection at the molecular level. HSYA could travel across the BBB, significantly reducing the infarct volume and improving the neurological functions of rats with ischemia. Treatment with HSYA could lead to relative corrections of the impaired metabolic pathways through energy metabolism disruption, excitatory amino acid toxicity, oxidative stress, and membrane disruption revealed by (1)H NMR-based metabonomics. Meanwhile, HSYA treatment inhibits the NF-?B pathway via suppressing proinflammatory cytokine expression and p65 translocation and binding activity while upregulating an anti-inflammatory cytokine.
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Efficient metabolic pathway engineering in transgenic tobacco and tomato plastids with synthetic multigene operons.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The engineering of complex metabolic pathways requires the concerted expression of multiple genes. In plastids (chloroplasts) of plant cells, genes are organized in operons that are coexpressed as polycistronic transcripts and then often are processed further into monocistronic mRNAs. Here we have used the tocochromanol pathway (providing tocopherols and tocotrienols, collectively also referred to as "vitamin E") as an example to establish principles of successful multigene engineering by stable transformation of the chloroplast genome, a technology not afflicted with epigenetic variation and/or instability of transgene expression. Testing a series of single-gene constructs (encoding homogentisate phytyltransferase, tocopherol cyclase, and ?-tocopherol methyltransferase) and rationally designed synthetic operons in tobacco and tomato plants, we (i) confirmed previous results suggesting homogentisate phytyltransferase as the limiting enzymatic step in the pathway, (ii) comparatively characterized the bottlenecks in tocopherol biosynthesis in transplastomic leaves and tomato fruits, and (iii) achieved an up to tenfold increase in total tocochromanol accumulation. In addition, our results uncovered an unexpected light-dependent regulatory link between tocochromanol metabolism and the pathways of photosynthetic pigment biosynthesis. The synthetic operon design developed here will facilitate future synthetic biology applications in plastids, especially the design of artificial operons that introduce novel biochemical pathways into plants.
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Characteristic profiles of urinary p-hydroxybenzoic acid and its esters (parabens) in children and adults from the United States and China.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) are used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, which results in the exposure of humans to these compounds. Parabens and its metabolite, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HB) are excreted from urine in free and conjugated forms. In this study, free and total forms (free plus conjugated) of parabens and their common metabolite, p-HB, were measured in urine samples collected from U.S. children (n = 40), Chinese children (n = 70), and Chinese adults (n = 26). The median concentrations of the sum of 6 parabens (?parabens) in urine from U.S. and Chinese children were 54.6 and 10.1 ng/mL, respectively. The median concentration of urinary parabens measured for Chinese adults was 33.2 ng/mL, which was lower than that reported for U.S. adults. Elevated concentrations of parabens (1000-10,000 ng/mL) were found in urine from some Chinese adult females. Parabens were present predominantly (>90%) as conjugated species in urine. Among the six parabens analyzed, methyl paraben (MeP) and propyl paraben (PrP) were the predominant compounds, which accounted for 57-98% and 1.4-12%, respectively, of the total concentrations. A significant positive correlation was found between the concentrations of MeP and PrP. The geometric mean (GM) concentration of p-HB was 1380 and 2370 ng/mL for Chinese children and adults, respectively. The GM concentrations of p-HB in urine from U.S. children were 752 ng/mL for girls and 628 ng/mL for boys, which were 2-3 times lower than the concentrations determined for Chinese children. There was a significant difference in the ratios of concentrations of ?parabens and p-HB between demographic groups, which suggested the existence of various exposure routes to parabens. Based on the concentrations of urinary parabens and p-HB, the daily intake (DI) of MeP and PrP was estimated. The GM DI(MeP) estimated for Chinese children was 0.5-0.7 mg/day, which was similar to those determined for U.S. children. The GM DI(PrP) (0.2-0.5 mg/day) estimated for Chinese children was 20- to 50-fold higher than the value determined for U.S. children (0.01 mg/day). The highest exposure to parabens was found for Chinese adult females, with GM DI(MeP) and DI(PrP) of 5.9 and 1.2 mg/day, respectively. Elevated exposure to PrP was found in some Chinese adult females (27 mg/day) and children (11 mg/day).
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Association between sex hormone levels and abnormal metabolism in a population of elderly Chinese men.
Aging Male
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Low testosterone levels may be a signal of poor health. This study aimed to investigate the effects of age and abnormal metabolism on sex hormones in Chinese male.
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The influence of skin microcirculation blood perfusion at zusanli acupoint by stimulating with lift-thrust reinforcing and reducing acupuncture manipulation methods on healthy adults.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Background. In traditional Chinese medicine acupuncture manipulation is one of the key factors that affect the curative results of acupuncture and more and more researches focus on how the different acupuncture manipulation techniques influence microcirculation nowadays. In this paper we demonstrate the different influences of lift-thrust reinforcing and reducing on blood perfusion. Method. The acupuncture manipulations of lift-thrust reinforcing and reducing were, respectively, applied to the 15 healthy subjects at the Zusanli acupoint and the changes of blood perfusion were monitored by Pericam Perfusion Speckle Imager (PSI). Conclusion. Both of the manipulations of lift-thrust reinforcing and reducing increase blood perfusion at Zusanli acupoint while the increasing amount of blood perfusion in the reinforcing group is significantly higher than in the reducing group.
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Development and application of a novel reverse transcription real-time PCR method for miR-499 quantification.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs of 21-25 nucleotides that can pair with sites in 3 untranslated regions in mRNAs of protein-coding genes to downregulate their expression. Recently, miR-499 and other miRNAs released in circulating blood have been reported as promising biomarkers for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In the present study, we developed a novel reverse-transcription real-time PCR assay for human miR-499 quantification.
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The effect of left ventricular electrical delay on AV optimization for cardiac resynchronization therapy.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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The role of atrioventricular optimization (AVO) for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is controversial. Identifying subgroups that benefit from optimization is important to improve CRT outcomes. Pacing at sites of late electrical activation, as assessed by the QLV interval, improves remodeling with CRT.
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The ecology of medical care in beijing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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We presented the pattern of health care consumption, and the utilization of available resources by describing the ecology of medical care in Beijing on a monthly basis and by describing the socio-demographic characteristics associated with receipt care in different settings.
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Disruption of persistent nociceptive behavior in rats with learning impairment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Despite the subjective nature of pain experience with cognitive and affective dimensions, preclinical pain research has largely focused on its sensory dimension. Here, we examined the relationship between learning/memory and nociceptive behavior in rats with combined learning impairment and persistent nociception. Learning impairment was induced by bilateral hippocampal injection of a mixed A? solution, whereas persistent nociception produced in these rats by complete Freunds adjuvant-induced ankle inflammation. Those rats with learning impairment showed a diminished development of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia and a shorter time course of nociceptive behavior without alteration of their baseline nociceptive threshold. In rats with pre-established hyperalgesia and allodynia due to ankle inflammation, bilateral intra-hippocampal injection of cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor) promoted the earlier recovery of nociceptive behavior. Moreover, expression of A?, NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and protein kinase C? was upregulated, whereas the choline acetyl transferase expression was downregulated, in the hippocampus, thalamus, amygdala, and/or spinal cord of rats with combined learning impairment and persistent nociception. The data indicate that learning impairment could disrupt the response to a state of persistent nociception, suggesting an important role for cognitive maladaptation in the mechanisms of chronic pain. These results also suggest that a preclinical model of combined learning impairment and persistent nociception may be useful to explore the brain mechanisms underlying the transition from acute to chronic pain.
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Antigen and transforming growth factor Beta receptors contribute to long term functional and phenotypic heterogeneity of memory CD8 T cells.
Front Immunol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Pathogen-specific CD8 T cells provide a mechanism for selectively eliminating host cells that are harboring intracellular pathogens. The pathogens are killed when lytic molecules are injected into the cytoplasm of the infected cells and begin an apoptotic cascade. Activated CD8 T cells also release large quantities of pro-inflammatory cytokines that stimulate other immune cells in the local vicinity. As the alveoli are extraordinarily sensitive to cytokine induced damage, multiple layers of immune regulation limit the activities of immune cells that enter the lungs. These mechanisms include receptor-mediated signaling pathways in CD8 T cells that respond to peptide antigens and transforming growth factor ?. Both pathways influence the functional and phenotypic properties of long-lived CD8 T cells populations in peripheral and lymphoid tissues.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.