In March 2013, human infection with a novel avian-origin reassortment influenza A (H7N9) virus was identified in China. A total of 26 cases were confirmed and treated in Jiangsu. All the patients had findings consistent with pneumonia and were admitted to an ICU, which pose a threat to human health. We aimed to provide the clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of the critically ill patients with H7N9 viral infection.
Adsorbents designed with porosity which allows the removal of protein bound and high molecular weight uraemic toxins may improve the effectiveness of haemodialysis treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD). A nanoporous activated carbon monolith prototype designed for direct blood contact was first assessed for its capacity to remove albumin bound marker toxins indoxyl sulphate (IS), p-cresyl sulphate (p-CS) and high molecular weight cytokine interleukin-6 in spiked healthy donor studies. Haemodialysis patient blood samples were then used to measure the presence of these markers in pre- and post-dialysis blood and their removal by adsorbent recirculation of post-dialysis blood samples. Nanopores (20-100 nm) were necessary for marker uraemic toxin removal during in vitro studies. Limited removal of IS and p-CS occurred during haemodialysis, whereas almost complete removal occurred following perfusion through the carbon monoliths suggesting a key role for such adsorbent therapies in CKD patient care.
Novel nanocomposite materials where iron nanoparticles are embedded into the walls of a macroporous polymer were produced and their efficiency for the removal of As(III) from aqueous media was studied. Nanocomposite gels containing ?-Fe(2)O(3) and Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were prepared by cryopolymerisation resulting in a monolithic structure with large interconnected pores up to 100 ?m in diameter and possessing a high permeability (ca. 3 × 10(-3) ms(-1)). The nanocomposite devices showed excellent capability for the removal of trace concentrations of As(III) from solution, with a total capacity of up to 3mg As/g of nanoparticles. The leaching of iron was minimal and the device could operate in a pH range 3-9 without diminishing removal efficiency. The effect of competing ions such as SO(4)(2-) and PO(4)(3-) was negligible. The macroporous composites can be easily configured into a variety of shapes and structures and the polymer matrix can be selected from a variety of monomers, offering high potential as flexible metal cation remediation devices.
The textural and adsorption characteristics of a series of activated carbons (ACs), porous poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) gels, and PVA/AC composites were studied using scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry, adsorption of nitrogen (at 77.4 K), cationic methylene blue (MB), anionic methyl orange (MO), and Congo red (CR) from the aqueous solutions. Dye-PVA-AC-water interactions were modeled using the semiempirical quantum chemical method PM6. The percentage of dye removed (C(rem)) by the ACs was close to 100% at an equilibrium concentration (C(eq)) of less than 0.1 mM but decreased with increasing dye concentration. This decrease was stronger at C(eq) of less than 1 mM, and C(rem) was less than 50% at a C(eq) of 10-20 mM. For PVA and the PVA/AC composite containing C-7, the C(rem) values were minimal (<75%). The free energy distribution functions (f(?G)) for dye adsorption include one to three peaks in the -?G range of 1-60 kJ/mol, depending on the dye concentration range used and the spatial, charge symmetry of the hydrated dye ions and the structural characteristics of the adsorbents. The f(?G) shape is most complex for MO with the most asymmetrical geometry and charge distribution and adsorbed at concentrations over a large C(eq) range. For symmetrical CR ions, adsorbed over a narrow C(eq) range, the f(?G) plot includes mainly one narrow peak. MB has a minimal molecular size at a planar geometry (especially important for effective adsorption in slit-shaped pores) which explains its greater adsorptive capacity over that of MO or CR. Dye adsorption was greatest for ACs with the largest surface area but as molecular size increases adsorption depends to a greater extent on the pore size distribution in addition to total and nanopore surface areas and pore volume.
Secondary or reactive hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is frequently related to viral infections. However, the novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus associated HPS has never been reported. On October 10, 2009, a 17-year-old female child with no past medical history, complaining of severe asthenia, pneumonia, myalgia, and high fever, was admitted to our department, and H1N1 DNA was detected. Five days after her hospitalization, all signs and symptoms aggravated into HPS. After treatment for H1N1 influenza, the patient had a recovery and clearance of H1N1 infection 10 days after hospitalization. Three weeks later, the patient was discharged without any complaints, indicating the etiological role of H1N1infection in HPS.
A set of glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol)/activated carbon (PVA/GA/AC) composites prepared in the form of monolithic rods using a cryogelation technique and studied using adsorption, mercury porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and quantum chemistry methods display porosity similar to that of PVA/GA cryogel at a high GA content (content ratio GA/AC = 1 and GA/PVA = 0.2). GA cross-linked PVA multilayer coverage is an effective barrier for adsorption on AC particles. Variations in surface chemistry (AC initial and oxidized in air at 300 °C for 12 h) and content (14-62.5%w/w) of ACs in PVA/GA/AC composites relatively weakly affect their textural characteristics at a high GA content (specific surface area S(BET) < 120 m²/g, pore volume V(p) < 0.35 cm³/g). However, PVA/GA/AC composite rods formed with a lower concentration of GA (content ratio GA/AC = 1/6 and GA/PVA = 1/10) have significantly greater S(BET) (?500 m²/g) and V(p) (>0.55 cm³/g) values because of improved accessibility of the AC surface. This provides better adsorption of methylene blue as a probe compound.
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